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The hatred OF ESAU, And the Love of JACOB un­foulded, being a Brief and plain Ex­poſition of the 9. Chapter of Pauls Epiſtle to the Romanes, being the heads of what was delivered in ſeveral diſcourſes, both Publick and private.

By Samuel Loveday Servant of the Church of Chriſt.

〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Pſal. 4.3.
〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Jud. 4.
Qui reddet cuique ſecundum opera ejus,Rom. 2.6.
Credens & baptizatus ſalvabitur: at non cre­dens Condemnabitur. Marc. 16.16.

Printed by John Clowes, for Gieles Calvert, at the〈◊〉Spread-hagle, at the weſt-end of Pauls.

To the READER.

Courteous Reader,

IT hath been ſeated in the heart of man (ſince the fall of Adam) to put off the ſin from himſelf and put it upon others, yea, upon God himſelf. Although it is very ſtrange that man can find none to Father his corruptions upon but upon him that is purity it ſelf, who as James ſpeaks, James the firſt, and the thirteenth, cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man. The Woman that thou gaveſt me (ſaith Adam,) Geneſis the third and the twelfth, gave me, and I did eat, man is very loath to lay the ſaddle upon the right horſe, as I may ſo ſay, he is loath to take it upon himſelf, the wo­man which thou gaveſt me. Old Adam in theſe words laid a platform to all his ſons, to ſay as their Father ſaid, the want of ſtrength from the cauſe, he not being over-powered by thee, he not being compelled by thee, thy determination and appointing me is the cauſe that I am as I am, it is be­cauſe thou haſt made me thus. But let us a little conſider what harm God did to Adam in giving him this wo­man, could not Adam have made uſe of her to no other end? nay, did not God give him her to do her good, and not hurt, Proverbs the 31. and the 12. Thus I ſay miſapplying and miſappro­ving Gods dealings in Judgements or mercies, that makes men loſers; here is Pharaohs heart hardned by God even by giving him deliverances: if you take good notice of it, its not un­der the plagues, but under the deli­verances, as you ſhall finde in the fol­lowing diſcourſe, becauſe man is ſo bad himſelf, therefore he judgeth God to be like him, as in the 50 Pſalm, the 21. to reap where he hath not ſtrowed, as Luke the 19 and 11. though indeed few men deal ſo hardly with their fel­lows, but I pray conſider the Judge of all the earth ſhall do right, that is to render to every man according to his works, Romanes the 2. and whatſoever he exhorteth man unto, be aſſured, he is not failing in himſelf.

Therefore read without prejudice, and weigh things ſeriouſly, and ſee if theſe things be ſo, and ſee what wiſ­doms children ſpeak, thoſe that are begotten by wiſdom which is Jeſus Chriſt; for wiſdom their Father is ju­ſtified by them, Luke 7. verſ. 35. and take good notice of the 29 verſ. of the ſame Chapter, the Publicanes juſtified God, being baptized with the baptiſme of John. Know this that God is moſt juſt and equal in his proceedings to­wards the ſons of men, my deſire is that this labour of mine may be to thy profit whomſoever thou art, and if thou reapeſt benefit let God have the praiſe.

The Epiſtle Dedicatory To his Honoured Father WILLIAM LOVEDAY.

DEar Father, becauſe this fol­lowing diſcourſe wants an Indulgent Reader, therefore I thought good to preſent it firſt to your hands, hoping you will readily paſs by thoſe failings which may appear therein, and cloath them with your fa­vourable conſtruction and Fatherly love, and look further then the ſhell, even to the kernell and marrow of this buſineſs, I ſhall not preſent it to you as a free gift, but as my obliged duty, as a ſmall part of requital for your Inceſſant love. I in­treat you to conſider ſeriouſly of the mat­ter and not to undervalue it, becauſe of the meanneſs of the Author; but know I pray you that Gods way and courſe in the dayes of the Goſpel is to appear in weak means to advance his own glory, that no fleſh may glorie in his preſence: Out of the mouths of babes and ſucklings, he will perfect his praiſe; and not onely ſo, but he will lay low the wiſdom of the World, and the pride of men who ſtumble at Chriſt, becauſe he is ſo obſcure in the World that they cannot ſee him, neither will they ſtoop ſo low as to take notice of him; but I hope better things of you, therefore accept this ſmall fruit from me, and what benefit you receive I doubt not but you will be ready to give God the praiſe. So fare-well.


