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[portrait of John Goodwin]


Thou ſee'st not whome thou ſee'st: then doe not ſay
That this is HEE: who calls a lump of clay
Without it's ſoule a mans thou ſee'st n••more,
Nay, but the SHADOW of that lumpwhat store
Of gifts and graces, what perfections rare,
Among ten thouſand perſons ſcatt'red are:
Gather in one, Jmagine it to bee
This SHADOWES ſubstance and then ſay 'tis Hee.
DT G G. fecit.

IMPVTATIO FIDEI. or A Treatise of Justification wherein ye impu­tation of faith for righteousnes (mentioned Rom 43.5. ) is explained & alſo yt great Question largly handled. whether, ye actiue obedience of Christ performed to ye morall Law, be imputed in Juſtification or not, or how it is imputed.

Wherein likewiſe many other difficulties and Questions touching ye great buſines of iustification viz ye matter, & forme thereof etc are opened & cleared.

Together wth ye explication of diuerse ſcriptures, wch partly ſpeake, partly ſeeme to ſpeake to the matter herein diſcuſſed

By John Goodwin, pastor in Coleman-street.

Nisqualegi ſanctitutem humanani Christi〈…〉, esse iustitiam nostram, vel ejus partem. Si quis legit, quoeso mihi••tendat, ut et ego legem et eredam. Partus De Iuſtic. Chriſti Act et Paſſus.

Remiſipeccaterum, est Iusticia imputata. Ch••••r. Tim. 3. lib. . C. i. 9.10.

Lam Abietiſimi verbae in Ecclesia, non contem••nda, ſod audi: ende et iudicanda ſunt. Zuingl. in Epist.

LONDON Printed by R. O. And G. D. And are to be ſold by Andrew Crooke at the Greene Dragon in Pauls Church-yard, 1642.

Small wyars ſomtimes Maſsic wayghts do carry.
And on poore faith hangs great eternitie.

TO HIS DEARE BRETHREN the Reverend and Faithfull Mi­niſters of the Goſpell of Jeſus Chriſt, in, and neere about the CITIE of LONDON.

Reverend and much honoured and re­ſpected in the Lord,

I Preſume you have all taken ſpeciall knowledge of a Booke not long ſince preſented un­to you by a Levi­ticall hand, entitu­led, Socinianiſme Diſcovered and Confuted: What Quar­ter the Divinitie of the ſaid Diſcourſe hath in your approbations, I doe not yet ſo well underſtand, as I deſire I might; but for the moralitie of it, I make no queſtion but you have done juſtice upon it, aſwell to mine, as to other mens ſatisfaction. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. 2 Cor. 2.6.I doe not here offer unto you, any formall anſwere or confutation of that piece, be­cauſe if I could doe the Truth, and my ſelfe right otherwiſe, I would willingly de­cline all perſonall contention and conteſta­tion: I only lay downe more fully and at large, mine owne judgement, concerning thoſe things, about which the queſtion is ſtill depending betweene my Antagoniſt and me, conceiving it a ſpeciall duty lying upon me, as the caſe ſtands, to give an in­genuous and faire account unto your ſelves eſpecially; and from you, to all men, of what I hold therein, aſwell by making knowne what Scriptures, and reaſons and grounds otherwiſe, have commanded my judgement to that point, whereat it now ſtands, as wherefore I judge both thoſe Scriptures and arguments impertinent and inſufficient to prove the contrary, which have hitherto bin produced & inſiſted up­on for that purpoſe, either by my Adver­ſaries in the mentioned Diſcourſe, or any other I can meet with. Nor doe I make the leaſt queſtion, but that when you have diligently examined the particulars of my account, you will give me your quietus eſt, for the Totall. Or in caſe you ſhall deny me this, that you will give me in the ſtead thereof (that which will be of equal, or rather of ſuperior conſideration to me) better reaſons and grounds for the contra­rie opinion, then I here deliver for mine. It is of ſweet and comfortable importance, to be accompanied in the way of a mans judgement, by thoſe that are learned and religious: yet is it much more deſirable of the two, to be turned a ſide out of a way of error by an high hand of evidence and truth.

Since God ingaged me in theſe and ſome other controverſies, and the oppoſitions of men grew ſtrong and thick upon me, I have beſtowed ſome time and thoughts to finde out and poſſeſſe my ſelfe through­ly of ſuch conſiderations, which might make me willing, yea & more then willing (if it might be) rejoycingly willing, to im­brace ſuch opportunities, wherein I may exchange error for truth. And if God hath not given me darkneſſe for a viſion here­in, I apprehend a marveilous bewtie, be­nefit, and bleſſing in ſuch a frame of ſpi­rit, which makes a man able, and wil­ling and joyfull, to caſt away even long endeered and profeſſed opinions, when once the light hath ſhone upon them, and diſcovered them to be but darkneſſe. I looke upon ignorance and error and all miſpriſion in the things of God, and of the glorious Goſpell of Jeſus Chriſt, as that region in the ſoule, wherein only dolefull creatures, as Owles and Satyrs, and Dra­gons, I meane feares and terrors and di­ſtractions, ſpirituall tumults, and ſtormes and tempeſts are ingendred and begotten. If all were light and truth in the judgment, all would be peace and ſweet­neſſe and joy in the heart and ſoule Ther­fore to me it is no more grievous to aban­don any opinion whatſoever, being once cleerely detected, and ſubſtantially evicted for an error, then it is to be delivered out of the hand of an enemy, or to take hold of life and peace. But on the other hand, it argues childiſhneſſe in underſtanding, and a bundle of weakneſſe & folly bound up in the heart, to be baffled out of a mans judgment with every light and looſe pre­tence. The raine fell as ſore, and the floods came with as great rage; and the winds blew with as much violence againſt the houſe that was built upon the rock, as up­on that which was built upon the Sand: yet that fell not, as this did Mat. 7.25, 26, 27. In like manner many opinions that are built upon the Rock and Foundations of the Scriptures, being truths of very deere and precious importance, are capa­ble of aſmuch oppoſition and contradi­ction from men, may have Forts and Bull­warkes and Batteries of as much ſtrength in apearance, raiſed up againſt them, as opinions that are looſe, and lighter in the ballance then vanitie it ſelfe; yet are they not therefore to be forſaken. I preſume my keene Adverſary himſelfe, had his pa­tience bin pleaſed to have awaited the ſight and conſideration of the whole bo­dy and frame of my diſcourſe, would have kept his Sword in his Scabberd, and not drawne upon me with that violence and extremity of paſſion which now he hath done.

However, I have preſumed to follow him in the way of his Dedication: (fas est et ab hoſte doceri) knowing none more able then your ſelves to comprimize a difference of this nature, according to e­quitie and truth, and withal deſiring none more indifferent and upright to give an a­ward, then I hope to finde a competent number (at leaſt) of you. I make no que­ſtion but you all ſtudie of conſcience, and then you cannot make fleſh your arm. I crave leave to be your remembrancer of this, that ſuſpicion of falſhood hath al­waies bin a calamitie incident to truth. Nor can the integritie, zeale, faithfulneſſe, parts, learning, diligence of a Miniſter of Jeſus Chriſt, quit or expreſſe themſelves upon more honourable and worthy termes, then in vindicating and relieving a diſtreſſed truth, and breaking the ſtaffe of the oppreſſors thereof, be they never ſo many in number, never ſo great in Au­thority and power. The only art and method of raiſing an eſtate of honour and peace out of our errors, is by ſacri­ficing them upon the honour and ſer­vice of the truth. This is a way to cir­cumvent the great circumventer the Divell, and to turne his weapons upon himſelfe. He ſends errors out of Hell, to curſe the truth: but by this meanes you ſhall cauſe them to bleſſe her altogether. Truth never gets up into her throne with that advan­tage, as when her enemy (the oppoſite error) is made her footeſtoole.

If we have built tymber, hay, or ſtub­ble, upon the precious foundation Ieſus Chriſt, inſtead of ſilver, gold, and preci­ous ſtones, it is a point of the greateſt wiſdome under Heaven, to prevent the triall of the fire, by a ſerious and ſtrict examination of our own, or from our Errors, together with other looſe and light materialls in our ſpirituall build­ings, leave us ſalvation indeed, but upon the hardeſt and leaſt deſirable termes that it can be received by a creature. 1 Cor. 3.15.If any mans worke ſhall burne (ſaith the Apoſtle) he ſhall ſuffer loſſe: but he himſelfe ſhall be ſaved, yet ſo as by fire. The laying of the right foundation, though it may keepe us from being conſumed, yet will it not keepe us from being ſcorched with the fire of Gods diſpleaſure, if we miſcarie in the walls, and raiſe theſe quite beſides the foundation: we muſt looke to abide a bitter blaſt of chiding from Heaven, if we be found remiſſe, and careleſſe herein, and put in tymber gilded with the con­ſents and approbation of men, inſtead of beaten ſilver and gold.

But I reflect upon my error and bold­neſſe in repreſenting things of this nature unto you, who have much more need to learne both theſe and many other things from you my ſelfe. And if you will pleaſe to communicate of your light unto me when you meet me in the darke (which is a walke much frequented by mortali­tie) I ſhall be as thankfull a Proſelyte of yours, as you can lightly wiſh or deſire.

The God of glory, whom you ſerve in the Goſpell of his deere Sonne, double that anointing upon you which teacheth you all things, and ſhine in your hearts a­bundantly, to give the light of his know­ledge in the face of Ieſus Chriſt, unto the world, and give you of the labour and tra­vaile of your ſoules, in the ſpirituall proſ­peritie of your ſeverall Flocks and charges, that at laſt you may ſhine like ſtars in the firmament of Heaven, for ever and ever.

This is none other but the hearty and affectuous prayer of,

Your poore Brother, and fellow labourer in the Vine­yard of CHRIST, JOHN GOODWIN.



IF Friends and ene­mies would have bin ſo ſatisfied, it would have bin ſatisfaction enough to my ſelfe, to have kept the world faſting from this Shew-bread. Nor do I yet apprehend any more convincing argument of my calling to the Preſſe at this time, then the unreaſonablenes of the one in one kind, & of the other in another. Frindſhip is but a ſweet and pleaſant bondage, & cour­teſie the great underminer of libertie Friends muſt have that done, which is done; not ſo much becauſe of their wills or requeſts, as their intereſts. Yet theſe (I conceive) might eaſily have bin overruled and taken off, had not the importune proceedings of ſome men of oppoſite affection, rather then judgement, to the cauſe maintained in the Diſcourſe, in gaged and preſſed them with an high hand to proſecute their motion this way to the utter­moſt. If theſe men would have bin content either to preach or maintaine the truth them­ſelves, or patiently to ſuffer others to teach it, yea or to burthen them that ſhould teach it only with their owne errors, and not with other mens, yea with thoſe, which they are ten degrees further from, then themſelves (which had bin no great worke of ſupereroga­tion) doubtleſſe this piece had had its deſert, (and that according to the ſevereſt cenſure that can lightly paſſe upon it) it had never ſeene the light of the Sunne. In ſuſpici•••e hae. reſos nolo quen­quam eſſe pati­entem.But ſuſpicion or charge of hereſie (according to Jeroms maxime of old) is more then a diſpenſation for ſpeaking out: he could not beare the pa­tience of any man under it. And yet loath I am, that men of hard language or thoughts, ſhould fall ſofter any where, or where they might take leſſe harme, then upon me: For God having graciouſly pleaſed to make the re­vileings & repoaches of men ſuch benefactors unto me, as he hath done, hath put a golden bridle in my lips, to keepe me in from much ſharpneſſe of complaint or conteſtation a­gainſt them. It had bin a very unſeemly thing for Joſeph, in the height of his prefer­ment and honour in Egypt, either to have cri­ed out of, or taken revenge upon the envie of his Brethren in ſelling him, which GOD had ſanctified for the meanes of his advancement. It is an eaſy matter to forgive injuries, after that GOD hath once altered their proper­ties, and turned them into bleſſings. Beſides, my hope is, that thoſe who are or have bin zea­lous for ſuppoſed truths, will be zealous for truth indeed, when they come to ſee it: and in this caſe, I can freely ſet the one againſt the other, my hope againſt my experience, and ſo let my complaint fall. But as touching the hard meaſure which I have received from men, my beſt ſatisfaction reſteth in this conſi­deration, that GOD is both able to pardon the offendors, and to recompence the Suf­ferer.

