PRIMS Full-text transcription (HTML)

A PETITIONARY REMONSTRANCE, PRESENTED TO O. P. FEB. 4. 1655. By J.G. D.D. A Son, Servant, and Supplicant for the CHƲRCH of ENGLAND: In behalf of many thouſands his diſtreſſed Brethren (Miniſters of the Goſpel, and other good Schollars) who were deprived of all publique imployment, (as Miniſters, or Schollars) by His DECLARATION, JAN. 1. 1655.

Pſal. 122.1. For my Brethren and Companions ſakes.
1 Cor. 13.2. Though I could remove Mountains, and have no chari­ty, I am nothing.
Mark 9.41. Whoſoever ſhall give you a cup of cold water to drink in my Name, becauſe ye belong to Chriſt, verily I ſay unto you, he ſhall not loſe his reward.

London, Printed by Thomas Milbourn for Andrew Crook, at the Green-Dragon in Pauls-Church-yard, 1659.


FInding by better judgements than my own, that this following Petitionary Remonſtrance, to his late Highneſſe O. P. (then in power) was not only a modeſt and charitable Addreſs, ſeaſon­able at that time, and ſafe at all times; but alſo pru­dentially pious and politick; ſo as it may be of good uſe in theſe times; I have preſumed to make it publique; Not but I know, that it was at firſt written with an intent to conceale it from all eyes, but thoſe to which it was at firſt preſented, (which are now buried, as all humane glory will be, in duſt and darkneſſe) yet per­ceiving that, as a Jewel, it ſtill reteined its native luſture; and might well fit the dark, and dubious condition, wherein moſt Miniſters in England, are thought to ſtand (or rather to fall) as to their liberty and livelihood; beſide their reputation, and reſpect; All which ſeem to be at a very low ebb, but on a dangerous precipice, and downfal, If ſome men may have their will; I ſuppoſed this peice, might in no leſſe be acceptable, than ſeaſo­nable to all ingenious Chriſtians, and worthy Readers; who ſtill preſerve any love, and reſpect to the flock of God, and the glory of our Iſrael: I mean the Reformed Religion, of the Church of England, and the faithul Miniſtery of it, to whom I profeſſe my ſelf a moſt affecti­onate friend and ſervant.

§. Whoſe common dangers and diſadvantages, ought with rea­ſon to invite them prudently and ſpeedily to compoſe their private differences, leaſt while they ſcramble, as boyes, for the nuts of petty opinions, and ſome formal ſhadows of Religion, they (and we) loſe the main ſubſtance, and grand eſſentials of it, not only as to holy diſcipline order and government, (which muſt firſt be­gin among Miniſters themſelves) but alſo as to true worſhip, ſound doctrine, and ſober reformation, which they cannot but ſee, and many of them confeſs, to be much upon the decline and abatement, both as to ſanctity and ſolemnity: That I mention not Miniſters own ſecular intereſts, as to honeſt ſubſiſtance, and civil reſpects, which no ingenuous men can well want, and no wiſe man will ſupinely neglect.

§. This is moſt certain, that Miniſters diviſions do mainly advance, as the peoples diſtractions, ſo their own diminution and deſtruction; for their factions and fewds among themſelves, ſerve only as rougher hones, or whetſtones, to ſet ſharper edges on the ſwords and ſythes of their enemies, whoſe deſolating and implacable ſpite, will never be ſtopped or reſiſted, unleſs grave and godly Miniſters, of all ſides, be ſo far bleſſed of God, as (firſt) to recover their reaſon and reputation, in point of piety and po­licy, prudence and charity, by mutual correſpondencies and cloſures, ſo as to concenter in ſome uniform way of Church-Go­vernment and Order: united, they would be as venerable, as, ſcat­tered, they are contemptible, like figures or cyphers, they would ſignifie much in their conjunction, little or nothing in their ſepa­ration.

§. From hence (in the ſecond place) they would appear to the world, not only as petty Presbyters, or Predicants, ſingle and a­part, but as a grave and Venerable Society, and combination of learned and wiſe men, worthy to manage religious concernments, and to enjoy publique incouragements, from thoſe that may have at any time Supreme Power in their hands, who will alwayes have ſo much, either piety or policy in their hearts, as impartially to diſpenſe Juſtice and rewards to able, peaceable, and orderly Mini­ſters, as well as to any other ſort of deſerving men, that are in any Civil or Military imployment.

§. Conſidering, that the Nation of England never owed to any calling of men, more, either of its happineſſe or miſery, than to its Clergy or Miniſtry, under whatever Laws or forms they may paſſe: Indeed they alwayes have had, and ever will have, great influence on the fate and fortunes of any people that are Chriſtian, whoſe conſciences firſt, then their eſtates, at laſt their peace and ſafety (publique as well as private) are ſo far, either maintained or undermined by their Miniſters, as theſe find them­ſelves either favoured and honored, or depreſſed and debaſed, being men, that commonly have not only a good opinion of them­ſelves, but very quick reſentments of things, apt both for their pragmatique, and ſpeaking veine, to have a notable byaſs and ſtroke upon mens minds, and ſo upon publique affairs, by their tongues and pens, beſides their more ſolemn preachings and prayings, with a devout inſinuation into mens and womens con­ſciences, among whom they have ſo much of civil and religious con­verſe.

§. Hence it is, that poverty and deſpiciency caſt upon the Mi­niſtry, makes them either ſilly ſots, and abject ſlaves, or elſe ſo far unquiet, as they are ſenſible of, and diſſatisfied with their conditi­on: And how (indeed) can ſuch men, as think themſelves fit to be publique Pilots of Religion, and Conducters of Souls to hea­ven, be much concerned in the civil peace or ſafety of that Ship, (or Commonwealth) (how rich ſoever it be) where they ſee them­ſelves ſo pittifully imbarqued, and poorly entertained in it, that they may well hope for better prize and pillage in the common ſhipwrack, than for pay or profit, by any voyage that it makes, wherein they are imployed indeed as Predicants, but yet kept under as Mendicants, not permitted to have any joynt ſtock, or ven­ture, either of honor, or eſtate conſiderable.

§. Therefore wiſe men conclude it undoubtedly beſt, in point of State-policy, either to have no able and learned Miniſters at all, whoſe education makes them men of parts and ſpirit; a project which will ſoon amount to no Religion at all, at leaſt no Chriſti­an, and to be ſure, no Reformed Religion, juſtly ſo called; for this (as times now are, full of Religious, as well as civil wars) muſt ever be ſtrongly guarded, and ſtoutly maintained by a Spiritual Militia of well-paid, and well-fed, well-learned, and well-arm­ed Miniſters, elſe London will ſoon run to Rome, and the Thames ſubmit to Tyber, which is the〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉by ſome men.

§. On the other ſide, it will be Policy, no leſs than Piety, to entertain ſuch able Schollars, and worthy Miniſters, ſo as becomes men of good learning, uſeful parts, and exemplary lives, in order to maintain the Reformed Religion, which is the intereſt of this Nation, both ſecular and ſpiritual, civil and conſcientious: To which I may juſtly add, that grateful reſpect which is due to the Sanctity and Majeſty of that God and Saviour, whom able Miniſters powerfully preach, and people ſincerely profeſs, car­rying with them thoſe ineſtimable and eternal bleſſings, which are only to be had ordinarily by thoſe holy duties, which good Mini­ſters worthily perform; and thoſe Venerable Myſteries which they duly celebrate and diſpenſe.

§. All which ſacred and grave concernments of Gods Glo­ry, and mens Souls, your ignorant, mechanick, and hedge­creeping Teachers; your popular, poor, and Paraſitick Preachers; your under-bred and under-fed Orators; your〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉E­qually, illiterate, impudent, and ridiculous Praters, will infallibly proſtitute, not only to Jeſuitick jeers, and Romiſh deiſion, but to all peoples vilifyings. and contempts, who eaſily follow thoſe inbred principles, and impulſes tending to licentiouſneſſe, pro­phaneſſe, or ſuperſtition, which makes all men (without Gods Grace) no leſs oppoſite to the true power of Preachers, (as Au­thoritative Biſhops, and Paſtors of Souls) than to the Power of Preaching; that is, to the Power of Godlineſſe.

§. The aim therefore of this Preface, (full of reſpect and love to that Holy Calling by which my Soul hath profited) is only to per­ſwade all able Schollars, and worthy Miniſters, of all ſides, to ſuch wiſe and Brotherly Agreements among themſelves, as may by joynt Counſels, moſt conduce to their own honor and ſafety, as well as the publique peace and ſatisfaction, leaſt all of them in their diſperſions, and mutual depreſsions (one after another) come to drink of that ſame bitter cup, which ſo many of their Bre­thren lately did, in great meaſure, whoſe cauſe was ſo freely plead­ed by the Author of this Work, while many others with dumb and dry eyes looked on.

§. I paſsionately deprecate the like diſtreſſes falling on any thoſe Miniſters, who were either occaſioners, or pittileſs Spectators of their own Brethrens ſore afflictions. The ambition of my prayer is, that all worthy Miniſters may not only in their private places demean themſelves, in all things, as become learned, pious, and prudent men: But further, that they may be ſo much favoured of God and man, as to have the freedome of publique Synods and Conventions, for their better underſtanding of each other in truth and love: In ſuch conſpicuities, no doubt, they will appear to all good Chriſtians of the Reformed Religion, every way worthy of all publique countenance and incouragement, that Chriſtian Magiſtrates may own and entertain them as Chriſtian Miniſters, ſubjects (indeed) as to Civil Power, in all things juſt and honeſt, yet ſtill as Chriſts Agents, and Gods Embaſſadors, ſent as from Heaven to treat with ſinful mortals, in order to their eternal life and peace, Under which names, (of publique Agents and Em­baſſadors) all perſons are handſomely and honorably received, and uſed, by people not wholly barbarous, although they come but from petty Princes, and mean Seigniories, and (poſsibly) upon buſineſs of no great concernment, further than wonted forms and ceremonies of State, which have uſually more of the craft and policy of Spies, than of the truth and reality of friends. But the deſign of Miniſters is to promote that one thing neceſſary, the great and eternal intereſt of ſaving ſouls.

§. Till Chriſtianity ſeems a fable, and Chriſt Jeſus be thought an Impoſtor, his ſacred Miniſtry and true Miniſters will be in requeſt among good Chriſtians, eſpecially if they would add to the certainty of their meſſage and Commiſsion, the order, unity, and authority of their Ordination or Miſſion, which would be much to their own Honor, and the peoples ſatisfaction, that we might know of whom we have and receive the Myſteries of Chriſts Kingdome. Indeed, by this means, they would every way render, not only their pains and perſons, but their Profeſsion and Calling, moſt conſider­able to the Publique; redeeming themſelves by mutual advice and aſſiſtance, from plebeian ſoftneſſe, as well as ſervility: Their ſo­litude makes them ſo fearful, and ſo ſervile, if they had not been ſcattered, they could not have been thus worried. And if ſome of them had not ſtooped ſo much as Camels to vulgar complian­ces, mean people had not ſo much got upon their backs, or load­ed them (as they have) a long time with poverty, reproach, and contempt, ſo far as in them lies: They will never be conſider­able, till they are unanimous and uniform, in the main of their Religion, Reformation, and Function, which I heartily pray for, as a principal foundation of their own, and all the Nati­ons welfare, which deſerves not to be happy, while their able Mi­niſters are miſerable: Nor can it indeed be other than miſerable, till worthy Miniſters of the Goſpel are happily ſettled, and wor­hily treated. Farewel.