A Brief expoſition upon the ninth chap. of the Rom.

I Say the truth in Chriſt I lie not, my conſcience bearing me witneſſe in the holy Spirit, Verſ. 1.

The Apoſtle ha­ving in the former Chapters of this E­piſtle largely treat­ed of the glorious and happy condition of thoſe that were entered into the way of the Goſpel; in oppoſition to the Law, calling it being in Chriſt, as verſ. 1. Which being in Chriſt is to be in and under the Ordinances of the Goſpel, as Gal. 3. chap. verſ. 27.

As many of you as are baptized into Chriſt, have put on Chriſt. In the two former verſes it is called Faith, in oppoſition to works. The way of the Goſpel is called Faith, chap. 4. verſ. 19.

2My little children of whom I travel in birth, untill Chriſt be formed in you, (which is) till you worſhip according to the Goſpel: and not according to the Law, as in the fol­lowing verſes.

So that being in Chriſt according to the firſt verſe of the 8. chap. Is to walk in, and under the Ordinances of the Goſpel. It is likewiſe called Spirit, in oppoſition to fleſh, as this Epiſtle treateth of, as alſo the Epiſtle to the Gal. chap. 4. verſ. 29. he that was born after the fleſh, perſecuted him that was born after the Spirit, (that is) he that was born of works, or of the Law, perſecuted him that was born according to Faith.

The Apoſtle having (I ſay) again largely expounded and Amplified thoſe two parti­culars, (viz.) works and Faith, in the ſeventh and eight chap. ſhewing in the latter end of the eight, what cauſe he and the reſt of Go­ſpel-Saints (believers in Chriſt) had to Triumph in, as verſ. 34.

Nothing ſhall be able to ſeparate us from the love of God in Chriſt: (that is) ſtill in op­poſition to the Law, for under the Law there were many ſeparations from Chriſt, (as I may ſo call them) upon which ſo many ſacri­fices were required to bring them together3 again, but now Chriſt hath by that one Sa­crifice of his, for ever conſecrated thoſe that are ſanctified, Hebr. 10. verſ. 14.

I would not here be miſtaken, as though men thus ſanctified could not again be de­filed, for then I ſhould contradict other Scriptures, as the ſecond of Peter, the 2 chap. from the twentieth verſe to the end, and di­vers other Scriptures. But thus, under the Law let a man do what he could to keep himſelf pure, yet there would be defilements, and ſo ſeparations from God and Chriſt, but now God doth not ſo require purity of men, (that is) external purity, (that is) to ab­ſtain from touching of dead bodies or the like, but now onely wilfull ſins make a ſepa­ration betwixt God and man, (I mean) thoſe once truly joined unto him, ſee Hebr. 10. verſ. 26. If we ſin wilfully after we have re­ceived the knowledge of the truth, there re­mains no more ſacrifice for ſins.

The Apoſtle (I ſay,) being thus very high in his expreſſions of his bleſſed condition, with the reſt of the Saints, (viz.) believers in Chriſt, as verſe the firſt, he now like an affectionate friend looks back upon the reſt of his kindred after the fleſh, as it is the con­dition of a compaſſionate heart, to look up­on4 others as well as himſelf, and to endea­vour to bring others to the ſame enjoyment with himſelf, this was Pauls condition, as if he ſhould ſay: Am I and you who are in Chriſt thus happy & glorious? But ſtay, have none loſt that which we have found? yes, you my brethren the Jews have loſt that which we have found: therefore my joy is a little abated; this he is now upon, he doth not onely hug and embrace the thing found, but withall he wiſheth he could perſwade the owners to take it of him again, though he loſe it, ſee verſe the third, where the Apo­ſtle wiſhes himſelf accurſed, or ſeparated from Chriſt for his brethren his kinſmen af­ter the fleſh.

Therefore the diſcourſe that follows, is to be looked upon as from a man deeply ſenſi­ble of his friends loſſe, which will cauſe him to comfort himſelf, and them with this, that the loſt goods ſhall be returned. Now I come to the words, verſe the 1.

Verſ. 1. I ſay the truth in Chriſt, I lie not, my conſcience alſo bearing me witneſſe in the holy Spirit.