Concerning the Diſcourſe it ſelfe, I can reaſonably expect no better, then to ſee and heare it vexed from all quarters, with a ſpirit of zeale in ſome, of learning in others, of wiſdome in a third, and of indiſcretion in a fourth ſort of men. The firſt will crie out a­gainſt it, Hereſie, Blaſphemy, Socinianiſme, Ar­minianiſme, &c. without any more adoe, and with a, what need we any more witneſſes? The verdict of the ſecond (it is like) will be, error and noveltie. The profound and ſage com­plaint of the third, Uſeleſſeneſſe and non-ne­ceſſitie. The ſober and ſoft exception of the laſt, unſeaſonableneſſe, and, better at another time.

For anſwere to the two firſt, which are the grand objections, the whole Treatiſe it ſelfe is engaged, and (I make no queſtion) will doe reall and thorough execution. If any man hath the leaſt minde or inclination to be ſa­tisfied touching the Doctrines here maintai­ned, that there is neither Hereſie nor Blaſphe­mie, neither Socinianiſme nor Arminiariſme, neither error nor noveltie in them, doubt­leſſe the Diſcourſe it ſelfe will abundantly gratify him herein. But he that is full of pre­judice, loatheth the hony-comb of ſatisfaction, Only to the charge and imputation of No­veltie (beſides what is effectually layd down in the enſuing diſcourſe for the healing of this exulceration in the Spirits of men) I de­ſire to ſuggeſt a few things here by the way.

Firſt, that America, though lately diſco­vered unto us on this ſide of the World, was yet as ancient a Land and part of the World, as either Aſia, Africa, or Europe it ſelfe. And what prohibition can there be ſerv'd out of the Scriptures upon any tenet or opinion in Religion, to arreſt it for error or untruth, or to prove it not to have bin of as ancient Cre­ation and ſtanding as any other truths profeſ­ſed amongſt us, only becauſe we never ſaw the face or heard the name of it till yeſterday? Might not nay did not, the Synagogue of Rome upon the ſame pretence, blaſpheme and quarell againſt all that glorious light brought into the Church by Luther and his compeeres in the daies of that reformation, and brought it under the cenſure and condemnation of darkneſſe? If ſo great and conſiderable a part of the world as America is, being as large as all the other three ſo long knowne (with­in an eight or there-abouts) was yet unknowne to all the world beſides, for ſo many genera­tions together: well may it be conceived, not only that ſome, but many truths, yea and thoſe of maine concernment and importance, may be yet unborne, and not come forth out of their Mothers womb (I meane the ſecrets of the Scriptures) to ſee the light of the Sun; eſpecially conſidering, of how eaſy & ready a diſcovery viſible things are, & by Name, lands and great tracts of Earth, in compariſon of things that are Spirituall, and thoſe eſpecial­ly whoſe ſcituations and dwellings are farre remot from the commō road or walk of mens ſtudies and underſtandings: as alſo how poor and barren and empty the viſible world is, of ſecrets and things to be known, and how ſoon the contents thereof may be read over and underſtood, in compariſon of the infinite and endleſſe varietie of the riches and treaſures of the Scripture, and the unknown abyſſe of truth there.

Secondly, the Scriptures themſelves give us a propheticall intimation of this, that in and towards the latter ages of the world, their foundations (as it were) ſhall be diſcove­red, and their great depths broken up, and that knowledge ſhall abound, as the waters cover the face of the Sea. But thou, oh Daniel (ſaith the Angell to him, Dan. 12.4) ſhut up the words and ſeale the booke even to the time of the end [meaning that Daniel ſhould ſo carrie the ten­our of this part, at leaſt, of his prophecie, that it ſhould not be cleerely underſtood till the drawing neere of the time wherein it is to be fulfilled: and then] many ſhall runne to and fro, [that is, ſhall diſcourſe and beate out the ſecrets of GOD in the Scriptures with more libertie and freedome of judgement and un­derſtanding, and traverſe much ground to and againe, on which no man ſhould ſet foot, till that time] and knowledg [by this meanes] ſhall be increaſed. Much more might be added from the Scriptures in this particular.

Thirdly, that no man is competently fur­niſhed and inſtructed to the Kingdome of Heaven, that is, for the Miniſterie of the Goſpell, and promoting the affaires of the Kingdome of Heaven that way,Mat. 13.25. but he that is like unto a man an houſeholder, which bringeth forth out of his trea­ſure, things new & old: i. who is not aſwel able, to make ſom new diſcoverie, & to bring forth ſomwhat of himſelfe in the things of God in one kinde or other, as to preach the common and received truths.

Fourthly, that there are thouſands of Scriptures, that have not yet opened, or de­livered out their treaſures, but reſerve them as the proper and peculiar glory of the generations of the CHURCHES yet to come.

Fiftly, that many interpretations of Scrip­tures, anciently delivered by Chryſoſtom, Au­guſtine, and others of the Fathers, are wholly deſerted by Luther, Calvin, Muſculus, and o­ther late Divines, and others of a quite dif­fering importance ſubſtituted in their ſtead.

Sixtly, that ſeverall opinions, not only maintained by ſome ſpeciall Father, one or more, as thoſe lately mentioned, or the like, but even ſuch as generally ruled in the Church for ſome ages together, have beene waved, yea and ſtrongly oppoſed by their ſucceſſors. It were eaſy to inſtance, were not brevitie the greater neceſſitie of the two.

Seventhly, that divers interpretations of Scriptures, eſpecially in the old Teſtament, and of ſome in the new, delivered by Luther, Calvin, Muſculus and other learned and Or­thodox Writers of that Centurie, are ſuſpe­cted, yea and more then ſuſpected, even de­tected of miſpriſion and miſtake, by many of the moſt learned of this age.

Eightly, that is neither new, nor unjuſtifi­able by the practiſe of wiſe men, to examine, yea and to impugne received opinions, if they be found erroneous. He that will pleaſe to peruſe the firſt Chapter of the firſt Booke of Doctor Hakewills learned Apologie of the Power and providence of God, &c. ſhall meet with great varietie of inſtances and ex­amples, both in Divinitie, Philoſophy, in Eccleſiaſticall Hiſtorie, in Civil or Nationall Hiſtorie, in Naturall Hiſtorie, of opinions which had a long time bin generally recei­ved, and yet were at laſt ſuſpected, yea and many of them evicted and rejected, upon due examination.

Ninthly, that there are now many errors (erroneouſly ſo called) in the Chriſtian World, which are made of the greateſt and choyceſt truths: yea and which (doubtleſſe) will be redeemed from their captivitie, and reſtored to their Thrones and Kingdomes, by the diligence, guifts and faithfulneſſe of the approaching generation.

Tenthly, that it is of ſweet conſiſtence with the providence of God, and with the known method of his diſpenſations, to put honour upon that which lacketh, to diſcover and reveale him­ſelfe in ſome particulars, unto thoſe that are weake and of leſſe eſteeme in the Church, wherein he reſerv's himſelfe from perſons of farre greater light and knowledge otherwiſe, and which are counted pillars of the Church, as is ſaid of Iames, and Cephas, & John. Gal. 2.9. This made Zuingl. to ſay,(a)(a)Etiam abje­ctiſſimi verba in Eccleſia, nō con­teyn nda ſed adienda er judi­cnda ſūt. Zuin­gl. in Epiſt. that the words even of him that is moſt abject and deſpicable in the Church, ought to be heard, examined, and conſidered of: and a late writer of our own,H. W. True ori­ginall of the Soule p. 3. that they are not alwaies the learnedſt m••, that finde out the greateſt myſteries.

Eleventhly, that to oppoſe and crie downe for error, every thing that is not generally received and taught, is to quench proceed­ings, and to interdict unto the Churches, growth in the Lord Jeſus Chriſt, and conſe­quently, increaſe and growth in grace alſo. 2 Peter. 3.

Twelfthly, that notwithſtanding al that hath bin ſaid for the vindication of new apprehen­ſions or opinions, ſubſtantially prooved from the Scriptures, yet the Doctrine maintained in the following Diſcourſe, hath no need of any ſanctuary in this kinde to protect it, being nothing but what hath an armie both of anci­ent and moderne worthies to make it good. Inſomuch that as touching the two maine points avouched herein, viz. the imputation of Faith for righteouſneſſe (in the ſenſe ſpe­cified in the entrance of the Diſcourſe) and the non-imputation of the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt (in the ſenſe diſclaimed) I here make this open, ingenuous, and ſolemne profeſſion, that what I cannot pregnantly and irrefraga­bly demonſtrate (to any unpartiall and diſ­engaged judgment) to have bin both ancient­ly held and taught by the chiefe Fathers of the Primitive times, as likewiſe by the beſt and moſt conſiderable part (at leaſt) of the late Reformed Writers, Luther, Calvin, Me­lancthon, Muſculus, Pareus, &c (at leaſt if their judgements and tochings may be judged of by their writings) I will no waies owne, but diſclaime. Onely this I muſt confeſſe, that few of theſe Authors alwaies ſpeake ſo even­ly or ſteadily, but that ſome expreſſions from their pens, are very obnoxious and opportune for a contrary interpretation. But my mean­ing is, that take them either in their more fre­quent and conſtant expreſſions, or in their more perſpicuous and cleere expreſſions, they cannot but by an unprejudicate eye be diſ­cerned fairely to ſympathize in judgement with the points mentioned. As for the con­trary opinion, it is (as Mr. Gataker modeſtly enough expreſſeth his judgement) to be fea­red, that for more then a few ages together, it was unknown to all Antiquitie(a)(a)Verecy ne illa potius, quam tuetur ipſe, quā­que aſſertores e­juſdem nonnulli, pro lapide prima­rio inſidei pieta­tiſque fundamē­tu habent, per ſecula hand pau­ca, antiquitati omni penitus ignota fuerit; cum ea, quam de Christi morto ae perpeſſionibus nos tutamur, tū in Scripturu ſa­cru, tum et in antiquorū ſcrip­tu, paſſim occur­rat. Mr. Gata. in his defēce of his Animadverſi­os upon Piſca­tors and Lucius diſp. p. 16.. This by way of ſalve for the ſoare of noveltie.

The next impeachment of the Diſcourſe, was the emptineſſe, and ſlender importance, uſe, or conſequence of it. Many (it is like) will not be farre off from ſaying of it, as Judas ſaid of Maries box of oyntment poured out upon our Saviours head,Mat. 26.8. What needeth this waſt? Here is a great deale of paines, beſtowed to little purpoſe. Might not men make Heaven, and be ſaved aſwell in the contrary opinion, which is commonly received and taught, as in this, whatſoever it be? The Author might have imployed himſelfe and his time better otherwiſe. Give me leave to eaſe the diſcourſe and my ſelfe of this burthen alſo, by tender­ing theſe things to conſideration.

