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Vnheard-of CURIOSITIES: Concerning the TALISMANICAL Sculpture of the PERSIANS; The HOROSCOPE of the PATRIARKES; And the READING of the STARS.

Written in French, by JAMES GAFFAREL.

And Engliſhed by EDMUND CHILMEAD, Mr. of Arts, and Chaplaine of Chriſt-Church OXON.

LONDON, Printed by G. D. for Humphrey Moſeley, and are to be ſold at his Shop, at the Princes Armes in St. Pauls Church-Yard. 1650.

The Teſtimony that Leo Alla­tius gives, in his Apes Ʋrba­nae, concerning this Book.

CUrioſus hic Liber, intrà ſex menſes, tèr fu­it editus: bis Pariſijs; et ſemèl aliâ Gal­liarum in Urbe innominatâ. Suſpicio eſt, nec fallit Conjectura, Rhotomagenſes Bibliopolas, ſpe lucri, ſemèl, atquè iterùm, non ſine­tùm Senſus, cùm Styli Corruptione, edi••ſſe.

In Engliſh thus.

THis Curious Booke was printed Thrice, within the ſpace of Sixe Moneths: Twice, at Paris; and Once, in ſome other City of France, not named in the Impreſſion. And it is ſuſpected, and upon very good Grounds too, that the Booke-ſellers of Roüen, in hope of Gaine, printed it more then Once; though not without very great Corruption, both of the Senſe, and Stile.

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To the Worſhipful, my much Honoured Patron, Edward Byſhe, the Younger, ESQUIER.


WERE Preſents of this Nature, what they pretend to; and did not rather Engage, then Grati­fie the Receivers; intitling Them to what Errors ſoever ſhall be there com­mitted: yet notwithſtanding could not This of Mine expect to find any ſuch Entertainment, at Your hands. For, I bring not here a Gift; but, pay a Debt; and, but Reſtore unto you, what was your Owne before: Since this Dedica­tion is but an Account of ſome of thoſe houres, which ought wholly to have been Otherwiſe employed, in your Service.

Neither have you a Single Title to it only, as Comming from Me: But, ſo Great is your Affection to Learning; and ſo Active, in Incouraging all, that make the leaſt Pretence to It; as that, were I a Stranger to you, I ſhould ac­count my ſelf Obliged to make my Ad­dreſſes to You; and ſhould thinke, all my Endeavors were juſtly due to Him, that deſerves ſo Well of Learning in Ge­nerall. Be pleaſed therefore, Sr., to ac­cept of this Meane Preſent, as a Teſti­monie, not ſo much of my Gratitude, as of your own Merit from Learning: & ſuffer me to make my Hearty, though Weake Attempts of Deſerving, in ſome ſmal meaſure, thoſe many Favours, wherewith You have not ceaſed to Ob­lige

Your moſt Devoted Servant, EDMUND CHILMEAD.

To my Lord Biſhop of NANTES.


I Preſent theſe Curioſities to your Lord­ſhip, as to the moſt Knowing Man in this Choice Kind of Learning, in the World. If any conceive the Subject to be of too Daring a Nature, and Vnfit to preſent a Pre­late with; whoſe Profesſion is onely, To Know his Maſters Croſſe; let them remem­ber, that the moſt Pious among the Ancient Fa­thers have not diſdained the Curioſities of the Gentiles: beſides that, Preaching, wherein Your Lordſpips Excellency is ſuch, as that it ren­ders You Admired by All, as an Oracle; ought to be accompanied with Whatſoever may conduce to the Knowledge of God: out of which number, Theſe Choiſe Pieces of Antiquity may not be ex­cluded. All France acknowledgeth Your Lord­ſhip to be as a ſecond Saint Paul of Our Age: ſeeing that, ſince the time of this Great Apoſtle, the Goſpel hath not been preached more Learned­ly, nor with greater Eloquence, and Zeale, by Any, then by Your Selfe, and Your Diſciples. So that the Height of my Deſures can be but this; that Theſe my Conceptions, which I here preſent You with, may be but received by Your Lordſhip as well, as Thoſe that iſſue from Your Lord­ſhips Pious Breaſt are, by all the World.

If I arrive but to This, I ſhall eſteeme my Selfe doubly Happy; having beene already long ſince ſo, in having the liberty to call my ſelfe,

My Lord,
Your moſt Humble, and Obedient Servant, I. Gaffarel.

The Author's Additions, and Advertiſement to the Reader.

IT is not any Itch of wri­ting poſſeſſes me, Courteous Reader, that I here preſent thee with theſe Curioſities: thoſe that know me, have found me very free from this fooliſh paſſion. But a perſon of quality, whom to deny any thing, were a great Crime in me, hath forced them out of my Cloſet, whence otherwiſe they never ſhould have come: ſince I had reſolv'd, after ſo many Calumnies indured, never to adven­ture more into the Publick View, having ſo oftentimes ſighed forth thoſe words of a Roman Prince; Utinam neſciſſem literas! But in fine, the Intreaties, and Commands of my friends have prevailed againſt my own Reſolution; and I am forced, I con­feſſe, to this Publication; ſince I could not but foreſee well enough, that my Enemies would not relliſh at all this other Eſſay of my pen: notwithſtanding after all this, I have wherewith to comfort my ſelf; ſince one of the greateſt Prelates of our Age hath condemned their Inſolence. Receive there­fore favourably this Diſcourſe, Courteous Reader; and remember what we all are: I will not ſay, thou ſhalt find all things perfect here; for I am no Angel: and if there be any defects, we muſt accuſe our Mortality, which renders all Mankind ſub­ject to Errour. But above all, know, that I am no whit obſtinate, or ſelf-conceited, nor never was; I take in very good part what Advertiſements ſoever are given me: nei­ther doe I account my ſelfe ſo knowing, but that I ſhall be very ready to learne of any man: they are fooles only, and vain­glorious, that refuſe to be taught; and the Ignorant only ſay, They know all. As for my part, Courteous Reader, uſe me but friendly, and I ſhall require nothing elſe.

If thou thinke it ſtrange, that a man of the Church, as I am, ſhould adventure on ſo bold, and daring a Subject, as this ſeems to be; conſider, I pray thee, that many of my Profeſſion have put forth things much more bold then theſe; and even ſuch as have been eſteemed Dangerous too. Thus Tri­themius the Abbot put forth his Polygraphy, and his Steganography, where the Calling forth of Spirits is plainely delivered; not­withſtanding he makes other uſe of it, then our Sorcerers doe. Gulielmus Biſhop of Pa­ris hath not only written of Naturall Ma­gick, but he alſo both perfectly underſtood, and practiſ'd it, as the Learned Picus Mi­randula reports of him. Another Learned Biſhop alſo, Albertus Magnus by name, hath taught the grounds of it with admiration. Ro­ger Bacon, and Joannes de Rupeſciſſa, both Franciſcan Friers, have done the ſame. Pe­trus Cirvellus, a Spaniard of the ſame Or­der, hath publiſhed to the Chriſtian World a Book in Folio, of the Foure Prin­cipall kinds of Divination, and all the Ma­ximes of Judiciary Aſtrology. P. de Al­liaco, a Cardinall, and Biſhop of Cambray, hath written of the ſame Subject: as alſo hath Junctinus, a Prieſt of Florence, and a Dr. of Divinity. And ſince we are fallen upon the Italians, have not Aurelius Augu­rellus, and Pantheus, both Prieſts, the one a Venetian, the other a Tarviſian, delivered the Fooleries of the Philoſophers Stone, the one in his Chryſopaea, and the other in his Voar­chadumia? Marſilius Ficinus alſo, a Prieſt, how full of Superſtition are his writings? yea what Superſtition is there in the World, that he hath not publiſhed to open View? Antonius Bernardus Mirandulanus, Biſhop of Caſerte, hath, after his example, maintained a world of things, cleane contrary to our Religion, in his book, De ſingulari certamine. The Cardinall Cajetan de Vio hath done the very ſame: and Giovanni Ingegneri, Biſhop of Cabo d'Iſtria, hath newly buſied himſelf in maintaining the Grounds of Phyſiogno­my. And before all theſe, Syneſius, a Chri­ſtian Biſhop, wrote a book of the Interpre­tation of Dreames, commented on afterwards by Nicephorus Gregoras, a Biſhop alſo, or Patriarch, of Conſtantinople. I omit the Superſtitions of Joachimus Abbas; and of Savanarola, a Dominican Frier; with Car­dinall Bembus his Gli Aſolani; Aeneas Syl­vius (who was afterward Pope Pius II.) his Lucrece; the book ſo full of all Lewd­neſſe of Poggius the Florentine, who was Se­cretary to the Pope. Neither will I men­tion the Macaronick Hiſtory, put forth under the name of Merlin Coccai, but written by The­ophilus Folengius, a Benedictine Frier; nor an infinite number of other books, written by Church-men, with which, Kind Read­er, if thou compare this of mine, thou wilt find, if any blame me, they do it wrong­fully.

And that thou mayſt be fully acquainted with my purpoſe in this diſcourſe, know, that I give no more credit to any of theſe Curioſities, then the Catholique and Apo­ſtolique Church permits; and that I have not publiſhed them, at leaſt ſome of the moſt nice and tickliſh, but after many Chriſtians of my Profeſſion; as thou mayſt perceive by the Sequel. As touching Jeroboam's Calves, I am not the firſt, who hath ſaid, that the making of them was Lawfull, and that this King was no Idolater: the Learn­ed Genebrard hath led me the way; and af­ter him, Moncaeus; and before them, Abiu­dan: and I ſhall be very ready to withdraw my ſelf out of their company, if I find there be any danger in't. If thou object, that theſe Curioſities, ought not therefore to be called, Unheard-of; ſeeing that they have been hand­led by others: I anſwer, that the greateſt part of them were Vnheard-of, to Chriſti­ans; ſince that I have collected them out of the writings of the Jewes; where they were delivered ſo obſcurely, that even thoſe of their own Nation neglected them. As for the Taliſmanicall Figures, they were ſo Vnheard-of in our Age, that their very name was not ſo much as knowne. Now that thou mayſt have a more perfect underſtand­ing of what is delivered in the enſuing Diſcourſe, be pleaſed to adde this which fol­loweth.

In the Firſt Part, Cap. 1. p. 7. I ſay, that I had not been able to diſcover the reaſon, why Plutarch, Strabo, Trogus, Tacitus, and Diodorus had accuſed the Jewes of worſhip­ping a Vine: I have ſince found, that it was, becauſe they had heard ſay, and even them­ſelves ſeen, at leaſt ſome of them, that in the Temple at Jeruſalem, there was a Golden Vine, with it's leaves, and cluſters of grapes, made againſt the wall; as it is deſcribed by Joſephus. Interior porta, ſaies he, tota inau­rata erat, ut dixi, & circum eam auratus pa­ries, deſuper autem habebat aureos pampinos, unde racemi, ſtaturâ hominis, dependebant. I know very well, that many ſo underſtand the words of Joſephus, as if this Vine were not of Solid, Maſſy gold, but only gilded, after the manner of Phrygian work. But the other Joſephus, the Sonne of Gorion, contradicts this Interpretation of the words: for, ſpeaking in the ſame Hiſtory (of the Deſtruction of Jeruſalem) both more clear­ly, and more at large, of this Golden Vine, and it's bunches of Grapes, he ſaies: Fecit inſuper Herodes vitem de auro mundo, & poſu­it in ſummitatem colümnarum, cujus pondus erat mille talentorum aureorum. Erat autem vitis ipſa facta opere ingenioſo, habens ramos perplexos; cujus folia, & germina facta erant ex rutilanti auro; botri autem ex auro fulvo; & grana ejus, acini, atque folliculi facti erant ex lapidibus precioſis: totumqueopus erat fa­brefactum opere vario, ut eſſet mirandum ſpecta­culum, & gaudium cordis omnibus intuentious ipſam. And preſently after he addes: Mul­ti quoque ſcriptores Romani teſtantur, ſe eam­vidiſſe, cum deſolaretur Templum. Now the fore-named Authors, Plutarch, Strabo, and the reſt, ſeeing that the Jewes had in their Temple a Golden Vine, ſo rich, ſo preci­ous, and of ſo admirable workmanſhip; they were eaſily perſwaded that they worſhipped it, in honour of Bacchus, who was the firſt that ſubdued the Eaſt: and this is the Opi­nion of Cornelius Tacitus, who lived at the ſame time, when this Beautifull Temple was deſtroyed. Sed quia, ſaith he, Sacerdotes Judaeorum tibia, tympaniſque concinebant, he­dera vinciebantur, vitiſque aurea in Templo reperta; Liberum Patrem coli, domitorem Ori­entis, quidam arbitrati ſunt; nequaquàm con­gruentibus inſtitutis: Quippe Liber feſtos, lae­toſque ritus poſuit; Judaeorum mos abſurdus, ſordiduſque. But we paſſe by this Impious Author, who makes a mock at the Religion of the Jewes on all occaſions.