Theſe words are a preface to that which follows: the words themſelves are an affir­mation; or I may ſay an oath, where the5 Apoſtle doth affirm that he will ſpeak no­thing but truth in this following diſcourſe: and therefore according to the cuſtome of men he ſwears himſelf, being not required by any other.

We have in the words ſomething to be underſtood, or explained, as what he means by ſaying the truth in Chriſt. Secondly, what he means by not lying, or by a lie. Thirdly, what he means by Conſcience. Fourthly, what he means by holy Spirit.

For the firſt, to wit ſpeaking the truth in Chriſt, I underſtand he meaneth, that he will not preſent that before them, which is not (which we call a lie,) but ſpeak words in reference to Chriſt who is truth it ſelf, and ſpeak them as the truth it ſelf, and ſpeak them as the truth is in Jeſus, and ſo it being truth which he ſhould ſpeak, it muſt center in Chriſt, who is the truth it ſelf.

But the ſecond will more explain it, what he means by a lie.

The Greeck word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, is ſeverally ta­ken in the Scriptures, ſometimes it is taken for vanity or emptineſſe, in oppoſition to ſubſtance and fulneſſe, ſo God is ſaid to be true and every man a liar, Rom. 3. chap. verſ. 4. And ſo Chriſt was ſaid to be full of grace6 and truth, John the 1. chap. verſ. 4. And ſo God will be worſhipped in Spirit and truth. John the 4. verſ. 24. But this lie is in oppo­ſition to truth, and ſo Idols are called a lie, in oppoſition to this ſubſtance Jeſus Chriſt; ſee Eſai. 44. verſ. 20. Speaking of Idols he ſaith, is not there a lie in my right hand, and ſo the Devill is called a liar, becauſe be per­ſwades men to that which is not, as at the firſt he did to Eve, Geneſ. 3. chap. verſ. 4.

Therefore the Apoſtle exhorts the Epheſians, and ſo conſequently all believers in Goſpel­order to put away lying, ſee Epheſ. 4. verſ. 25.

Thirdly, for that word conſcience, the Greek word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉which hath affinity with the Hebrew word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉ſignifieth know­ledge and underſtanding with the mind, and regard with the affections, as Geneſ. 48. verſ. 19. the words of Jacob, I know well my Son, I know well, Exod. 1. verſ. the 8. Who knew not Joſeph, that is he did not know him ſo as to regard him, ſo Ec­cleſ. 2. verſ. 19. Pſalm 49.11. Where the ſame word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉which is here rendred con­ſcience, is rendred an inward thought, ſee likewiſe Luke 3. verſ. 27. Math. 7. verſ. 23. Where the Lord is ſaid not to know the7 workers of iniquity, that is, not to know them ſo, as to regard them with his inward affections, ſo that now the Apoſtle will ſpeak nothing but what he knows very well, and is affected with.

Fourthly what he means by〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: the holy ſpirit, by which we are to underſtand, ſometimes that viſible diſcovery of cloven tongues, Acts 2.3. ſometimes a Dove, as Matth. 3. verſ. 16. ſometimes for the word of Chriſt as John the 3. verſ. 5. Compared with 1. Pet. 2. verſ. 2. Where you may ſee that that which is called Spirit in the one place is called word in another; ſee Rom. 8. verſ. 16. The Spirit of God beares wit­neſſe with our Spirits that we are the Sons of God, to wit, the word: this is that Spi­rit which being received, and believed quickneth, ſee Pſalm 119. verſ. 50. Where David ſaith thy word hath quickned me. Compare this with the 6. of John, and the 63. Which will make it appear plainly, that the word is that quickning Spirit: ſo Chriſt ſaith in the concluſion of the verſe, The words that I ſpeak, they are Spirit and life; and ſo our bodies are ſaid to be a habi­tation for God by his Spirit, Eph. 2. verſ. 22. compared with Coloſ. 3. verſ. 16. Let the8 word of Chriſt dwell richly in you: and to this add, 1. John 2. verſ. 24. Let that there­fore abide in you which you have heard from the beginning, which if it do, ye ſhall continue in the Father and in the Son: to this add John 15. verſ 7. If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye ſhall ask what you will, and it ſhall be done unto you: this is that Spirit or anointing,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or Chriſt­hood, which makes us on with God, as we have the mind of Chriſt, or Spirit of Chriſt, ſee 1. Cor. 2. verſ. 16. That is as we have the word of Chriſt.