TO HIS HIGHNESSE OLIVER, Lord Protector, &c.


NExt to a juſt Zeal for Gods Glory,The Religious motives to this Addreſſe. and a gratefull recognition of my Saviours ſufferings; the ſenſe I have of Gods undeſerved indulgence to my ſelf, and the Compaſſions I own for other mens Calamities: Theſe have put me upon this adven­ture, of preſenting your Highneſſe with this Peti­tionary Remonſtrance; In which, having no confi­dence of any particular Intereſt in your Highneſſes favour, pro­portionable to ſuch an Interceſſion, I have yet taken upon me ſo much Pious preſumption, as to tender it to your Highneſſe in their Names, and for their ſakes, who are the great Preſervers, and Re­deemers of Men.

§. Which ſervice of Charity I may, and ought to performe with the more ingenuous freedome, becauſe I am not involved in the Diſtreſſe, as to my particular condition, which deſerves to be miſerable, if I had an Heart that could not be moved, or durſt not take the boldneſſe to move your Highneſſe,The ſad occa­ſion of it. Mi­niſters diſtreſ­ſes. in behalf of many my Fathers and Brethren; my Betters and Equals, learned, peace­able, pious, and induſtrious Miniſters, with other good Scholars,2 whom your Highneſſes late Thunder-bolt hath ſo ſtrucken and aſto­niſhed, as they are filled with grief to an Horror, and with de­jection to a Deſpair; (Paſſions (like Hell torments) not conceive­able by any but thoſe, who are involved in the ſame gulf of Ca­lamity!) while they not onely fear, but evidently ſee themſelves (with their neareſt and deareſt Relations) ſuddenly condemned by your Highneſs's late Edict of Jan. 1. (after ſo many years ſuffer­ings) to be for ever either ſadly indigent, or ſordidly imployed; or (which is worſe to ingenuous men) to be ſupinely idle, as having nothing left, or allowed them to do, deſerve or enjoy in any publique way agreeable to their liberal Education, and learned Abilities: Conſequently, little or nothing can be left them to feed, clothe, and comfortably maintain themſelves, and their Families; moſt of them being but poor men as to their temporal eſtates, (though many of their Souls are rich Mines of knowledge, grace, and all Vertue) having chiefly lived heretofore by Gods Bleſſing, and this Nations bounteous Reward upon their Learned Induſtry; in which conſiſteth the whole ſtock, and patrimony of moſt Miniſters and Scholars; whoſe trading for wiſdome commonly marrs their market for all other gain, further than what the Churches Patrimony, and the States Munificence may afford them.

§. Compaſſion no Conſpira­cy.Whoſe Tragique terrors, and impending miſeries ſo imedi­ately, and inevitably menacing them, I cannot but Remonſtrate with a charitable fervour, yet with all due reſpect to your High­neſſe: Not as hereby ſymboliſhing with, or abetting any of theſe my Brethren, in any wayes miſ-becoming Pious and Prudent men; but only as ſympathiſing with ſuch deſerving perſons in their undeſerved conſternations, which they conclude to be ſad fore-run­ners of ſuch dreadful diſtreſſes, as muſt needs drive them, and their whole Families upon the rocks and precipices of utter ruine; unleſs the mercy of God, by your Highneſſes Benignity, be pleaſed ſo to in­terpoſe, as to preſerve them, and theirs from theſe multi-forme miſeries, which are in the face of Famine, and thoſe neceſſities which attend that extreme poverty, with which they are threat­ned.

§. Upon what account Mini­ſters are thus afflicted a­new.All which cannot but be the more grievous to learned, grave, and ingenuous Miniſters, by how much they were now leſſe expected, or upon any new account, as they humbly conceive, de­ſerved by them. As for the old ſcore of Malignity imputed to them, either (for their adherency to the Conſtitutions of the Church of England, or their Loyalty to their Soveraigne) they juſtly hoped; that the many difficulties already ſuſteined by them; the infinite diminutions, which (not in the way of Law, but of Armes and force)3 have exhauſted them. The Iliaedes of miſeries, which for many years have oppreſſed them upon that account, or Cauſe,Their former great ſuffer­ings upon the old account of Malignancy. (in which they were not active, or militant, but onely paſſive, and conſtant, to the perſwaſions of their Conſciences;) which yet expoſed them to the ſpoiling of their goods, to the ſequeſtring of their Eſtates; to the loſſe of their Libraries, which were their Mines and Treaſuries; to the charge and ſqualor of Impriſonments; to long Abſent­ments from their neareſt Relations; or (upon their Releaſemen) to the ſad ſpectacles of their Families, and their own innumerable Ca­lamities, even to extremities of want. Horrors ſufficient (God knowes) to caſt ingenuous, and tender mindes into ſuch Agony's of dejection and deſpair, as nothing but an Angel from Heaven, or ſome ſpecial meaſure of Grace, was capable to preſerve them from curſing the day of their Birth, and the way of their Breeding; yea, from Blaſpheming God, and dying; as Jobs wife moſt unadvi­ſedly adviſed her afflicted Husband, when ſhe ſaw his Integrity was no ſecurity from extreme, and undeſerved miſeries.

§. Their former imputed faults may ſeeme expia­ted by their paſt afflicti­ons.Thoſe innumerable diſtreſſes which have formerly preſſed upon moſt of theſe Miniſters (ever ſince they applyed themſelves to that cauſe, or croſſe rather, on which they have for ſome years paſt been nailed, and crucified) thoſe they hoped might (even in the rigour, and extremity of juſtice) have ſufficed to have expiated any former Offences, or Jealouſies taken up againſt them, during the heat of the late unhappy Warre; which made them criminals, or guilty rather by prejudices, providences, and preventions, than by any depravedneſſe of mindes, or immorality of manners ever proved againſt them.

§. What ever juſt blame,Their Plea as to the point of Malignancy imputed to them. or ſiniſter cenſure they had thus in­curred upon thoſe former ſeores; yet they preſumed, ſince their pu­niſhment had been greater than their iniquity, all would now in the coole of the day have been looked upon as many wayes venial, and excuſable in them. Conſidering,

Firſt, That the cauſe whereto they adhered,11In their Conſciences. and for which they ſuffered, was adopted by them without any perverſe Princi­ples, or ſiniſter ends: onely following (bona fide) that light of Con­ſcience, which ſeemed to them moſt clearly to ſhine from Gods Word, from the practice of Primitive Chriſtians, and the Lawes of the Land: All which taught them Loyalty, as a part of Chriſtian Religion, and non-reſiſtence of lawfull Soveraigne Power, as an indiſpenſable duty of Chriſtian ſubjects; only they had not been Catechiſed in ſuch Salvoes, and State-diſtinctions as af­terwards were found out by other men, who ſeemed no leſſe ten­der, and ſolicitous for their own Conſciences.

Secondly,22As to their patience, and ſilence. Since God ſaw fit to confute their ſecular confidences4 of any cauſe; and to teach them higher wiſdome by afflictions, (which in the juſteſt cauſe of men can never be injuſt, as from the hand of God) they have onely behaved themſelves, as humble, and ſilent ſufferers; patiently enduring: and devoutly undone: Not bitterly querulous; nor pragmatically perturbing the publique tranquillity; living in wayes many of them, (though very able and ample men) as little to be envyed, as much to be pittied; taking great pains for ſmall gain, contented with ſuch poor pittances, as are the refuſe of others, lately their inferiours, but now poſſeſſed of their livings; out of which they hardly allow to their ſequeſtred Brethren their miſerable Fifts. Only their humility and content made every con­dition a competency; yea they rejoyced in their obſcurity, as hoping it was accompanied, with leſſe envy and more ſafety.

§. Their Plea for the bene­fit of the Act of Oblivion.Yet after all theſe meritorius miſeries, ſo modeſtly endured; after the noiſes and tumult of warr ſo much allayed: after an ACT of OBLIVION, happily paſſed (which they ſay owed much to your Highneſs's equanimity and policy) after other men of all ſorts, have been permitted to enjoy the benefit of Compoſition and reſtitution to their eſtates; except only Miniſters to their Eccleſiaſtical livings; (Their Sequeſtrations proving Deprivations for the moſt part: and their Purgatory is become an Hell.) After the Storme was well over, and the bitterneſſe of death ſeemed paſt; after theſe poor Miniſters had gained ſome little planck or rafter, poſſiblely a little refuſe living: or a Curateſhip, or a School; or a Lecture, or ſome Chaplains place in a Gentlemans houſe, by which to ſave themſelves from utter ſhip­wrack and ſinking; yet ſtill (beyond any other ranck of men, of the ſame perſwaſions) they are now alarumed a freſh; expoſed to new conflictings with that armed man; forced to undergo again, the heat and burthen of the day, as to mans wrath, and jealouſly; whoſe very mercys may ſeem cruelty, and their ſparing of their lives thus long, great ſeverities;Their Diſtreſ­ſes. more bit­ter than Death. while they are now brought, not to the Tarpeian Rock, whence by a ſudden principitation, an end might be put to all their miſeries, with their lives; But like Prometheus, they are bound alive with fatal Chains to the mountain Caucaſus: where condem­ned to be idle, the vulture of famine, & all worldly calamities muſt be ever preying upon the bowels of themſelves, their Wives and Chil­dren, being only ſuffered to ſurvive their miſeries, as men hung a­live in Chaines, and forced with their relations either to begge, ſteal, or ſtarve. § Thus, thus, after the voyce of peace, was again heard in the land, and every man had begun to gather up his affairs, from the ſcattering of warr: yet now are theſe poor men, Sequeſtred Miniſters, and other ejected Scholars, condemned to be utterly caſt out of all as unſavory ſalt, by a moſt ſevere abdication, and as it were poſtliminious proſcription, forbidding any man to receive them5 by any hoſpitable or charitable reception, ſo as to officiate, and merit any ſubſiſtence in their callings, either as Preachers, or Teach­ers, though it be but of children in a Blefry, or private Family.

A Tragedy (my Lord) ſo Tragical in the firſt aſpect of it,The dread­fulneſſe of the Tragedy, which threa­tens them. and ſo killing in the letter, that in earneſt if (as a deſolating ſtorme) it ſhould be rigorouſly executed, upon ſo many learned and Godly men, together with the many modeſt Matrones their Wives, and their many hopefull, as well as harmeleſſe children, it is not poſſi­ble to expreſſe the bitter cryes, and ſad lamentations, with which it will fill the land, and all mens Hearts, that have any thing Chri­ſtian or humane in them.

§ So that if your Highneſs ſhould be inexorable, and unremiſſive, as one that neither hears nor regards, the cryes of ſo many poore Creatures: If their teares flowing night and day, ſhould only fall upon flints and nether-milſtones, as to other mens hearts, (where iniquity abounding,Their re­courſe to the Divine Mercy. charity muſt needs grow cold) there will be no way left but to fly to God; Their juſt and bitter complaints, will certain­ly peirce the Heavens; and move his compaſſion, who is a lover of Man-kind, both in grace, and nature; whom nothing more provoke to hear the Prayers of the Oppreſſed then the deafneſſe of men: Humane (or rather unhumane) cruelties by a kind of Antipathy or repercuſſion excite the divine mercies, as things that meet with the hardeſt repulſe, and reſiſtances downwards, do uſually make the greateſt rebounde and aſcent upwards, ſo do the cryes of the deſo­late and greatly afflicted, when not regarded by men in Power.