Firſt,Luk 12, 7. that if God be ſo tender and reſpect­full of us, that even all the haires of our heads are numbred, and kept upon accompt by him: much more reſpectfull and tender ought we to be, not only of the maine limbs, or princi­pall members of his truth,Verbum onimn eſt res lovieula ut phanatici ho­die putant, ſed ē Vnus apex ma­jor eſt coelo et terra. Luther. in Gal c. 5.12. Nihil putandum exiguum: ſiqui­dem ſpiritus Sanctus noluis literu mandare quod non proſit. Luther. in Gen 12. Maledicta ſit chariras, & com­cordia, propter quam conſervan­darpericlitars neceſſe ſir verbū Dei. Luther. in Gal. 5. Maledicta ſit charitas quae ſer­vatur cum jactu­ra Doctrinae fide­i, cui emnia ce­dere debent, cha­ritas, Apoſtolus, Angelus è coe­lo &c. Idim ibid. Pax eſt omni bello triſtior, que veritatu et juſtitiae ruina Conſtat. but even of all the haires of the head thereof, I meane thoſe that ſeeme of ſmalleſt conſequence and impor­tance, that we ſuffer not the leaſt of them to fall to the ground, or to be trampled upon by the foote of negligence or contempt. Eſpeci­ally if we conſider

Secondly, that the leaſt haire, I meane the leaſt jot or tittle of divine truth, is more worth a thouſand fold then our whole heads, yea then all our heads put together. One tit­tle of the word (ſaith Luther) is greater then Heaven and Earth. And in another place: nothing in the Scriptures is to be thought lit­tle, in aſmuch as the Holy Ghoſt would not have cauſed that to be written, which ſhould not be profitable, which conſideration drew from him many ſuch expreſſions as theſe: Curſed be that charitie and agreement, which muſt be preſerved and kept with the danger of the word of God: and againe, Curſed be that charity, which is kept with the loſſe of the Doctrine of Faith, unto which all things muſt give place, charity, Apoſtle, Angell from Heaven, &c. It was the ſaying of another, that that peace is more grievous then any Warre, which coſts the loſſe of truth and honeſty. But the Lord Chriſt himſelfe gives us the beſt and moſt certaine account of the infinite worth and value of the leaſt ſtrictures or filings of the word of God, in that paſſage to his Diſciples, Mat. 5, 18, 19. Verily I ſay unto you, till Heaven and Earth paſſe, one jot or one title ſhall in no wiſe paſse from the Law, till all things be fulfilled. Whoſoever therefore ſhall breake one of theſe leaſt commandements and ſhall teach men ſo, he ſhall be called the leaſt in the King­dome of Heaven, but whoſoever ſhall do and teach them, the ſame ſhall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. Doubtleſſe if God ſo highly pri­zeth the aniſe, mint, and cummin of his Law, as to recompence the tithing of them with ſuch high preferment in the Kingdome of heaven; much more (or at leaſt every whit as much) doth he eſteeme, the jots and titles, the meaneſt and leaſt conſiderable things of his Goſpell, which is his darling and moſt be­loved manifeſtation of himſelfe unto the world. And therfore it muſt needs argu much prophaneneſſe of heart, and great eſtrange­ment in minde and ſpirit from the worth and excellencie of the things of God, either to deſpiſe the knowledg, or to cenſure a juſt diſ­cuſſion and examination of the ſmalleſt of them, as a thing needleſſe, and of little uſe. Hierom was farre from ſuch a conceit as this, when he ſaid,In Scripturis me minima differen­tia omitti debet. Nam ſinguli ſe­menes, ſyllaba, apices et puncta, plena ſunt ſenſi­bus. Hierony­mus. that the ſmalleſt difference in the Scriptures was not to be lightly paſsed over, becauſe every word, ſyllable, title and point, are full of ſenſe and meaning.

Thirdly, it is very conſiderable, that miſ­priſions and errors in Divinity, aſwell as in other arts and Sciences, goe (as it were) by tribes and families; ſo that there is no one error, but hath many more link'd in affinitie with it, and related to it, ſome greater (it may be) and more dangerous then it ſelfe, and ſome leſſer. Now when a mans judgement is match'd into a ſtock or linage of error, ſup­poſe it be but with the lighteſt and leaſt dan­gerous in all the tribe, yet is he engaged here­by to owne and maintaine all the reſt of the ſame deſcent and blood, be they never ſo foule and dangerous, and if he be true to his prin­ciples, cannot But do it. Gen. 19.20.So that Lots plea to the Angell for the ſparing of Zoar, is it not a little one? is at no hand to be admitted for the ſparing of an eror. A ſmall eror cannot light­ly be favored or connived at, but that great errors will be comprehended in the indul­gence alſo. The foundation of a building may be endammaged and at laſt periſh, by the raine or wet that ſalls through the roofe, and ſettles upon it. So may the judgment ſoone come to be corrupted and tainted in the great and fundamentall points of Religion, if it hath once miſcaried in others that ſeeme at firſt to be of harmleſſe conſequence, and farre enough off from the foundation: Therefore it was a provident and prudent ſaying, from whomſoever it came: Minimum non eſt, non negligere minima. that is, It is not a thing of the leaſt conſequence, to looke after things that ſeeme to be of the leaſt. The judgment will corrupt and putrifie aſwell downwards as upwards, though I conceive it corrupts ſooneſt and faſteſt upwards. A man that at firſt ſets in, and couples himſelfe with a great or fundamentall error, is farre more apt to em­brace and ſwallow all leſſer errors depending thereon, then he that is firſt tainted with a lighter error only, is to admit of thoſe that are more dangerous, though of the ſame ſtock & lineage. Therfore

Fourthly, to condemne or cenſure the teaching and ſearching out of any truth, but what is of preciſe and abſolute neceſſitie to be knowne unto ſalvation, as impertinent and needleſſe, favours of much ignorance and prophaneneſſe. For 1. what underſtanding­man will undertake to make any ſuch umpi­rage betweene the things or truths of God, that ſhall determine theſe or theſe by name, and no other, to be of abſolute neceſſitie to ſalvation? Or where hath God given any Commiſſion or authoritie to men, to make any ſuch election and reprobation as this, a­mongſt his divine truths? Secondly, it is much to be feared, that thoſe that are ſo wiſe as not to trouble themſelves about knowing any thing, but what is of an abſolute and per­emptory neceſſitie to ſalvation, will prove ſo fooliſh, as not to know ſo much. He that will conſtantly walke as neere the edg or brink of a ditch or pit, as is poſſible, runn's a deſperate hazard of falling in, firſt or laſt. It is a ſaying of Chryſoſtome; that it is not poſſible for a man to be ſaved, without a con­tinuall reading or ſtudying ſpirituall things(a)(a)〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Chryſ. Hom. 3. do LaZ. . Thirdly, to deſire or care to know nothing more in the things of God, then what is of preciſe neceſſitie to ſalvation, is farre more unfavoury, then to labour or care for nothing more in outward things, as in meates, drinks, apparrell &c. then what is of abſolute neceſ­ſitie to keepe life and ſoule together, or not to eate one morſell of bread more, or drink the leaſt drop of water more, then without which nature muſt of neceſſitie give up the Ghoſt. As ſuch a deſire or reſolution as this, in the way of nature were very unnaturall, and neere unto monſtrous: ſo is that temper and frame of Spirit hardly (if at all) conſi­ſtent with the nature of grace, which diſ­deigneth the knowledge even of the ſweeteſt and moſt pleaſant truths, if it apprehends a poſſibilitie of being ſaved without them. Fourthly, to cenſure the knowledge of all things as impertinent, which are not ſimply neceſſary to ſalvation, is to involve the farre greateſt part of the Scriptures themſelves, (and much more of the writings of the beſt of men otherwiſe) in the ſame condemnati­on. For who (lightly) can conceive, that the knowledge either of the Hiſtoricall, or Propheticall part of the Scriptures, is of that preciſe and indiſpenſable neceſſitie to ſalva­tion, which we ſpeake of? Nay it is evident from that paſſage in the Scriptures them­ſelves, Joh. 20.31. that the Goſpell written by this Evangeliſt alone, is ſufficient to ſal­vation: and conſequently that the reſt of the Scriptures are not of that auſtere and ſtrict neceſſitie thereunto. But theſe things are writ­ten (ſaith the Holy Ghoſt in this place) that ye might beleeve, that Ieſus is the Chriſt the Sonne of God, and that beleeving, ye might have life through his Name. Fiftly, as to attempt to be wiſe a­bove that which is written, is preſumption and offenſive unto GOD on the one hand; ſo not to attempt, or deſire to be wiſe up to that which is written, is (as AUGUSTINE ſome­where termes it) damnable unthankfulneſſe, and every whit as much (if not more) diſplea­ſing unto GOD, on the other hand. Certain­ly there is no piece of divine inſpiration, but is too ſacred and precious, to be offered up up­on the ſervice of ſloathfulneſſe and contempt. Sixtly (and laſtly to this particular) if things were duly examined and compared together, I beleeve it would be found, that the know­ledge even of thoſe things which are not of ſo abſolute a neceſſitie to ſalvation, is of greater conſequence, and more to be deſired in it ſelfe, then ſalvation it ſelfe; at leaſt then ſalvation, conſidered only as the good and benefit of the creature. As to generous huntſ­men the game is ever more then the prey; the nature and quality of the exerciſe more deſir­able then the Veniſon: ſo to diſpoſitions e­minently ſpirituall and heavenly, that myſtery of the will of God (as the Goſpell is ſomewhere called) the wonderfull cariages and contri­vances of that profound and glorious project of his by Jeſus Chriſt, to bring about their ſal­vation, is more precious and of ſweeter con­templation (at leaſt ought to be both to them and others) then that ſalvation it ſelfe which they attaine by it, eſpecially if it be look'd upon, as their own concernment only. It is the ſaying of Calvin: that the glory of God alone,Vua Dei gloria preferri meretur centum mundu. Calvin. deſerv's to be preferred before an hundred worlds. Now there is no ſuch riſe or advantage for the ſoule to glorifie GOD, as the cleere and full knowledge of him in his Chriſt. It is not the ſalvation of his creature ſimply, but this ſal­vation as effected and wrought about by the way of JESUS CHRIST, that is the firſt borne of all the diſcoveries and manife­ſtations of the fulneſſe of GOD. Againe

Fiftly, to vindicate the innocencie of the Treatiſe yet further from the crimes of fruit­leſſeneſſe and impertinencie, it is conſidera­ble, that as ignorance, error, and miſtake in any one point of the Goſpell whatſoever, though it ſeemes farre remote from any thing which we call fundamentall, yet do they diſpoſe more or leſſe, unto apoſtacie and abſolute unbeliefe: ſo on the other hand, a cleere and ſound and comprehenſive under­ſtanding of any one cariage or paſſage of the Goſpell according to the Scriptures, contri­butes much towards the ſetling and eſtabliſh­ing of the heart and ſoule in a firme beliefe and confidence of the whole. The truth is, that the body and frame of the Goſpell is ſo compacted, ſo neerly related in the ſeverall parts and paſſages of it, one thing looking with that favourable and full aſpect upon a­nother, all things ſet in that methodicall or­der of a rationall connexion, and conſequen­tiall dependance one upon another, that if a man be maſter in his judgment of any one paſſage thereof, he may by the light and in­clination hereof rectifie his thoughts other­wiſe, and worke himſelfe on to a cleere diſ­cerning, and upright underſtanding of other things. Therefore a thorough and full ex­plication of any one point of the Goſpell, is of precious conſequence and uſe. But

Sixtly, the weightineſſe and high impor­tance of the ſubject of the diſcourſe pleads the uſefulneſſe and concernment of it with an high hand. For what can be of a more rich and ſolemne concernment to a man, then cleerely to ſee, and fully and ſatisfyingly to underſtand from the Scriptures, how, and by what meanes and upon what termes, he ei­ther is or is to be Juſtifyed in the ſight of God? Doubtleſſe the proſpect of the promiſed Land from Mount Nebo, was not more ſatisfactory and pleaſing unto Moſes, then a cleere be­holding of the Counſell and good pleaſure of God touching the juſtification of a ſinner, is to the ſoule and conſcience of him, that ei­ther hopes, or deſires to be juſtified. There­fore to ſearch and inquire into this with all poſſible exactneſſe, cannot ſeeme needleſſe to any man, that ſavours never ſo little the things of his own peace. Add we

Seventhly (in further proſecution of the ſame plea) that there is no veyne in all the body of the Goſpell, no point whatſoever in Chriſtian Religion, more tender, and wher­in the leaſt variation from the truth and mind of GOD may endanger the ſoule, then this of Juſtification. An haires breadth of miſtake in this, is more to be feared, then a broad error in other points. The truth is, that if a man be of a ſound and cleere judgement in the Do­ctrine of Juſtification, and ſhall ſo continue, he may finde a way into life through the midſt of many errors and miſtakes in other Articles and arguments of Chriſtian Religion: but if he ſtumbles or enterfires with the counſell of God about his juſtification, he is in danger of periſhing for ever; neither will the cleereſt knowledge of all other myſteries relieve him. Behold, I Paul ſay unto you, that if you be circum­ciſed, Chriſt ſhall profit you nothing. Gal. 5.2. A ſmall addition (we ſee) to the Counſell of God for our juſtification, may cauſe our part to be taken away out of the Booke of life. If an er­ror in other points of Religion, as about ele­ction, reprobation, freewill, diſcipline, or the like, be to be redeemed with thouſands, doubtleſſe an error in juſtification is to be redeemed with thouſands of thouſands. In ſo much that all poſſible exactneſſe and diligence in penſiculation of Scriptures and reaſons and arguments, to lay this corner ſtone aright in the building of our Faith, may rather ſeeme negligence and looſeneſſe, then any impertinencie or ſuperfluitie of labour. And though I have no commiſſion from Hea­ven to judge that opinion, touching the im­putation of Chriſts active obedience, which I oppoſe in the enſuing Treatiſe, to be inconſi­ſtent with the favour of God, and acceptation unto life and ſalvation: yet in the bowells of Ieſus Chriſt I humbly and heartily, and ſe­riouſly beſeech all thoſe that build their comfort and peace upon that foundation, ſe­riouſly to conſider and lay to heart theſe 4 things, which I ſhall very briefly mention, deſiring their reſpective inlargments, rather in the ſoules and conſciences of thoſe, whom they ſo neerly concerne.