I ſpeak the more of this, becauſe men in theſe late dayes ſpeak much of a Spirit, and yet lay low the words of Chriſt, which are Spirit and life: but take notice, this is that Spirit, that doth cleanſe, comfort, exhort, and lead into truth, yea, and make the man of God perfect and wiſe unto ſalvation, ſee 2. Tim. 3. verſ. 15.17.

The word Spirit, if we take it, as it is taken for the quinteſſence or abſtract of God, as it may be ſo called, for it brings us thus to con­ſider of God: God at the firſt was (to us) an incomprehenſible being, therefore Moſes could not deal with God as he was to be looked upon, but deſires God to ſpeak in a9 way more ſuitable to him, which was by gi­ving them Laws to walk by, which God did for him and the reſt, ſee Exod. 20. Yet not­withſtanding this ſpeaking of God was too hard to be underſtood, (that is,) what his intent was in thoſe ſacrifices and ceremonies wherein he was darkly ſeen, this was the firſt degree of Gods condeſcenſion to man, to be abſtracted, (as I may ſo ſay) and here was ſpirit abſtracted from God, that ſo by a little, man might underſtand and taſte, what this vaſte incomprehenſible being was: but this was not all, but God therefore is pleaſed further to be abſtracted, that is, to ſend Chriſt, who is more expreſly his image: now this Spirit comes to be more ſtrong, and gives a nearer diſcovery what this in­comprehenſible being is: but this is not all neither, but this Image, or Abſtract, or Spi­rit, muſt yet again be diſtilled through the Limbick or Stil of ſufferings; and death it ſelfe, to bring forth yet a more exact Spirit: this is intimated by John 7.39. & thus I have brought you down to the word of Chriſt, or Mind of Chriſt, which is the beſt diſcovery of God, and trueſt taſte of him, that hath been yet made known unto the ſons of men.

This is that Spirit ſpoken of by Chriſt,10 John 14.26. Iohn 16.13. Chap. 17.8. which ſome taſted deeply of after Chriſts aſcenſi­on, as Acts 2. ver. 3. and all taſte of, who taſte of the Word of God, Heb. 6.4. and re­ceive the Goſpel of our Lord Ieſus Chriſt.

Indeed there are ſome that with thoſe in the Acts 19. ver. 2. who have not received the holy Spirit ſince they believed, (that is) they have not been transformed into the ſame image of life and power. See Luke 24 49. compared with 2 Cor. 3.8. But we all beholding as in a glaſſe, the glory of the Lord, are changed into the ſame image, from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit (or Power) of the Lord.

But are ſuch as Timothy ſpeaks of 2 Tim. 3.5. who have a form of godlineſſe, but deny the power.

This ſhews the Power of the Word or Spirit, that it is of a transforming nature; this is attributed to the Goſpel, Rom. 1.16. It is the Power of God to ſalvation to every one that believeth.

This is that Spirit or Power that Stephen was qualified withall. See Acts 7. he was full of the holy Spirit, 1 Theſ. 1.5. Our Goſpell came not unto you in word only, but alſo in power, and in the Holy Ghoſt. 1 Cor. 4.20. The King­dom11 of God is not in word only, but alſo in power.

This is that Spirit or Power which the Lord hath promiſed, and which we are to expect and pray for, according to that in Luke 11.13. compared with Judges 16.28. where Sampſon prayeth for ſtrength, which in the former Chapter, 14. verſe he cals the Spirit of the Lord. Likewiſe ſee and conſider Micah 3.8.

This I ſay is that Spirit which we are to taſte God by, to know God by, and to com­prehend God by, namely his Word: and he that hath this Spirit dwelling or abiding in him, walketh as Chriſt walked, pleaſing to God, and profitable to men.

So then thus I will ſpeak, that which I am deeply affected with, and ſhall be ſub­ſtantiall and true, not in word only, but in power. So much for the explication of the firſt verſe.

Verſe 2. That I have great heavineſſe, and continual ſorrowing of heart: This is part of that which he affirms in the former words.