In the Second Part, Chap. 4 pag. 86. where I render the Greek words,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, by theſe French words, Menues Penſees, Little thoughts, I have tranſlated the Greek word,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉as it ought to be underſtood, which ſignifies properly, Little, Delicate, and ſmall: as we call one of the Greek letters Ypſilon, that is to ſay, the Little Y. Now the Se­cond Thoughts are Small, Fine, and Delicate, becauſe they conſider things abſtracted, and ſeparated from Matter; which the Firſt doe not: And therefore we ſay in French very e­legantly, when wee ſpeake of one that hath brought forth any curious conceit, voila vne penſée bien deſtièe.

In the following Chap. you may adde theſe admirable Gamahes. At Piſa, in the Church of St. John, you have, on a certaine ſtone, an Old Hermite, perfectly drawn by Nature on­ly; but with ſo much exactneſſe, that there ſeemes not to be wanting any thing that be­longs to one of that ſort of men. For he is re­preſented in a Deſert, ſuitable to his profeſſi­on, and ſitting neare a Brooks ſide, with a Clock in his hand. This Naturall piece of Picture, almoſt fully anſwers That, they de­liver St. Anthony in. In the Temple of S. So­phia, at Conſtantinople, there is alſo ſeen, up­on a plain white Marble, the Image of S. John Baptiſt, cloathed with a Camels skinne; be­ing only defective in this, that Nature hath drawn him but with one foote. At Ravenna, in the Church of St. Vitalis, there is to be ſeen a Franciſcan Frier, naturally drawn, up­on a ſtone of an Aſh-colour. At Sneiberg in Germany, there was found in the Earth, a cer­taine little Statue of a kind of unrefined Me­tall, naturally made; which repreſented, in a round Figure, a man having a little Child at his back: and whoever hath any where ſeene the picture of St. Chriſtopher, may eaſily con­ceive the ſhape of this. It is not long ſince there was found, in the Hercinian Foreſt, a Stone that naturally repreſented the figure of an old man, with a long beard, and crowned with a Triple Crowne, as the Pope of Rome is. Obſerve likewiſe that many of theſe Stones, or Gamahes, are called all by the ſame name, becauſe they have alwayes the ſame figure. So that, which repreſents the Eyes of a man, is called Leucophthalmos: that which beares the figure of a Heart, Encardia: that which hath the ſhape of a Tongue repreſented on it, Gloſſo­petra: that which is figured like the Genitals, Enorchis: and if it repreſent as well the ſecret parts of man, as of a woman, it is then called Diphys, &c.

To the figures that are found in Plants, and Flowers, you may likewiſe adde thoſe which repreſent ſome kind of Letters, or words: as the Hyacinth, on which the Poët ſayes, is written the Complaint of the fair Phoebus, for having killed Hyacinthus; whom he afterward transformed into a Flowre of the ſame name: and this Complaint of his is expreſt in theſe two Letters,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which make up the word, Ai, which we frequently uſe in all kinds of ſorrow.

Non ſatis hoc Phoebo eſt, (hic enim fuit au­ctor honoris:)
Ipſe ſuos gemitus folijs inſcribit, & Hya
Flos habet inſcriptum, funeſtaque litera du­cta eſt.

The Flower alſo that ſprung, (according to the fiction of the ſame Poët,) from the blood of the valiant Ajax, beares the two firſt letters of his name, Ai.

Litera communis medijs pueroque, viroque,
Meta­morph. lib. 13.
Inſcripta eſt folijs, haec nominis, illa querelae.

As for the diverſe kinds of Figures that wee meet withall in beaſts, (which we have like­wiſe examined in the ſame Chapter,) I have found nothing more worthy our admiration, then what I have been lately informed of by Eye-witneſſes: namely, that it is not long ſince, that in diverſe parts of Poitou it rained a certaine kind of little creatures, about an Inch in bigneſſe; ſome whereof were in the ſhape of Biſhops, with a Rochet and hood, cloſed up in a ſhell, or skin, ſo admirably, that one would have thought it to have been of burniſhed gold: others were in ſhape like Fri­ers, with a Frocke and Cowle: ſome were of a certaine horrid ſhape; and others like I know not what. It is a great wonder, if this Rela­tion come among the Dutchmen, if wee have not very ſpeedily ſome ſtrange Interpretation of the Revelation, ſuch a one as Ananias Je­raucurius, and Raphael Eglinus have given, (as we ſhall ſhew hereafter) of the dark Viſi­ons of Daniel, by the help of certaine Chara­cters found upon two Herrings, taken up up-the coaſt of Norway. But to paſſe by theſe Fooleries.

In the Sixth Chapter, where I ſpeake of di­verſe ſorts of Taliſmans, and prove their ver­tue, according to the opinion of the Eaſterne parts; you muſt take heed, that you mixe not all ſorts of Characters, and figures, indiffe­rently, with theſe Taliſmans. For though many of them beare the Figures of the living creatures deſcribed in the Heavens, which we uſually call Conſtellations, they are not there­fore preſently to paſſe for true Taliſmans; but either ſome kind of Mony; as that of the Duke of Brunſwicke, whereon were ingraven all the Celeſtial Signes; and that of Auguſtus Coeſar, on which he cauſed the Sign of Capricorn to be figured; for no other reaſon, but only in me­mory that he was born under that Signe. Or elſe theſe Figures are only ſome Myſtical Em­blemes, under which the Ancients couched ſome certaine Philoſophical Secret. Such was Neſtor's Silver Goblet, in Homer, whereon the Pleiades were ingraven: as you may ſee here in the Tranſlation of Natalis Comes, which is more Poëticall then that of Gipha­nius.

Poculum erat pulchrum, domo & id portave­rat ipſe,
Tansfixum clavis aureis, ac illius aures
Quatuor: hinc geminae complexae Liviae, at illas
Ex auro circumpaſcuntur, funda duo ſunt.
Nec facile hoc quiſquam poterat extollert menſa,
Quùm plenum foret: at Neſtor nullo ipſe la­bore
Tollebat ſenior.

Whoever therefore knows not the Myſti­call meaning of this Goblet, would, without doubt, ſeeing the Pleiades engraven on it, be apt to conceive, that it was made under ſome certaine Conſtellation, as Taliſmans are: where as there is nothing elſe in it, but a Phi­loſophical Senſe, thus darkly delivered by Ho­mer; as we may ſee in Alciat, who explaines the meaning of it thus.

Neſtoreum geminis cratera hunc accipe fundis,
Quod gravis argenti maſſa profundit opus.
Claviculi ex auro; ſtant circum quatuor anſae,
Unamquamqueſuper fulva columba ſedet.
Solus cum potuit longaevus tollere Neſtor.
Maeonidae doceas quid ſibi muſa velit?
Eſt coelum Scyphus ipſe, colorqueargenteus illi:
Aurea ſunt coeli ſidera claviculi.
Pleiadas eſſe putant, quas dixerit ille colum­bas:
Umbilici gemini, magna, minorquefera eſt,
Haec Neſtor longo ſapiens intelligit uſu.
Bella gerunt fortes, callidus aſtra tenet.

The Poët Anacreon, who conſulted with Bacchus, as often as with his Muſe, makes him­ſelfe merry with this Goblet of Neſtor; and in­treats Vulcan to make him one, without ſuch a deale of Philoſophy, enough to make one cracke his braines: For, what have I to doe, quoth he, with the Pleiades, or bright-ſhining Boötes? Make me therefore, good Vulcan, neither Armes, nor weapons: but make me a Bowle, as deepe a one as thou canſt; and in­grave thereon no Stars, neither Charles his Waine, nor the ſad Orion; but carve me out a Vine, with it's ſwelling grapes, and Cupid, Bacchus, and Bathillus, preſſing them together. His verſes are thus tranſlated by H. Stephanus, very elegantly.

Torno mihi labora
Argentum; & inde finge,
Vulcane, non quidem arma,
Nam quid Gradivus ad me?
Sed poculum mihi fac
Quantum potes profundum.
Inſculpitoquein illo
Non aſtra, plauſtrave ulla,
Triſtem nec Orionem.
(Nam Pleiades quid ad me?
Quid lucidus Bootes?)
Vitem ſed, et racemos
Inſculpe, cumqueBaccho
Uvas ſimul prementes
Cupidinem, & Bathillum.

Theſe verſes have often made me doubt, whether or no, many of thoſe pretious ſtones that we ſee in Ancient Rings, which are com­monly taken for Taliſmans, (ſuch as was that of our Countryman Bagarris, whereof I make mention:) on which we find Cupids, Bacchus, Vines, bunches of grapes, and vine-branches ingraven, were not rather the effects of ſome gallant Humor of ſome Philoſophers, who de­ſired to weare on their fingers the Emblemes of Wine, rather then any other figures.

In the ſame Sixth Chapter, where I ſpeake of the power of Reſemblance, I know not how, in the 172. page, the word, France, hath ſlipt in, inſtead of Italy. For it is in Italy chiefly, where the Leproſie is ſo frequent, by reaſon of the great quantity of Hogs fleſh that is eaten there, more then in any other Kingdome: and the reaſon that in France, we ſee ſome infected with this diſeaſe, is, becauſe that here, next to the Italians, they eate more hogs fleſh, then any where elſe. Neither do I ſay this, but according to the opinion of Phyſicians, without the leaſt purpoſe of of­fending any, either Strangers, or thoſe of my owne Nation. In a word, Courteous Rea­der, I ſhall deſire thee to interpret in good part, whatſoever thou ſhalt find in this Book; ſeeing that my purpoſe is to deale clearely, as one exempt from paſſion.

In the 77. page of the ſame Chapter, my intent is not to ranke Joſeph's gift of Interpre­ting Dreames with the Art of Conjecturing at the meaning of Dreames: Nor yet to reject the order of the Commandements, eſtabliſhed by the Church, and to introduce that which is ſet downe, page 291. for I there follow the Jewes manner of counting them.

Laſtly, I muſt intreat thee to correct the faults of the Preſſe; and uſe mee, as thou wouldſt be uſed thy ſelf.

A TABLE of the Chapters, and their CONTENTS.

PART. I. Wherein the Jewes, and other Eaſtern Men are defended.

CHAP. I. That many things are falſely impoſed upon the Jews, and the reſt of the Eaſtern men, which never were.
    • 1. THe Arguments brought againſt the Eastern men, whereon grounded.
    • 2. The Iewes falſely accuſed, by Appion, Plutarch, Strabo, Trogus, Tacitus, and Diodorus Siculus, of worſhipping Aſſes, Vines, and the Clouds.
    • 3. Whence theſe Fooleries ſprung.
    • 4. The Syrians falſely ſaid to worſhip Fiſhes. Xe­nophon, Cicero, Aelian, Ovid, Martial, Artemido­rus, and Scaliger, refuted.
    • 5. The Idoll Dgon, not figured like a Woman, or Siren; as Scaliger would have it: but in the forme of a Triton. The Fable laid open.
    • 6. The Samaritans no Idolaters; no more then Aa­ron, and Jeroboam, for having made Calves of gold; according to Abiudan.
    • 7. The Cherubins of the Arke not made in the forme of Young Mea; againſt the opinion of all, both Greeke, and Latine Authors, and the greateſt part of the Jewiſh too.
    • 8. Arguments in defence of the Samaritans.
    • 9. The reaſons brought by the Iewes, and Cajetan, touching the figure of the Cherubins, of no force.
    • 10. The Jewes falſely accuſed of burning their Children to the Idoll Moloc: Whence the cuſtome of leaping over the Fire of St. John hath been derived.
CHAP. II. That many things are eſteemed ridiculous, and dange­rous, in the Bookes of the Jewes, which yet are, without any blame, maintained by Chriſtian Writers.
    • 1. THat we ought not to reſt on the bare Letter of the Scriptures.
    • 2. Authors that have treated of Ridiculous Sub­jects, without being reproved.
    • 3. The books of the Jews leſſe dangerous, then thoſe of the Heathens, which yet are allowed by the Chri­ſtian Fathers.
    • 4. The Feaſt that God is to make for the Elect, with the fleſh of a Whale, how to be underſtood.
    • 5. Ten things created on the Even before the Sab­both, and what they were.
    • 6. The Opinions of the Ancient, and Modern wri­ters, touching the end of the world: what Fathers of the Church have been of the Jews opinion in this Par­ticular.
    • 7. Diverſe opinions concerning the number of years from the Creation to our Saviour Chriſt: and what wee ought to conclude, as touching the end of the world.
    • 8. The Ancient Rabbins are falſely accuſed of ſpeaking ill of our Saviour Ieſus Chriſt.
    • 9. The Third Objection in the precedent Chapter anſwered: and an Enumeration of ſome Errours of great Importance in Our owne Bookes.