Firſt, that the bridg of Juſtification, by which men muſt paſſe and be conveyed over from death unto life, is very narrow (as hath, in effect, bin ſaid already) ſo that an heedleſſe or careleſſe ſtep, may be the miſcariage and loſſe of the precious ſoule for ever.

Secondly, that to promiſe our ſelves juſti­fication and life in any other way, or upon a­ny other termes, then upon the expreſſe word and will of God revealed, is to build upon a ſandy foundation, and may and ought to be abhorred and trembled at by us, as the firſt-borne of preſumptions.

Thirdly (and with neerer relation to the great buſineſſe in hand) that to ſeeke juſtifi­cation by the Law, is by the determination and ſentence of Scripture it ſelfe, no leſſe then an aboliſhing from Chriſt, or a rendring of Chriſt of none effect to ſalvation. Chriſt is be­come of none effect unto you (ſaith Paul) whoſoever of you are juſtified by the Law; that is, that ſeek or promiſe unto your ſelves juſtification by the works of the Law. Gal. 5.4.

Fourthly (and laſtly) that that diſtinction which you commonly make, between the Law or workes of the Law, as performed by your ſelves, and as performed by another (meaning CHRIST) to ſalve the danger (as you conceive) of your being juſtified by the Law, is but a deviſe of humane wiſ­dome at the beſt, and no where warranted, much leſſe neceſſitated unto, in the Scrip­tures: and conſequently, muſt needs be a dangerous principle or notion, to hazard the everlaſting eſtate and condition of your ſoules upon. I have in the Diſcourſe it ſelfe, and that more then once, demonſtra­ted the inſufficiencie and danger of this Di­ſtinction, and withall ſhewed, that the Scrip­tures doe no where aſcribe the Juſtification of a ſinner to the works of the Law, no not as performed by Chriſt himſelfe, but only unto his death and ſufferings. Therefore I content my ſelfe heere only to mention it.

Eightly and laſtly, the uſefulneſſe of the Diſcourſe will abundantly appeare in this. The opening and through Diſcuſſion of that great and noble Queſtion therein handled, concerning the Active and Paſſive obedience of Chriſt, in Juſtification, hath an influence into many other great and maſter veynes and paſſages of the Goſpell, and tends much to the rectifying and cleering of our judge­ments in theſe. The difference betweene the two Covenants, the communication of Adams ſinne to his Poſteritie, and the equity of Gods proceedings in making the world ſubject unto death and condemnation there­by, the conſideration in Faith which makes it juſtifying, the non imputability of the works of the Law to the non-performers of them, the neceſſitie of Chriſts death, the righteouſ­neſſe whereby we ſtand formally juſt before God, with many other particulars of ſweet and precious conſideration, will receive much light and cleering and confirmation hereby. So that to charge the Treatiſe with fruitleſ­neſſe or impertinencie, is an accuſation fra­med by the ſame line of equitie and truth whereby Joſeph was accuſed of incontinencie by his Miſtreſſe.

I have only the fourth and laſt (and indeed the leaſt and lighteſt) imputation of unſea­ſonableneſſe to wipe off: and then (I truſt) the Diſcourſe will be innocent. The trouble­ſome workings of the times, the labouring both of Church and State as it were in the fire (for the preſent) will (I make no queſti­on) be pleaded by many, as repugnant and much diſſuaſive to the publication of ſuch a piece as this: This offence (I hope) will be thoroughly healed, by theſe and the like le­nitives.

Firſt, the publication of it (at leaſt of part of it) was intended, whileſt all things were yet in peace amongſt us.

Secondly, as the mother cannot chuſe her time wherein ſhe ſhall bring forth, or the child be borne, but muſt be content with the time which God and nature have appointed her, though it be in never ſo many reſpects unſeaſonable for her: ſo neither had I liberty to carve an opportunity to my own minde & liking for the putting forth of this piece, but was by a ſpeciall hand of neceſſitie and provi­dence caſt upon this ſeaſon, ſuch as it is, My time, was ſome yeares ſince: but Gods time (it ſeemes) was not till now.

3. When a man is fallen into a kennel, and become all mirie and durty thereby, it is not unſeaſonable for him to take the firſt oppori­tunity he can meet with, to waſh and make himſelfe cleane. In like manner when he is dangerouſly wounded, there is no place for ſcanning opportunities or fitneſſes of ſeaſons wherein to be healed. Thoſe numberleſſe baſe reproaches, and forged cavillations and ſlanders under which I have a long time ſuffe­red far and neere (yea and yet ſuffer daily, not only in City and Country, but in Kingdome and Kingdome, yea aſwell beyond the Seas, as on this ſide; are (I conceive) in the judgment of all reaſonable men, an authentique diſpen­ſation unto me, to neglect curioſitie of times or ſeaſons for my vindication.

Fourthly, nor do I conceive what ill aſpect ſuch a ſubject as this can have upon the times, or affaires of the Church or State de­pending. Thoſe that are Intereſſed in the pro­curation of theſe, have (doubtleſſe) both their hearts and their heads and their hands full of imployment otherwiſe, and during the time of theſe ingagements, will have lit­tle liſt or leyſure to traverſe writings of this nature. Or if they ſhould, I know not what antipathie the Doctrine here maintained, ſhould have either to the prudent, or peace­able compoſure of our troubles. Nay,

Fiftly, certaine I am, that if the Doctrine of Juſtification, that is, the opening of the dore of life and ſalvation unto men, be more ſea­ſonable at one time then another, the advan­tage lyes for times of troubles, and dangers, of feares and diſtractions in the world. When can it be of deeper and deerer concernment to the ſoule, to ſee (with Stephen) the Heavens open, then when the earthly houſe of this Taber­nacle (as the Apoſtles metaphor is) begins to be ſhaken, and is ready to fall, as it was with Stephen, when he ſaw that viſion?

Sixtly, the fitteſt ſeaſon for a calme and quiet debating of matters in controverſie, be­tween parties engaged, is, when both parties are involv'd in the ſame condition of danger or trouble. The Martyrs in Q. Maries daies being together in priſon, argued their differē­ces in points of Religion, as Election, Repro­bation, &c. with more meekneſſe, moderation, and mutual equanimitie, then in al likelyhood they would have done in fullneſſe of peace and liberty on both ſides. Wee have many examples in Hiſtory, where a common enemy proved a mediator between thoſe, that were at variance before; yea and were like ſo to have continued, had not the attonement bin made by a way or meanes diſpleaſing to both, I meane by a danger threatening both.

Seventhly (and laſtly) to ſupport ſo great and important a truth of the Goſpell, as that contended for in the Diſcourſe, is by a faire interpretation, a meanes farre more likely to advance both the peace and ſafety of Church and State, and to heale the ſores and troubles of both, then any waies to pre­judice or ſet back the cure. It is much to be feared, that among many other grounds and cauſes of that ſore controverſie, which God is at this day (and hath bin ſome yeares paſt) pleading with the land and his people in it, theſe three have done their parts, and help'd forward the diſpleaſure. Firſt, that thoſe to whom God hath graciouſly revealed himſelfe amongſt us, and withall endued with guifts and abilities for ſuch a purpoſe, have raiſ'd the line of Evangelicall knowledg among us ſo little, above what was delivered unto us by our firſt Reformers. We have done little elſe with that talent of Goſpell-light, which God at firſt gave us as a ſtock to ſet up and Trade withall for him, but only put in a Napkin. We have ſcarce added an haires breadth to our ſtature in the knowledg of Chriſt, wher­as a cubit at leaſt, might well be expected from us.

Secondly (that which is worſe and of more provocation, then the former) by our unwor­thy ſymbolizing with the Church of Rome in that ignoble Principle of hers, ſo diſhonou­rable to Heauen, to beleeve as the Church belee­veth, we ſwallow down many of thoſe miſpri­ſions and miſtakes in matter of Religion, which were found in our firſt Reformers, and teach them for Doctrines and Orthodox truths. As if it were not lawfull to thinke that there may be more light in the aire when the Sunne is riſen in his might upon the earth, then there was at the firſt dawning and break­ing of the day.

Thirdly and laſtly, and that which is more unworthy the Name of Chriſtians then either of the former; we have quite loſt (as it were) and let fall amongſt us many precious truths and ſtreynes of the Goſpell, which God by the hand of the former generation, had con­veyed over to us, and entruſted us withall. An inſtance whereof may be that very point of truth, which is ſo copiouſly handled and defended in this Treatiſe, and withall ſo ful­ly demonſtrated to have bin delivered unto us, by Luther, Calvan, Muſculus, and other worthies of that band. Now that ſuch a neg­ligence and ſinfull deportment of a Church or people towards God as this, is a juſt occaſi­on of his breaking out in wrath and judge­ment upon them, may be gathered from Rev. 3.11. Hold that faſt, which thou haſt (ſaith the Lord Chriſt to the Church of Philadelphia) that no man take thy Crowne: implying, that either the looſe-holding, but eſpecially the letting goe of any Goſpell truth, which ſom­times a Church hath had in cuſtodie and pro­feſſed, indangers the Crown of it, that is, the peace, ſafety and continuance of it. There­fore to endeavour to keepe an ancient truth alive, which was ready to die amongſt us, is rather a meanes to eaſe and lighten the bur­then of that guilt which lieth upon us, and conſequently to turne away, or to abate the diſpleaſure of God, and ſo to further the heal­ing of the Land, then any waies to increaſe or ſoment the troubles of it. And thus much more then enough by way of Apologie.

I have only two things to require of thee (good Reader) by way of courteſie, in read­ing this Diſcourſe, which I hope will recom­pence thee for them; though they be both faire, and equall to be granted, even without demand, & much more without recompence. Firſt, in caſe thou meeteſt with the ſame ſenſe or ſubſtance of matter, cloathed with differēt expreſſions; one or ſome whereof thou canſt well beare and underſtand, others being more hard and offenſive unto thee (which I con­ceive may be a caſe frequently incident in the peruſall hereof) my requeſt is, that thou wilt reduce that which ſeems crooked, to that which is ſtreight, and make an attone­ment of the better for the worſe.

Secondly, whereas one and the ſame pro­poſition or aſſertion in words, may admit of different explications and meanings, in the one whereof it may be true, and accordingly either affirmed or granted by me; in another falſe, and ſo by me denyed; my requeſt in this place is, that thou wilt not judge me a man of contradictions, though in one place I denie that aſſertion in words, which in another I affirme or grant, but that thou wilt relieve me in ſuch paſſages and reconcile me to my ſelfe, by the mediation of mine owne diſtinctions and particular explications of my ſelfe elſe­where. I give thee notice in one place,(a)(a)Part. 2. c. 3. ſoct. 9. p. 57. that there is ſcarce any propoſition can be framed, wherein the word, impute or imputati­on, is uſed indefinitly and without ſpeciall limitation and explication, but may both be granted and denied, according to a different ſenſe and acceptation thereof. And who knoweth not, but that aſſertions and ſayings otherwiſe, are very frequently thus conditio­ned? Now to grant a propoſition in one ſenſe, and to deny it in another, is ſo farre from being contradictions, that it can hardly be avoyded in any cloſe reaſoning upon any theme or ſubject whatſoever. But for the greateſt part of ambiguities incident to mat­ters diſcuſſed in the ſubſequent Treatiſe, I explaine my ſelfe and mine own apprehenſi­ons in two places chiefly, viz. in the firſt Chapter of the firſt Part, but eſpecially in the third of the ſecond.

If any man ſhall pleaſe publiquely to op­poſe, and write againſt what is here publiſhed, I have two requeſts to make unto him like­wiſe. Firſt, that he will bend the maine bo­dy and ſtrength of his diſcourſe againſt the maine of mine; and not brouze or nibble upon ſome twiggs, or outward branches, but ſtrike at the root or maine body of the tree, or at leaſt at ſome of the principall arms and limbs thereof. A tree may ſtand firme, and be choyce timber, and yet the ſmaller boughs and branches thereof being tender, eaſily broken. It is no damage or prejudice to a Diſcourſe, though ſome ſentences or expreſſi­ons may be pick'd out here and there, which being ſeparated from their trunck or ſtemme wherein they grow, ſeeme weak, and very capable of oppoſition.

