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JUS FECIALE ARMATAE DANIAE. With a ſhort Demonſtration Of the moſt Weighty Cauſes, WHEREUPON His Sacred Royall Majeſty of Denmark, Norwey, the Vandals and Goth's, &c. Urg'd by meer neceſſity, doth by His Herald, according to the Law of Nations, denounce Warre both by Land and Sea, AGAINST King CHARLES GƲSTAVƲS AND The Kingdom of Swedeland, After unſufferable Injuries and Damages done Us, and moſt equall conditions of Peace rejected by the Swedes; and doth renounce all Neighbourly friendſhip.

LONDON, Printed and are to be ſold at the Sign of the Star in St Pauls Church-yard. 1657.

JUS FECIALE ARMATAE DANIAE. With a ſhort Demonſtration Of the moſt Weighty Cauſes, WHEREUPON His Sacred Royall Majeſty of Denmark, Norwey, the Vandals and Goth's, &c. Urg'd by meer neceſſity, doth by His Herald, according to the Law of Nations, denounce Warre both by Land and Sea, AGAINST King CHARLES GƲSTAVƲS AND The Kingdom of Swedeland, After unſufferable Injuries and Damages done Us, and moſt equall conditions of Peace rejected by the Swedes; and doth renounce all Neighbourly friendſhip.We FREDERICK the IIId by the grace of God King of Denmark and Norwey, the Vandals and Goths, &c. To all and every one that ſhall read and hear theſe preſent Letters, of what De­gree, Nation or Condition ſoever they be, Greeting.

OF our own naturall Inclination, We have hi­therto, according to the Domeſtick exam­ples of our Anceſtors, and thoſe later foot­ſteps of the moſt glorious King our Father, ſtill followed Peace; and in all our Coun­cels have ſtill aim'd at the publick tranquil­lity, never intending to have receded from this conſtant reſolution of maintaining Peace, unleſs an inevitable danger from the Enemy had hung over our heads.

God hath granted us Kingdoms and Dukedoms enough, hath inricht enough our ſubjects, without the injury of any one, ſo that they who underſtand their own good, need not to envy any of their neighbours.

We have hitherto indur'd with patience and connivence the ſuſpected attempts of our enemies, and of their Injuries againſt us, have thought fit wiſely to diſſemble ſome, others to remit at our own will and pleaſure, expecting when the unbridled ambi­tion of that Nation, ſhould by the will of God be allay'd, which could not chooſe at length but be weary to ſee whole Provinces imbrued in Chriſtian blood, and thereby change their hoſtile minds ſo exaſperated againſt their neighbours.

At laſt when we had ſo often urg'd that they could no longer with any juſt pretence gainſay, a meeting was appointed at Copen­hagen, where we laid open thoſe grievances which chiefly mole­ſted us, namely, That we ought not to be ſo defrauded by the Swedes of our Toll; that our loſſes and injuries ought according to equity to be repair'd: Immediately hereupon Magnus Dure­lius the King of Swedelands Deputy and ordinary Embaſſadour among us, wanted Inſtructions to treat upon theſe Heads, and his King wanted Equity to ſupply thoſe Inſtructions, and the ſatisfaction we have upon moſt equall conditions ſo often deſir'd, he thinks to be derogatory to the rights of the Swediſh Crown, and unexpectedly diſſolves thoſe Treaties which were begun by the friendly interceſſion of the Lord Electour of Brandenburg: Neither have they taken notice of our deſires of Peace ſo often offer'd and tranſacted by us, nor afterwards of our juſt Indigna­tion expreſt by our Letters of Repriſall; but rather with an ob­durate mind have refus'd all juſt and equall Propoſals, remaining according to their cuſtome moſt perverſe and untractable.

And now more clearly they begin to diſcover their hidden counſels, being become more inſolent by the indulgence of For­tune toward them, and ſeeing many of their blind attempts, God conniving at their ways, have met with ſome ſucceſs, they have now ſo far forſaken all conſideration of Juſtice, that whatever their neighbours diſpute with them in point of right, they im­piouſly think to decide it by cruell violence and the ſword. We ſhould have been glad utterly to have forgot that Invaſion, by us as little expected as the falling of the skies, and alſo that remar­keable loſs, whereby they depriv'd the moſt glorious King our Father of ſo many large Provinces and Iſlands, and Us of the Archbiſhoprick of Breme, and the Biſhoprick of Verden, had they not recall'd it to our memory by their reiterated violence and their new practiſes againſt us. We were once in a fair way to peace at Bremſebroa, by the providence of God, and at the Inter­ceſſion of the moſt Serene King of France and Navarr: the Swedes diſtruſtfull in a matter of greateſt ſecurity, took care to have Hallands-ars delivered into their hands in pawn, an ineſti­mable Province fortified with three ſtrong holds, and this they did with ſo much the more obſtinacy, becauſe they thought them­ſelves not to be oblig'd by theſe Covenants.