PART. II. Of the Taliſmanical Sculpture of the Perſians; or the manner of making Figures, and Ima­ges, under certain Conſtellations.

CHAP. III. THAT the Perſians are unjuſtly blamed, concer­ning the Curioſities of their Magicke, Sculpture, and Aſtrology.
    • 1. THe evill cuſtome of blaming the Ancients is noted.
    • 2. The Reaſons brought againſt the Perſians, and their Magicke, examined, and found of no force. The Errors of the Counterfet Beroſus, Dinon, Comeſtor, Genebrard, Pierius, and Venetus, concerning Zoro­aſter.
    • 3. The ſtrange Statues of Laban, and Micha, called Teraphim, perhaps allowed of God.
    • 5. The Errours of Elias Levita, Aben-Eſra, R. E­liezer, R. D. Chimehi, Cajetan, Sainctes, Vatablus, Clarius, Mercerus, Marinus, and Mr. Selden, concer­ning theſe Teraphim. The groſſe conceit of Philo Iu­daeus touching this Particular.
    • 6. A Conjectnre touching theſe Statues, what they were; and an anſwer to what may be objected a­gainſt it.
    • 7. Of certaine Strange, Prodigious things, which have foretold Diſaſters, which have been ſeen to come to paſſe; and which do yet foretell the ſame.
    • 8. The Concluſion of all before delivered.
CHAP. IV. That for want of underſtanding Ariſtotle aright, men have condemned the power of Figures; and con­cluded very many things, both againſt this Philo­ſopher, and againſt all ſound Philoſophy.
    • 1. ERrors in Learning, cauſed by the Ignorance of the Languages.
    • 2. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉ſignifies Specimen, and not Species.
    • 3. The reading of〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉proved to be full.
    • 4. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉ill tranſlated; and hence the Queſtion of Univerſals, not underſtood.
    • 5. The proper tranſlating of〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.
    • 6. The Errors committed in theſe words,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. The corre­cting of〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉rejected, againſt Cicero.
    • 7. It is falſely concluded out of Ariſtotle, that Fire is moiſt; againſt du Villon.
    • 8. That Ariſtotle is abuſed by Interpreters, by rea­ſon of their not underſtanding the force of the word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉; and by reading〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, inſtead of〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.
    • 9. The falſe Interpretation of the word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, gi­ven by Stapulenſis.
    • 10. The word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, rightly underſtood, condem­neth thoſe that deny the power of Figures. The proofe of this at large.
CHAP. V. The power of Artificiall Images is proved, by that of thoſe that are found Naturally imprinted on Stones, and Plants, commonly called Gamahe, or Camai­eu, and Signatures.
    • 1. THe Diviſion of Naturall Figures, or Images. Gamahe, or Camaieu, drawn peradventure from the Hebrew word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Chemaia.
    • 2. Of divers rare Gamahes, or Stones painted natu­rally: and why they are more frequently found in hot Countreys, then in Cold.
    • 3. Of other curious Gamahes not painted, mentio­ned by Pliny, Nider, Geſner, Goropius Becanus, Thevet, and Mr. de Breves. A new Obſervation on the Bones of Giants.
    • 4. Of Gamahes that are Ingraven: and whether thoſe places, where ever any Fiſh ſhels are found, have been formerly covered with water, or not.
    • 5. Certaine admirable Figures, and Signatures, that are found in all the parts of Plants. Many choyce Inquiries propoſed, on this Subject.
    • 6. The power of theſe Figures proved; and the Ob­jections anſwered, that are brought againſt it.
    • 7. The Secret diſcovered, why a Scorpion, applied to the wound made by a Scorpions ſting, ſhould not hurt rather, then cure it.
    • 8. Of the Figures of Plants, that repreſent all the parts of the body of a man; and that cure the ſame, when ill-affected.
    • 9. The Formes of all things admirably preſerved in their Aſhes.
    • 10. The Ghoſts of dead folks, that appear in Church­yards, and after great ſlaughter of Armies, whence they proceed. Certain choice Queſtions propoſed, tou­ching this Argument.
    • 11. A new reaſon given, of the Raining of Frogs, which hath ſometimes happened.
    • 12. Of Figures that are found in Living Crea­tures; and what power they have.
CHAP. VI. That, according to the opinion of the Eaſtern Men, Figures, and Images may be ſo prepared, under cer­taine Conſtellations as that they ſhal have the pow­er, Naturally, and without the aide of any Demon, or Divel, to drive away noiſome beaſts, allay Winds, Thunder, and Tempeſts, and to cure di­verſe kinds of Diſeaſes.
    • 1. THe inſupportable vanity of ſome Pretenders to Learning, is noted.
    • 2. How theſe Taliſmanicall Figures are called in Hebrew, Chaldie, Greek, and Arabick. The Etymolo­gy of Taliſman uncertain, againſt Salmaſius.
    • 3. By what meanes the power of Figures is proved: and who they are, among the Arabians, that have de­fended it.
    • 4. Of certaine admirable Taliſmans, found at Pa­ris, & Conſtantinople: and what happened to theſe places, after the breaking of them.
    • 5. What the Dij Averrunci of the Ancients were. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, whence derived: and whence the cuſtome of ſetting up Figures, and Images in Ships came.
    • 6. The fable of the ſtone Bractan, in Turky. diſco­vered: and a Conjecture given, concerning the Palladium, and the Statues mentioned by Philo Judaeus.
    • 7. The Golden Calfe, and the Brazen Ser­pent, falſely ſaid to be Taliſmans: and why the Serpent was made of Braſſe, rather then of any other Metall.
    • 8. The Wonderfull Effects of 3. Taliſmans, ſpoken of by Scaliger, M. de Breves, and the Turkiſh Annals: and of what vertue thoſe o­ther were, that were made by Paracelſus, M. Lagneau, and diverſe Learned Italians.
    • 9. The Power of theſe Figures proved, by the power that Reſemblance is known to have, in all Arts, and Sciences: and firſt in Divinity. Why the Ancients placed Images in their Temples.
    • 10. In Philoſophy. Of the Power of Imagi­nation.
    • 11. In Phyſicke. Of ſome Animals, Plants, and Graines, that doe good, and hurt, meerly by Reſemblance.
    • 12. In Aſtrology. A Certaine Meanes of foretelling Evils to come, by the Colour of the Meteors that appeare.
    • 13. In Phyſiognomy. The manner how to know the Naturall Inclination of any man, ac­cording to Campanella.
    • 14. In the Art of Divination of Dreames. Examples, both Sacred, and Prophane, touch­ing this Subject.
    • 15. In Painting. Why our Saviour Chriſt is oftner pictured Suffering upon the Croſſe, then Sitting at the Right hand of his Father.
    • 16. In Muſick Of ſome Diſeaſes that are cured by it.
    • 17. The manner of making theſe Taliſmans.
    • 18. The Taliſmanicall Operations ſet downe by The­bit Ben-chorat, Trithemius, Gochlenius, Albinus Villanovenſis, & Marcellus Empiricus, condemned.
    • 19. What power the Heavens have, ever things here below.
    • 20. The reaſon of the names of the Celeſtiall I­mages.
    • 21. What Influence the Heavens have upon Arti­ficiall things.
CHAP. VII. That the Objections which are made againſt Taliſma­nical Figures, make not any thing at all againſt their Power.
    • 1. VVWhence the cuſtom of uſing certain words, and of applying certain Characters, in the cure of Diſeaſes, hath ſprung.
    • 2. An abominable Ceremony uſed by the Egypti­ans, for to cauſe Haile to ceaſe. The reaſon of the Command, given to the Jewes, of not Graffing on a tree of a different kind.
    • 3. The Taliſmans delivered by Antonius Mizaldus, condemned.
    • 4. The Objections brought by Gulielmus Pariſien­ſis, and Gerſon, anſwered. The power the Sunne hath within the bowels of the Earth.
    • 5. A Fourth Objection anſwered. The Stories of Sorcerers, and of the Images of Waxe, of very little credit.
    • 6. A Fifth Objection refuted. Of the Weapon-ſalve, that cures the wound, by being applied to the weapon that made it.
    • 7. The Sixth Objection of no force. A remarkable Story of two Twins.
    • 8. The Operation of theſe Taliſmans proceeds not from the ſecret vertue of the Stone.
    • 9. Cajetan, and Pomponatius, defended, againſt Delrio, touching the power of Figures.
    • 10. The vertue of the Stars deſcends as well upon a Living Scorpion, as upon its Image.
    • 11. The forcible reaſons brought by Galeottus, in defence of Taliſmans.
    • 12. The Objection, brought againſt Franciſcus Ru­ëus, anſwered.
    • 13. The Story of Virgils Taliſmanicall Fly, and Horſeleech a true one; againſt Naudaeus. Gervais his booke not fabulous; as is commonly believed.
    • 14. Of ſome Admirable, and curious Inventions of men, that ſeem more Incredible, then Taliſmans.
    • 15. Certaine Objections, never before brought, a­gainſt the power of Figures; with their Solution.

PART. III. Of the Horoſcope of the Patriarchs: or the A­ſtrology of the Ancient Hebrews.

CHAP. VIII. That Idolatry is falſly ſaid to have ſprung from the Aſtrology of the Ancients.
    • 1. THE Arguments againſt Aſtrology, ill ground­ed. And how, by the wayes, of Nature, it is poſ­ſible to give judgment of the Good, or Evill Fortune, of a Child.
    • 2. The Reſolution of Thomas Aquinas, in the behalfe of Aſtrology.
    • 3. Gulielmus Pariſienſis, and Paracelſus refuted. Aſtrology by whom found out: the Errour of Pliny in this Particular.
    • 4. Aſtrology both Good, and Evill; and how. Moſes a Skilfull Aſtrologer.
    • 5. Idolatry whence ſprung forth, according to Marſilius Ficinus, and Bechay, a Iew. Hanni-Bal, and Haſdru-Bal, compounded Names: and why.
    • 6. The Opinions of R. Moſes, and the Author of the book of The Wiſedome of Salomon, concerning the beginning of Idolatry. The Concluſion of all before delivered.
    • 7. Fires uſed to be made, by the Ancients, to the Sun, and the Moon: and for what reaſon.
    • 8. Reaſons given for the proofe of the Innocency of the Ancients, in theſe Curioſities
CAAP. IX. Whether, or no, the Ancient Hebrewes made uſe of any Mathematicall Inſtrument in their Aſtrolo­gy: and what the figure of their Inſtuments was.
    • 1. VVHat Inſtruments the Ancient Aſtrologers uſed. The Fable of Atlas diſcovered.
    • 2. The Hebrewes Sphere deſcribed.
    • 3. Certain Doubts propoſed, concerning the Fa­brick of it. The ſtrange conceit of R. Moſes, concer­ning the number of the Heavens.
    • 4. A Conjecture upon the Antiquity of this Sphere.
    • 5. Of the Diall of Ahaz, and its deſcription, not yet ſeen.
    • 6. Conjectures on the figure of our Sun-dials.
CHAP. X. That the Aſtrology of the Ancient Hebrewes, Ae­gyptians, and Arabians, was not ſuch, as it is de­livered by Scaliger, Auguſtinus Riccius, Kunrath, Duret, and Vigenere.
    • 1. THE Holieſt things are often mixt with Fa­bles.
    • 2. The ſtrange Fancies, and Falſhoods of Du­ret, touching the Spirits of the Planets; and touching the Aſtrologicall Cabale of the Iewes.
    • 3. The Fooleries of Carlo Fabri, in his aſ­ſigning of the Angels, proper to the Seven Electors of the Empire.
    • 4. The Strange Doctrine of Riccius, and Kun­rath, concerning the Planetary Zephirots.
    • 5. The Stars, the cauſe of the diverſities in Re­ligion, in the opinion of R. Chomer.
    • 6. The Nativity of our Saviour Jeſus Chriſt, erected by Bechai, and Cardan.
    • 7. The Aſtrologicall Pictures, or Figures, at the Conjunctions of the Celeſtiall Signes, falſly at­tributed to the Aegyptians, and Arabians, what they were; and by whom invented: againſt Sca­liger.
CHAP. XI. What, in truth, was the courſe the Patriarchs, and Ancient Hebrewes took, in their Obſervations, at the erecting of a Nativity.
    • THE Celeſtiall Conſtellations were anciently marked with Hebrew Characters.
    • 2. How the Celeſtiall Signes are figured in the Spheres, and Globes of the Arabians. That of Vir­go hath a Myſtery in it.
    • 3. A new Obſervation on the Hebrew names of the Planets.
    • 4. A Table, by which the Iewes erected their Nativities. The uſe of it.
    • 5. Demonſtrative reaſons, why the Dayes fol­low not the order of the Planets. A Genethliacall Table of the Ancient Hebrews.
    • 6. The difference betwixt the Ancient's man­ner of giving judgment upon a Nativity, and that of the Aſtrologers of our times. The Fable of Lu­cina laid open.
    • 7. The Moon, why called Lunus, and Luna; and the Heavens, Coelus, and Coelum.
    • 8. A new, and certaine reaſon, why the Poets report, that Saturne eat up his Children.
    • 9. What Qualities the Ancients acknowledge to be in Celeſtiall Signes.
    • 10. The Authors Iudgment, upon the Aſtro­logicall Writings of R. Abraham Aben-Are, tran­ſlated into Latin by the Conciliator.
    • 11. What Planets were accounted Benigne, by the Ancient Hebrewes. What Ceremony the new­maried man uſed, toward his Bride.
    • 12. This Aſtrology of the Ancients is proued, out of the Holy Scripture. Reaſons which prove, that〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Gad (which was the name of one of the Sons of Jacob,) is the Planet Jupiter.
    • 13. The Aegyptians the firſt that corrupted this Aſtrology. It is falſe notwithſtanding, that they were the Inventers of the Characters of the Planets. Fables introduced into Aſtrology, by the Greeks.
    • 14. Athlon, a word in Nativities, uſed by Ma­nilius, rightly interpreted: contrary to Scaliger.