§. Be pleaſed to know,Their truſt in God for Grace. that the Faith of theſe good men (who no doubt are dear and precious to God as his Jewels) is yet ſo much above their feares, and ſufferings as to believe that the Lords Eare is not heavy, that he cannot heare, nor his hand ſhortned, that he will not helpe thoſe who truſt in him, and cry unto him in the bitterneſs of their ſouls: though the Vine, and Olive, and Fig-tree fail them, yet God will not: though the arme of fleſhly power, be either withered and ſhrunck; or ſireched out againſt them, and lie heavy upon them, yet God will not utterly forſake thoſe, whoſe hearts are not onely upright before him: but endued by him, with many excellent, and ſpeciall gifts, uſefull for his glory, and his Churches good; beſides thoſe many Chriſtian graces, which are dayly increaſed, as well as excerciſed by ſuch ſore afflictions, and fiery trials; wherein they know as the Lord can purify them, ſo he can protect them, either from them, or in the midſt of them, as he did the Three Children when they were caſt into the Furnance ſeven times hotter then ordinary; he can and will ſave their precious Souls though the dunghill be their Death bed; as is now threatned to many of theſe poor, but Pious men.


§ Yet we know the Lord can ſtir up ſome mercifull Obediahs to feed theſe diſtreſſed Prophets in their caves,For wayes of Relief. and Obſcurities; and if ſuch mercifull men be periſhed from the earth, either for want of ability, or heroick charity, yet there may be ſome mercifull ra­vens (men otherwiſe rapacious and tenacious enough) who ſhall feed theſe hungry Elias's, to the juſt reproach of thoſe men, who being great pretenders to Godlyneſs, and reformation, (the truth of which is inſeparable from charity, reliefe of the poor, and releaſing the oppreſſed) do (yet) deny bread to men of underſtanding; and inge­nuous imployment to perſons of ſuch holy, and honeſt, and uſefull induſtry; and this in a land of plenty, not only for bodily food, but alſo for ſpirituall worke, where the harvei of ſouls is great and able labourers not too many; good Scholars being as neceſſary as Souldiers: and faithfull Miniſters, no leſſe deſerving their Salaries than Military men; Theſe will have their wages though they do not much work; the other would be glad to have leave to work, that they might deſerve and enjoy their wages.

§ But becauſe we muſt not tempt God by expectance of miraculous reliefes,Their re­courſe to his Highneſſes Clemency. till we have tryed all wayes of ordinary providence, and find them obſtructed; I have thought it my duty, to uſe this moſt probable meanes to obteine your Highneſſes favour, toward theſe worthy men; that they may have leave to tread out the corne, without having their mouths thus muzled; that they may, as well Preach, as live Chriſt crucified, ſhewing others the benefit of his Croſſe, as well as bearing it themſelves; That they and theirs may not be ſtarved for want of bodily Food, while they are able, and willing to diſpenſe the Bread of Heaven, and food of Souls, which is the glorious Goſpel of Jeſus Chriſt: being Perſons of no ſcandalous convictions, either for inabilities, or immorali­ties: Having no other imputation on them, but onely ſome State-jealouſies, and Political-Diſputes. In which, although they may poſſibly be ſtill leſſe ſatisfied in their Judgements and Conſciences; yet they know how with prudence to be ſilent, and with peaceableneſſe to live in all Godlineſſe and Honeſty.

For ſuch men,Plea for ſuch worthy men, preſumed not unacceptable to his High­neſſe. and Miniſters, why ſhould I be afraid, by a Charitable, and in-offenſive importunity, to ſolicite either your Highneſſes Clemency, (if they may have ſeemed heretofore to deſerve ſuch multiplied and renewed ſeverities) or your Equa­nimity and Juſtice? if they never have, nor do deſerve ſo hard meaſure as this return both of their ſinne and puniſh­ment, after they once had publique Pardon, and never ſince Offended. This I do with the more courage, and confi­dence, becauſe I well conſider how bold and welcome we poor7 ſinfull wretches are to the Throne of Gods Grace, when we bring no other plea for Mercy, (as from our ſelves) but onely the ſenſe of our miſeries; the conſcience of our ſins, and the confeſſion of our unworthineſſe.

§. Nor are the timorous reſerves, or over cautious,The cautions ſilence of many, in be­halfe of theſe Miniſters. and un­charitable coſtiveneſſe of other men, any damp or remora, but rather a ſpurr, and impulſe to me. I ſee how many of all ſorts dayly paſse by the diſtreſſed Miniſters of England, as the Levite, Prieſt and Phariſee did by the wounded man, unconcerned: afraid to have any regard to them, or any compaſſion for them; what their charity dares onely whiſper to themſelves; or, it may be, with ſome hard ſpeeches, and odious reflections, jealouſly ſuggeſt to your Highneſſe that have I undertaken, by Gods help, freely, and fully, to repreſent to You, that ſo your Highneſſe may not be ignorant, nor remorſeleſſe as to their calamitous condition; which is like to be ſuch, that of all Men, they are indeed con­demned to be the moſt miſerable in this world; if the want of all things can make thoſe miſerable, who want not the continual feaſt of a good Conſcience, and the ſupport of Gods Spirit to be patient.

§. But, becauſe I know that great Statiſts, and wiſe Polititians,Two Reaſons of State con­ſidered, as grounds of the Declarati­on againſt Miniſters. do not lightly apply ſo publique, and ſharp ſeverities in the method of Government, but either they aime at, Firſt, exemplary puniſhing former Offences: Or, ſecondly, at preventing future Inſolencies, which may endanger publique ſafety: (For private Feuds, and perſonal deſpights, or revenges upon any men, that are ſubject to their power, are impotencies, or paſſions, moſt un­worthy of great and valiant Spirits, and not incident to them, becauſe much below them.) §. Give me leave to Remonſtrate to your Highneſſe, That the exerciſe of ſuch Charity, Clemency, and Equanimity, as is deſired by me, for ſuch worthy Mini­ſters, and other Scholars, can no way either, Firſt, abate that Prudent Juſtice, which muſt puniſh Offenders, to preſerve the In­nocent in peace: Nor ſecondly, can it incourage, for the future, ſuch licentiouſneſſe, or preſumption, as may any way endanger that publique tranquillity which your Highneſſe profeſſed to me was your impartial, and higheſt deſigne in Government, in which all honeſt men of all Principles, and Perſwaſions might enjoy them­ſelves in peace.

§. Firſt, As to the firſt point of punitive State-policy;Firſt, as to pu­nitive Juſtice for paſt Offen­ces. I hum­bly conceive it was not ſo much an Act of Juſtice and Legality. as of Military caution, and prevention, while the Intereſt of Parties were ſadly divided in Warre; which at firſt inflicted ſo great loſſes and reſtraints, as upon others, ſo upon many Learned,8 Grave, and godly Miniſters; not as Penalties, but Securities. And certainly, thoſe principles, or perſwaſions, which firſt lead them to undergo ſo many Miſeries, by the improſperity of that Cauſe, to which they choſe to adhere, (holding themſelves ob­liged thereto in Conſcience by the Lawes of God and Man;) theſe can in no Juſtice of God or Man, deſerve to be alwayes ſo ſorely puniſhed. However (poſſibly) in reaſon of State, it might for a time be rather neceſſary, than juſt, that they ſhould be reſtrained, or weakned, flagrante bello; during the hot fits, and Paroxyſms of war, not quia nocuerunt, but ne nocere poſſint.

§. Paſt Offences more than ſuf­ficiently pu­nished.Yet when this Rivalry, jealouſie, and conteſt by Armes was once decided, and publique Oppoſitions were reduced to pub­lique Subjections, certainly ſuch as were at firſt ſufferers onely by way of caution, and prevention, do not want very juſt Pleas now for their liberty, and preſent indemnitie, notwithſtanding their ſuppoſed Conſtancy to their former Principles: of which, as no wiſe man is concerned to be curiouſly inquiſitive, ſo they cannot be injurious to any publique Power, and Peace, ſo long as they are modeſtly ſmothered, and in-offenſively ſilenced in their own Breſts or Conſciences, whoſe Dictates, your Highneſſe knows, are not under any mans Empire:Whether mens private Perſwaſions are to be made pub­lique Offen­ces. The ableſt men cannot change their Opinions when they will, nor will honeſt men pretend a Change where is none. Since then their former Sufferings were made uſe of for the ſecurity of that ſide, which now prevailes ſufficiently over them, as to the outward man. Since their preſent Conſtancy proceeds not from Factious pertinacy, (which is ſoon either ſubdued, or ſoftned by ſufferings) but onely from Conſciencious Integrity, which is, in Wiſe, and Good men, as a Diamond, unmalleable and invincible. Laſtly, ſince this is ſo modeſtly carried, as no way either invades, or affronts the pre­valent Power, or publique Peace and Safety. Surely ſuch men may well appear rather the Objects of juſt Indulgence and Re­miſſion, than of any further renewed rigours, and endleſſe coer­cions; eſpecially ſince their Principles kept private, (as they are) can do no hurt; and their Miniſterial abilities being made publique, may do much good.

§ Adde to this;His Highneſſe declared ten­derneſſe, as to Liberty of Conſcience. what your Highneſſe hath highly pretended to, and much ſought to gaine beliefe in from the World; That no man or Magiſtrate, is more indulgent to reall liberty of conſcience; none more tender of making rude Scrutinies into mens hearts, (which are Gods Prorogative and reſerve) or of laying either rigid impoſitions upon mens Conſciences, or penaltys on their opinions; when their Converſation is ſuch, as becometh the Goſpell and our Lawes; neither impious nor injurious, neither idle nor Pragmatick. 9All which being granted, I cannot under favour ſee how it can con­fiſt with your Highneſſes many other Declarations, and Profeſſions, to preſerve rational and Religious liberty unviolated. How then (I be­ſeech you) ſhould the conſtancy of theſe mens private perſwaſions, joyned with honeſty, and innocency of life, in any equity, render them ſo burthenſome, and intolerable to the Common-wealth, as to exclude them for ever, from all civil, and Sacred Induſtry, in ſuch wayes of honeſt ſubſiſtence, as are ſutable to their education, and abilityes?

§ Who doubts, but that in civill addictions, and adherences,His Highneſſe approving of mens conſtan­cy to their Principles in his own Inte­reſt. even your Highneſſe doth paſſionately deſire, and highly approve ſuch ſervants, ſubjects, friends, and followers, who are not upon ſiniſter, but ſincere reſpects, ſo devoted to your Safety, Honor, Power, and Intereſt, that they will not eaſily ſuffer themſelves to be re­moved from them, whereto they once have applied themſelves, not more with prudence, (which will onely hold in the Summer, and proſperity of your affairs, and family) than with conſcience, love, and gratitude: which will laſt in Winter and adverſity; as the life and ſap of Trees, doth when their leaves are faln; That vir­tue which is commendable in your Highneſſes caſe, cannot be blameable in anothers, though an enemy, becauſe it is a virtue. The Antiqua­ted, or obſo­lete Cauſes of many Mini­ſters ſuffer­ings.