We are heartily ſorry that theſe firm beginnings of Peace at Bremſebroa, by which the publike quiet of the North was ſo ſtrengthened, being ſo farre remov'd from their ſight and minds ſhould be ſo ſhaken, and that our Royall Authority ſhould be ſo immodeſtly contemn'd and neglected: Since therefore they bear with an ill mind even our moſt moderate councels, at length through their means, We call the whole world and all honeſt Nations to witneſs, all Peace was given over as quite hopeleſs. And therefore We alſo, this way not ſucceeding, proceed another way, and having both the Law of God and man on our ſide, with a ſincere and quiet conſcience, appeal to the Lord of Hoſts and that ſupream Tribunal of Nations where all matters are juſtly decided, and according to the Law of Nations, have re­courſe to our juſt Arms, for the defending our Kingdoms and Dukedoms, and protecting Our ſelves and ſubjects from the Injury of the Swedes; that at length by the decree of Divine Providence, and the aid of our Confederates, an honeſt and ſe­cure Peace may be eſtabliſht and confirm'd. The friendſhip therefore which hath hitherto been obſerv'd between the two neighbouring Nations, ſo often raſhly infring'd and violated by the Swedes, both we for our parts give over, and againſt the moſt High Prince the Lord Charles Guſtavus King of the Swedes, Goths and Vandals, the Kingdome of Swedeland, and all his ſub­jects, by the Law of God, and by the councell of the worthy**The Peers of the Realm. Senatours of the Kingdom, and by the una­nimous aid of all our ſubjects, We according to the Law of Arms denounce Warre both by Land and Sea.

But ſince we ought to prove this Expedition allowable before God and our own conſcience, with both which we made peace, before we made warre with the Swedes, they being guilty of all that bloudſhed, and thoſe calamities which render warres ſo vexatious, and alſo to ſubmit our ſelves to the judgement of the univerſall and Chriſtian world, who will altogether aſſent unto us, when they ſhall hear thoſe high aggravations and weighty motives by which we are urged, and will free us from all imputa­tion of unlawfull revenge and invaſion.

I. It is already well known to all the world, that the Swedes in the year 1643, invaded our Archbiſhoprick of Breme and Biſhoprick of Verden, when as by the permiſſion of both parties which were then in warre, and by a moſt ſolemn exemption we were to have been Neuter and Secure, foraſmuch as by the Authority and ſubſcription of Caeſar, the Royall and faithfull promiſes both of the Queen and Peers of Swedeland were con­firm'd, and without any default on our ſide conſtantly obſerved. When we had recovered the Caſtle of Vorden, a Ceſſation of Arms was agreed on between us and the Swediſh Army, on condition that pay and proviſion ſhould be allowed to our Gar­riſon Souldiers out of the Archbiſhoprick; but theſe Covenants which they yeelded unto for their profit, they afterwards rece­ded from, as thinking they would not prove ſo profitable unto them as they expected; ſo that in the ſame thing we are again de­ceiv'd in the truth of the Swediſh promiſes. Alſo, At the Peace at Bremſebroa, the reſtitution of the Archbiſhoprick, at the me­diation of the French Embaſſadour, and with the large promiſes of the Swediſh Deputies, was referr'd to other Treaties to be re­newed at Stockholm in preſence of the Queen of Swedeland, ne­vertheleſs we our ſelves, being then Archbiſhop, as alſo our Of­ficers and ſervants, with every ones goods, were inſerted into the 38th Article. But what ſecret deſigns they foſtered under theſe promiſes, they afterwards more openly declar'd; when contrary to Conditions agreed on, by which we were freed and exempted from the attempts of both parties, & both the Ceſſation of Arms forbidding, and the Peace at Bremſebroa gainſaying, at that very time when our Embaſſadours at Stockholm treated with the Swedes according to agreement, they invaded the Caſtle of Vorden and took it by ſiege, and at length inſerted the Biſhopricks that were to be reſtor'd, in the ſatisfaction which they propos'd at Oſna­brugg, that ſo they might the better keep, to our prejudice, thoſe things which they had gotten with injury and violence.