PART. IIII. Of the Reading of the Stars, and what ever elſe is ſeen in the Aire.

CHAP. XII. Whether it be poſſible to read any thing, in the Clouds, and in all other Meteors.
    • 1. HOw many waies this Reading by the Mete­ors may be performed.
    • 2. Battailes, and fearfull Prodigies ſeen in the Aire.
    • 3. The Reaſons they give, who are of opinion, that theſe things are Supernaturall.
    • 4. Reaſons given to the Contrary. Angels, and Saints, how they have ſometimes been ſeen to appeare in the Clouds.
    • 5. A new, and quaint opinion, touching the di­vers kinds of figures that appeare in the Clouds: and a conjecture upon the Secret, mentioned by Tri­themius, of conveying Newes a great diſtance off.
    • 6. The Author's Reſolution, concerning Strange Sights in the Aire.
    • 7. The Raining of Blood, in the Figure of a Croſſe, not Naturall; againſt Cardan.
    • 8. The Manna is the Wilderneſſe, marked with the Hebrew letter Vau, according to ſome of the Rabbins: and what conſequence we may hence de­duce, againſt them.
    • 9. Haile in Languedoc, figured like Armes: Snow, like Stars in ſhape, ſpoken of by Kepler.
    • 10. The Rainbow, the Hieroglyphick of Sorrow.
    • 11. Diverſe Opinions, concerning the generati­on of Comets: and whether, they naturally preſage ſome Evill to come, or not.
    • 12. Rules to know, what Pillars, Swords, Buck­lers, Trumpets, and fiery Arrowes, ſeen in the Air, foretell. Hebrew Letters ſometimes ſeen in the Air.
    • 14. What Letters have been deviſed, in Imitati­on of the Figures made by Cranes in their Flight. Preſages of Accidents to come, taken from Birds.
CHAP. XIII. That the Stars, according to the Opinion of the Hebrew Writers, are ranged in the Heavens, in the forme of Letters: and that it is poſſible to read there, whatſoever of Importance is to hap­pen, throughout the Univerſe.
    • 1. THE Celeſtiall Configurations, deviſed by the Greeks, permitted by the Church, though dange­rous. This New doctrine, of the Reading of the Stars, no whit repugnant to the Chriſtian Faith.
    • 2. This Reading, proved out of the Scripture. Diverſe paſſages of Scripture, tending to this pur­poſe, interpreted.
    • 3. The Opinions of the Ancient Hebrewes, Greeks, and Latines, in this Particular.
    • 4. The reaſon, why ſo few Authors of theſe la­ter times have medled herein. What our Moderne Writers, as Reuchlin, Picus Mirandula, Agrippa, Kunrath, Banelli, and R. Flud, have delivered, of this Subject.
    • 5. Poſtelll's Intention of bringing it into Europe.
    • 6. The Stars ranged, not in the forme of Ara­bick, nor Samaritan, but of Hebrew Characters. The Superſtition of the Arabians, in the reading of ſome kinds of words. Their letters borrowed from the Hebrewes.
    • 7. The Hieroglyphicall Living creatures of the Aegyptians, placed in the Heavens, are not to ſerve for Letters, The Conſtellations Imperfect.
    • 8. What things are to be obſerved, that one may be able to read the Heavens. What the reaſon is, that New Stars often, appeare, according to the Rabbins.
    • 9. A continued Enumeration of the ſeverall Meanes that muſt be uſed, for the rendering a man capable of this Reading. The Star in the Taile of Urſa Major, the Fore-ſhewer of the Change of Em­pires; and how.
    • 10. On which ſide we are to begin this Read­ing in the Heavens: and how we muſt interpret the words we find there.
    • 11. Of thoſe Celeſtiall Letters, that have fore­ſhowne all the great Mutations in States. The Fall of two Powerfull Kingdomes of the Eaſt, read in the Heavens, by R. Chomer.
    • 12. The Author's Iudgment, concerning this Reading of the Heavens.

Faults eſcaped.

PAg. 4. lin. 14. read, theſe writers. p. 6. l. 18. r. this their I­dolatry. p. 10. l. 29. r. abſtained. p. 35. l. 6. r. Chapter an­ſwered, and. p. 49. l. 23. r. yeares. p. 70. l. 7. r. theſe Teraphin. p. 81. l. 9. r. have kept themſelves. p. 111. l. 9. r. wholy Emboſ­ſed. p. 122. l. 2. r. Rambure. p. 124. l. 21. r. Figurarum, et. Ib. l. 25. r. fructuum p. 128. l. 25. r. within ſtones. p. 157. l. 22. r. fooliſh Fables. p. 159. l. 25. r. touching theſe. p. 162. l. 4. r. were Ad­verſe Ib. l. 29. r. of theſe. p. 182. l. 5. r for the curing. p. 230. l. 13. r. of God. p. 296. l. 28. r. with the other. p. 308. l. 16. r. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. p. 316. l. 24. r. it would die. p. 326. l. 26. r. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.



PART I. The Jews, and other Eaſtern men are defended.

CHAP. I.That many things are falſly impoſed upon the Jewes, and the reſt of the Eaſtern men, which never were.


THe arguments brought againſt the Eaſtern men, whereon grounded

2 The Jewes falſely accuſed, by Appion, Plutarch, Strabo, Trogus, Tacitus, and Dio­dorus Siculus, of worſhiping Aſses, Vines and the Clouds.


3. Whence theſe Fooleries ſprung.

4. The Syrians falſly ſaid to worſhip Fiſhes. Xenophon, Cicero, Aelian, Ovid, Martiall, Artemidorus, and Scaliger refuted.

5. The Idol Dagon not figured like a wo­man, or Siren, as Scaliger would haue it: but in the form of a Triton. The Fable layd open.

6. The Samaritans no Idolaters; no more then Aaron, and Jeroboam, for having made Calves of gold; according to Abiudan.

7. The Cherubins of the Arke not made in the form of Young men: againſt the opinion of all, both Greeke and Latin Authors, and the greateſt part of the Jewiſh too.

8. Arguments in defence of the Samari­tans.

9. The reaſons brought by the Jewes, and Cajetan, touching the figure of the Cherubins, of no force.

10. The Jewes falſly accuſed of burning their Children to the Idol Moloc. Whence the cuſtome of leaping over the fire of Saint John, hath been derived.

THey that publiſh to the world any new, and Unheard-of Doctrine; that they may give it the greater Authority, and make it paſſe with the more credit, ſhew firſt of all the Integrity of the Man, that was the firſt Inventor of it: that ſo, the good3 opinion that is conceived of the Author, may take away all ſuſpition, or jealouſie, from the things that ſhall be delivered. The choyce points of learning which we ſhall here lay down, are ſo new, that I have adventured to call them Vnheard-of. It concerns me there­fore, for the better ſecuring them from ſuſpi­tion, to take upon me the defence of the Eaſtern men, and chiefly of the Jewes, who are the Authors of them, and in point of Curious learning, to defend their innocency, hitherto ſo much injured.

1. This nation is commonly abhorred for foure reaſons. The firſt is,The 3. laſt Ob­jections are an­ſwered in the follow­ing chap, their Idola­try; which all Authors make them guilty of. The ſecond is, their fooliſh vanityes, that their books are full of. The third is, by reaſon of their blaſphemies, they to this day vomit up againſt our Saviour Jeſus Chriſt. And the laſt is, for the errors that they main­taine, contrary to the Law. The Firſt of theſe conceits is grounded on a falſe perſwaſion: for, after that it was once believed that the Jewes worſhiped the head of an Aſse, Hogs, and the Clouds; it was preſently concluded, that conſequently their writings could not be free from theſe impieties. The ſecond pro­ceeds from the little knowledge men gene­rally have of the bookes of the Jewes. The third, from the hatred men beare to the4 Jewiſh Authors. And the fourth, from the Selfe conceitedneſs of thoſe that accuſe them.

2. For the firſt of theſe Objections, Ap­pion, as Joſephus affirmes, was the firſt, that forged it out of his owne braine: and not­withſtanding that this excellent Author of the Jewiſh Antiquities hath learnedly confuted him; Yet Plutarch takes it ſtill up for a Truth,Symp. 4. c. 5. Hiſt. 5. and Tacitus alſo, after him, brings it in, in his Hiſtory, as a Prodigious thing: in ſo much that the Fable at length paſſing for a Truth, it hath gone for currant, even with the moſt ſerious Hiſtorians. Now this wor­ſhip of the Jewes (ſay their Writers) was after this manner. There was an Altar e­rected; under which having performed ſome certaine ceremonies, a Golden Statue of an Aſſe was ſet up upon it, (ſome make mention of the head onely) then, the chiefe Prieſt having cenſed it, all the People, put­ting their hand to their mouth, bowed down and worſhiped it. The very ſame Adorati­on, in a manner, they uſed (as theſe Au­thors report) to the Statue of a Hog.

Judaeus licet & Porcinum numen adorat.

Sayes Petronius: as alſo to a Golden Vine; but with this difference, (ſayes Plu­tarke, with Strabo, Trogus Pompeius, and Diodorus Siculus:) that the Prieſts, when5 they Sacrifiſed to Bacchus, were crowned with Jvy; and going with Flutes, and Drummes, ſounding before them, they bowed down before this Golden Tree, which was religiouſly preſerved within their Tem­ple. Concerning their worſhiping the Clouds, the opinions are divers: ſome af­firming, that the Jewes had ſome Figures of them made in their places of Devotion: others ſay, not. But theſe are meere Fan­cies. So that, to make it appeare more clear then the Noon-day, that this Nation is no whit guilty of theſe Crimes; even Tacitus himſelfe, who had before accuſed them of Jdolatry, forgetting what he had ſaid before, addes preſently after, Nulla ſimulachra vrbi­bus ſuis, nedum templis eſſe: That they have no Images in their Cities, much leſſe in their Temples: So farre are they from worſhip­ing the Statues of a Hog, or Vine, or the figures of the Clouds.

And yet ſee, what Juvenall reports of them. Sat. 14. l. 16.

Nil praeter Nubes, & Coeli numen adorant.

Strabo writes the very ſame: and in the Reigne of Theodoſius, and of Juſtinian, they were generally called, Coelicolae;Cod. lib. 16. Tit. 8. leg. 18. and for this very reaſon: as you may ſee in the conſtitu­tions of this Emperour.