My other requeſt to ſuch a man is, that hee will pleaſe to interdict his pen all paſſionate language and expreſſion, and returne no worſe meaſure in this kinde, then is here mea­ſured unto him. Truth is not to be drawne out of the pit where ſhe lieth hid, by a long line of calumnies, reproaches, and perſonall aſperſions upon him who is ſuppoſed to op­poſe her: but by the golden chaine of ſolid demonſtrations, and cloſe inferences from the Scriptures. The readieſt way to over­take her, is to follow after her in love. When men are fierce and fiery in their diſputes, it is much to be feared, that they want the truth, or at leaſt the cleere and comprehenſive knowledge of the truth, to coole and qualifie them.

I take little notice in the enſuing Treatiſe of that paſſionate piece of Diſcourſe lately publiſhed, and ſtyled by the Author. Socinia­niſme Diſcovered and confuted; a title better fitting the work, then the Author was aware of, or intended. For herein he diſcovers So­cinianiſme in his own opinion; and then croſ­ſeth and confuteth it, when he hath done. This I have made appaant in the Anſwere to part of that Diſcourſe which I ſent unto him, and which ſince hath bin thought meet (it ſeem's) to ſome, to be made more pub­lique. In conſideration whereof, as likewiſe by the adviſe of ſome friends otherwiſe, I tooke off my pen, and ſuſpended the finiſhing of a full and particular Anſwere to that Diſ­courſe (which I began immediatly upon the publiſhing thereof) after I had made ſome conſiderable progreſſe therein. As upon ad­vice I deſiſted, ſo upon advice I may be brought on againe to perfect and publiſh thoſe beginnings, In this Treatiſe, I no where trou­ble the reſt and peace of Mr. Walkers Socinia­niſme, but only in the fourth Chapter of the ſecond Part: nor here doe I meddle with any other particular thereof, but only with that, which is the heart and ſoule (ſuch as it is) of that whole diſcourſe, viz. his delineati­on or deſcription of the whole Doctrine of Juſtification.

I have detained thee ſomewhat long in the entrance: but thou ſeeſt there was cauſe. I deſire now to open the door unto thee, which leadeth into the Diſcourſe it ſelfe, by earneſt prayer & addreſſement of my heart and ſoule unto God on thy behalfe, that he will give thee a ſpirit of diſcerning, a ſound and up­right and unpartiall judgement in all things, that thou mayſt call no man Maſter on Earth, but reſerve the glory and honour of this Name whole end entire, for thy great Maſter in Heaven: that he will ſo bleſſe and ſancti­fie the Diſcourſe unto thee, that in the read­ing of it, it may poure thee out a bleſſing of knowledge for thine underſtanding, of eſta­bliſhment for thy judgement, of peace for thy conſcience, of joy and gladneſſe for thine heart and ſoule, and all this and much more through Jeſus Chriſt, by whom he is able to doe it, to whom be everlaſting confeſſions and acknowledgements of all Grace and Glory, and every excellencie, by every Creature AMEN.

Thine in the LORD IESVS aſſured, J. GOODWIN.

A briefe view of the Method and cariage of the whole Diſcourſe of the firſt PART.

  • CAP. 1. THe Queſtion ſtated; and declaration made, in what ſenſe the Diſcourſe either affir­meth, or denieth, the Imputation of Chriſts righteouſneſſe in Iuſtification. From p. 1. to 18.
  • CAP. 2. Thoſe Scriptures, Rom. 4. ver. 3.5, 9, 22. &c. managed for the Imputation of Faith for righteouſneſſe, in a proper, not a metaphoricall or me­tonymicall ſenſe; with the teſtimonies of many Au­thors both ancient and moderne, ſtanding by this In­terpretation. From p. 19 to 54.
  • CAP. 3. Severall Scriptures, wherein the works of the Law are abſolutely excluded from Juſtification, as Rom. 3.28. Gal. 2, 16. &c. not admitting the Imputation of the Active obedience of Chriſt, in the ſenſe oppoſed in this Diſcourſe; with ſeverall objecti­ons againſt ſuch an Interpretation of them, propoun­ded and anſwered. From p. 55, to 68.
  • CAP. 4. The non-imputation of Chriſts righteouſ­neſſe, in the ſenſe ruling in this Controverſie, argued from Rom. 3.21. The argument made good againſt an objection. From p. 69. to 72.
  • CAP. 5. The ſaid non-imputation further prooved and eſtabliſhed from Rom. 5.16.17. comp••ed together, with an objection anſwered. The ſufficiencie of the Anſwere atteſted by Galvin, Muſoulus, Luther, Melancthon, Beza, Zanchie, Fox, and Chamier. From p. 73. to p. 83.
  • CAP. 6. A further proofe for the imputation of Faith, in the ſenſe explained, againſt the imputation of the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt in the ſenſe refuſed, from Philip. 3.9. From p. 84. to 88.
  • CAP. 7. Further proofes for the imputation of Faith as aforeſaid, from ſuch Scriptures wherein Juſtifica­tion is aſcribed unto Faith, as Rom. 3.18. Rom. 1.5. &c. with 4 objections againſt the cariage of theſe Scriptures anſwered. From p. 88. to 92.
  • CAP. 8. The Non-imputation of Chriſts righteouſ­neſſe (in the ſenſe firſt rejected) cleerely argued and prooved, from Gal. 3.12. being the laſt of our Scrip­ture proofes. From p. 93, to 98.
  • CAP. 9. The Jmputation of Chriſts righteouſneſſe (in the ſenſe challenged) disproved from the incom­petibleneſſe of it to many, if not to all, beleevers (with­out exception) in respect of many particulars wanting in it, which muſt be found in a Law-righteouſneſſe appropriable unto them. Two objections againſt this argument anſwered. From p. 98, to p. 106.
  • CAP. 10. A ſecond argument againſt the ſaid Impu­tation, drawne from the preciſe and exact proportion and fitneſſe of that righteouſneſſe for the perſon of Chriſt alone, as being the only Mediator, between God and men: with two objections anſwered. From p. 107, to 117.
  • CAP. 11. A third ground againſt the ſaid Imputati­ſon, viz. the non-neceſſitie of it: with an objection an­wered; the anſwere, pleading for intireneſſe of juſti­fication in remiſſion of ſinnes alone, abſolutely conſe­mans with the judgement of Calvin(a)
    (a)That Calvin placed Iuſtifica­tion ſimply and abſolutely, and not compara­tively, in Re­miſſion of ſinnes alone, ſee fully proved part 2. c. 7. Sect. 15. p. 213.214. of this Diſcourſe.
    (a), relieved by Parus in ſome paſſages, which Bellarmine and ſome others would wreſt to a contrary interpretation. From p. 118. to 135.
  • CAP. 12. A fourth demonſtration againſt the ſaia Imputation, viz. the diſſolving or fruſtration of the Evangelicall Grace of Adoption: with an objection Anſwered. From p. 136. to p. 144.
  • CAP. 13. The fift and ſixt grounds againſt the ſaid Imputation. The former, the taking away the neceſ­ſitie of Repentance: the latter, the neceſſitie of Chriſts death; with two objections againſt the former, and as many againſt the latter, Anſwered. From p. 145. to 150.
  • CAP. 14. A ſeaventh ground againſt the ſaid Impu­tation, viz. the taking away for giveneſſe of ſinnes; with an objection anſwered. From p. 151. to 153.
  • CAP. 15. Enforcing an eight Reaſon againſt the Imputation queſtioned, viz. a manifeſt compliance with that dangerous error, that God ſeeth no ſinne in his people. From p. 153. to 155.
  • CAP. 16. A ninth Demonſtration againſt the preten­ded Imputation, viz. the confounding of the two Covenants, with two objections propounded and anſwe­red. From p. 154. to 157.
  • CAP. 17. Three Arguments more managed againſt the already-impugned Imputation: all of them drawn from the meritoriouſneſſe of that righteouſneſſe (ac­cording to the profeſſed tenets of thoſe againſt whom we argue) which is ſaid to be imputed. From p. 158. to 164.
  • CAP. 18. Three further Reaſons againſt the opinion prerejected: with an objection propounded againſt the laſt of them, and Anſwered. The first, drawne from the unſoundneſſe of this aſſertion, that Beleevers wrought righteouſneſſe in Chriſt. The ſecond, from the non-imputation of the paſſive obedience of Chriſt, in the letter and formalitie of it. The laſt, from the non-intermedling of the Ceremoniall Law with Iuſti­fication. From p. 165. to 169.
  • CAP. 19. Five further Demonſtrations of the con­cluſion undertaken for. The firſt, drawne from the non-imputation of our ſinnes to Chriſt, in the letter or formalitie of them. The ſecond, from the uncleanneſſe of this ſaying, that God ſhould looke upon us as worthy of that Iuſtification, which we receive from him. The third, from the erroneouſneſſe of this, that men are made formally ſinfull by Gods act of imputing Adams ſinne. The fourth, from the abſurdity of this, that there is a double formall cauſe of Iuſtification. The last, from the evidence of this truth, that there is no neceſſitie of bringing in this imputation, either in re­ſpect of the juſtice, or mercy of God or for the ſalving or advancement of any other Attribute. From p. 170. to 179.
  • CAP. 20. Foure Reaſons more, to ſtreng then the Con­cluſions taken into protection. The firſt, drawne from the inſufficiencie of a Law righteouſneſſe, to juſtifie thoſe that have once ſinn'd, though perſonally perfor­med. The ſecond, from the non-obligation of any man to keeps the Law for his justification. The third from Gods requiring only Faith of men, to their juſtificati­on: with two objections anſwered. The last from the imputation of Faith made unto Abraham. From p. 180, to 187.
  • CAP. 21. The laſt Reaſon propounded againſt the Imputation of Chriſts righteouſneſſe, drawn from the Non-imputabilitie of the Law, or the righteouſneſſe thereof: with an objection anſwered, and ſome things conſidered about the Imputation of Adams ſinne.

Of the Second PART.