II. It was moſt wholeſomely agreed on by the 35th Article, for a renewing of friendſhip and mutuall alliance between the two Kings, and that each of them ſhould hinder whatſoever might hurt the Perſon, Government, Realms and Provinces of the o­ther: This Agreement they utterly neglecting, conniv'd at Cor­fitz Ulefeld unworthily dealing with us, who publiſht an injurious Pamphlet in divers Languages, that, to the ignominy of our Roy­all Perſon, which by every honeſt ſubject is alwayes held invio­lable, and to the contempt of our blameleſs and laudable govern­ment, he might ſpread it ſo much the farther, notwithſtanding that the Agreement at Stetin decreed ſuch ſlanderous detraction a capital crime. And when we complained of this injury, they nei­ther much regarded it, nor made us any reparation, ſo that Ulefeld was confirm'd in his malicious deſign; and after he had been ear­neſtly accuſed by us, was admitted to his defence by the Queen and the Senatours, our Embaſſadour not without ſome diſgrace being invited to hear a defence of the ſame Apologie, wherein by a ſcandalous example, he wrong'd both Us and the Senatours of our Kingdome, and wherein a bad Cauſe was covered with worſe pretences, that he might take ſome advantage in a void and fruit­leſs proceſs. Neither are the Swedes aſham'd, impiouſly to force new Oathes upon thoſe Miniſters of State who are bound to Us by Oath, and being unabſolved and call'd to defend themſelves, to uſe their ſervice and aſſiſtance.

III. Nor could they ſatisfie their inſatiable ambition by thoſe Provinces and Iſlands obtained at the Agreement at Bremſebroa, but againſt the expreſs words of that Treaty, they ſeiz'd upon two Pariſhes belonging to Aggerſhuſe, Irn and Zern, which they yet retain, notwithſtanding that we have very often but in vain requir'd the reſtoring of them. We requir'd that a day might be appointed for the deciding of the Controverſie, which was ap­pointed by agreement; at which day when ours appear'd, the Swedes in a contemptuous manner delude us, and come not at the time appointed, as altogether miſtruſting the juſtice of their cauſe.

IV. They tranſgreſt that rule and order which our Toll-gatherers were to follow as a certain courſe in the gathering of their Toll. They intruded themſelves into that imployment con­trary to the dictate of right and reaſon, for that being ſtrangers they ſo confounded all things, as if uncertainty and fraud had been their chief aim: to manage theſe violent and irregular affairs, they put unexperinc't boyes in office, and that they might make us the more contemptible among forrain Nations, they imploy'd women alſo. The immunity from Toll granted at Bremſebroa to Swediſh Ships and Goods, they by falſe Bills of Lading and other cunning devices, made common to other Nations which were ſubject to pay Toll, owning them as Swediſh Ships and Goods, and ſo letting them paſs under that notion, and thoſe forms fram'd in expreſs words in our Treaty with the States Generall of the United Provinces, out of which the Toll-gatherers were perfectly inform'd of the quality of Wares, and of Ships both free and tributary, they by perſwaſion and authority extorted from Forrainers; at once endeavouring, with a raſh deſire, as much as in them lay, to ſpoil us of this our chief Prerogative. Inſtead of theſe they for greedineſs of gain, fram'd certain Notes or Bills, wherein at pleaſure they inſerted matters of ſmall moment. Out of the Accounts of the Cuſtomehouſe we can prove with undeniable certainty, that in the year 1642, (while yet the Livo­nians paid Tribute) the Cities of Riga and Revell, brought in an Account in the name of their Citizens, for Wares valued ſcarcely at the rate of ten thouſand Rixdollars, but that in the year 1655, in the ſpace of one year, when the Swedes had obtained the Im­munity granted at Bremſebroa, they ſold in the name of the ſaid Cities, divers Wares amounting to the value of Six hundred and fifty thouſand Rixdollars, of which the greater part doubtleſs was properly the Tribute of other Nations, and ſo unjuſtly gain­ing the ſhorter way, they were let paſs through the Sound. We contradicted, but in vain, for it was gainfull for them to counter­feit falſe Papers or Writings, which without ſhame they many wayes multiplyld; and the oftner alſo whenas the buſineſs was again referr'd to the arbitrement of the Lord Electour of Bran­denburgh. They have alwayes ſo carried themſelves as if from them nothing belong'd to us but ſcorn, not contented unleſs ha­ving hitherto injur'd us, they abus'd alſo our patience. Neither could we hope better things from them, whenas the Treaty writ­ten at Bremſebroa, while it was yet ſcarce dry, nothing regarded, they were ſo far indulgent to their vain Imaginations, that they us'd all indeavour in behalf of the States Generall of the United Provinces of the Low Countries, that their ſubjects alſo might obtain a freedome from the tribute of the Sound. But they choſe rather to purchaſe immortall glory by their conſtant inte­grity, and the keeping of their faith unbroken, then to ſeek an infamous gain out of theſe ſuggeſtions. With the ſame malici­ous Intentions they intruded themſelves into thoſe matters con­troverted between Us and our beloved Neighbours and Kin­dred, which things being undecided, they endeavoured, had the adverſe Party aſſented, to haſten immature execution by the Sword and wonted violence of the Swediſh Army, that thereby they might deterr us from proſecuting our own right.