There are three gradations, or degrees, uſed by the Apoſtle to ſet it forth, as firſt, heavineſſe. Secondly, ſorrow, and that con­tinually. We ſhall a little conſider what he means by heavineſſe and ſorrow, and what12 difference there is between them, the Greek word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉ſignifieth heavineſſe, which cau­ſeth ſleep, as Luke 22.45. Chriſt cometh to his diſciples, and findeth them aſleep with heavineſſe: the Latin word aegritudo is taken for griefe, paſſion, or ſorrow of mind, and ſometime ſickneſſe of body, as in 1 Pet. 2.19. the reading theſe Scriptures following will informe you what manner of heavineſſe it was, Iohn 16.6.22. it is there taken for ſor­row, 2 Cor. 2.10. it is there taken for griefe, Phil. 2.27. there the ſame word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉is ta­ken for ſorrow again, but the ſecond word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉is deep, as the Latine word cruciatus, which implies torment, pain, affliction, a croſſe, and to be nailed upon a croſſe, Luke 16.24.

It is further taken for the travel of a wo­man, as 1 Theſ. 5.3. where the ſame word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉is rendred travell: ſo likewiſe Gal. 4.19. it is taken for the ſorrows of death, as in Acts 2.24. where the word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉is uſed, ſo that by theſe places here cited, it appears to be very great ſorrow, even to pain and travell, nay, to be crucified for his friends the Iews.

Oh then I might a little preſſe this upon you, is it ſo with you that profeſſe your­ſelves13 to be of Pauls ſpirit: are you grieved even to death, even to crucifying, for your friends according to the fleſh, becauſe they are in darkneſſe, and do not enjoy the light of the Goſpel, which you do? I fear, we may all put our hands upon our mouths, and accuſe our ſelves of neglect of our duty in this particular.

Pauls condition was like Chriſts, indeed he walked as Chriſt walked, his ſoul was ſorrowfull even unto death, even ſo was Pauls: He, who thought it no robbery to be equall with God, yet made himſelfe of no reputation, Phil. 2.6, 7, 8. and was ex­cluded from the glory which he was before inveſted with, and was accurſed from God, which ſeparation makes him cry out, My God, my God, why haſt thou forſaken me? Mat. 27.46. even ſo, Paul wiſheth himſelf accur­ſed, or ſeparated from Chriſt for the Iews, ſuch was his love towards them, as you ſhall hear more at large when we come to the 3. v.

Now if we were in this condition, oh, what means would we uſe, what induſtry vvould vve uſe to be delivered, as the ſame Apoſtle expreſſes to the Gal. 4.19. My little children, of whom I travel in birth, until Chriſt be formed in you: and do but look back upon14 Pauls Epiſtles, vvhat means he uſeth from this travel, as his earneſt prayers to God for them, chap. 10. ver. 1. ſo vvould vve, if vve vvere as Paul, how vvould vve pray in their behalfe, vvho are in darkneſſe? and not only ſo, but he uſeth means, as in the 11. of the Romans ver. 14. he there magnified his office before the Gentiles, to ſee if he by any means could provoke the Jews to emulation, that thereby he might ſave ſome of them, he u­ſeth all means poſſible to bring them in a­gain to what they loſt: and the ground is, becauſe he is in travel for them; and how vvilling a mother is to ſee her child brought forth, I leave you to judge.

Neither is this a ſuddain paſſion of griefe, and ſo rejoyce again, no; and that brings me to the third aggravation here in the words; and that is, continuances, without intermiſſion: there is no time when Paul doth not bear in mind the Jews loſſe their regaining.

Now then let us look back upon what hath been ſaid; he might well affirm it with ſuch ſtrong affirmations and witneſſe, it would ſcarcely have been believed elſe that he could have been ſo troubled for them; Paul was like a bird flying up into the air,15 in the chap. but this clog puls him down a­gain, he cannot be elevated truly (nor no Saint) till this be removed.

We who are Saints ſhould look upon our ſelves as tied to theſe dead carcaſes (I mean the Jews) we cannot be right as we would be till they have life in them, no aſcending with­out them, no triumphing without them, ſo Paul hath it Rom. 11.15. Their reſtoring ſhall be life from the dead, when they and we ſhall be one body: as in another caſe it is ſaid, Heb. 11.48. That the Saints that are gone before with­out us (ſaith Paul) ſhould not be made perfect; ſo neither they nor we vvithout them ſhall be made perfect.