  • CAP. 1. THe method and contents of the Second Part of the Diſcourſe p. 1, 2.
  • CAP. 2. Fourteene Concluſions laid down and prooved, to give further light into the Controverſie depending, and to repare a way for anſwering the remaining ob­jections
    • The firſt, is this: Hee for whoſe ſinnes a plenary ſatisfaction hath bin made, is as juſt and righteous as he that never ſinn'd p. 3.
    • 2. There is no medium, or middle condition, be­tween abſolution from all ſinne, and a perfect and com­pleate righteouſneſſe. p. 3.4.
    • 3 Adam till his fall by ſinne, was compleatly righ­teous, and in an eſtate of Iuſtification before God. p. 4.5.
    • 4. Perfect remiſſion or forgiveneſſe of ſinnes, in­cludes the imputation or acknowledgment of the obſer­vation of the whole Law. p.
    • 5. He that is fully acquitted and diſcharged of his ſinnes, needeth no other righteouſneſſe, to give him a right or title unto life. p. 8 9.
    • 6 That ſatisfaction which Chriſt made for ſinne, and whereby he procured remiſſion of ſinnes for thoſe that beleeve, conſiſts only in that obedience of his, which is commonly called Paſſive, and not in that ſub­jection which he exhibited to that common Law of nature which we call, Morall, p. 9.10.
    • 7 If Chriſt had kept the Law for us, that is in our ſtead, during his life, ſo that we might be counted perfectly righteous by the imputation thereof unto us, there had bin no occaſion or neceſſitie of his dying for us. p. 10.11.
    • 8. That union and communion which Beleevers have with Chriſt, doth no waies require or ſuppoſe any ſuch imputation of his righteouſneſſe unto them, as is conceived. p. 11, 12, 13.
    • 9. No other imputation of Adams ſinne to his po­ſteritie, can be proved either by Scripture, or ſound reaſon, then that which ſtands, either in a communion of his poſteritie with him therein, or in the propagation of his nature defiled therewith, unto them: or in that puniſhment and condemnation which is come upon them by it. p. 13, 14, 15, 16.
    • 10. Though Iuſtification and ſalvation came unto the world by Chriſt the ſecond Adam, as condemnation and death came by the firſt: yet there are many diffe­rent conſiderations, betweene the coming and bringing in of ſalvation by the one, and of condemnation by the other. p. 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21.
    • 11. That which makes true Faith inſtrumentall in Iuſtification, is nothing that is eſſentiall or naturall to it, whether deſcent, property, or act, but ſomewhat that is extrinſecall and purely adventitious, as viz. the force and efficacie of the will, good pleaſure, ordi­nation and covenant of God in that behalfe. p. 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26.
    • 12. It hath no foundation either in Scripture or reaſon, to ſay that Chriſt by any imputation of ſinne, was made formally a ſinner. p. 26.
    • 13. Faith doth not only (if at all) declare a man to be righteous, or in a juſtified eſtate, but is the very meanes by which Iuſtification or righteouſneſſe it ob­tained. p. 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33.
    • 14. The ſentence or curſe of the Law, was not pro­perly executed upon Chriſt in his death: but this death of Chriſt was a ground or conſideration unto God, whereupon to diſpenſe with his Law, and to let fall or ſuſpend the execution of the penaltie or curſe therein threatned, as concerning thoſe that beleeve. p. 33, 34, 35, 36.
  • CAP. 3. Seven Diſtinctions propounded and explained, neceſſary for the further underſtanding of the buſineſſe in queſtion, and the cleering of many difficulties inci­dent to it. As
    • 1. Iuſtification, is taken in a double ſenſe, either actively or paſſively. p. 37, 38, 39.
    • 2. Iuſtice or righteouſneſſe, is ſometimes in Scrip­ture attributed to God, and ſometimes to men: and in both relations, hath a great diverſitie and varietie of acceptions. p. 39, 40 41, 42, 43, 44, 45.
    • 3. The righteouſneſſe or obedience of Chriſt, is twfold, or of two kindes: the one by Divines called, Juſtitia perſonae, the righteouſneſſe of his perſon: the other, Juſtitia meriti, the righteouſneſſe of his merit 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50.
    • 4. The terme of Imputing, or imputation, will admit of nine ſeverall acceptions or ſignifications. p. 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56.
    • 5. Obedience unto the morall Law, may be ſaid to be required of men in two reſpects: either 1o, by way of justification: or 2o, by way of ſanctification. p. 57, 58.
    • 6. Chriſt may be ſaid to have kept the Law, in re­ference to our juſtification, two waies: either 1o, for us, or 2o, in our ſtead. p. 58.
    • 7. The justification of a ſinner, though it be but one and the ſame entire effect, yet may it be aſcribed unto many (and thoſe very different) cauſes respectively, according to their ſeverall influences, and differing manner of concurrence thereunto. p. 59, 60.
  • CAP. 4. A delineation or ſurvey of the intire body of Iustification, in the ſeverall cauſes of it, according to the tenor of the Concluſions and distinctions laid downe in the two former Chapters. P. 61. wherein I. are premiſed 4 generall rules touching the number, nature and propertie of cauſes in the generall. p. 62, 63, 64, 65.
    • 2. Some more particular and ſpeciall kinds of cauſes, comprehended under the 4 generall heads, are men­tioned and explained, p. 65, to p. 77.
    • 3. The cauſes of Iustification are inquired into. As
      • 1. The efficient cauſes thereof. From p. 77, to 84.
      • 2. The finall cauſes thereof. p. 84, 85.
      • 3. The materiall cauſe therof, from p. 85, to p. 90.
      • 4. The formall cauſe thereof, from p. 90, to 121.
    • 4. A Deſcription of Iustification raiſed from the former diſcuſſions in the Chapter. p. 121.
  • CAP. 5. Scriptures alledged for the Imputation of Chriſts righteouſneſſe or active obedience in Juſtifi­cation, cleered and anſwered: and the true ſenſe and interpretation of them respectively eſtabliſhed accord­ing to the judgement of the beſt Expoſitors. A reaſon given by the way of mens confidence, and impatiencie of contradiction, in reſpect of ſome opinions above o­thers. p. 122, 123. The Scriptures urged, and anſwered are.
    • 1. From the Old Teſtament.
      • Pſal. 32, 1, 2, anſwered, p. 124, 125, 126.
      • Jer. 23, 6, and 33, 16. anſwered, p. 127, 128.
      • Eſa 45.24. anſwered p. 129, 130.
      • Eſa 61, 10. anſwered p. 130. to p. 136. where by the way 3 other Scriptures alſo are opened and cleered, as viz. Rev••. 19, 7, 8, p. 134, and Rom. 13, 14, with Gal. 3, 27, p. 136.
    • 2. From the New Teſtament, As
      • Rom. 3, 21, anſwered, p. 136, 137.
      • Rom. 3, 31, anſwered, p. 137, 138, 139.
      • Rom. 4, 6. anſwered. p. 140, 141.
      • Rom. 5, 19, anſwered, p. 142. to 145.
      • Rom. 8, 4 anſwered, p. 145, to p. 152.
      • Rom. 9, 31, 32, anſwered, p. 153, to 157.
      • Rom. 10, 4, anſwered. p. 157, to 162.
      • 1 Cor. 1, 30. anſwered, p. 162, 163, 164.
      • 2 Cor. 5, 21 anſwered, p. 165, to 168.
      • Gal. 3, 10, anſwered, p. 168. to 173.
  • CAP 6 Six Arguments againſt the Imputation of Faith for righteouſneſſe, propounded and anſwered. As
    • 1. That ſuch an Imputation impeacheth the truth or juſtice of God, anſwered, p. 175, 176, 177.
    • 2. That this Imputation maketh Iuſtification to be by workes, anſwered p. 178, 179.
    • 3. That ſuch an Imputation is inconſiſtent with the free grace of God in Iuſtification anſwered. p. 179, 180
    • 4. That this Imputation miniſtreth occaſion of boa­ſting unto the fleſh, anſwered p. 180, 181, 18, 183.
    • 5. That ſuch an Jmputation ſuppoſeth Juſtification by ſomewhat that is imperfect, anſwered p. 183, 184, 185.
    • 6. That ſuch an Imputation implieth, that God ſhould rather receive a righteouſneſſe from us, then we from him, in our Iuſtification, anſwered. p. 185, 186.
  • The opinion oppoſed in this Diſcourſe, of much more affinity with the maſter-veyne of Socinian Hereſie, and that by the verdicts of Pareus, Piſcator, and Mr. Gataker, then the opinion maintained in it. p. 187, 188, 189.
  • CAP. 7. The chiefe grounds and Arguments for the Imputation of Chriſts Active obedience (in the ſenſe hitherto oppoſed) propoſed and anſwered. As
    • 1. That there is no ſtanding in judgement before God without the imputation of this righteouſneſſe, anſwered, p. 192, 193.
    • 2. That juſtification cannot be by the righteouſneſſe of another, except this imputation be ſuppoſed, anſwer­ed p. 194, 195.
    • 3. That a true and reall Communion betweene Chriſt, and thoſe that beleeve in him, cannot ſtand, except this Imputation be granted, anſwered. p. 195, 196.
    • 4. That there can be no other reaſon or neceſſitie aſſign'd, why Chriſt ſhould fulfill the Law, but only this imputation, anſwered from p. 196, to 207.
    • 5. That we are debtors unto the Law, not only in matter of puniſhment for our tranſgreſſion, but in perfe­ction of obedience alſo, anſwered, p. 208, 209, 210.
    • 6. That there can be no juſtification without a per­fect righteouſneſſe; nor any ſuch righteouſneſſe, but the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt, Anſwered, p. 211, 212 213, 214, 215.
    • 7. That Do this and live, is an everlaſting rule, and which ſhall never be diſſolved, anſw. p. 216, 217.
    • 8 That the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt is that righ­teouſneſſe, which God accepteth on our behalfe, anſw. p. 217 218, 219.
    • 9. That Chriſt was a publique Perſon, ſtanding in the ſtead of all thoſe that ſhould beleeve in him, anſw. p. 220 221, 222 223, 224.
    • 10. That there is no way of being juſtified by the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt, but only by the imputation of it, anſwered p. 225.
    • 11. That we may as truly and as properly be ſaid to have fulfilled the Law, in or with Chriſt, as to be dead, crucified, quickened, raiſed, to ſit in Heavenly places with him, &c. (all which the Scripture affir­meth) anſwered p. 226, 227, 228.
    • 12. That thoſe that are ſinners, and ſo continue whilſt they live, can be no otherwaies juſtified then by the imputation of Chriſts righteouſneſſe, anſwered, p. 229, 230.
  • The Concluſion, p. 231.

Good Reader, the Correctors requeſt un­to thee is, that upon a particular confeſſion of ſome of theſe faults, which here follow, and whereby thou maieſt relieve thy ſelfe, thou wouldſt pardon him.


PAg 2. l. 6. for, terme read, termes. p. 3. l. 31. for Law, he. r. Law. He. p. 5. l. 35. for, conſciences, r. conſcience. p. 7. l. 24. for, habit, r. habits. p. 20. l. 16. for, cir­cumſtance. r. circumſtances. p. 21. l. 10. for, word. r. words. p. 22. l. 2. l. 2. for, of, r. which. p. 36. l. 1. for, Rom. 24, r. Rom. 2, 4. p. 41. l 24. for, word, r. ſword. p. 52. l. 5. after, is, t. beleeed. p. 60. l. 6. for, me, r. one. p. 65. l. 13. for,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉r. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉p. 66. l 32. after, mediatly, r. before. p. 71. l. 12. for, becauſe, r. although. p. 80. l 20. dele, our p. 9. l. 18. for deceiveableneſſe, r. deriveableneſſe. p. 99, l. 22. for, defects, r. defect. p. 113, l. 26. for, and r. to. p. 117. l. 19. for of, r. of it. p. 125. l. 24. for as, r. as if. p. 126. l. 31. for, boltring, r. bolting. p. 136. l. 9 for,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, l. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. p. 138. l. 16. for, the. r. that. ibid. for, that is, r. that it is. p. 144. l. 1. for, infallably, r. infallibly. p. 146. l. 29. dele, not. p. 154. l. 30 for, into, r in. p. 154. l. 8. delo, the. p. 163. l. 3. for into. r. for. p 171. l. 26. for, that, r. the p. 175. l. 16. for, formaliter, r. normalier. l. 17. for, this, r. his. p. 180 l. 14. for them, r. men. p. 200. l. 18. for, unanſwerable, r. anſwera­ble. p. 202 l. 8. for, deerved, r. ſerved. p. 204. l. 26. after, ſinne, r. a full ſatisfaction­to him. l. 28. for, received at, r. received it at.


Pag 1. l. 15. dele, to. p. 4. l. 26. for, and, r. and in. p. 5. l. 7. for, equivolant, r. equivalent. p. 7. l. 32. after, acts. r. of no other perſon beſides. l. 35. for, reverence, r. refe ence. p. 10. l. 35. atter life, r. ſo that we might be counted perfectly righteou, by the imputation thereof unto us p 11. l. 28. for, and, r. that. p. 13. l. 8 dele in. p. 15. l. 30. for, him,. ſinne. p. 20. l 29. for, paſſage, r. paſſage of. l. 38. fr, imploy­ed, r. implied. l. 41. for, cleare, r. cer­taine. p. 28, l. 35. fo relation, r. reaſon. p. 31. l. 3. for, objections r. objection. p. 34, l. 14. for terme, r terme, death. p. 49, l. 2. for, called, r. called by p. 50. l. 20, for inconſiſtence, r. in conſiſtence. p. 57. l. 35. for, impoſſible, r. poſſible. p. 59. in the mar­gin. for, Cap Sect. r. Cap. 20. Sect. 3. p. 66. l. 4. for working, r. working) p. 68. l. 21. for,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, r. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉p. 74. l. 16. for, properlyr. r. properly. p. 80. l. 7. for, both, r. both the. p. 86. l. 26. for, otion, r. notion. p. 89. l. 10 dele, of. l. 31. for, proper, 1. unpt oper. p. 95, l. 19. for, ſimplifie, r. ſim­plifie p. 99, l. 31, for, Sect. r Sect. 2. p. 110. l. 35, for, which, r. which is. p. 119. l. 25, for, that, r. then. p. 125 l. 4. for, Rom. 47, r. Rom. 4.7. p. 135. l. 14, 15, for his, his, r. her, her l. 34, dele, to. l. 33, for, Scripture, r, Scripture to. p. 142. l. 14, for, includencie, r. inconcludencie. p. 146. l. 12. dele, of. p. 148, l. 29, dele, of. p. 157, l. 20. for, reſemblance, r. ſemblance. p. 176 l. 23, for, God r. God, as ſuch. p. 194. l. 31. for, predicatum r. pradicatum. p, 207. l. 7. for, addreſſe, r. addreſſed. p. 213. l. 8. dele, of. p. 222. l 22. for be, r. by.