V. The 42d Article wherein the liberty of Dantzick and of Traffique is aſſerted, they have utterly rejected, leſt there ſhould remain any thing, that might obſtruct that Domi­nion which they have ſo long arrogated to themſelves over the Baltick Sea. They impos'd with accuſtom'd Swediſh inſolence a Tribute upon our Subjects Ships at the mouth of the Weyſſel, endeavouring to force the Weyſſel out of it's naurall into an un­wonted channel, and at once to offer violence both to Nature and Commerce. By this very act, Our Royal Authority is greatly injur'd, whereby partaking of the peace at Bremſebroa, we are both oblig'd and alſo fully reſolv'd, God aſſiſting, to vindicate our right to our Crowns, Common-wealths and Citties. They alſo infringe our Rights upon the Baltick Sea, ſufficiently wit­neſt to the whole world, which have been derived to us from our Royal Anceſtours, without the controverſie of any of our Neighbours. From hence alſo we ſuſtain very great loſs, in re­gard Commerce being hindred, our ordinary Revenues from the Cuſtomes ceaſe, ſo often do they endammage us even in one thing.

At length we obſerve that by our patience and lenitie, the Swedes are ſo much the more exaſperated and offended, and that the friendſhip which is truly and ſincerely obſerv'd between us and our neighbours, out of a ſecret hatred is perverted by them, maliciouſly judging, that by thoſe Aids which according to the Agreement at Bremſebroa, we together with the High and Migh­ty States afforded to diſtreſſed Dantzick, and afflicted commerce, the Peace was broken at it were by a hoſtile Invaſion. When by a moſt juſt demand we treated with them about repairing our Loſſes and Injuries, they with an offended mind anſwered, that this could not be done with ſafety of their Kings right, (as if the Law of Nations exempted Swedeland from equity toward their neighbours;) with fierce and oft repeated menaces they threaten Us, ſpeak proudly of themſelves and ignominiouſly of Us; and without asking leave of Us, they march with their Armies through the Dutchy of Sleſwick and Holſtein, neglecting the rights of the Empire, and of the circuit of Saxony, and carry them­ſelves ſo proudly as if we were already in their power and juriſ­diction. Let all Chriſtian Princes but remember this Inſolence, and they will hold us the more excus'd. Many of them alſo have approv'd this expedition with their favourable ſuffrage, and with extraordinary Embaſſies, have friendly admoniſht us of this ſtorm hanging over our heads from a neighbouring Kingdom, to which no doubt the reſt will vigorouſly joyn.

For with what dangerous Intents the Swedes rove out of their own Country, they have more openly declared among the Polo­nians, where with a more indulgent fortune, which the Swedes are not capable of, growing more inſolent, and with a gainfull bold­neſs from time to time tranſgreſſing the bounds of honeſty and right, they alwayes gape greedily after their booty and profit; neither do they obſerve amidſt this their blind raſhneſs, that Po­land abounds both with domeſtick and forrain forces; mainly in­deavouring this, that having Pruſsia in their power, they may command the Baltick Sea and all commerce, and there fix them­ſelves ſo firmly, as not to be ſhaken or diſturb'd by any, but may take upon them to be umpires in all things among their neigh­bours, to vary and diſpence Fortune among them at their plea­ſure, and thence at a convenient ſeaſon to over-run and infeſt the ſacred Roman Empire.