Therefore what need have we to be in Pauls frame; me thinks, it is like a compa­ny travelling towards a City, and ſome fall by the way, or ſtray behind, and the other that are willing to enter, runs forward, not­withſtanding there are orders given out, that none ſhall enter until all come up together.

How then ſhould this make thoſe that are ſtrong help thoſe that are weak, that they may all enter together to the gate. So let us know that none of us ſhall enter into glory, untill the Jews come up too; therefore let us uſe all means poſſible to publiſh that light,16 and put forth that power we have to bring them up. And ſo much for the ſecond verſe.

Verſe 3. For I could wiſh my ſelfe to be ac­curſed from Chriſt for my brethren, my kin­dred after the fleſh.

For the underſtanding of theſe words, we are to conſider what is meant by the word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. It is taken from an Hebrew root, which ſignifies to limit, determine, or ap­point, as Pſal. 78.41. They limitted the holy One of Iſrael: and the Greek word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉not differing, ſignifieth to ſix, determine, or appoint; theſe words are a fruit or effect of the former: you may remember, I told you concerning his heavineſſe and ſorrow, the greatneſs of it; I told you he was brought up to the condition of Chriſt, who was con­tented for our ſakes to be ſeparated from the Father, as it appears by his expreſſions: See Matth. 27.46.

Now Paul (as I told you before) being deeply ſenſible of their loſſe, is come up to the height of his affection, but how may we underſtand this, that he deſires to be accur­ſed from Chriſt: we muſt thus take it: That Paul prefers a generall good before a particular, therefore he could wiſh himſelfe in their condition, if ſo be, they might be in his.

17Now vve are not here to think, that he meaneth to be for ever ſeparated from Chriſt: for the Jews themſelves his kindred are not ſo ſeparated; for all acknowledge that they ſhall come in again, onely he deſires that if it were poſſible they might have been firſt, though he were laſt, as Chriſt ſpeaks con­cerning the Iews, The firſt ſhall be laſt, and the laſt firſt, ſee Matth. 19.30. that is, The Iews who were firſt a people, for their rebellion againſt God, ſhall be laſt, and the Gentiles who were not a people, ſhall be firſt.

There is another acception of this word, (that is) to be blotted out of the book of life: as Moſes uſeth the ſame expreſſions to God, ſee Exod. 32.32. Numb. 11.15. which agrees with that (〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉) 1 Cor. 16.24. which is excommunicated to death, as it is ſometimes taken, but I take it to be the for­mer that Paul ſpeaks of, (that is to ſay) that Paul deſires (for a time) to be excommuni­cated from Chriſt, in the room of the Iews, who were ſo excommunicated for their diſ­obedience.

Then if it be ſo, let us a little conſider, (as I ſaid before) Paul might well affirm it with ſuch ſtrong affirmations; for it might have been ſcarcely believed that his love and18 affection, ſhould be ſo ſtrong towards the Jews: where ſhall we find ſuch love? here is ſuch love, as John ſpeaks of, to lay down our lives for the brethren, here was that love of Chriſt viſibly ſeen in Paul, which we are commanded to imitate.

It is no wonder, though Paul writes ſo tenderly to the Churches, as Rom. 1. verſ. 7. 1 Cor. 1.1. chap. 4. verſ. 14. I write to you as my beloved children, I have begotten you, and ſo the whole currant of his Epiſtles was full of loving expreſſions, as a tender Fa­ther.

Who would have thought, that ever that Saul ſpoken of Acts 8. Who you there read did make havock of the Churches, drawing out Men and Woman, putting them into priſon, he breathed out threatnings againſt the people of God: his very name implies a man of a turbulent Spirit, a deſperate, forcing, or Raping man: but ſee what power he hath met withal in the commands of Chriſt, that his Name is not onely changed, but his na­ture alſo, for Paul ſignifies (ſeparavit) that is, ſet apart.

We may plainly ſee the power of the Word, of what a transforming nature it is, it transformed a man into love, not onely to19 his brethren, but alſo to his enemies: This Doctrine Chriſt preacheth largely, ſee and conſider Matth. 5. verſ. 43.44. It hath been ſaid, love your Neighbours; but I ſay love your Enemies: do good to them that hate you, and bleſſe them that curſe you: and theſe words of Chriſt, muſt be transforming words, to thoſe that profeſſe themſelves to be Diſciples of Chriſt.