But let us once teach the Ancients,The firſt Objecti­on an­ſwered. ſince they have ſo often taught us; and pretend, forſooth, to have delivered nothing over to us but pure Truthes. If it be true, that the Jewes ſhould have given themſelves over to the vanities of worſhiping theſe Idols here ſpoken of: how comes it to paſſe, that their true God ſhould never, in all the Scrip­tures which he hath given them, lay this Crime to their charge as well as any other? And here we cannot ſay of This, as we uſe to ſay of our owne bookes: That a thing may have been, and yet not have been ſpoken of. For, in this Law, which all acknowledge to be moſt ſevere, the caſe is otherwiſe: For, in point of Crimes, not ſo much as the leaſt is omitted. Neither can any ſay, that Idolatry hath ſprung up ſince the wri­ting of the Old Teſtament: For, beſides that, the enemies of the Jewes would have then caſt it in their teeth, as moſt abomina­ble; The above named Authors affirme; that the Law forbidding them the eating of Hogs fleſh, had not been given them, but meerely becauſe they had worſhiped this Beaſt. But why then doe they not, by the ſame reaſon conclude, that this People had worſhiped Conies, Hares, Camels, Oſtridg­es, and Ravens: Since the eating of theſe was alſo forbidden them?


3. We ſay then, that theſe are meere ca­lumnies; or rather Fantaſtick Opinions, grounded upon the Jewes ſo religious ab­ſtaining from the fleſh of this Beaſt; in o­bedience to the Precept which was given them, for their better preſervation from the Leproſie; a diſeaſe they were otherwiſe ve­ry ſubject unto: and here you ſee the Origi­nall of the Fable. As for the Golden Vine, and the Honours they are ſaid to have paid to Bacchus, I cannot diſcover, I confeſſe, in any Author, the riſe of this errour: and I conceive, the firſt that ſpake of this, might happily miſtake the name of the Jewes, for ſome other People; as we ſee it uſually hap­pen in Authors, in the like caſe. Or elſe, ſome Apoſtate Jewes having been ſeen pra­ctiſing theſe acts of Idolatry, it was conſe­quently concluded, that the whole Nation was guilty of the ſame.

But an account may more eaſily be given of the cauſe of the errour, in the buſineſſe of their worſhiping the Clouds; which might ſpring from that miraculous Cloud, which was light on one ſide, and darke on the o­ther, and was guide to the Children of Iſra­ell in the Wilderneſſe. Or perhaps this o­ther reaſon which I ſhall now give, why the Jewes were called Coelicolae, Worſhipers of the Heavens, or the Clouds, may be more8 ſatisfying: Namely, becauſe they worſhiped God, who is often called in the Hebrew tongue,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Schamaim, a word, that ſig­nifies alſo, the Heavens.

As for their being ſaid to worſhip the head of an Aſſe, thoſe that impute the beginning of this error to the great ſervice the Hebrewes had done them by Aſſes, at their comming up out of Egypt, ſeeme not at all to ſpeake with any probability. And yet Tacitus ſeemes to me much more ridiculous, when he ſaies, that the Jewes worſhiped Aſſes, be­cauſe, they found them out water in the Wil­derneſſe. Hiſt. 1.5.Sed nihil aequè (ſaith he) quam ino­pia aquae fatigabat; cum grex Aſinorum agreſti­um, è paſtu, in rupem nemore opacam conceſſit. Secutus Moſes, conjecturâ herbidi ſoli, largas aquarum venas aperit. And then preſently he adds, that in recompence of this benefit, Effigiem animalis, quo monſtrante, errorem, ſitimque depulerant, penetrali ſacravêre. A pleaſant Fable this; which yet is confuted, by what the ſame Author himſelfe elſewhere writes; as we have before ſhewed. I ſhould therefore rather ſay, that the affection which every man beares to his owne Religion, is ſo eager, and violent; that in all ages, upon all occaſions, thoſe of a contrary Beliefe have been very apt to fall fowle upon each other. The Jewes therefore, either for ha­ving9 been bound up by ſo many Com­mandements; or elſe, for having been ſo o­bedient to their God, might have been called Aſſes: as Charles the fifth was wont to call the French, for being ſo tamely obedient to their Kings. And even the Primitive Chriſti­ans were not free from this very injury; for their common Epithete was, Aſinarij, as Tertullian reports; till the time of that Em­perour, whoſe exceſſive hate againſt our Saviour Jeſus Chriſt carried him on to that heigth of unparallel'd Malice, as that he cau­ſed a ſtatue to be erected, bearing the ſhape of an Aſſe, houlding up a booke with one of his hoofes, with this inſcription on it: Deus Chriſtianorum Ononychitis.

4. Now the Jewes were the more readi­ly believed guilty of all kindes of Idolatry, becauſe that, beſides that they had been ob­ſerved to have runne blindly after ſome ſorts of it, they dwelt alſo neare a People, that were very great Idolaters. But neither is there a­ny more truth in the imputation layd upon their neighbours, then in that wherewith the Jewes themſelves are aſperſed: So true it is, that after a Nation is once cried downe, their very beſt actions are ſuſpected. The Syrians were indeed juſtly accuſed for being ſomewhat guilty in this particular; but that they ever worſhiped the Fiſhes of the Sea,10 neither Xenophon,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Symp. l. 3. c. 8. De. Nat. Deor. 3. De. Ani­mal. l. 12. c. 11. Faſtor. 11. Lib. 4. Epig. 43. Ouirocrit. 1. c. 12. In Sphaer. Manil. fol. 343. Plutarch, Cicero, Diodorus Siculus, Aelian; Ovid, Martiall, Artemido­rus, nor among the Moderns, the learned Scaliger, (who to this purpoſe cites ſome verſes of the Poet Menander,) can, without doing them manifeſt injury, accuſe them. But they abſtained, ſay they, from the eating of them: and if any were ſo daring, as to eat of them, they were immediately puniſhed with a ſwelling in their bodies: Whence the Poet Perſius tooke occaſion to call Fiſhes, Dij inflantes corpora. But, that we may diſ­abuſe thoſe, that have been miſlead into this perſwaſion, and diſcover the true ground of this error; we confeſſe that the Syrians did indeed abſtaine from the vſe of ſome certaine kinds of Fiſhes, which by reaſon of their ve­nomous nature, did really cauſe ſwellings in thoſe that eat of them. And we may daily ob­ſerve, out of the Naturaliſts;See Ron­delet, in his Hi­ſtory of Fiſhes. that as the fleſh of ſome Land-Creatures is dangerous, in like manner alſo it is, in thoſe of the Sea. Now the Fiſhes which the Syrians did abſtaine from,Lib. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Chiliad. 9. Chap. 275. were the Apua, and the Maenis; two very venemous kindes of Fiſhes; as you may ſee in Plutarch, and Johannes Tzetzes. We may therefore conclude it meerely fabulous, which is reported of the Syrians; namely, that they abſtaine not onely from all Sea-Fiſh, but al­ſo from that of Rivers; where the Apua, nor11 the Moenis, are at all found. Erat is, (ſayes the Interpreter of Xenophon, ſpeaking of the River Chalus) magnis, manſuetisque piſcibus refertus; quos Syri pro Dijs habebant, neque eos loedi patiebantur, ſicuti nec columbas. As for the Doves; I ſhall examine the truth of the report elſewhere: but for the Fiſhes, nothing could have been ſpoken more falſe. For, if they would not ſuffer them to re­ceive any harme, as being the Gods they worſhipped; why then did they carry them to Jeruſalem, and ſell them to the Jewes, for food? Certainly this had been ſo un­pardonable a Crime, as would have deſer­ved to have been puniſhed, not with ſwel­lings only, but even with death. Tyri quo­que, (ſaith Nehemias,) habitabant in ea, in­ferentes piſces, & omnia venalia, & vende­bant filijs Jehuda in. ipſa Jeruſalem. Syntag. 2 Cap. 3. You may ſee other proofes of this, in Mr. Sel­den; who hath retracted this Errour, but not the ground of it: but I ſhall ſpeake of this hereafter.

But to ſhew the vanity of this Fable yet another way: I ſhall demand of theſe Au­thors above named, whence they have learnt, that the Syrians worſhipped Fiſhes, inſtead of Gods; and for that reaſon, ab­ſtained from eating of them? I conceive, the anſwer will be given in theſe two words:12 Common Tradition. We muſt therefore ex­amine, what this Tradition is, that we may be able to judge, whether it be true or not. Aratus, and Hyginus report out of the An­cients, that an egge of a prodigious bigneſs,In Phoei­nom. frag. Cap. de Piſcibus. Lib. Fa­bul. Cap. 197. fell from Heaven into the River Euphrates; which the Fiſhes having by accident caſt up upon the ſhore, it was ſo warmed by the heat of a flight of Pigeons, which ſate up­on it, as upon other egges, that at the end of ſome certaine number of dayes it was hatched; and there came forth Venus who lived on earth ſo vertuouſly, that being af­terwards taken up into Heaven, ſhe intreat­ed of Jupiter, that thoſe Fiſhes, which had preſerved the egge, whence ſhe came forth, from ſhipwrack, might be placed among the Stars. Her requeſt was granted; and ever ſince, the Syrians, whom Authors uſually confound with the Aſſyrians, have had Fiſh­es, and Doves, in great veneration. Others ſay,Vid. Ci­cer. Tuſ­cul. qu. 5. Virgil. Georg. 3. Arat. loc. citat. that the Syrians did not begin to wor­ſhip them, and to place their ſilver Images in their Temples, till the time that the daugh­ter of Venus, falling into the Poole Boeth, was there turned into a Fiſh. And now ſee, what excellent reaſon we have, to re­ceive this Tradition for a true one. What learned people we ſhould be, had we no o­ther Hiſtorians, but the Poets! I know ve­ry13 well, that the Fable might poſſibly have taken its originall from the Hiſtory: but where ſhall we find thoſe can witneſſe, that it did ſo? Whereas, on the other ſide, we know, that theſe. Fables are as ancient with the Greekes, as Aſtrology it ſelfe. We may therefore, from this very particular paſſage, conclude, what manner of ſpirit reigned in the writers of this Nation; whoſe delight it alwayes hath been, to put their fooliſh Fables upon the world, for Truths. And here I ſhall adventure to deliver, what I have ſometimes conceived, touching the ground of this Errour. Sidon, in the lan­guage of the Phoenicians, who are Syrians, ſignifies a Fiſh, as Heurnius reports, after Juſtin. Now Sidon is a part of Syria,Barbar, Phil. in Chald. f. 32. Notis in Math. fol. 16. which in Arabick ſignifies an Inflation, or Swel­ling, as Kirſtenius affirmes. I have there­fore doubted, whether or no the Greekes, who turned all things into Fables, might not poſſibly have forged this Story, of the Syrians ſwelling, by reaſon of their Fiſh.