§ Nor is it to be forgotten, as to the examining, of the point of Juſtice in many excellent Miniſters, and other Scholars paſt ſufferings; That long before the ſcene of our civill affaires was thus altered, and ſetled, as now it is, under your Highneſſes Govern­ment, many of them were Silenced, Sequeſtred, and Ejected, out of their Livings, preferments, and Fellowſhips, meerly upon the ſcore, of I know not what, Occaſionall Covenants, new Ʋowes, and State Engagements; which were but temporary Stratagems; ſer­ving ſuch various, and Particular Intereſts, as in their times were ſometimes on foot, and prevalent in their partyes and deſignes, All which having been long ſince juſtly antiquated, and aboliſhed, as to their ſecular virtue, and civill influence; it were great pity, they ſhould ſtill continue their deſtructive power, upon any good mens conſciences, Eſtates or Libertyes: as Comets are thought to do their malignancy, long after they are vaniſhed, and diſ-ap­pear: What juſtice can there be, that men ſhould continue un­der penaltyes, when the partiall cauſes, or temporary occaſions, of their ſufferings, are quite ceaſed, and ſuppreſſed; nor did they ſuffer at firſt upon any morall, but onely politick conſiderations, as they were then preſented, by ſeverall Acters on the Engliſh Stage.

Now the Lawes, both of Tragedies, and Comedies do permit that thoſe Actors, which in one ſcene, may ſeem judged, beaten,10 bound and killed, may in another act returne to be free, and in favour, according as the viciſſitudes of humane affaires, doe variouſly entertaine this life of man.

§ If it be objected,Objection, as to ſome Mini­ſters unquiet carriage Anſwered. (to make all Miniſters, of that unſucceſfull adherency, ſeeme dangerous, and odious,) that ſome of them enjoying common freedom, and protection under your Highneſſe Government; have yet behaved themſelves other wayes, then became pious, peaceable, and prudent men, under power: yea, and contrary to that wiſdome, which affliction ſhould have taught them, in reference to both publique, and private peace; Yet no juſtice will permit, that ſome mens pragmatick petulancie, (who may poſſibly have more breath of paſſion in their ſailes, then balaſt of diſcre­tion in the hold of their judgements,) ſhould be imputed to all men, of that learned Tribe; who may be of the ſame perſwaſion, but of far more prudence, and moderation.

§ Nothing ſeemes harder meaſure,No Juſtice will puniſh many inno­cents for a few nocents. and remoter from Chri­ſtian Juſtice, than for a few mens ſakes, (who may be infected with the itch, or leproſy, of impatient, and turbulent ſpirits for which they deſerve to be confined, till they are healed) to ſhut up all others, who were not at all infected with, or are cured of their diſeaſes; It is great pity, ſome mens inordinate activity, ſhould condemne others, to utter idleneſſe; and exclude ſuch able men even from thoſe mean imployments, (as to the emolument) to which they have cheerfully condeſcended, (ſince the frowns, and burden of the times, have greatly depreſſed them) in order to maintaine themſelves, and their familyes: which muſt be un­done, if theſe may do nothing, for which they are apt, and proper.

§ And ſince all proportions of both divine,Why Mini­ſters are pu­nished more than any men of the ſame Principles. and humane juſtice do aſſure us, that thoſe opinions or perſwaſions, by which no private advantages are obteined, nor publique dangers threat­ned, cannot be ſuch a plague, diſeaſe, or Gangrene, as are onely to becured, by theſe diſpiritings, and exhauſtings, which muſt needs follow extreme idleneſſe, and indigence; wiſe men cannot ſufficient­ly admire, what Councel or deſigne, puts your Highneſs upon execu­ting thoſe high ſeverities, only upon men of literature; Miniſters; & other Scholars; denying them all ſuch ingenious libertyes to ſubſiſt, by their honeſt callings; which yet are granted fully & freely to all other men; even the meaneſt tradeſmen, and mechanicks; who are of the ſame principles, and prone to be much more active in aſſerting them; and the wonder is the greater, becauſe your Highneſſe hath in my hearing as well as many others profeſſed, an impartiall value, of all able and good Miniſters; much commending ſome of the Epiſcopall way; yea, and almoſt preferring them, for their Graces and Gifts.


Laſtly, becauſe your Highneſſe is pleaſed to own your ſelfe, not onely as Protector in generall; but as the ſpeciall Patrone of both the Ʋniverſities, and in them of all good Literature, and Scholars, by being Chancellour of one of them, greater degree of favour may be hoped.

§ I profeſſe to plead for no Miniſters, or Scholars,Plea for Mini­ſters, as to their Innocen­cy, and mul­titudes. that are ſcan­dalouſly criminous, or morally noxious; ſuch I beleive and hope few of theſe men are, who now fall under the milſtone of your Highneſſes late Declaration, which muſt needs grinde them to pow­der; If it excecute what it threatens.

§ But if the moſt of them were perſons, leſſe commendable; or for ſome miſdemenors, juſtly blamable, yea, and by law puniſhable; yet ſtill the very multitude of them, is no ſmall Plea; If not for totall impunity, yet for ſuch clemency, as may not ſeeme an outrage of ſeverity, and extremity of juſtice: what is more uſual in civill and Chriſtian States, than to ſuffer the edge of Juſtice to be blun­ted, and the ſtroke of it defeated, rather then over-ſharply executed againſt the many Crouds: of offenders though they cannot oppoſe the ſiroakes of juſtice by force, yet they do as it were ſmother, and oppreſſe them; pinioning the armes even of juſt power with the cords of a man; the ſofter ſenſe of humanity; and, which is more, of Chriſtian pity; we find our bleſſed Saviour had more then once compaſſion on the multitude; not onely as neceſſitous, but as numerous.

§ Both which number, and neceſſity, multitude and miſery, do here ſo meet together, in the Objects of my Plea, and Petition, preſented before your Highneſſe, that your eye could not but affect your heart, if you could at one view, behold the great quan­tities, and deplorable companies, of venerable Miniſters, and other ingenious Scholars, together with their dependances, and relations, (as wives, children, ſervants, and neceſſitous kindred) all which do in­finitely dread, and earneſtly deprecate thoſe miſeryes, which hang over their heads; if the Fathers or cheif of their Families, be for­bidden to work in their callings; which is to forbid them all to eat or to live, at leaſt honeſtly.

§ I am confident ſo rufull a ſpectacle, (even amidſt the pomp,The ſad ſpe­ctacle of Mini­ſters, and their Families, who are many thouſands ready to pe­rish. and ſplendor of your court) would more move your Highneſſe, to compaſſionate them, than the proſpect of Xerxes his Army did that Great King, when he wept to think how a few years would moulder to duſt ſo vaſt a number of valiant men; for theſe laſt muſt periſh by the Common Law, and inevitable fate of mortality; but thoſe many and good men, for whom I am bold to intercede, muſt it ſeemes be undone, and die meerely by their arbitrary neceſſityes, to which your Highneſſes Declaration onely doth drive, and condemne them.


§ And which way, I beſeech your Highneſſe, without a miracle can theſe men by any unwonted induſtry, get livelyhood for them­ſelves, and their families! whoſe number cannot amount to leſſe then, Twenty or Thirty thouſand Soules; conſidering, that above halfe of the Miniſters, and Scholars, of England, and Wales, have been, upon one account or other, Sequeſtred from their livings, (which are above Nine Thouſand) beſides Fellowſhips, or Free-Schooles; many other alſo have been wholy deprived of their Prebendaryes, Denaryes, Biſhopricks, and Higheſt Dignityes. in the Church; who upon the firſt Figure, or Head, cannot be leſſe then Six, or Seaven thouſand perſons; to each of which if we adde but four more, (which is but a ſmall Family or retinue) they cannot but exceed the proportion I have calculated.

§ And here,Plea from his Highneſſes conjugal, and paternal ſenſe. my Lord, being your ſelfe reputed both a loving Husband, and a tender Father, I cannot but believe, that you are (as well as I am) extremely ſenſible of theſe conjugal, and peternal remorſes, which gnaw the very bowels, and pierce the Souls of all ingenuous men in behalf of their neareſt, and deareſt Relations; when they ſhall ſee theſe involved in the ſame calamityes with themſelves; and for their ſakes, to drinke as deep of the bitter cup, as their chiefes or principals; A Gracious Chriſtian may with gene­rous courage encounter his own death, as concluſive of his own miſeries, and his enemies malice: but who can endure to be ſpecta­tors of thoſe lingring torments, wherewith famine muſt kill, their Wives, and Children; Hagar went away, that ſhe might not be a ſad ſpectatrix of her Son Iſmaels death for want of Food.

§ As the Laws of humanity teach us to abhor ſuch Dreadful Severityes,God abhors dreadful ſeve­rities on the innocent, and the nocent that are nu­merous. falling upon our Relations; ſo the God of Mercy would have them avoided in the juſteſt executions; that not the Children, and ſo not the Wives, ſhould beare the iniquity of the Fathers, or Husbands; yea Gods compaſſion pleaded againſt the paſſion, and peeviſhneſſe of Jonah for his ſparing Niniveh, (though he had denounced his wrath, and limited a day for protracting the Execution) even from the many Innocent Children, that were in that City; who the leſſe they can ſpeak the louder they do cry, by a ſilent, yet potent eloquence to that God, of whoſe mer­cyes we are aſſured by many Holy, and happy Tantologies, that they endure for ever.

§ Such Pious, parentall, and pathetick motives here preſent them­ſelves to your Highneſſe, as from others, ſo from thoſe, whoſe Oratory is onely in their cryes, and tears; who as tender Branches, muſt needs wither, both as to feeding, and breeding, if the main root, or ſtem of their Fathers, be either barked round, or ſtub­bed up, having nothing to do, and nothing to enjoy; I ſhall not13 need to adde, that no argument will be more Odiouſly, Bitterly,The triumph of Papiſts over the Married, Reformed, and Impove­rished Clergy. and unanſwerably urged by the Papiſts, with their Prieſts, and Jeſuites, againſt the reformed maried Clergy of England, then this; to ſee ſomany of them with their Wives, and Children, thus expo­ſed to moſt ſordid, and ſhamefull neceſſities, and indeed to perfect beggery; (for many ſuch ſpectacles, my own eyes have ſeen, and my heart deplored) And this in a land of plenty, in a time of peace, and after ſo many high proteſtations, to maintaine the proteſtant, reformed Religion, and incourage the Miniſters of it.

§ Thus farre (my Lord) I have led on my Petition for your High­neſſe Clemency, by the limits of punitive civill Juſtice; without making any unhanſome breach, or incroachment (I hope) upon its juſt power, and proportions, in regard to either the juſt offences, or preſent merits, of thoſe learned Scholars, and worthy Miniſters, for whom I have taken this boldneſſe to plead; and in them for their Wives, and Children; whoſe numbers, and innocency, are capable to diſarme the rigors of juſtice; although thoſe had been actually de­ſerved by their Husbands and Fathers, whoſe offences for the moſt part have been and are more in their perſwaſions, then their practiſes; in other mens jelouſies, more then their own activities; and ſo their puniſhments hitherto have been rather cautionary, then expiatory.