This leſſon Steven had learned, Acts 7. Who prayed for his perſecutors: Lord lay not this ſin to their charge. See here if there be not the ſame mind in him as was in Chriſt. He prayed Father forgive them, for they know not what they do. So Paul exhorts the Philippians, Phil. 2. ver. 5. that the ſame mind in them which was in Chriſt.

I might largely inſiſt upon this, but this may ſuffice. Onely carry this along with you, 1. Iohn 2. verſ. 2. He that ſaith he abideth in Chriſt ought ſo to walk, even as Chriſt walk­ed. The chiefeſt thing in Chriſt imitable by us, is love to the brethren, as the ſame John in his firſt Epiſtle largely and ſweetly treat­eth of. So much for the former part of the words. A word to the latter.

My brethren, my kinſmen after the fleſh. I hope you know that Paul was a Jew,20 and ſo his Brother-hood comes in as he was a circumciſed perſon, therefore he cals them brethren according to the fleſh, becauſe he could not call them brethren according to Faith.

I proceed to the fourth verſe, which will more fully explain the precedent words: who are Iſraelites, to whom pertained the adop­tion, and the glory, and the Covenants, and the giving of the Law, and the ſervice of God, and the promiſes, verſ. 4.

Whoſe are the Fathers, and of whom as concerning the Fleſh, Chriſt came, who is over all, God bleſſed for ever, Amen. verſ. 5.

In theſe verſes we have a Catalogue of thoſe Priviledges which the Jews had, but loſt them by their diſobedience.

1. Priviledge, firſt they were Iſraelites of the ſeed of Iacob, who you know was called Iſrael, upon his prevailing with God, Geneſ. 32.28. This name (Iſrael) was given him as an incouragement unto him, to believe that he ſhould be a great prevailing people with God, and alſo with men; for we ſee in the next chapt. a fruit of the promiſe, when he met with Eſau his brother, Gen. 33. verſ. 4.5. and ſo forwards.

Now that this was a very high Priviledge,21 none will deny, as to be ſuch an Iſraelite to whom ſuch promiſes did belong, for we know that God did own the Iſraelites as his choice peculiar people, both under the Law and under the Goſpel, as concerning his high expreſſion to Nathaniel, Jo. 1.47. Behold an Iſraelite indeed in whom is no guile.

Therefore Paul did very well to put this in the firſt place, that they were Iſraelites, becauſe there were no promiſes made, either under the Law, or under the Goſpel, but un­to ſuch as are or ſhall be found in the Com­mon-wealth of Iſrael, for all others are ſaid to be ſtrangers, aliens, and without God in the World, both theſe are proved by the ſame Apoſtle into his Epiſtle Eph. 2.12.13. That at that time you were without Chriſt, being aliens from the Common-wealth of Iſrael; and ſtrangers from the Covenants of promiſe, having no hope, and without God in the World.

The ſecond Priviledge which the Jews were inveſted withall, was the adoption, now the Greek & Latin words, (〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, adoptio filio­rum) do ſignifie a receiving in of ſtrangers, & inveſting them with ſonſhip, as we find, Gen. 17. from the 23 to the laſt, where we find as well thoſe who were ſtrangers, as thoſe22 who were born in the houſe, were called ſons, being circumciſed, this alſo was a very high Priviledge; for therein the Iews had the ſame Priviledge as Ieſus Chriſt had un­der the Goſpel: for they might receive into ſon-ſhip, whomſoever would ſubmit to that Ordinance of circumciſion, and herein they did ſignifie, or type forth, that which is ſpo­ken of in the Prophet Iſaiah concerning Chriſt, that he ſhould be as an Enſign lifted up, unto whom all nations ſhould flow ac­cording to that in Gal. 4.5. Wherein the Apoſtle doth declare our adoption by Ieſus Chriſt, for ſaith he, to redeem them that were under Law, that we might receive the adoption of ſons, to this agrees Rom. 8.15.23. Eph. 1.5.

The third Previledge is the glory, wherein we muſt enquire what the Apoſtle means by the glory: Now the Greek word (〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉) ſigni­fies ſplendor, Majeſty, or domminion, as Iohn 9.44. Give glory to God, Acts 7.2. the God of glory appeared to our Father Abraham.