From theſe carriages of the Swedes, our faithfull ſubjects are to be vindicated with the greater caution, becauſe it would be a dangerous ſimplicity to repoſe any truſt in old or new Covenants long ſince ſubverted by them, and which with minds inraged, they to the ruine of their Neighbours, the loſs of their own Country-men, and the prodigal effuſion of bloud, have deſigned in their minds, utterly to cancell and extinguiſh. And alſo our faithfull ſubjects themſelves, have by the ſingular guidance of the Eternall Providence, ſeaſonably foreſeen the tempeſt hanging over their Countrey, and with moſt humble obedience as is meet, have ſo diligently perform'd the office of good ſubjects, that we truſt with Gods favourable aſſiſtance, not only to defend our own Kingdoms and Dukedoms, but alſo to preſerve our beſt neighbours, (who are concern'd with the care of honeſty, faith, and the maintenance of Peace) quiet and untoucht; provided that they help to promote this moſt profitable deſign with their indeavours and authority; eſpecially becauſe thoſe Germans under the Swediſh juriſdi­ction, who, that they might redeem their Countrey from the tempeſt coming upon them, by a certain hazardous throw, were expos'd to the Inſolence and Tyrannous exactions of the Swedes, have been us'd in ſo hoſtile a manner by them, that they have often times implor'd help from God and vs.

We alſo, according to that inbred zeal derived to us from our An­ceſtours, ſhall uſe all diligence, that care may be taken for the good and quiet, as long as is poſſible, of the ſacred Roman Empire whereof we are one of the principall members, and for the promoting of the more pro­ſperous enlargement thereof. In this we have ſtudiouſly followed our Anceſtours, have ſo friendly carried our ſelves toward our common Countrey, and are ſo conſcious to have done well, that they will free Us from all Imputation of raſh turbulency, and help our Intention with their counſel and aid; and on the contrary, ſtrongly oppoſe thoſe profeſt di­ſturbers of the common Peace and quiet, reſolved to repreſs that inhu­mane and barbarous Nation, that at length, God being our Leader, we may quell and utterly vanquiſh this fierceneſs of theirs, which grows ſo preſumptuous in the midſt of Arms. We ſhall thankfully acknowledg the help and aſſiſtance which the equity of our undertaken Expedition re­quires from all, and ſhall earneſtly ſtrive to deſerve it, by our ſingular amity, and favourable propenſion of mind to them. And we ſhall alſo take care, that the moſt weighty Reaſons which have mov'd us, of our ſelves unwilling hereunto, be ſhortly made publick in a more full Relation.

God to whoſe protection we commend you with a pious and ſincere heart, direct our Arms with his omnipotent hand to their right aym, and give judgement according to the equity of the Cauſe, to the glory of his eternal Majeſty, that the oppreſſed neighbourhood may be vindicated, the liberty of interrupted commerce reſtor'd, and ſecure peace, happy, quiet and undiſturbed reſt may be renew'd and eſtabliſht between Us and our neighbouring Kingdoms and Commonwealths. Farewell.


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TextJus Feciale armatæ Daniæ. With a short demonstration of the most weighty causes, whereupon His Sacred Royal Majesty of Denmark, Norway, the Vandals and Goths, &c., urg'd by meer necessity, doth by his herald, according to the law of nations, denounce warre both by land and sea, against King Charles Gustavus and the Kingdom of Swedeland, after unsufferable [sic] injuries and damages done Us, and most equall conditions of peace rejected by the Swedes; and doth renounce all neighbourly friendship.
AuthorDenmark. Sovereign (1648-1670 : Frederick III).
Extent Approx. 24 KB of XML-encoded text transcribed from 7 1-bit group-IV TIFF page images.
SeriesEarly English books online.
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(EEBO-TCP ; phase 2, no. A84882)

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Bibliographic informationJus Feciale armatæ Daniæ. With a short demonstration of the most weighty causes, whereupon His Sacred Royal Majesty of Denmark, Norway, the Vandals and Goths, &c., urg'd by meer necessity, doth by his herald, according to the law of nations, denounce warre both by land and sea, against King Charles Gustavus and the Kingdom of Swedeland, after unsufferable [sic] injuries and damages done Us, and most equall conditions of peace rejected by the Swedes; and doth renounce all neighbourly friendship. Denmark. Sovereign (1648-1670 : Frederick III), Frederick III, King of Denmark and Norway, 1609-1670.. [12] p. Printed and are to be sold at the sign of the Star in St. Pauls Church-yard,London, :1657.. (Reproduction of original in: Sutro Library.)
  • Dano-Swedish Wars, 1657-1660 -- Sources.

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ImprintAnn Arbor, MI ; Oxford (UK) : 2012-10 (EEBO-TCP Phase 2).
  • DLPS A84882
  • STC Wing F2102
  • STC ESTC R177258
  • EEBO-CITATION 45504465
  • OCLC ocm 45504465
  • VID 171779

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