§ Nor, (in the ſecond place) will this my humble requeſt,Second rea­ſon of State urged, for the care of future faſety, and publique peace, An­ſwered. any way (I truſt,) ſeeme leſſe conſiſtent with your Highneſſe Ʋigilancy, and Frudence, for the future Peace, and Safety of the Publique; both which in all civil ſocieties, where men have any ſenſe or enjoyment of things beyond Beaſts, and Slaves, are beſt preſerved as by juſtice, ſo by equanimity, and gentleneſs; yea, and they are ſooneſt blaſted by two great ſharpneſſe, and ſeveritys, which drawing upon the very Lees or dregs of juſtice, (ſowred with jealouſies, and revenges) muſt needs ſavour much, even of injuſtice; For puniſh­ments are not more due to offenders, for their malicious Treſpaſſes againſt the publique welfare, then ſome mercy and moderation, are due to thoſe common miſtakes, frailties, and infirmities of life, which oft overttake even worthy men, not ſo much by their fault, as by a kind of fate, their misfortunes or afflictions being rather tentative of their virtues, then Punitive of their Vices; whoſe even finfull infirmities,Rigorous ſeve­rities enemies to publique tranquillitie. (many times complicated with their miſe­ries God himſelfe is pleaſed ſo far to conſider, as in the mideſt of judgement to remember Mercy; and even to puniſh them more with the relentings of a Father, then the exactions of a Judge; mercy, benignity, and compaſſion being no leſſe beams of Divine Glory, and Majeſty, than are Juſtice, Power, and Soveraignty: Theſe are as the Rubies; thoſe as the Diamonds of that Crown, which God14 wears, and indulgeth to Rulers on earth, as their Royal Coronets, whoſe extremities and rigors of juſtice, muſt never overlay, or exclude, their Chriſtian charity, and moderation: The want of which St. Paul tels us is not the diminution, but the annihilation of a Chriſtian; yea of a cheif Apoſtle; For without Charity I am nothing.

§ I know the grand Intereſt of publique peace, and ſafety, (which ſeeme the chiefe ground, and ends of that late Declaration) are not in reaſon, or policy, to be neglected, by ſuch as ſeek the reputation of prudent ſtatiſts, and their own preſervation.

But (my Lord) what wiſe man will ſo farr injure the opinion,No publique danger from a few unarm­ed Miniſters. gene­rally had of your Highneſſes Potency, and Ʋigilancy in Government, as to think, that neither your Highneſſe, nor the Common-wealth, can be in a poſture of Peace, and Safety, unleſſe ſo many learned and unarmed men; many of them Aged, and every way as unapt for warr, almoſt as their Wives, and Children, unleſſe (I ſay) theſe be quite undone, by being ſilenced, and ejected, from all kind of Miniſteriall, and Scholaſticall imployments, which are onely ſutable to their breeding, and ability, and competent to maintaine them.

§ If any man ſhall ſuggeſt, that ſuch methods of extremityes, and deſpaires, are the proper Antidotes, if not to expell the poyſon (as they eſteem it) of opinions, already diffuſed in ſome Miniſters ſpirits, and veines; yet to ſtop at leaſt the ſpreading, and contagions of them in other men; My anſwer is; That, even in this point of State policy, (a depth through which few men can well wade to Heaven) I doubt not, but your Highneſſe with others, hath ob­ſerved; That ſome either leſſe ſeaſonable, and diſcrete rigors, or more immoderate ſeverities, heretofore uſed againſt thoſe Miniſters, (whoſe pious, and peaceful Labours were uſeful to the Church of God, though their judgements in all things were not exactly conformable, to the then preſent conſtitution of England) even thoſe aſperityes have been thought great diſadvantages to the peace, and ſafety of thoſe Gover­nors, and that government, which then prevailed.

§ Rigorous exactions,Whether ri­gorous de­preſſions be the way of Safety. and ſuperfluous ſeverities, are alwaies weak Reformers of wilfull men, much more of wiſe men; eſpecially as to their principles, and perſwaſions; and theſe not onely inbred, but inveterate; ingrafted by education; abetted by conſcience; and confuted onely by the ſucceſſes, and the proſperities of thoſe, from whom they have ſuffered many effects, of anger, and hoſtility; but few impreſſions either of reaſon, or Religion, of equity, or charity; Tru­culent methods of Government, (ſuch as were ſometimes not more exceſſively, then unſeaſonably uſed in the low Countries, by the Duke of Alva, and others,) where people are not more unſetled, then in many things unſatiſfied, do but heighten Animoſities; by a kind of antiperiſtaſis; (as Salt, and Snow, to water) fixing, and congealing,15 the malice, and deſpite, as well as the opinions, and perſwaſions, of men; all which would ſooner diſperſe, and evaporate in milder wayes of humanity, and moderation; as the ſpirits of all things do ſooneſt and moſt exhale, in warmer ſeaſons, than in cold.

§ Nor are ſuch methods, of publique rigors,Rigours do not exſtin­guish diffe­rent Princi­ples. any whit more pro­bable to hinder, or ſuppreſſe, the feared derivation, and traduct­tion, of the like principles, and paſſion to others: For your Highneſſe well knowes; That all publique, and frequent ſufferings, in perſons in any repute for Piety and Learning (If born with Chriſtian, courage, and conſtancy) do onely move the greater pity, and compaſſion to them in the minds of the ſpectaters, and hearers of their calamities; which are by many decryed, by moſt ſuſpected, for oppreſſions of power, rather than juſt puniſhments, or convicti­ons; Such ſad and Tragick ſpectacles, ſolicite mens curioſities, more ſeriouſly to ſearch the grounds of ſo great conſtancy; which Juſtin Martyr tells by his own experience, was a great occaſion, of many Heathens converſion to Chriſtianity in primitive times; when nothing invited the world, to regard Chriſtians, but onely their mutual love, together with their patience, and perſeverance in their way; not as ſullen, and obſtinate, (which Marcus Aurelius, falſly imputes to them) but as deeply perſwaded of the truth, and merit of their cauſe or profeſſion; of which others grew ſo inquiſitive, when they ſaw them ſo reſolute.

§ From hence, by a native kind of ſoftneſſe;Yea, they ad­vance them a­mong the Vulgar, by be­ing perſecu­ted. mens hearts being as it were melted, they eaſily runne into that mould, or frame, which firſt they pity, then they enquire, afterwards they commend, at laſt they admire; both for the magnanimity of the ſufferers, and ſuppoſed merit of the cauſe; to which they are ſooner engaged, then they well underſtand it, by a pricipitancy of affections; which (like a quick tide, or current) carryes them down the ſtream before their ſailes are well ſpread, or trimmed: For they preſume; That Cauſe hath ſomething in it more than Humane, which beares up wiſe, and good men, ſo much above humane frailty, worldly principles, and ſecular pleaſures; At laſt the inſinuatings of mans affections, and paſſions, (like the motion of Screwes) ſecretly, but powerfully ray­ſeth their minds, not onely to approve the cauſe, but to emulate the heroick conſtancy of ſuch men; which by degrees, they grow ſo much to love, and applaud on one ſide, that they eaſily arrive, to hating of the other, and to bitter reprochings of thoſe, that are the implacable Authors, of ſuch mens ſufferings; in whom they thinke virtue it ſelfe, with Grace, and Truth, yea, Chriſt him­ſelfe, and God doth ſuffer; Thus opinions, true or falſe, uſually grow, and ſpread more; yea, and take deeper rooting in mens hearts, not only by the reputation of their authors, and abetters,16 but alſo by their being pruned, and cropped, with ſharper, and ſeverer hands.

§ Your Highneſſe cannot be Ignorant,The firſt means to allay different Par­ties, & Princi­ples in State. that the beſt medicine to allay the humors, and inflamations of civil diſſentions in matters of Opinion, is of the ſame temper, and confection, with that, (which Tacitus) and other wiſe men, preſcribe againſt cancerous, rumors, and ſcandalous libels, (which are frequently vented againſt perſons in power, by the eructations of envious and ambitious Spirits, as thoſe miſts and foggs, which from valleys, and loweſt bottoms, uſually riſe in the face of Heaven) Agniti adoleſcunt rumores; ſpreti exoleſcunt; If they be too much owned, and oppoſed, like torrents or land floods ſtopped in their courſes, they gain force and credit; If they be neglected, like Squibs, they ſpend their force and fury, without any danger or blemiſh to Princes or States; who by a generous indifferency diſcover, not onely a juſt deſpiciency of ſuch follies; but great confidencies of their own Integrity; and ſuch a magnanimity as not being eaſily diſcompoſed, cannot be wanting to the maine points of Safety, and Power.

§ Nothing,The Mutuall cruelties of the Guelphes, and Gibelines. we ſee, kept up thoſe bloody, and bitter warres, (or aſſaſinations, and maſſacrings rather) between the Guelphs and Gibe­lines; the Imperiall and Papall factions; for more then one hundred years in Italy, and other places, but onely repeated, and exorbi­tant revenges upon thoſe, who had no other way injured each other, but by their different perſwaſions; one preferring the Popes Eccleſiaſticall, the other the Emperours civill Power in the Empire; From this principle each party was cruelly vigilant to improve the viciſſitudes of Power, & what ever advantages they could get at any time; which they uſed or abuſed rather, not as lenitives to compoſe differences, and recover the publique or common tranquillity; but as corraſives or ſarcaſmes, to eat out and wholly extirpate the rem­nant of the adverſe party; to the ruing of many worthy men, many noble Families, flouriſhing Cities, and opulent Countries.

§ Doubtleſſe,Clemency, & Equanimity, the beſt cal­mers of pub­lique ſtormes as to mens minds. not the bluſtrings of Boreas, but the calme Sun-ſhine of generall tranquillity ſhining equally, and indifferently, on all honeſt, able, and peaceable men; in any Nation or community, makes them ſooneſt forget their paſt ſufferings; to lay down their fewdes, to compoſe their differences, and to conform to that generall quiet of which they ſee, they may upon faire termes, have their ſhare; Thus the Flints of civill Factions, are moſt eaſily and ſafely broken on ſofter cuſhions; which put between the anvill and ham­mer of Power and Oppreſſion, are prone to ſtrike fire, and fly in the faces of thoſe who thus ſtrive, not onely to daſh them in peices, but to beate them to powder.


§ But here (my Lord) I cannot be ſo ſtupidly indiſcreet,The Authors Apology for touching upon State Policy. as not to confeſs my folly, beſides my fault; and to crave your Highneſs pardon, for this ſo great Impertinency; by which (as Phormio a Philoſopher, who read a Lecture of military Diſcipline, in the preſence of Hanniball, the greateſt, and beſt Commander then in the world, to the no great commendation of his Scholarly Skill, or diſcretion) I may ſeem thus weakly, and needleſly to preſent before your Highneſſe any methods or rules of Sate policy, in reference to publique Peace, and Safety, who are knowne both at home and abroad to be ſo great a Maſter of all Arts, both civill and Military, both in the practique and the Theorie.