5. This other Conjecture is not, in my judgment, very farre wide of the truth: namely, that the Syrians were accuſed of worſhipping Fiſhes, becauſe they worſhiped the Idol Dagon; which ſome have concei­ved to have been halfe Fiſh, and halfe Man, in the forme of a Triton, or Syren: but with14 this difference, that it had the head of a Fiſh. Idolum Dagon, (ſaith Lyranus, after the Rab­bins) quod colebatur a Philiſtaeis, habebat ca­put piſcis: ideo vocatur Dagon; quia〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉dag, piſcis ſignificat. I am not ignorant, that there are, that are of opinion, it was in figure like a young Damſell, covered all over with cares of corne, which they conceive to have been meant for the Gooddeſſe Ceres: For〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Dagan ſignifies alſo, Frumentum. But theſe mens conjectures are not ſo very wel ground­ed, as we ſhall ſee hereafter. And here Sca­liger, in his Booke de Emendatione Tempo­rum, reproves Philo Biblienſis, for ſaying that〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, was as much as〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉; and will have〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, by all meanes to ſignifie〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Piſcator, or Piſcoſus, from the Hebrew word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Dagah, Piſcis; and that, by this Dagan, is meant the Goddeſſe Derceto, and not any God at all. But if one ſhould aske Scali­ger his reaſon, he could give no other then this; that Dag, or Dagah, ſignifies a Fiſh. Be it ſo; but it alſo ſignifies Frumentum, Corne: ſo that it concernes him to give a reaſon, why we ſhould rather interpret Da­gah, Piſcis, a Fiſh; then Dagan, Frumentum; Corne. If he alledge for himſelfe, that ſome Authors affirme, that the Syrians worſhipped not this Idol for any other rea­ſon, but becauſe that a certaine Sea-Monſter;15 which was ſeen to come dayly from the Red Sea, taught them many ſecrets in the buſi­neſſe of Husbandry; but, being unable to endure long out of its proper Element, it returned ſtill in the evening to the Sea a­gaine; and in the morning alwayes came up againe to Babylon: I anſwer, that this Sto­ry, beſides that it carries little ſhew of pro­bability with it, is not delivered for a truth, by any Authentique Hiſtorian. I am there­fore inclined to believe with Helladius,Phot. Cod. 239. in Photius, that this was neither Monſter, nor Fiſh; but rather a Man, cloathed with the skin of ſome Fiſh, who made his retire­ments towards the Red Sea; and by this meanes gave occaſion to this Fable. So that Scaliger is manifeſtly convinced of er­rour, in maintaining that this Dagon, was the Goddeſſe Derceto, and not a God: for beſides that all Greek Authors make Dagon of the Maſculine gender, and not of the Foeminine;Vid. los. Philon.〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Dagon qui eſt: and not,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, quae eſt: Reaſon it ſelfe, which all men ought to ſubmit to, ſhewes clearely that it was not a Woman, (whoſe ſexe rendred her unapt for travell,) but ſome Man, that firſt ſhewed the Syrians the manner of tilling the ground: ſeeing that their countrey, or at leaſt that of their neighbours, was without controverſie the firſt inhabited, either before, or after the16 Flood. To this Reaſon we way adde the Authority of Euſebius〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Dagon autem Frumenta invenit, atque Aratrum: ac i­deo Jupiter Aratrius nuncupatus eſt. You may alſo ſee Annius lib. 6. and Gyral­dus, in his Syntagm. Syntag. l. & 12. So that this Idol Dagon might be, one halfe in the ſhape of a Man, co­vered all over with eares of Corne; by reaſon of his having taught the Syrians the manner of Tillage; and the other halfe in the faſhion of a Fiſh; becauſe of his wearing a Fiſhes Skinne, and his retiring towards the Red-Sea. The paſſage of Philo, which Scaliger indeavours to refute, is this. Patris regnum Coelus poſſidens, Terram ſororem in matrimoni­um duxit:Euſeb. de Prap. E­vang. l. 1. c. 7. quae ſibi quatuor filios peperit; J­lum, quem et Saturnum dicunt; Boetilum;〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Dagona, qui et Frumenta­rius appellatur; ac poſtremò Atlanta. But to returne to my defence of the Jewes: For I ſhould not have troubled my ſelfe in the juſtification of the Syrians, but onely to let the world ſee, what liberty men take to them­ſelves, wrongfully to accuſe the Eaſterne peo­ple. Not that I undertake to cleare them wholy from errours: I ſhould in ſo doing, ſhew my ſelfe much more blinde, then they: But onely to make it appeare, that of a thou­ſand crimes which they are accuſed of, they are not guilty of then.


6. There is therefore ſcarcely any one Author, either Greeke or Latine, (that I know,) ſave onely Genebrard, and Moncaeus, which doth not confidently condemne the Jewes, of being guilty of Idolatry; I mean thoſe that revolted from their lawfull King. For, what can be more true, (ſay theſe men) then that the Samaritans worſhiped Golden Calves, ſeeing that God himſelfe reproves them for it? Who then can cleare them, in point of Idolatry? Let us now lay downe an Antecedent like this, and then ſee, if we can thence deduce a like Concluſion. Some Chriſtians have been knowne to worſhip I­dols, and God himſelfe hath reproved them for it: Therefore all Chriſtians are Idola­ters. What a Conſequence here is! I ſhall therefore indeavour to cleare this mat­ter, and make it appeare that the Samaritans are unjuſtly accuſed, in the matter of the Golden Calves.

The Hiſtory,3. Reg. C. 12. which is the onely true one in the world, teaches us, that after the death of Solomon, (whom many very inconſide­rately reckon among the Damned,) his Scep­ter was put into the hands of his Succeſſor: who being a young man, was utterly unac­quainted with the Rules of Governing well; which are conſiſtent with Age onely. This new King therefore comming to the Crown,18 his ſubjects deſired to him the diminution of ſome certaine great impoſitions, which his Father (who could not in this deſerve the name of a wiſeman,) had charged them with. But they were ſo far from being relie­ved, as that they had heavier Taxes layd up­on them; through the evill Counſell of the King, which is the readieſt cauſe of the ſub­verſion of Kingdomes, and the beſt-groun­ded Monarchies in the World. At length his People revolt from him: and that with ſo great heigth of malice, and with ſo vnani­mous a conſent, as that of Twelve Tribes, there continued onely two; Judah and Benjamin, in their obedience to their lawfull King: The reſt elected Jero­boam for their King; who made choice of Samaria for the place of his abode; where by vſing ſuch meanes, as might have become the moſt knowing Politicians of the Ancient Law, he kept this People ſo pliant, and obe­dient to his Commands, that they never afterwards acknowledged the Scepter, from whence they had revolted.

Now, one of the principall meanes that he made vſe of, was; that having conſidered with himſelfe, that there was nothing more likely to draw back the hearts of this people towards Rehoboam againe, than their con­verſation which they were to have with the19 Two Tribes, which continued at Jeruſa­lem: (for they were neceſſarily to appeare, three times in the year, before the Lord in Jeruſalem:) he reſolved with himſelfe, to eſtabliſh the ſame object of Adoration in Samaria, that was at Jeruſalem. Now, in the Temple, there was the Arke, and the Cherubins, which Moſes had made, accord­ing to the Patterne which God had ſhew­ed him in the Mount. Jeroboam therefore makes the ſame in Samaria; it not being neceſſary to make an Arke alſo: for you muſt note, the Arke was made, onely to hold the broken Tables of the Law; as you may ſee in Deuteronomy. But what?Cap. 10. V. 5. you will ſay; were the Cherubins made by Mo­ſes, faſhioned like Calves, then? Yes, moſt certainly: ſince that thoſe which Jeroboam made, were but in imitation of them. And had they been of any other figure, he had then imitated that figure; and had not ſo much as dreamt of making Calves: ſeeing his purpoſe onely was, to retaine his people in their obedience, by the ſame forme of worſhip, that they uſed at Jeruſalem. O­therwiſe, how imprudent ſhould he have been, in going about to introduce a ſtrange Religion, which they had never before knowne? This would have been a meanes rather to have ruined himſelfe, and his de­ſignes;20 and to cauſe his new gotten Sub­jects to returne to their old Allegiance.

7. Now, that the Cherubins, which Mo­ſes made to the Arke, were in the figure of Calves, that which Aaron made in the Wilderneſſe, at the intreaty of the children of Iſrael, proves ſufficiently: for doubt­leſſe this High Prieſt did nothing, but what he conceived Moſes himſelfe would have done, had he been alive. (For he tooke upon him to doe what he did, upon a pre­ſumption that Moſes was taken away by God; ſeeing he had not come downe from the Mount, in the ſpace of full forty dayes: whereas, at other times, he had never tar­ried there above a day.) He made there­fore a Cherubin indeed; but it was after the patterne that was ſhewed to Moſes, as alſo to himſelf,Exod. 25. Exod. 24.10. and the ſeventy Elders. In­ſpice, & fac ſecundùm exemplar, quod tibi-in monte monſtratum eſt. Now, in this Pat­terne, they ſaw the glory of God, in like manner, as it was afterwards ſeene by E­zekiel, and St. John: where God appeared, ſitting betwixt foure Cherubins, whereof the firſt was in figure like a Man; the ſe­cond, like a Lion; the third, like a Calfe; and the fourth, like an Eagle: And upon theſe viſible Cherubins, as upon a Throne, were the Children of Iſrael to find placed,21 the Majeſty of the Inviſible God, in their paſſage through the Wilderneſſe; according as he had promiſed them, by the mouth of his ſervant Moſes. Ecce Ego mittam Ange­lum meum, qui praecedat te. And then after­wards, explaining how himſelfe would reſt upon this Angell, called by the name of〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Elohim, Dij, a name common to the Angels too; he addes: Et erit nomen meum in illo, & facies mea praecedet te, & requiem da­bo tibi. Theſe Promiſes therefore having been ſo often made to the People by Mo­ſes; now that they beleeved him to have been either devoured by ſome wilde beaſt, in ſome corner of the Mountaine; or elſe, as the wiſer ſort amongſt them thought, that he was taken away by God; they required at the hands of his Succeſſor, Aaron, the ful­filling of theſe very Promiſes. Surge, ſaid they unto him, fac nobis Deum Elohim, or, Deos Elohim, qui praecedant nos: Moyſienim huic viro qui eduxit nos de terrâ Aegypti, ig­noramus quid acciderit: as if they ſhould have ſaid: We know not what is become of Moſes, that ſhould have made us this An­gell, that was to march before us: doe Thou thy ſelfe therefore make it, that ſo we may enter into the Land of Promiſe. Aaron therefore made them one of theſe Cherubins, on which they had ſeene God ſitting. Now,22 why he made this Cherubin in the ſhape of a Calf, rather then in any other of the three Figures, Abiudan, a Jew, ſpeaking of this particular, (a Manuſcript Copy of whoſe Workes Mr. Otho hath brought out of the Eaſt,) ſayes nothing at all. But Moncaeus, who hath likewiſe written of this Subject, gives the reaſon out of Dionyſius the Areopagite:In Vit. our. Cap. 5. namely, that Aaron made choice of the Cherubin, that was figured like a Calfe; becauſe that being in the appear­ance more abſurd, then any of the reſt, the Children of Iſrael would not be ſo apt to worſhip it. This Calfe therefore, or Che­rubin, was made by Aaron; not as if he had firſt caſt the gold in a rude Maſſe, and then afterwards ſhaped it, working it in the ſame manner, as Statuaries doe, in rude Stones: as Moncaeus is of opinion. Nor yet, that this Calfe came out by chance, without any purpoſed deſigne of Aaron, in making it in ſhape like a Calfe: as moſt of the Ancients have been bold to affirme: But having firſt made a Mould, Et projeci illud (aurum) in fornacem, egreſſuſque eſt hic Vitulus: he caſt the gold into it, and there came forth this Calfe. If the People afterwards provoked God to wrath thereby, it was not for making the Calfe, but for worſhipping it. For as Martiall ſayes,

Qui fingit ſacros auro, vel marmore vultus,
Non facit ille Deos; qui rogat, ille facit.

Neither doe we any where read, that Aa­ron was at all reproved of God, for having made it.