Some other lighter eſcapes there are, as miſ-pointings, miſ-joynings, and miſ-di­vidings of words, miſ-placing parentheſes, ſometimes ſingulars for pluralls, defects of Capitall Letters, with ſome overſights in the marginall citations, &c. In all which, the Corrector ſubmits himſelfe to thy cenſure.

Reader, if thou had'ſt rather take a little paines, then be angry; I deſire thee to relieve the Printer with thy pen, and to re­forme thy Booke, before thou readeſt it, according to theſe ſubſe­quent directions.


PAg 9. line 5. for, ſerapp. r. ſcrap. p. 11. l. 1. for, preſent, r. pleaſant. l. 18. for,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉r. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉p. 12. l. 25. for, paſſages, r. pages. p. 13. l. 13. for, diſcrologie, r. diſchrologie. l. 14. for, meſſenger, r. meſſengers. l. 15. for, magnificant, r. magnificent.


Pag 6. l. 31. for, corponeris, r. componens. p. 8. l. 29. for opi­nion any, r. opinion, that any. p. 13. l. 13. for, Divinity (who, r. Divinity at Leyden (who ibid. f••, of judgement, r. of that judgement. p. 15. l. 22, for, urge a little. r. urge. A little. p. 20. l. 10. for, defended here, r. defended, &c. Here. l. 18. for, word, diſcourſe, r. wordie diſcourſe. l. ult. for, too, r. to. p. 22. l. ult. for, miſperiſian, r. miſpriſion. p. 26. l. 13. for, our, r. owne. p. 29. l. 27. for, no ſatisfaction, r. no ſuch ſa­tisfaction. p. 32. l. 15. for, this is, r. is this. p. 33. l. 27. for, firſt, r. fulleſt. p. 34. l. 20. for, ſaith further, r. ſaith he further. p. 37. l. 24. for, skill, r. ſtill. p. 40. l. 33, for, promiſes, r. premiſes. p. 43. l. 2. for, juſtification, r. or free juſtification. p. 47. l. 9. for, hihobular, r. triobular. p. 48. l. 19 for, black, in ſo, r. ſo black and. p. 55. l. 26. for, neighbours, r. neighbour. p. 59. l. 3. for, mee, r. men. p. 65. l. 25. for, contradiction, r. contradictions. p. 70. l. 2. for, believed, r. be­lieving. p. l. 10. for, not for, r. not of us for. p. 74. l. 2. for, to ſpeak r, to ſpeak to. p. 86. l. 12. for, interpres, r. interpreteſſe. p. 95. l. 37. for, cenſured, r. conceived.


CAP. I.VVherein the ſtate of the queſti­on is opened, and the ſenſe EXPLAINED: Wherein aſwell the Imputation of FAITH is affirmed, as the imputation of the RIGH­TEOUSNESSE of CHRIST denyed, in JUSTI­FICATION.

FOR the cleare underſtanding of the ſtate and drift of the queſtion, ſome things would be premiſed, which for their evidence ſake might be pri­villedged and exempted from paſ­ſing under much diſpute or contradi­ction, yet if any thing be not ſufficiently prepared for aſſent in the briefe propoſall of it, the enſuing diſ­courſe will labor to reconcile the diſproportion, and in the progreſſe make ſatisfaction for what it ſhall receive upon courteſie in the beginning. As

1. That the termes juſtifying, juſtification &c. are not to be taken in this queſtion (nor in any other uſually moved about the juſtification of a ſinner) either 1 ſenſu phyſico, in a Phyſicall ſenſe, as if to juſti­fie, ſignified to make juſt, with any habituall or actu­all, any poſitive or inherent righteoſneſſe. Nor yet, 2. ſenſu forenſi propriè dicto, in a juridicall or judi­ciary2 ſenſe (properly ſo called) where the Iudge hath only a ſubordinate and derived power ofudicature, and is bound by Oath or otherwiſe to give ſentence according to the ſtrict rule of the Law, as if to juſtify were to pronounce a man juſt, or〈◊〉abſolve him from puniſhment according to the ſtrict terme of preciſe rule of that Law whereof he was accuſed as a tranſgreſſor, (though this ſenſe be admitted and received by many) But 3. (and laſtly) ſenſu forenſi improprié dicto, in a judiciary ſenſe, leſſe properly and uſually ſo called, vizr. where he that Titteth Iudge being the ſupreme Magiſtrate, hath an independan­cy or ſoveraignty of power, to moderate and diſ­pence with the Law, as reaſon or equity ſhall require: So that to juſtify in this queſtion, import's the diſ­charging or abſolving of a man from the guilt, blame, and puniſhment of thoſe things, whereof he either is, or juſtly might be accuſed; not becauſe he is cleare of ſuch things, or juſtifiable according to the letter or ſtrictneſſe of the Law (for then he could not be juſtly accuſed) but becauſe the Judge having a ſufficient & lawful ſoveraignty of power is willing upon ſufficient & weighty conſiderations known un­to him, to remit the penalty of the Law, and to deliver and diſcharg him as if he were an innocent or righte­ous man. As for the Phyſical ſenſe of making juſt by inherent righteouſneſſe, though Bellarmine and his Angells, earneſtly contend for it, yet till Scriptures be brought low, and Etymologies be exalted above them, till uſe and cuſtome of ſpeaking deliver up their King­dome into Cardinalls bands, that ſenſe muſt no way be acknowledged or received in this diſpute: Yet (to give reaſon and right, even to thoſe that demand that which is unreaſonable) it is true, that God in or upon a mans juſtification, begins to juſtifie him Phy­ſically, that is, to infuſe habituall or inherent righte­ouſneſſe3 into him. But here the Scriptures and the Cardinall are as far out in termes, as in a thouſand o­ther things they are in ſubſtance and matter: that which he will needs call juſtification, the Scriptures will as peremptorily call Sanctification.

Concerning the other ſenſe of a judiciary juſtifi­cation uſually and ſtrictly ſo called,SECT. 2wherein the Iudge or juſtifier proceeds upon legall grounds to ac­quit and abſolve the party guilty or accuſed, neither can this be taken in the Queſtion propounded, except the Scriptures be forſaken, becauſe the Scriptures conſtantly ſpeake of this act of God juſtifying a ſinner, not as of ſuch an act whereby he will either make him or pronounce him legally juſt, of de­clare him not to have offended the Law, and here­upon juſtifie him; but of ſuch an act, whereby he freely forgives him all that he hath done againſt the Law, and acquits him from all blame and puniſh­ment due by the Law unto ſuch offences. So that in that very act of God whereby he juſtifies a ſinner, as there is a diſcharge from all puniſhment due unto him, ſo there is a profeſſion withall, or plaine inti­mation of the guiltineſſe of the perſon now to be ju­ſtified according to the Law, and that he is not diſ­charged or acquitted upon any conſideration that can be pleaded for him according to the Law, but that conſideration upon which God proceeds to juſti­fie him, is of another order; the conſideration of ſomewhat done for him in this caſe to relieve him out of the courſe and order or appointment of the Law, he whoſe juſtification ſtands (whether in whole or in part, it is not materiall herein) in the for­giveneſſe of ſinne, can in no conſtruction be ſaid to be juſtified according to the Law, becauſe the Law knowes no forgiveneſſe of ſinnes, neither is there any rule for any ſuch thing there. The Law ſpeakes of4 the curſe, death, and condemnation of a ſinner; but for the juſtification of a ſinner, it neither takes knowledg, nor gives any hope thereof.

Secondly, That Ieſus Chriſt the naturall Sonne of God, and ſupernaturall Sonne of the Virgin, ran a race of obedience with the Law (aſwell Ceremoniall as Morall) and held out with every letter, jot, and tit­tle of it, as farre as it any wayes concerned him, dur­ing the whole continuance of his life in the fleſh, no mans thoughts ever roſe up to deny, but thoſe that denyed him the beſt of his being (I meane his God­head) Which of you convinceth me of ſinne? was his challenge to the Nation of the Jewes whilſt he was yet on earth (Ioh 8, 46.) and remaines through all ages as a challenge to the world. He that canaſt the leaſt aſperſion or imputation of ſinne upon Chriſt, ſhall ſhake the foundations of the peace and ſafety of the world.

Thirdly, that this Chriſt offered up himſelfe as a Lambe without ſpot in ſacrifice upon the Croſſe to make an attonement for the world, and to purge the ſinne of it, I know no ſpirit at this day abroad in the Chriſtian world that denies, but that which wrought in Secinus formerly, and ſtill workes in thoſe that are baptized into the ſame ſpirit of error with him.

Fourthly, I conceive it to be a truth of greater authority amongſt us, then to meet with contradi­ction from any man, that Ieſus Chriſt is the ſole and entire meritorious cauſe of every mans juſtification, that is juſtified by God; or that that righteouſneſſe or abſolution from ſinne and condemnation which is given to every man in his juſtification, is ſomewhat, yea a principall part or member of that great pur­chaſe which Chriſt hath made for the world. Evan as God for Chriſts ſake freely forgave you. Epheſ. 4.32. Forgiveneſſe of ſinnes or juſtification is from God for5 Chriſts ſake; he is worthy to be gratified and hono­red by God, with the juſtification of thoſe that be­lieve in him, whatſoever he is worthy of more.

Fiftly, It is a truth that hath every mans judgment concurring with it, that Faith is the condition ap­pointed by God, and required on mans part to bring him into Communion and fellowſhip of that juſti­fication and redemption which Chriſt hath purcha­ſed for the Children of men, and that without belie­ving, no man can have part or fellowſhip in that great and bleſſed buſineſſe.

Sixtly, It is evident from the Scriptures, that God in the act of every mans juſtification doth impute or account righteouſneſſe unto him, or rather ſomwhat for or inſtead of a righteouſneſſe (the Scripture uſeth both expreſſions) by meanes of which im­putation the perſon juſtified paſſeth in accompt as a righteous man (though he be not properly or per­fectly ſuch according to the Law) and is inveſted ac­cordingly with thoſe great priviledges of a man per­fectly righteous, deliverance from death and con­demnation, and acceptation into the favor of God. The reaſon of which imputation, or why God is plea­ſed to uſe ſuch an expreſſion of righteouſneſſe impu­ted in or about the juſtification of a ſinner ſeemes to be this; the better to ſatiſfie the naturall ſcruple of the weake and feeble conſciences of men, who can hardly conceive or thinke of a juſtification or of be­ing juſtified (eſpecially by God) without an expreſſe, literall, and perfect legall righteouſneſſe. Now the counſailes and purpoſe of God in the Goſpell being to juſtifie men without any ſuch righteouſneſſe (being a righteouſneſſe indeed whereof man in his lapſed condition, is wholly uncapable) the better to ſalve the feares of the conſciences touching ſuch a defect, and to prevent and ſtay all troubleſome thoughts or6 queries that might ariſe in the minds of men, who when they heare of being juſtified, are ſtill ready to aske within themſelves, but where is the righteouſ­neſſe? conceiving a legall righteouſneſſe to be as ne­ceſſary to a juſtification, as Iſaak conceived of a Lamb for a burnt offering, Gen. 22, 7.) He (GOD I meane) is graciouſly pleaſed ſo far to condiſcend to men in Scripture treatie with them about the weigh­ty buſineſſe of juſtification, as (in effect) to grant and ſay unto them, that though he finds not any proper or perfect righteouſneſſe in them, no ſuch righte­ouſneſſe as paſſeth under the name of a righteouſ­neſſe with them, yet if they truely believe in him, as Abraham did, this believing ſhall in the conſe­quences of it, be as good, as a perfect or compleate righteouſneſſe unto them, or that he will impute righteouſneſſe unto them upon their believing.