§ This reflection upon my own fatuity and preſumption,How neceſ­ſityes and op­preſſions Ex­aſperate men. in points of State policy, juſtly forbids me all further needleſſe importunity, of ſuggeſting to your Highneſſe what you cannot but know, how ſharp an edge neceſſities of life nut upon thoſe mens Spirits and activityes, who otherwiſe are ſoft and blunt enough; for having no honeſt employment to buſy their thoughts and time, in order to get ſome competent ſupport for themſelves and their families; they cannot avoid to be tempted by diſcontent, idleneſſe, and in­dulgence to project, and act, thoſe things (though to their own utter ruine) which they hope may either put an end to their ſufferings; or at leaſt make thoſe men ſuffers with them, (as Sampſon did the Philiſtines) who ſhew ſo little compaſſion to them, and excerciſe ſo needleſs, and undeſerved ſeverities upon them; Paraxiſmes of anger, diſdain, and revenge oft tranſport even calme and wiſe men, by oppreſſion, (as Solomon tells us) beyond thoſe prudent bounds, which otherwiſe they had ſet to themſelves; being impatient to ſee themſelves ſo afflicted, as to be deſpiſed; and ſo to be deſpiſed, as to be denied convenient work, and lawful wages in honeſt induſtry: which all humanity, as well as policy, allowes; yea, and in ſome caſes commands to thoſe, who are permitted to enjoy their liberty, beyond the confinement of a Priſon. We dayly ſee fires that are too hot, do quench themſelves, by making even little pots over boile.

§. Certainly, next Death and Hell,The Sharp Spurre of po­verty to men of Parts. nothing is more dreadful and intolerable to humane nature, than for men of skill to be de­nied employment, and men of underſtanding to be thereby forced to want their bread, which is not to be gotten, but in thoſe Callings that are their proper ſpheares: in all other new wayes they are driven to ſeek their food, as wilde beaſts in deſolate places; which ex­etick diſtreſſes I know have forced very worthy Miniſters to infinite deſpondencies, and almoſt deſpairs; either having no home for them­ſelves, and their Families; or not enduring their own ſmall and wretched Cotages; which are to them like howling wilderneſſes, or hell18 it ſelf; full of weeping, and wailing, and gnaſhing of Teeth, for wife, and children's want of Food convenient and other neceſſaries of Life: The Scripture tells us; Better are thoſe that are ſlain with the Sword, than thoſe that periſh by Famine; which is a lingring and multiplied death; Gods high diſpleaſure threatens the Sons of Eli in the ſame breath, not only with early and immature Deaths; but with thoſe ſharper neceſſities, in caſe they live, by which they ſhall be forced to croutch for a morſell of bread, and ſome meane imployment.

Our Henry the 8th. The Huma­nity of Henry the 8. for the Monaſticks reliefe.(whom Sir Walter Rawleigh ſo blackly and deeply brands for a perfect Idea of Tyranny,) yet ſhewed (as the Lord of Cherbery tells us in the life of that King) ſo much Clemency, as a Prince, and charity as a Chriſtian, to thoſe of the Monaſtick Orders, when he drave them out of their well built and well honied hives, as to allow thoſe, who tarried in England, ſome competent Penſions during their lives; as knowing, that the way of their recluſe breeding in devout Idleneſſe, had made them unfit, and ſo unable to get their living by any ordinary way of bodily Labour, and uſual callings; to which they were indiſpoſed, becauſe unwonted.

Farre be it then from your Highneſſe (who pretend to an higher pitch of Reformation and Religion) to take away the remaining frag­ments,How hard it is to take away the cup of cold water, yet remain­ing to many Miniſters. and cups of cold water, from ſo many Prophets, and ſome of the Prophets; who are not only men and Chriſtians; but able Miniſters, as well as Profeſſors of the Reformed Religion; Farre be it from your Highneſſe (of whoſe bounty I know ſome men of as different perſwaſions to you as Jewes are from Chriſtians, have taſted) to break the little cruſes of oyle, and barrels of meale, which have hitherto ſupplied (as the ſmal Reſerves after great Shipwracks) the neceſſityes of many excellent Scholars; who are good Preachers, and better lovers of the Chriſtian and Proteſtant Religion: O let not ſo many godly and grave Miniſters, have cauſe to impute it to your Highneſſe's Declaration, that they, their Wives, and Children, muſt during the remainder of their miſerable dayes, mingle their bread with aſhes, and their drink with weeping; going downe to their Graves, oppreſſed with that Sorrow, which is the effect not more of unrelieved than undeſerved Oppreſſion.

§ I know it will be replyed by ſome;Their Charity that put Mi­niſters in Me­chanick Em­ployments. That Hungar is a ſharp Weapon as well as a Sawce; That Neceſſity will quicken mens Inven­tion and Induſtry; That the Belly is a great Maſter of art and wit: Let theſe complaining Miniſters (ſome ſay) dig, and plough, and thraſh for their Livings: or let them turn Gibeonities, and porters, hewers of wood, and drawers of water.

Thus (indeed) the hard hearts, and withered hands of ſome men, (whoſe very mercies are cruel) are prone to mock at poor Miniſters19 calamities: True; It is of Gods mercy, that any courſe of life, or honeſt labour will ſuſtain the beſt of us all; who are leſſe than the leaſt of Gods mercies; and meaner than the meaneſt imployment, if it be bleſt with honeſly, and competency.

§ But I beſeech your Highneſſe to conſider;No other employments afford them Competency. That beſides the hard labour, and ſore travail, which muſt needs, in thoſe manuall, and mechanick wayes, lie upon ingenuous perſons, eſpecially in their age and decline, who have ſpent moſt of their dayes in the ſhadow of their ſtudies, amidſt unactive and ſedentary retirements, as con­verſing only with their Pens and Books; Befides (I ſay) this un­comlineſſe and unaptneſſe; There muſt needs follow great incompeten­cy, as to the neceſſary ſupport of themſelves and their Families, in any ſuch new way; which if it get them bread, will hardly get them any drink, befides cold water.

§ But befides all theſe conſiderations, the greateſt pity is,What pity it is to bury Miniſters ex­cellent Tal­lents in Si­lence. to bury the excellent gifts of thoſe learned, pious, and Eloquent men under a Buſhell, or in the Earth, of ſilence, ſordidneſſe, and obſcurity; who are fit to be ſet in Golden Candleſticks, in the Temple of God, as burning and ſhining Lights; among whom Chriſt hath ſometimes delighted to walk, and converſe in the excellent graces, and uſefull gifts of his Spirit.

§ How great a ſinne and ſhame muſt it be,Publique Sin and Shame, to op­preſſe good Miniſters. as well as darkneſſe to this Church and Nation (profeſſing the Chriſtian, and Refor­med Religion) not onely to behold, but to cauſe the faces of ſo many Nazarites (who have from their youth been ſeparated, and ſanctified to the ſpeciall ſervice of Chriſt, and his Church, who were heretofore whiter than ſnow) to cauſe them to contract, by ſordid­neſſe of living, ſuch blackneſſe and deformity, as if they had lain among the pots; among the (lixae & calones) black guard, which uſually attend great mens Kitchins.

§ It is great pity, that ſuch goodly Pillars of Gods Houſe ſhould be caſt down to the ground, and levelled to the duſt, even to the beaſts, or meaneſt of the people: Can it be comely to ſee ſuch ponde­rous and laborious oxen ploughing with Aſſes, which God in the Law forbad? It was a ſhame and reproach to King Jehojakim, that he buried the dead body of the Prophet Ʋriah in the graves of the meaneſt of the people: How much more will it be, to bury Mini­ſters, even alive among them? That is, ſo to abuſe and cruſh them, as to enforce them, either to embrace the dunghils, or converſe only with clods and clowns.

§ All which burthens of life muſt needs preſs the more ſadlyNo way of competency or comelineſs for Miniſters but their calling. becauſe they are now toward the evening of their dayes, well ſtricken in years; their light growing dimmer, and their ſhadowes (both of fears and infirmities) larger: So that to20 dig they are not able, and to begg they are aſhamed: I have known many of them very grave and venerable men, rather want, than ask; and contend with poverty, rather than conquer their in­genuity; Who were wonted to more tender foreheads, and a more bleſſed, as well as honorable way of giving, rather than receiving. If they be now driven into a deſolate wilderneſſe, they may probably meet with Firy Serpents to ſting them by adding contempt to their want. But what Manna or miraculous Food can they exſpect? What rock will follow them to relieve their thirſty and fainting Souls; if they muſt be utterly turned out from any place as Stew­ards in Chriſts Family, or Diſpenſers of Heavenly Myſteries?

§ What commendable frauds, I boſeech your Highneſſe, can there be found for the ſuſtenance of ſo many men, and their Relations? Who never have been, nor now are, men of any great ſecular dealings, or receipts, and accounts: Such as the unjuſt (but wiſe) Stexard uſed for his preſervation; when he ſaw he muſt be caſt out of all bu­fines, A provident practice which we ſee our Bleſſed Saviour com­mended; not as to the injuſtice and immorality of it, but as to that worldly prudence and natural policy, or ſagacity; which teacheth and commandeth even Bruit Creatures, to be provident for themſelves and theirs; Shewing us, that there is nothing more Bruitiſh and Barbarous, more Ʋmnanly and Ʋnchriſtian, than to neglect providing for our ſelves, and our Familyes; which who ſo doth is worſe than an Infidel, and is by the truth declared as an Apoſtate, or denyer of the Chriſtian Faith; Sure, if voluntary neg­ligence and improvidence be ſo much blamed and to be abhorred in reaſon and Religion; There can be nothing commendable, in forcible impoſing thoſe exauctoratings, ſilencings, and reſtraints upon honeſt and Induſtrious men, as muſt compel them to neceſſi­types, when they are more willing to take paines in their callings.

§ I might further add to the hunger and thirſt of ſuch mens out­ward condition,Famine of Souls will fol­low famished Miniſters. that ſcarcity and famine of the word, which muſt neceſſarily follow in many places: and that leanneſs which is like to enter into many poor peoples Souls; to whom ſuch able men for­merly diſpenſed the bread of eternal life, as the faithful Stewards of Chriſts family; whoſe abſence is not ſo readily to be ſupplied with Miniſters, proportionable to their abilityes, induſtry and gravity, as is evident in many ſequeſtred places; where people are either almoſt famiſhed: or at the beſt much infected with the unwholſome food of unſound doctrine; yea, what if ſuch, as ſucceed theſe outed and able Miniſters, give people ſtones inſtead of bread; and ſcor­pions inſtead of fiſhes! what if they affect to feed mens Souls after the vaporing of ſome novices, in theſe dayes, with empty mangers and high racks; giving them the chaffe of Juvenile Notions, and21 uſeleſſe Speculations, inſtead of thoſe ſaving & practical Inſtructions, with which thoſe veterane Teachers, were wont to furniſh and feed their Auditors both elder and younger: what account can be given to the great Biſhop and Paſtor of Souls, if his Sheep be ſtarved for want of their Shepherds? If waſt, and weakneſſe, diſeaſes, and death eternal fall upon mens precious Souls, for want of ſaving knowledge?