8. So that the concluſion, which we may draw from hence, is; that the Cherubins which were on the Arke, were really made in the ſhape of Calves: and that accord­ing to this Doctrine, Jeroboam, in imitating them, could not in any wiſe be counted an Idolater, but onely a Schiſmatick, or Sepa­ratiſt from the worſhip, that was performed in Jernſalem: notwithſtanding that the ſame befell him, that had happened to Aaron be­fore him; namely, that though His Purpoſe was good, yet nevertheleſſe there were among the People, that worſhipped them: and this is the reaſon, they are reproved by God. Now that hee had no intention at all to ſet up Idolatry, by this Act, appeares clear­ly in this; that the Kings his Succeſſors, who all were of the ſame Beliefe, are not a­ny where reproved for this crime, untill the Reigne of wicked Achab, who was ſeduced by his wife Jezabell, the moſt Imperious woman that ever was. Thus we read in the Hiſtory of Kings, that Jehu did that which24 was right in the ſight of the Lord; Yet ne­vertheleſſe, Non reliquit vitulos aureos, qui erant in Bethel,4. Reg. 10.30. & in Dan. And I would faine know, if this King ſhould have wor­ſhipped theſe Calves, how he could have done that which was right in the ſight of God, who never puniſhed his people ſo ſe­verely, as when they had given themſelves up to worſhip Idols? And how Aſa in like manner, King of Samaria, could have walk­ed in the wayes of David, if he had beene tainted with this horrible Crime? Et fecit Aſa rectum ante conſpectum Domini, ſicut Da­vid pater ejus: and yet notwithſtanding, Ex­celſa non abſtulit, He took not away the High places, that is to ſay, Vitulos, the Calves. As if the Author of the holy Scriptureshad purpo­ſed to prevent the Objection which is uſu­ally made, concerning the erecting of theſe Calves to an evill End: for theſe words ſeeme to have been ſet downe ſo expreſly, meerly for the confutation of thoſe men that are wedded to their owne wills, and for the clearing of the truth of that, which I have here delivered: Cor Aſa perfectum fuit cum Domino, etſi Excelſa non abſtulerit. Which is an Infallible Argument, that they acknow­ledged in theſe Calves, or Cherubins, the ſame which they of Jeruſalem did in thoſe of the Arke; namely, the preſence of the In­viſible25 God, ſitting there, as on his Throne; notwithſtanding that many, out of ſimplici­ty, worſhipped the bare figure of this Work of Mens hands: And this is that, which God ſo often complaines of. As if this were the Literall meaning of this Paſſage; to wit: that the Kings of Iſrael had indeed done that which was right in the ſight of God, and had lived according to his Lawes: yet, that they might have done better, if they had ta­ken away theſe Cherubins, which were the cauſe of the deſtruction of many, who made other uſe of them, then that for which they were intended. I remember to have read ſomewhere to this purpoſe, of a Biſhop of Marſeille; who ſeeing, that many of his peo­ple behaved themſelves toward the Images, that are uſually placed in Churches, with ſo great reſpect, as that one day he obſerved ſome of their actions that came within the compaſſe of Idolatry; he cauſed them all to be broken to pieces, leaving only a very few in ſome certain places of his Dioceſs: So true it is, that we often abuſe thoſe things, which were inſtituted only to good ends. I ſhall only adde one word more, for the defending of the Innocence of the Samaritans; which is: that, when Salmonazar had ranſacked their Country, he ſent into it Colonies out of Per­ſia; who falling to commit Idolatry, as they26 had uſed to doe in their own Country; God ſent Lions among them, to deſtroy them. For remedy of which calamity,4 Reg. 17 they could finde out no better expedient, then to ſend for one of the Jewiſh Prieſts, whom they had lead away captives, for to inſtruct theſe Idolaters in the Worſhip of the true God; which being done, they were freed from that calamity: which is a certaine Argument, ſaith Abiudan, that all the Samaritans were not Idolaters. This obſervation of Abiudan, Moncaeus takes no notice of; yet He hath alſo an Obſervation, which Abiudan paſſes by; (out of the hate, I conceave, that he bare to the True Meſsias, and becauſe that the Teſti­mony made againſt himſelfe;) namely, that when our Saviour Chriſt uttered the Story, or Parable of the Travailer, that fell among Theeves, the Samaritan is there ſaid to have had more pity on him, then the Prieſt of Jeruſalem. I ſhall adde here, that the ſame God, being become Man, did not at all deny himſelfe to be a Samaritan, when he was cal­led ſo by way of reproach: which doubt­leſſe he would have done, if he had knowne this people to be wholy Idolatrous.

9. But now, in the progreſſe of this Diſ­courſe, the Curious Critick, who uſes to leave nothing unſifted, may happily propoſe this Queſtion to me. If the Cherubins of the27 Arke were made in the forme of Calves; what ſhould move almoſt all Writers to maintaine, that they were in ſhape like young Boyes? I confeſſe, I could willingly have put off the anſwering this Queſtion (which neither Abiudan, nor Moncaeus, have taken a­ny notice of, or elſe have purpoſely paſſed it by,) to ſome other time: But ſeeing that I write to the Learned, it concernes me wil­lingly to omit nothing, that makes for my ſubject; that ſo I be not ranked in the num­ber of thoſe men, that when they write of a­ny argument, doe voluntarily ſlip over the choyceſt things in it. I ſay then, in two words, and without making any long diſ­courſe on it, (ſince that I handle this very Queſtion in another place,) that all the Au­thors, both Greek, and Latine, and the great­eſt part of the Jewiſh too, as Aben-Ezra, Scelomoh, and the Talmudiſts, who have at­tributed the forme of young Boyes to theſe Cherubins, have done it upon ſuch weake grounds; that we need but onely to rehearſe them, to ſhew their inſufficiency. There is nothing, (ſay many of theſe laſt named Au­thors, cited by Kimchi,) which more con­firmes the opinion, of the Cherubins being made in the figure of Young Men, or Lads, then the Etymology of their name. For〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Cherub, is compounded of the ſervile28 Letter〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Caph, which ſignifies ſicut, and of the word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Rabeia which ſignifies in Chaldee, a Young Boy, or Youth; and in the plurall number〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Cherabaia, that is to ſay, ſicut Adoleſcentes, or Pueri. Very good, but Moſes ſpoke not Chaldee, but Hebrew: and therefore, if this controverſie muſt be de­cided by the Etymology of the name, why cannot I ſay with much more reaſon, out of the Hebrew Etymology of the word, that theſe two Cherubins were made in the form of Saddles; ſeeing that the word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉whence〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Cherub is ſaid to be derived) by tranſpo­ſing the letters into〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Cherab, which ſignifies equitare,Cap. 15. v. 9. Cap. 22. v. 35. is in Hebrew, a Saddle: as you may ſee in Leviticus, and in the firſt book of the Kings. Or elſe we may ſay, that theſe Cheru­bins were made in the form of Raine: ſee­ing that〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Cherabib, a word that cometh very near Cherubin, ſignifies ſicut pluvia.

Let us now examine the Reaſons brought by the Latines, and ſee whether or no they are of any more weight, then theſe of the Hebrew writers.

Cajetan upon Exodus thinks himſelfe to have found out the powerfulleſt Argument,In 25. Exod. that hath yet been brought by any, for to prove that their Figure was like that of two Young Men: becauſe that in the Bible, where the Vulgar Tranſlation renders it, re­ſpiciantque29 ſe mutuò,Exod. 25. v. 30. the originall ſounds thus in the Hebrew, & facies eorum vir adfra­trem ſuum. Whence he thinks, he hath hit the nail on the head; and concludes, that for certain theſe cherubins were of humane ſhape: But thoſe that are skilfull in the Hebrew, will readily find this concluſion to be very infirm, and of no force; or otherwiſe we may as well conclude, that the ſtarres, the curtains of the Tabernacle, and a thouſand other things in the old Teſtament, were likewiſe of Humane ſhape, ſince that Iſatah, ſpeaking of the ſtars, where the vulgar Tranſlation hath, Nequeunum reliquumfuit, the Hebrew Text ſayes, & vir non eſt ſubſtractus: and in Exodus, where ſpeaking of the curtains of the Tabernacle, the Vulgar ſayes, quinquecortinae ſibi iungantur mutuo, it is in Hebrew, & quinque cortinae crunt conjunctae, mulierem ad ſororem ſuam. So Ezechiel ſpeaking of the wings of the Beaſts, where the Tranſlation hath, & vocem alarum animalium, percutientium alteram ad alteram, the Hebrew is, Mulierum ad ſororemſuam. In Geneſis, where mention is made of the parts of the Sacrifice, where the Tranſlation is, Et utraſque partes contraſe altrinſecus poſu­it, in Hebrew it is, & dedit virum, partem ejus è regione proximi ſui. And laſtly in Iſaiah,In Lexi­cis. where it is Tranſlated, Alter alterum non quaeſivit. Many other examples of this kind30 are collected up,In Lexi­cis. by Kimchi, Munſter For­ſterus, and Pagnin. I ſhall omit whatſoever the reſt of interpreters have delivered, con­cerning theſe Cherubins; becauſe that you may ſee in Cajetan, that their reaſons are as weak as his own, whatſoever Pradus, and Villalpandus affirm to the contrary; who la­bour much to bring in another ſenſe, but are confuted by Oleaſter. In the mean time I cannot but wonder very much at theſe men, that have taken ſo much pains to hunt after empty ſounds to no purpoſe; not conſide­ring that they might as well at firſt have po­ſitively affirmed that theſe Cherubins had a Humane ſhape, becauſe that one of the four, ſeen by Moſes, Aaron, the ſeventy Elders, Ezechiel, and Saint John, was in figure like a Man. This Conjecture might have paſſed for tolerable, had not the truth been by us now brought to light. We may therefore by this means clear our hands of theſe doubts; as alſo of that other, concerning the forme of the Cherubin that was placed at the entrance of Paradiſe, to keep out Adam, and his po­ſterity. For it may be anſwered in one word, that it was that of theſe foure Cherubins, which had the ſhape of a Lion; this forme being the moſt proper for ſuch a purpoſe: ſeeing there is nothing in the world more ter­rible then a Roaring Lion. And thus are all31 thoſe difficulties cleared,Queſt. 40. de Paradiſo. In 3 Ge­neſ. In Expoſ, Symb. which have long ſince been brought in by Theodoret, Bar-Ce­pha, Procopius Gazaeus, Jacobus Chius, and Theodorus Biſhop of Heraclea; who, after a long and tedious diſpute, conclude, though not very rationally, that this Guard was not a Cherubin, but ſome other thing of Power, like a Cherubin; juſt as we dreſſe up ſome frightfull Scar-crowes, and place them in Gardens, and Hemp-plots, to fright away the Birds. And their reaſon is, becauſe that Cherubins being Spirits very highly exalt­ed, and of the ſecond Order of the Firſt Hie­rarchy, they are never ſent on the Earth, but are alayes attending before the Throne of God: notwithſtanding, the Maſter of the Sentences, Scotus, Gabriel, Durand,In 2. Sent. diſt. 10. ibid. Tom. 1. diſp. 1. and Gre­gorius de Valentia, affirm the contrary. Now what the reaſon ſhould be of the Cherubins, ſeen by Moſes, Ezekiel, and the reſt, appear­ing in ſhapes ſo different, and, as it may ſeem, ſo repugnant to the nature of a Bleſſed Spirit, I muſt refer you, for ſatisfaction, to S. Dionyſius, S. Gregory, and the reſt of the Fathers: ſince it is ſufficient for me to have here proved, that the Golden Calfe made in the Wilderneſſe, and thoſe other which Jeroboam made, were faſhioned according to this Divine Viſion; ſo that the Ancients are by this means cleared of the Crimes, which32 they are injuriouſly charged withall.

10. If I had not already exceeded the juſt length of a Chapter, I ſhould here an­ſwer to an Imputation, which is yet great­er then all the reſt, charged upon the Jewes: namely, that they of old burned their Chil­dren to the Idol Moloc. I ſhall reſerve the full handling of this point, till ſome other time;In Cap. 6. Miſ. Thor. tract. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 and ſhall only ſay this by the way, that R. Joſeph Caro obſerves, that throughout the whole Scripture, where there is mention made of this Idol, and of the Sacrifice that was done unto it, it never uſes any word that ſignifies, to Burne, Kill, or Put to death, but, to Paſſe, and, to Offer. And indeed they did no more, but cauſed their Children to paſſe over the Fire: which was a kind of Adoration, and Service, ſhewed toward this Element,Lib. de Philoſoph. Barb. in Chald. and Introduced by wicked Cham. Ignem, (ſaith Heurnius) in Ur, Chaldaeorum Urbe, Abrahami patria, adorandum ponit; gra­vi poenâ in pertinaces promulgatâ: where there is no mention made of any Command, to Burne, nor to Kill. And for the clearing of this Truth,Comment. in Reg. & in Pſal. In Pen­tateuch. In More Neb. Lib. 3. C. 30. I ſhall refer the Curious Read­er, (becauſe I muſt not any longer dwell on this point) to Kimchi, Salomo Jarchi, Abar­banel, and to Moſes Aegyptius, who knew more of the Cuſtomes of the Ancients, then any other Author that ever wrote. Yet I33 deny not, but that the Perſian Colonies of Sepharvaim, who came and dwelt in Sama­ria,4. Reg. 17. did Sacrifice their Children to their Gods, Adramelech, and Anamelech: but, that the Hebrewes did the ſame to Moloch, will never be made appeare; whatſoever Mr. Selden ſay to the contrary. And who can believe that Salomon murdered little Chil­dren, or caſt them into the Fire, becauſe the Scripture ſayes of him, Colebat Salomon Aſt­harten, Deam Sidoniorum; & Moloch, Idolum Ammonitarum? He muſt not be Maſter of Common Senſe, that can have any ſuch thought about him: So true is that, which we have already delivered; that they only paſſed over the Fire. And this Unhappy Cuſtome hath ſo ſpread it ſelfe ever ſince, throughout the whole World; that even in America, the Braſilians doe the ſame, as Jo­hannes Lerius reports of them:Navlg. in Braſil. and among Chriſtians alſo, Mothets doe yearely cauſe their Children to paſſe over the Fire of St. John, to this day. Which Cuſtome ought to be aboliſhed, ſeeing it hath been ancient­ly condemned by a Councell held at Con­ſtantinople:Syn. 6. in Trull. can. 64. In cap. 16.4. lib. Reg. Videantur Olaus Mag. in Hiſtor. Gothica. Leo African. in Deſcript. Afric. D. Ie. Chryſoſtom. qui in Homil. de Nativitat. S. Ioannis, Solennes ejus ho­nori〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉excitatas ait, ipſumque diem Lampada appellium. and Theodoret proves clearely, that this Cuſtome of theſe Fires, is ſtill a rellick of the Ancient Abominations.