So that now the ſtate & drift of the Q.SECT. 3is not either 1, whether Faith without an Object, or as ſeparated from Chriſt, be imputed for righteouſneſſe, for ſuch a Faith (doubtleſſe) in the point of juſtification was never dreamt of by any man that kept his wits com­pany: men may aſwell fancy a living man without a Soule; or a wiſeman without his wits, as a Faith without an Object: much leſſe was ever ſuch a faith conceived by any to be imputed for righteouſneſſe. Neither 2, is it any part of the intent of the Queſtion to enquire, whether Faith be the meritorious cauſe of a mans juſtification, for both they that affirme, and they that deny the imputation of Faith for righteouſ­neſſe, deny the meritoriouſneſſe of faith every waies: however it is true, that they that would ſeem moſt to diſclaime it, and caſt it furtheſt from them, do yet in ſome of their moſt beloved tenets draw very neare unto it (as will afterward appeare) Neither 3, is it the Queſtion, whether Faith be the formall cauſe of7 juſtification, that is, whether God doth juſtifie a man with his Faith, as a Painter makes a wall white with whiteneſſe, or a Maſter makes his Scholar learned with knowledge, for both parties make the forme of juſtification to be ſomwhat elſe differing from Faith (contrary to that which is conceived to be the genu­ine tenet of Arminius) Nor yet 4, doth the Queſti­on make any quere at all, whether Chriſt be the ſole meritorious cauſe of the Iuſtification of a ſinner; for both they that goe on the right hand of the Queſtion, and they that goe on the left, are knit together in the ſame mind and judgment concerning this. Neither 5 doth the Queſtion (as it is here propounded) in­tend any diſpute at all, whether the active obedience of Chriſt falling in with the paſſive, and conſidered in conjunction with it, hath any influence into, or contributeth any thing towards the Iuſtification of ſinners, for this alſo is acknowledged on both ſides, (at leaſt by the greater party of both) But 6, (and laſtly) the Queſtion in preciſe termes is this whether the faith of him that truely believes in Chriſt, or whether the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt himſelfe, that is, the obedience which Chriſt performed to the Morall Law, conſiſting partly of the inward habit of grace, and righteous diſpoſitions of his ſoule, partly of all thoſe ſeverall and particular acts of righteouſ­neſſe wherein he obeyed, be in the letter and pro­prietie of it, that which God imputes to a believer for righteouſneſſe, or unto righteouſneſſe in his Iu­ſtification; So that he that believes, is not righteous onely by accompt, or by Gods gracious reputing and accepting of him for ſuch, but as rigidly, literally, and peremptorily righteous, conſtituted and made as perfectly, as compleatly, as legally righteous, as Chriſt himſelfe is, no difference at all betweene them, quoad veritatem, but only quoad modum, the juſtified8 every whit as righteous as the juſtifier, both righte­ous with the ſelfe ſame individuall righteouſneſſe, only this difference betweene the one and the other, the juſtified weares it as put upon him by another, by imputation: the Juſtifier weares it put upon him by himſelfe, or by inherency. That the Scriptures no where countenanceth any ſuch imputation of the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt as this, I truſt (the Spirit of truth directing and aſſiſting) to make manifeſt in the ſequell of this diſcourſe, and to give good meaſure of this truth unto the reader, heaped up, and preſſed downe, and running over; heaped up by teſtimo­nies from the Scriptures themſelves; preſſed down by the weight of many Arguments and demonſtra­tions; running over, with the cleare approbation of many Authors, learned and ſound, and every way greater then exception.

Only give me leave here to mention that by the way,SECT. 3which may prevent many miſtakes, (yea and offences too) in reading the writings of many latter Divines, (eſpecially of other Churches) touching this point of imputation. If we take the phraſe of imputing Chriſts righteouſneſſe unproperly, out of the uſuall and formall ſignification of it (as Luther and Caelvin, and other Divines of the reformed Chur­ches ſometimes do in their writings) viz. for the giving out or beſtowing (as it were) the righteouſ­neſſe of Chriſt including his obedience aſwell paſſive as active, under one and the ſame terme of righte­ouſneſſe, in the returne of it, i. in the privileges, bleſſings, and benefits, that are procured and pur­chaſed by it for men, ſo a believer may be ſaid to be juſtified by the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt imputed. But then the meaning can be no more but this. A be­leever is juſtified by the imputation of Chriſts righ­teouſneſſe, that is, God juſtifies a beleever for Chriſts9 righteouſneſſe ſake, and not for any righteouſneſſe of his owne: Such an imputation of the righteouſ­neſſe of Chriſt as this is, is no way denyed or once queſtioned. And thus ſuch paſſages as thoſe in Cal­vin. Nos gratis juſtificat Deus, Chriſti obedientiam nobis imputando. i. God freely juſtifieth us by impu­ting the obedience of Chriſt unto us: and againe, Ho­mo non inſe ipſo juſtus eſt, ſed quia Chriſti juſtitia im­putatione cum illo communicatur (Inſtit. l. 3, c. 17, ss. 23.) i. A man is not righteous in himſelfe, but be­cauſe the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt is communicated or Imputed unto him by imputation: Theſe and ſuch like expreſſions in this Author, are to be interpre­ted by ſuch paſſages as theſe (which are frequent alſo in the ſame Author, Chriſtus ſuaobedientia grati­am nobis apud Patrem acquifivit & promeritus eſt (In­ſtit. l. 2, c. 17. ss. 30.) 1. Chriſt by his obedience, procured and merited for us grace or favor with God the Father. And againe, l. 3, c. 14. ss 17. Chri­ſtus per ſuam obedientiam nobis juſtitiam acquiſivit. i. Chriſt by his obedience procured or purchaſed righteouſneſſe for us. And againe in Gal. 3, 6. Om­nes iſtae locutiones peraequè valent, juſtificari nos Dei gratia, Chriſtum eſſe juſtitiam noſtrā juſtitiā, morte & reſurrectione Chriſti nobis acquiſitā &c. i. All ſuch ex­preſſions as theſe import the ſame thing, that we are juſtified by the grace of God, that Chriſt is our righte­ouſnes, that righteouſnes was procured for us by the death and reſurrection of Chriſt &c. By al which paſ­ſages and many more of like Importance, that might be produced out of the ſame Author, it is fully evidēt, that when he mentioneth any imputation of the righ­teouſneſſe of Chriſt in Iuſtification, his meaning is only, that the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt, meaning chief­ly his paſſive obedience or righteouſneſſe, haply not excluding his active) is the meritorious cauſe of our10 Iuſtification and hath procured and purchaſed this for us at Gods hand, that upon our believing wee ſhould be accompted righteous by him, or (which is but the ſame) that our Faith ſhould be imputed for righteouſneſſe to us. To which purpoſe hee ſpeakes yet more ſignificantly and expreſſely in the place laſt mentioned in Gal. 3, 6. Quum autom juſti­tiam in ſe repoſitam non habeant homines, imputatione hanc adipiſcuntur. i. Men not having any righteouſ­neſſe lodgedn themſelves they obtaine it by impu­tation, which Imputation he thus explicates and interprets, quia Deus fidem illis fert acceptam pro juſti­tia: becauſe (ſaith he) God doth Impute or ac­compt their faith unto them for righteouſneſſe. Di­vers like paſſages might be drawne together out of other Authors, which muſt be ſeaſoned with the ſame ſalt of Interpretation, to be made ſavory and meete for Spirituall nouriſhment.

In the Homilies of our owne Church,SECT. 4there are ſome paſſages that mention the Imputation of Chriſts righteouſneſſe in Iuſtification, for the genuine ſenſe whereof, if we conſult with the eleventh Article of Religion (which is concerning Iuſtification, and is framed with all poſſible exactneſſe this way, that ſo few words are capable of) that will directly lead us to the ſame Interpretation of them: we are ac­compted righteous before God (ſaith our Article) only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Ieſus Chriſt by faith, and not for our owne works or deſervings. Where, it is to be obſerved that we are not ſaid to be conſtituted and made righteous before God in Iu­ſtification (though ſuch an expreſſion may in a ſenſe be admitted) but only that we are accompted or reputed ſuch. 2. It is not ſaid, that we are accoun­ted righteous with the righteouſneſſe of our Lord and Saviour, no nor yet with his merits, but only11 thus, we are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lord by Faith. i. The merit of Chriſt or of his righteouſneſſe, hath ſo farre pre­valed with God on our behalfe, that by or upon our Faith we ſhall be accounted righteous before him; which (in effect) is the ſame truth we maintaine, viz. that God for Chriſts ſake or Chriſts merits ſake, doth impute our faith for righteouſneſſe unto us, requir­ing nothing more at our hands for Iuſtification. And thus Muſculus expreſſeth himſelfe roundly, Fides reputatur in juſtitiam propter Chriſtum: Faith is accounted for righteouſneſſe for Chriſts ſake: And againe, Commendata debet eſſe haec fides &c. quā conſti­tuit credentibus in Chriſtum propter ipſum, juſtitiae loco imputare (Loc. Com. de Iuſtif. ſect 5) i. This faith ought to be eſteemed of us, &c. which God purpo­ſeth for Chriſts ſake to impute for righteouſneſſe to thoſe that beleeve in him. So Luther alſo, ad Gal. 3.6. Deus reputat iſtam imperfectam fidem ad juſtitiam perfectam propter Chriſtum. i. God for Chriſts ſake accounts this imperfect faith, for perfect righteouſ­neſſe. And Chamier calls remiſſion of ſinnes that righteouſneſſe which is imputed unto us. Remiſſio peccatorum eſt juſtitia imputatat. 3, l. 21. c. 19. ss. 10. And Vrſinus: Idem ſunt juſtificatio & remiſſio pecca­torum. Cat. part 2. Qu. 60, ss. 3. Therefore where­ſoever, whether in the Homilies of our own Church, or in other Authors, we meet with any ſuch expreſ­ſion, as of the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt imputed in Iu­ſtification, we muſt not underſtand this righteouſneſſe in the Letter, proprietie, or formalitie of it, but in the Spirit, or merit of it, to be imputed, Iuſtificamur per Iuſtitiam Chriſti, non perſonae, qua ipſe eſt veſtitus, ſed meriti, quae ſuos veſtit, nobis imputatam. Dr. Pride­aux Lect. 5, ss. 11. And this manner of ſpeech, to put the name of a thing in the proprietie of it, inſtead12 of the valew, worth, benefit or returne of it, is both uſuall and familiar, in ordinary paſſage of diſcourſe amongſt us, and very frequent in the Scriptures. When we ſay a Merchant grew rich by ſuch or ſuch a Commoditie, our meaning is, that he grew rich by the game or returne he made of the commodity: He may be enriched by the Commodity, and yet have never a wht of it with him, or under his hand. So when we ſay ſuch a man grew rich by his place or Office, our meaning plainly is but this, that he grew rich by ſuch gaines or matters of profit as his place or Office afforded him; we do not meane, that his place or Office it ſelf was his riches. So may it be ſaid, that we are juſtified by the righteouſneſſe of Chriſt, and yet not have the righteouſneſſe it ſelfe upon us by imputation or otherwiſe, but only a righteouſ­neſſe procured or purchaſed by it, really and eſſenti­ally differing from it, viz. remiſſion of ſinnes (as will appeare in due time.)

Thus in the Scriptures themſelves, there is no figure or forme of ſpeech more frequent, then to name the thing it ſelfe in the propriety of it, in ſtead of the fruite or effect of it, good or bad, benefit or loſſe, vantage or diſadvantage, merit, or demerit of it.

Thus Job 33, 26. God is ſaid to render unto man his righteouſneſſe, i. The fruite or benefit of his righteouſneſſe, in the favor of GOD, and mani­feſtation of it, in his deliverance and reſtauration: the righteouſneſſe it ſelfe in the propriety of it, can­not be rendred unto him. So Ephe. 6, 8. Whatſoever good thing any man doth, the ſame ſhall he receive of the Lord. i. he ſhall receive benefit and conſideration from God for it. So Revel. 15, 12. Here is the pa­tience of the Saints, and c. 13, 10. Here is the patience and faith of the Saints, i, Here is the benefit and un­ſpeakable13 reward of the patience and faith of the Saints to be ſeene, when the Beaſt and all that wor­ſhip him, or adhere to him ſhall be tormented in fire and brimſtone for evermore, and thoſe that have conſtantly ſuffered for not worſhiping of him, ſhalbe delivered from drinking of that bitter cup. So again,So worke is often put for the wages due to it. Levit. 19, 13. Iob 7, 2. Ior. 22, 13 Eſa. 49.4. &c. Pſal. 128, 2. Thou ſhalt eate the labor of thy hands, that is, the fruite of this labour. So on the other hand, Heb. 9, 28. it is ſaid of Chriſt, that to thoſe that looke for him he ſhall appeare the ſecond time without ſinne: that is, without the guilt or puniſhment of ſinne charged upon him, for otherwiſe, if we take ſinne in the formall and proper ſignification of it, there wil be no difference implied betweene his firſt and ſecond appearance, in as much as he was as free from the defilement or pollution of ſin in his firſt appear­ing, as he can or ſhalbe in his ſecond. So Ezech.