§ Certainly nothing ſhould be done in civil affairs with more deliberation and circumſpection, than the ſilencing of Chriſts Miniſiers;Of changing the Spiritual Militia of the Miniſtry. and the divorcing of them from their people, where God hath placed and proſpered them; every one ought to take heed what they do to thoſe that are the ſervants of the moſt High God, and teach the way of Eternal Life. There ſhould be no leſſe care, and caution in altering, disbanding or caſhiering this ſpiritual Militia, than in that of the ſecular; Nor ſhould therein Reaſon of State onely be conſidered, but Reaſon of Religion, with Chriſts Intereſts, and the good of Souls; for theſe are of eternal concernment to poor mortals, the other but momentary.

§ Since then the temporal welfare of ſo many worthy Miniſters,The bleſſings accruing to the Publique by able Mini­ſters. by enjoying their liberty to officiate, is ſo agreeable to the Glory of God, the Honor of Jeſus Chriſt, and the Salvation of poor Sinners, I hope they will not ſeem to your Highneſſe inconſiſtent with the publique Peace and and ſecurity; yea, ſince there appears no probable means under God for the covenient ſupport of ſo many honeſt and uſeful Preachers, beſides other Scholars, but onely your Highneſſe Clemency and Benignity, in indulging them their honeſt liberty: Since neceſſity drives the poor to the rich, the weak to the ſtrong, and the miſerable to the merciful; yea, even to the God of Mercy; (whom though we cannot move by any merit of our own, yet, we may by ſuch humble importunities, as only obtrude upon him our miſeries;)

§ Let it not diſpleaſe your Highneſſe, that I have thus far pre­ſumed not onely by ſoft and ſuppliant words, but by potent and I hope prevalent reaſons, to perſwade you to ſuch equanimity and charity, as may in real effect obtain ſome ſuch merciful qualifica­tions, remiſſions, or ſuſpenſions (as to the execution of your High­neſſe Declaration) That Pious and peaceable Miniſters, and other Scholars may ſerve God, without diſtraction, and terror, in their wonted callings and imployments; If any civil caution be neceſſary, beyond your Highneſſe inreſiſtable power, and thoſe mens both weakneſſe and danger, no doubt all ſober men will give it,Of revoking or remitting the rigors of Publique De­clarations. as farr as is confiſtent with the integrity of their conſciences; and further they hope your Highneſſe will not require.

§ Nor ſhall (I hope) that Scruple lie in the way of your High­Highneſſe clemency,22 or my Brethens liberty, namely the lothneſſe of States and Potentates to revoke, remit or qualify any act or edict, which they have once made publique, leaſt by the ſeeming in­conſtancy of their councels, they ſhould leſſen the authority of their commands, and the reputations of their wiſdoms.

§ But herein as your Highneſſe hath in the cloſe of your Decla­ration opened ſome little dore of favour and indulgence: So I truſt, no ſevere reſtrictions of any Country Committees, or other Officers, ſhall be permitted to ſhut, or ſtreighten it ſo, as to exclude any able unblameable and peaceable Miniſters, from the ſervice of Chriſt in his Church, by which they may enjoy ſome compe­tent ſubſiſtance, by ingenous Liberty and honeſt Induſtry in their callings. Such pious, charitable and generous Laxations or con­nivances as your Highneſſe may pleaſe to permit, may amount to the favour by me deſired in their behalfe, without any publique alteration or formal revocation; of which (yet) no men, never ſo wiſe, and conſultive, have any cauſe to be aſhamed, when ſuch al­teration is for the better, either as to verity, and equity, or charity; which are not the blemiſhes, but the beauties and bleſſings of variations, private or publique.

§ What gracious heart obſerves not with comfort,Of Divine retractions, or Gods Re­vocations. that even God himſelf the higheſt Pattern of Wiſdom, Juſtice, Power, and Conſtancy, yet, oft and eaſily retracteth as to the event, and ex­ecution of his Denounced Wrath; and will rather ſeem mutable by his repentings (which are mans impunity, not Gods mutability) than want the opportunity of magnifying his mercy to penitents; He ſaid he would deſtroy them; but he did it not: yea, as willingly ſpared them, as he had juſtly threatned them; being ſolicitous to find a man to ſtand in the gap, and turn away his wrath; Nay the Divine goodneſſe was glad of Moſes his Interceſſion, though it ſeemed to be made with an holy kind of rudeneſſe; and an humble diſobedience; even then when God bad him, Let me alone, that I may deſtroy them.

§ In like ſort the Lord choſe to let his paſſionate and peeviſh Jonah ſeem a falſe prophet, than himſelf ſhould not appear ever­laſtingly true; not ſo much in the letter of his declared threatnings, as in the tacit limitations and exceptions, of his mercy and pardon; which are ever to be underſtood by penitent ſinners, though not expreſſed in the menaces of divine vengeance; Such gratious Re­tractations are not the leaſt part of a ſinners comfort, and of Gods Prayſes.

§ The ſucceſſe which Moſes had with God,Moſes his importunity welcome to God though angry. hath emboldned me firſt to ſeek to the throne of his Grace, by my prayers; Next to make this petitionary addreſſe to your Highneſſe, not as asking any23 great thing for my ſelf; but onely craving thoſe honeſt freedoms for other worthy men, which are their greateſt temporal ambitions; The granting of which as it cannot any way tend to the diminu­tion of your Highneſſe Honor, Profit or Safety; ſo nor will my begging of it, any way I hope tend to your Diſpleaſure; But rather your Highneſſe will pleaſe to imitate David; who incenſed with Nabals churliſh ingratitude,Davids anger well pleaſed to be diſarmed. and burning with military flames of reveng, yet, was neither unwillingly, nor unthankfully taken off from executing his intended ſeverityes by the diſcreet interceſſion of a wiſe woman; for which he bleſſeth God and her; Certainly, none are more exorable, than generous ſpirits, nor any more generous than thoſe that have gracious hearts; whoſe wiſdome is not earthly, ſenſual and deviliſh; from their own paſſions, or the depths of Satan; but from above; pure, peaceable and eaſy to be intreated.

§ Such favorable remiſſions do the fears,Publique favours con­quer enemies minds. and dejections of many thouſands of poor Miniſters, and their Relations, now crave of your Highneſſe, the granting of which cannot but procure your Highneſſe many friends; and either ſoften or filence many enemies; leaving them without excuſe hereafter; who ſeeing your power able to cruſh them: ſhall abuſe your Clemency, which is willing to preſerve them, in all wayes of honeſt induſtry, which becomes them.

§ But it is now (my Lord) high time for me to be aſhamed;Apology for the pro­lixity of this Plea. not of my charity, (which maketh not aſhamed) but of tedious, and exceſſive prolixity; conſidering the Sea and moles of buſineſs, which every moment preſſeth upon your Highneſſe (yet, in ſome caſes of great concern, as this is for Gods Glory, and the good of ſo many thouſands good men, (yea, worthy Miniſters) it would be not onely a great ſolacifme, but almoſt a great ſin to be ſhort) However this cauſe of ſhame I own; that I have been ſo long in remonſtrating or importuning that; wherein I not only underſtand other perſons of farre more merit and acceptance have interceded (as the Lord Primate of Armagh) but I have ſome cauſe to preſume that your Highneſſe own purpoſes have prevented me, and all mens mediation; in that you are pleaſed with much candor and gentle­neſſe to admit of any Interceſſors.

§ Of which benignity I and all the world ſhall then have, not only confidence but experimental aſſurance, when your Highneſſe ſhall effectually remedy and actually forbid, the further crying­out, and complaining of ſo many worthy Miniſters and their families in our Streets. A Jeſuitick Jubilee, which I ſhould not more pity,The Jeſuites Jubilee. than repine to ſee thoſe men enjoy, who are very ſore and ſubtil adverſaries to the Reformed Religion and it's ableſt Miniſters: Nor do I doubt, that your Highneſſe will ever have either more cauſe to24 rejoyce or leſſe to repent in any thing, that hath or ſhall be either acted, or commanded by you, than in reviving the ſpirits of ſo many men that are ready to fayl within them through diſtreſſe, next dore to deſpair.

§ Which favorable Indulgence to them will not only turn to an act of charity and humanity,Clemency the beſt ſode­ring of New Soveranity. but even of true State policy too; It being one maxime given by a great maſter of it; Novum impe­rium inchoantibus utilis eſt clementiae fama; Though the power of the Sword may here lay the firſt foundation of new government; yet, clemency and moderation, are the chief cement and firmation of it: The ambition of the Heathen Grandees, as Alexander, Ju­lius and Auguſtus (firſt Caeſars) alſo of Trajan, M. Aurelius, and others, ſought to preſerve to themſelves the Honor, and to others the happineſſe of their Clemency, that they might appear to man­kind, not only worſhippers of warlike Deities, ſuch as Mars and Bellona; but alſo of Jupiter; who was eſteemed, not only the King but the helping Father of both Gods and men; whoſe defective name borrowed its ſupply from the Sacred name Jehovah; whoſe glory paſſed by in that Proclamation, The Lord gratious and merciful, &c.

§ Tertullian's generous councel is good;Chriſtian Charity muſt exceed Hea­thens Huma­nity. Plus debet Chriſti diſcipulus, quam mundi philoſophus, gloriae animal, et ſecularis aurae vile manci­pium; Chriſtians act much below their patern, if they do not ex­ceed the beſt of Heathens in humanity and holineſſe too; as much as their true God doth others Idols; Since they have the Word of God for their rule, the Servants of God for their copies; the Son of God for their Original, and the Nature of God for the perfect and eternal Idaea of all charity, mercy and benignity, who will alſo be at laſt their exceeding great reward. ? We read that Joſeph eaſily ſecured his Brethrens feares of his reveng, by telling them he feared God: intimating that he was reſolved to follow God in his wayes of Mercy and Gentleneſſe; David a man of Warr gives it, as one of the Characters of a good man, he is ever merciful, Our bleſſed Saviour enjoynes it to his Diſciples;Of Mercy and Benignity in Chriſtians. Be ye merciful as your Heavenly Father is merciful; and this not onely to the juſt and good; but alſo to the bad and unjuſt: yea, God himſelf capi­tulates with ſuch wormes as we are; If we ſhew mercy, we ſhall receive mercy, according to the meaſure we mete to each other: The Syrians gave the Kings of Iſrael this Honor; that they were merciful Kings; For ſuch as know moſt of the true God, will be ready moſt to imitate him, in this attribute of mercy, which is above all his works.

§ As for my ſelf (my Lord) I have more than my reward, If I have done or endeavoured, as becomes my duty to my God, and Saviour; Next to my conſcience and calling; and laſtly, to that25 charity which I ow my brethren, and fellow labourers; whoſe diſtreſſes I am ſure require, though their modeſty did not expect, this ſervice from me, of which they are wholly ignorant; I know many of them, I heare of many more; whoſe worth is not to be meaſured by the falſe weights, and ſcanty meaſure of civil ſidings and factions; Theſe are many of them reduced to their cottages, to their dry morſels, to their water and bread of affliction; which (yet) they greatly feare to looſe; So much doth a little ſeem to thoſe moderate, and humble minds, who know how to be thankful, yea content, with that which is next door to nothing.