CHAP. II.That many things are eſteemed Ridi­culous, and Dangerous, in the Bookes of the Jewes; which yet are, without any blame, maintained by Chriſtian Writers.


1. THat we ought not to reſt on the bare Letter of the Scriptures.

2. Authors that have treated of Ridicu­lous Subjects, without being reproved.

3. The Bookes of the Jewes leſſe dange­rous, then thoſe of the Heathens; which yet are allowed by the Chriſtian Fathers.

4. The Feaſt that God is to make for the Elect, with the Fleſh of a Whale, how to be underſtood.

5. Ten things created on the Even before the Sabbath; and what they were.

6. The Opinions of the Ancient, and Mo­derne Writers, touching the end of the World: what Fathers of the Church have been of the Jewes opinion in this Particular.

7. Divers opinions, concerning the num­ber of yeares from the Creation to our Saviour35 Chriſt: and what we ought to conclude, as touching the End of the World.

8. The Ancient Rabbins are falſly accuſed of ſpeaking ill of our Saviour Jeſus Chriſt.

9. The third Objection in the Precedent Chapter, and an Enumeration of ſome Errors of great Importance in our owne Books.

BUt be it ſo (may ſome ſay,) that the Jewes are free from the guilt of theſe Crimes, and their books not polluted with theſe Abomi­nations: yet it cannot be denied, but that they have vented in them many foo­leries, more ridiculous ones,The 2d. Objecti­on. then a man can imagine; and even ſome, that are very dange­rous too: and that therefore they are unwor­thy our reading; and the Curioſities found in them, not to be valued at all. This is the ſecond Objection, which was propoſed in the precedent Chapter. The Au­ſwer.

If I were here to deal only with thoſe that are free from Paſſion, it would be eaſie for me to ſatisfie them in two words: but ſince that I may chance to have to do with opinio­native, ſelf-conceited men; it will concern me to convince them by the force of Reaſons, backed with examples. I ſay then, that ſup­poſe there are many fooleries, and abſurd things found in the books of the Iewes 36 but why then do we admit of the books of the Poets, where you have nothing elſe? For what can be conceived more ridiculous, then that men ſhould be transformed into Rocks, Rivers, Plants and Trees? or what more remote from common ſenſe, then that Stones ſhould diſcourſe, Flowers, reaſon, and trees make their moan, and ſigh out their afflictions? why were the Fables of Aeſope ever received, which attribute the uſe of Reaſon to all things, even the moſt inſenſible that nature hath produced? And to ſay the utmoſt in one word; Why then do we admit of the Bible, which alſo make Trees, as the Vine, and the Bramble, to ſpeak? The Trees went forth on a time to anoint a King over them,Iudic. 9.8. and they ſaid unto the Olive-tree, Reigne thou over us. But the Olive-tree ſaid unto them, ſhould I leave my fatneſſe, wherewith by me they honour God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees? And this Tree refuſing them, they then make their addreſſes to the Fig-tree, and afterwards to the Vine, and at laſt they are conſtrained to come to the Bramble. What a ſtrange Metamorphoſis is here? If it be anſwered that theſe are Figures, Si­militudes, and Parables, which Ioathan made uſe of, to expreſſe to the people the Tyranny of Abimelech: and that in like37 manner the Ancient Poets propoſed their Fables, under which was alwayes couched ſome Philoſophicall ſecret, either Morall, or Divine: Why ſhall not the ſame Liber­ty be allowed to the Iewes alſo? Will they have them to be leſſe Rationall, then the reſt of Mankind? or more Brutiſh, then ve­ry Beaſts? Was there ever the like Peeviſh­neſſe ſeen?

2. If the Jewes had buſied themſelves, in deſcribing the War betwixt Frogs and Mice; as Homer hath done: or in writing the Commendation of a Tyrant, as Polycra­tes hath done: the praiſe of Injuſtice, as Phavorinus: of Nero, as Cardan: of an Aſſe, as Apuleius, and Agrippa: of a Fly, and of a Paraſiticall life, as Lucian:The ſame hath le S. du Belay done, in divers of his Po­ems. or of Folly, as Eraſmus: we then ſhould have them hooted at, for Fooles, or Mad-men. Or had they made Epitaphs, or Funerall Orations, upon the death of a Cat, an Ape, a Dog, a Didapper, an Aſſe, a Magpye, a Flea, as ſome of our Italian Fantaſticoes have done: we ſhould no doubt heare them charged then, with the fineſt, wittieſt, Ido­latrous Foolery, that ever men were guilty of. And yet, the Authors of theſe Trifles, heare no one word of it. If they ſhould yet but have taken upon them, to ſet down the Rules of Divination, as many of our La­tine38 Chriſtians have done: or to teach the manner of Interpreting Dreames, as one hath done in Gochlenius;Barth. Gochl. Introd. ad Phyſiog. who tels you, that as ſoone as you are awaked, you muſt o­pen a Pſalter; and the firſt Letter that is found, in the beginning of the Page, ſhall ſhew what ſhall happen. As for example; if it be A, it ſignifies, the Party ſhall be of a Free Nature: if B, he ſhall be powerfull in War: C, and D, ſignifies Sadneſſe and Death: E, and F, that he ſhall have (if he be married) a Noble Of-ſpring: G, denotes ſome ſad accident to befall him: H, foreſhewes the Love of Women: I, a good and happy Life: K, Folly, and Mirth: and ſo forward of all the reſt; the very remembrance where­of makes me laugh: If the Jewes, I ſay, ſhould have buſied themſelves with ſuch Sottiſh Impertinencies as theſe, would any of the Chriſtians ſo much as have touched their Bookes? I ſhall paſſe by a thouſand Fooleries, wherewith our owne Bookes are ſtuffed; and a thouſand Fopperies, which ſome people give credit to: as, that of Names, and Numbers, which is copiouſly handled by Raimundus Veronenſis, in his book intituled, Opera del l' Antiqua & honorata ſci­enzae di Nomandia: wherein a man ſhall ſee by the Letters of his name, whether he ſhall live a long time, or not: whether of39 the two ſhall ſurvive, the Husband, or the Wife: What Preferments one ſhall riſe to: What Death a man ſhall dye: and a world of ſuch like Propoſitions, which are not onely ridiculous, but dangerous alſo. And now let any man, if he can, find fault with the Jewiſh Rabbins, whoſe writings are free from any ſuch kind of Follies, as theſe.

3. I ſhall adde further, that almoſt all the Fathers have been of opinion, that we might lawfully read the books of the Hea­then Philoſophers;Lib 2. de Doctr. Chriſt. Cap. 39. & 40. Lib. 1. de curat. Graec. affect. and ſuch reaſons are gi­ven for it, by S. Auguſtine, and Theodoret, as will force the frowardeſt Critick to ſub­ſcribe. Now every body knowes, that the greateſt part of theſe books teach the Mul­tiplicity of Gods; and ſome of them, Ido­latry alſo: But as for thoſe of the Jewes, who is he, that hath ever accuſed them of either of theſe Crimes; or that found any other Doctrine taught in them, then that of the True God? And why then may not men of Learning read theſe, ſince we permit the other to be read to raw Children, that are apt to believe any thing? If there be ma­ny Fooleries to be found in them; as it is objected by thoſe, that never read them; there is yet much leſſe danger in Theſe, then in Apoſtacy: neither is there any of them ſo Abſurd, but that ſome Good thing may40 be drawen from them; nor yet ſo barren, but that they afford matter, to raiſe ſome wholſome Doctrine upon. Let us there­fore take the Truths, and paſſe by the Dreames: let us gather the Roſes, and let alone the Thornes: let us take up the Pearles, and caſt away the Shels. In a word, let us doe what Damaſcene teacheth us:Lib. 4. de fide Or­thod. c. 18. Si au­tem, ſaith he, ab his quifornis ſunt decerpere quippiam utile valuerimus, non aſpernabile eſt. Efficiamur probati Trapezitae, legitimum & purum aurum acervantes, adulterimum au­tem refutantes: ſumamus ſermones optimos, Deos autem ridiculos, & fabulas alienas, ca­nibus nibus projiciamus.

4. We will now go another way to work, and ſhew, that many of thoſe things in the books of the Rabbins, which are account­ed ridiculous, by thoſe that have them only by heare-ſay, have not yet been accounted ſo, by Learned Chriſtians, and ſuch as know the Ancients manner of writing; and that conſequenly, they are not to be rejected. We ſhall therefore make choice of ſome of the moſt Myſticall Paſſages that are to be found in their books; and ſhew how thoſe ſtrange doctrines are to be underſtood; that ſo by theſe, the Reader may be able to judge of all the reſt.

If there be any thing worthy to be ac­counted41 ridiculous, and abſurd, that doubt­leſſe appears to be the moſt likely, which the Ancient Jewes have delivered, of a cer­tain Feaſt that God is to make the Saints hereafter. For they write, that when God had created the world, ſeeing the bigneſſe of a Whale which he had lodged in the ſea,Others ſpeake of Two. to be ſo prodigiouſly vaſt, as that he had not made any thing that was ſufficient to nouriſh him; he preſently killed him, and ſalted him up, as we uſe to do Fleſh, purpoſing one day to feaſt the Elect therewith. Contribulaſti, ſaith the Pſalmiſt, capita draconum in aquis, tu confregiſti capita draconis. Poſſibly this Text may have given occaſion of the Fable of Python, ſlain by Apollo: and if ſo; this later ſtory ſeems much more tollerable, then the other. For, what madneſſe is it to ima­gine, that God ſhould afterward ſalt up this Dragon, or this Whale called〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Levi­athan;〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Levia­than ſig­nifies alſo a Dra­gon. and that it ſhould be afterwards kept, till the Laſt Day, to make a Feaſt for thoſe, that ſhould then have no more need to eat? And what excellent entertainment ſhould God beſtow upon his Children, when their cheare ſhould only be, of the fleſh of a Powdered Dragon? This were one of the groſſeſt Fooleries that could be, were there no other Doctrine couched under this Tradition, then what the bare Letter affords: and who can42 poſſibly imagine the Jewes to be a people ſo void of ſence, as ſimply to believe this, without looking after any other meaning of the thing? Let us rather hereafter entertain a better opinion of this people; and eſteem otherwiſe of thoſe men, whoſe wiſdome the Chriſtian Fathers have ſo deſervedly admi­red. I will not ſay, but that the ſimpler ſon of people among the Jewes, may peradven­ture have believed, in the Literall ſenſe, this Myſterious Fable; as there are among us, that believe the ſtories of Aeſope. For there are found ſome old women ſo ſimple, and I my ſelf have ſeen ſuch, that hearing tell, how the Lion talked with the Fox, and hee with his companions, that ſo he might de­voure the hennes; they really believed, that in times paſt Beaſts did ſpeak and diſcourſe of their own affairs; taking occaſion from what they have heard at Church, of the ſpeaking of Baalams Aſſe. But as Aeſope is very well known to have couched ſome myſterious ſenſe, under his Fables; In like manner did theſe wiſe Ancients, in thoſe which they deviſed. Scio (ſayes Paulus Fa­gius) veteres Judaeorum Rabbinos aliud my­ſterium hac de reprodere voluiſſe, qualia & a­lia apud illos inveniuntur. In〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉impreſſ. Iſnae ann. 1541. fol. 61. And then, that he might take off the vail from theſe My­ſteries, and bring them into the open light, he43 pre­ſently addes: Tu, per convivium, ſum­mam illam, ac aeternam faelicitatem, quae juſti in futuro perfruentur, intellige. Tum nimirum edent, & devorabunt Leviathan illum, hoc eſt, Satanam; cum viderint illum, cum omni­bus miniſtris ſuis, in aeterna praecipitari Tarta­ra. Inſomuch that he muſt be no Man, that ſees not that this Doctrine is very little dif­ferent from that of our Saviour Jeſus Chriſt, who ſayes: That, in his Kingdome, the iuſt ſhall eat and drink at his Table: underſtand­ing by theſe expreſſions, Everlaſting Bliſſe.

5. There is another Tradition found in the books of the Jewes, that appears as ri­diculous as the former: which is;Ib. fol. 100. vi­deatur & R. Moſes Aegypt, in More Neb. lib. 1. c. 65. that at the Creation of the world, on the Even before the Sabbath, there were ten Miracles created. The firſt was, That Prodigious Opening of the Earth, that ſwallowed up Corah & his Com­panions. The ſecond,