§ I ſhould ſuſpect my ſelf to be no living member of Chriſts Body,Of Sympathy among Mini­ſters. (whoſe very life conſiſts in charity and compaſſon,) If I found in my ſelf no ſympathy, with the afflictions of ſo many Joſephs: yea, I ſhould not onely be aſhamed, but much, and juſtly ſuſpect my own plenty, and Gods undeſerved bounty to me, leaſt my table ſhould become my ſnare, and my very food be digeſt­ed into ſin; If I had no ſence, and ſorrow, for others hungry, and afflicted ſouls; It were farr better for me to be levelled to the te­nuity of the meaneſt of my Brethren, (that I might be experience, learn to be compaſſionate) than with an epicurean indifferency, and uncharitable ſtupidity to behold them, wanting competency, and indeed neceſſaries: which they muſt do; If your Highneſſe decree that is gone forth, be rigidly executed; not againſt Magicians, and Aſtrologers, but againſt grave Divines, and godly Miniſters of the goſpel; to their utter undoing.

§ It will be favour enough, and a moſt ample returne of my prayers, If by this pious importunity, I have any way perſwaded,Concluſion deprecating diſpleaſure I have any way perſwaded, (If need be) or confirmed your Highneſſe clemency to them. Whoſe pardon I ſhould now (of courſe) formally crave for my ſelf, and thereby add to your Highneſſe troubles by ſome ſolemne apology; which I would willingly add, if I were conſcious to my ſelf of the leaſt fault in my deſigne; If there be any, it is only ſuch as charity I hope may and will eaſily cover, fince it is charity only that commits it;Nor ſin or shame in cha­rity. Not but that I know ſome moreoſer polititians are prone to cenſure even compaſſion for a kind of con­ſpiracy, and ſuch charity for malignancy, (like thoſe ſcepticks, who not only diſputed, but denyed the ſnow to be white) but I hope your Highneſſe eye will not be leſſe good becauſe theirs are evill.

§ Onely it is fit to beg your Highneſſe pardon for this my into­lerable treſpaſſing ſo much upon your much oppreſſed time, and little leaſure, by ſo tedious an addreſſe, in which (at the worſt aſpect) I ſhall yet appear as one that pays your Highneſs (beſides other taxes) the tribute of double honor; Firſt by owning power26 in your hand to deſtroy; New, by hoping for pity in your heart to preſerve theſe Miniſters, and other Scholars, in whoſe be­half I intercede: who, if any under Heaven, are objects fit for your Clemency, and Compaſſion; both for their eminent merits, and their impendent miſeries.

§ I humbly leave theſe papers in your Highneſſe hand; and your heart in Gods; who is higher than the higheſt: of whoſe mercy we all daily partake, and ſhall while we live on earth ſtand in need; whoſe compaſſions are his good pleaſures, but his puniſh­need;Peroration. whoſe compaſſions are his good pleaſures, but his puniſh­ments, his ſtrange work, as not willingly afflicting the hildren of men: That your Highneſſe may in this caſe imitate ſo bleſſed a paterne, is the prayer of

Febr. 4th 1655.
Your Highneſſe humble ſervant, J. G.


Good Reader,

THou maiſt further underſtand, that at the ſame time, when this Addreſſe was made by the Author in behalfe of thoſe Miniſters of the Church of England, over whoſe heads this Black Cloud then hung, threatning a deluge of deſola­tion, God ſtirred up the ſpirit of the then Lord Primate of Armagh, Biſhop Uſher, perſonally to intercede with the then Oliver Protector, for his clemency and indulgence toward them; It was one of the laſt endeavours of piety and charity, to which that great and moſt vengerable perſon, applied his moſt potent Intereſſions; fortified not onely by his pious oratory, full of exquiſite reaſon and religion, but with his prayers and teares; For that divine prelate, who was in all things (as Nazianzen ſayes of Athanaſius (〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉) rather admirable than commendable; It being bard to ſay whether be were doctior or melior, ornation or humilior, thought himſelf in nothing more concerned, then in ſhewing thoſe bowels of compaſſion, which became ſuch a Father of the Church, to the worthy ſons and ſervants of it; whoſe afflictions he made his own; nor was he ſatisfied to enjoy ſome degrees of tranquillity and reſpect himſelf, while he ſaw (as Joſeph) ſo many of his Brethren, in ſuch great ſtreights and tribulations; He attended (molliſſima tempora fandi) the ſofteſt opportunities of mediating for them, five or ſix weeks in London, impatient not to ſhew ſuch compaſſion, as became ſo tender an heart, and ſo fervent a Soul as his was; At laſt he was fain to retreate with little ſucceſſe, and leſſe hopes, than he expected and deſerved, to his great grief; uſing this expreſſion, to the Author of the foregoing piece, That he ſaw ſome men had onely inteſtina, not viſcera, guts, but no bowels; Thus did this good man go with ſorrow to his country retirement, and ſo to the grave; preſaging further ſharp impreſſions of Gods ſore diſpleaſure which would ſhortly and ſuddenly light upon this Nation; to the great darkning, as he ſaid, of the reformed Religion, and the depreſſion of faithful Miniſters.

§ This grand example of Chriſtian commiſeration, (which that ex­cellent Primate made more illuſtrious by his eminent worth in all things worthy of a good Man, a good Chriſtian, a good Miniſter, and a good Biſhop) is worthy to be added to the Records of thoſe many other (〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉) moſt memorable and imitable actions of that Heroe, that Saint, that Angel, of the Britiſh Reformed Churches.

§ So that the Author of the foregoing Petitionary Remonſtrance did not alone ſtand in the gap; But was, as in all things elſe many degrees inferiour to that incomparable Primate, ſo in this happy to be his ſecond and aſſiſtant.

§ Which regards are ſufficient to vindicate his endeavours from all ſiniſter reflections; prone to fall from ſuch eyes, as are either more cautious or more envious, and cenſorious than becomes good Chriſtians; eſteeming nothing prudent, which is not ſucceſsful; nor valiant, which is not victorious.

§ After ages (poſſibly) will be better pleaſed to ſee the afflicted ſtate of the Clergy and Church of England, thus not wholly for ſaken, but aſſerted and compaſſionated; at leaſt by one ſo worthy a perſon; who was as an Army, or cloud of witneſſes; who being ſo well acquainted with the mind of Chriſt, and living in the life of his Spirit; It may be a good omen that in his good time the Father of Mercy, and God of all Conſolation will anſwere his fervent prayer; and return to plead the cauſe, and effectually to intercede in the behalfe of this ſo afflict­ed Church, and his Servants the worthy Miniſters of it; who have a long time born the burthen of his ſore diſpleaſure, and the reproach of all unreaſonable men: All which hath not yet drivan them to ſuch de­ſpaire, but that they pray and hope, in the midſt of Judgement God will Remember his Mercies, which endure for ever: To which Petition all Lovers of Truth and Peace will ſay, Amen.

About this transcription

TextA remonstrance presented to O.P. Feb. 4. 1655. By J.G. D.D. A son, servant, and supplicant for the Church of England: in behalf of many thousands his distressed brethren (ministers of the Gospel, and other good schollars) who were deprived of all publique imployment, (as ministers, or schollars) by his declaration, Jan. 1. 1655.
AuthorGauden, John, 1605-1662..
Extent Approx. 111 KB of XML-encoded text transcribed from 19 1-bit group-IV TIFF page images.
SeriesEarly English books online.
Additional notes

(EEBO-TCP ; phase 2, no. A85861)

Transcribed from: (Early English Books Online ; image set 118479)

Images scanned from microfilm: (Thomason Tracts ; 117:E765[7])

About the source text

Bibliographic informationA remonstrance presented to O.P. Feb. 4. 1655. By J.G. D.D. A son, servant, and supplicant for the Church of England: in behalf of many thousands his distressed brethren (ministers of the Gospel, and other good schollars) who were deprived of all publique imployment, (as ministers, or schollars) by his declaration, Jan. 1. 1655. Gauden, John, 1605-1662.. [8], 26, [2] p. Printed by Thomas Milbourn for Andrew Crook, at the Green-Dragon in Pauls Church-yard,London, :1659 [i.e. 1660]. (J.G. = John Gauden; O.P. = Oliver Protector.) (Final two pages = postscript.) (Annotation on Thomason copy: "March. 15.".) (Reproduction of the original in the British Library.)
  • Cromwell, Oliver, 1599-1658 -- Early works to 1800.
  • Church of England -- Clergy -- Early works to 1800.
  • Great Britain -- History -- Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649-1660 -- Early works to 1800.

Editorial statement

About the encoding

Created by converting TCP files to TEI P5 using tcp2tei.xsl, TEI @ Oxford.

Editorial principles

EEBO-TCP is a partnership between the Universities of Michigan and Oxford and the publisher ProQuest to create accurately transcribed and encoded texts based on the image sets published by ProQuest via their Early English Books Online (EEBO) database ( The general aim of EEBO-TCP is to encode one copy (usually the first edition) of every monographic English-language title published between 1473 and 1700 available in EEBO.

EEBO-TCP aimed to produce large quantities of textual data within the usual project restraints of time and funding, and therefore chose to create diplomatic transcriptions (as opposed to critical editions) with light-touch, mainly structural encoding based on the Text Encoding Initiative (

The EEBO-TCP project was divided into two phases. The 25,363 texts created during Phase 1 of the project have been released into the public domain as of 1 January 2015. Anyone can now take and use these texts for their own purposes, but we respectfully request that due credit and attribution is given to their original source.

Users should be aware of the process of creating the TCP texts, and therefore of any assumptions that can be made about the data.

Text selection was based on the New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (NCBEL). If an author (or for an anonymous work, the title) appears in NCBEL, then their works are eligible for inclusion. Selection was intended to range over a wide variety of subject areas, to reflect the true nature of the print record of the period. In general, first editions of a works in English were prioritized, although there are a number of works in other languages, notably Latin and Welsh, included and sometimes a second or later edition of a work was chosen if there was a compelling reason to do so.

Image sets were sent to external keying companies for transcription and basic encoding. Quality assurance was then carried out by editorial teams in Oxford and Michigan. 5% (or 5 pages, whichever is the greater) of each text was proofread for accuracy and those which did not meet QA standards were returned to the keyers to be redone. After proofreading, the encoding was enhanced and/or corrected and characters marked as illegible were corrected where possible up to a limit of 100 instances per text. Any remaining illegibles were encoded as <gap>s. Understanding these processes should make clear that, while the overall quality of TCP data is very good, some errors will remain and some readable characters will be marked as illegible. Users should bear in mind that in all likelihood such instances will never have been looked at by a TCP editor.

The texts were encoded and linked to page images in accordance with level 4 of the TEI in Libraries guidelines.

Copies of the texts have been issued variously as SGML (TCP schema; ASCII text with mnemonic sdata character entities); displayable XML (TCP schema; characters represented either as UTF-8 Unicode or text strings within braces); or lossless XML (TEI P5, characters represented either as UTF-8 Unicode or TEI g elements).

Keying and markup guidelines are available at the Text Creation Partnership web site.

Publication information

  • Text Creation Partnership,
ImprintAnn Arbor, MI ; Oxford (UK) : 2013-12 (EEBO-TCP Phase 2).
  • DLPS A85861
  • STC Wing G365
  • STC Thomason E765_7
  • STC ESTC R207143
  • EEBO-CITATION 99866214
  • PROQUEST 99866214
  • VID 118479

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.