Again, we ſee it was one part of the Iews glory to have the preſence of God, as in the 132 Pſal. 13.14. for the Lord hath choſen Sion, and loved to dwell in it, ſaying, this is my reſt for ever; here will I dwell, for I have delight therein.

23The ſecond part of the Iews glory is, that they had the Laws of God communicated un­to them, 147 Pſa. 19.20. He ſheweth his word unto Iacob his ſtatutes and his judgement unto Iſrael, he hath not dealt ſo with eve­ry Nation, neither have they known his judgements. Even as it is in inferiour Courts, Judges, they have ſome of the glory and Ma­jeſty of the King, becauſe they have power given them by the King, to execute his Laws and ſtatutes in his name, which in ſo doing they do repreſent the perſon of the King. I might largely inſiſt upon theſe words, but take notice of this, that theſe Priviledges are eſſential unto a Church of God, for the Covenant, Geneſ. 17. was made unto them as they were ſeparated from all the Nations in the World beſides.

Neither doth God make any Covenants or promiſes, either under the Law or Go­ſpel, but unto a people ſeparated from the pollution of the World, Eſai. 8.16. and there God dwelleth.

Theſe Priviledges belonged unto them as they were the Common wealth of Iſrael, Eph. 2.12. So that there was an Act of Free­dom paſt upon all that came into this Com­mon-wealth, or Corporation, which Act was24 circumciſion, without which they had no ſhare in this Freedom or Priviledge, for this was the door by which they were to come in.

I ſhall hereafter ſhew you how this doth allude to the Goſpel-principles, and indeed which is but the ſhadow of that ſubſtance which the true Church of Chriſt are in the dayes of the Goſpel, I proceed to the 5. verſe.

Of whom are the Fathers, and of whom concerning the fleſh, Chriſt came, who is God over all, bleſſed for ever. Amen.

In which words there is declared another high Priviledge added to theſe Iews, that Chriſt came of that ſtock, I ſhall not ſpeak of the Deity of Chriſt, becauſe it hath been largely treated upon by others, but onely take notice of this, that when Paul doth ſpeak of Chriſts glory, he ſpake very highly of Chriſt, ſo that in this verſe is declared that not onely God the Father, but Paul wiſheth it ſo to be as in this word, Amen.

Now from all this which hath been de­clared from the 1. verſ. to the 5. verſ. there are theſe 3. things conſiderable.

Firſt, that the Iews were a glorious peo­ple above all people in the World beſides.

25Secondly, that they loſt this glory.

Thirdly, that, for which loſſe Paul was very heavy, and ſorrowfull, yet this ſorrow was not without hope, as we may ſee in the ſucceeding verſe, as in the 6. verſe.

Notwithſtanding it cannot be, that the word of God ſhould-take none effect, for all they are not Iſrael, which are of Iſrael, verſe 6.7.

Neither are they all children, becauſe they are the ſeed of Abraham, but in Iſaac ſhall thy ſeed be called.

In theſe words the Apoſtle begins to com­fort himſelf concerning Iſrael, and here in he uſeth ſeveral Arguments to raiſe up his thoughts.

The firſt Argument he uſeth is this, that the adoption, Covenants, promiſes, and glory, which he before ſpake of, were not altoge­ther given and made to fleſhly Iſrael, but to ſome other, or at leaſt to them under ſome other conſideration; ſo then the Argument lies thus: If the promiſes were made with Iſrael as they were Abrahams ſeed according to the fleſh onely, that is to ſay, circumciſed perſons, then it muſt not have ceaſed to ſuch an Iſrael: But we find that it hath ceaſed unto them according to the fleſh, (as Mat. 3.26 where they came to require Baptiſm of John, becauſe they were of the ſeed of Abraham, but that were not ſufficient, therefore the pro­miſes were made to Abrahams ſeed by faith, which are thoſe who are of the faith of Abra­ham, this is clearly proved, Rom. 2.28, 29.

For he is not a Jew which is one outwardly, neither is that circumciſion, which is outward in the fleſh, but he is a Jew which is one inward­ly, and circumciſion is that of the heart, in the ſpirit, and not in the letter, whoſe praiſe is not of men, but of God, Rom. 4.14.

So the Apoſtle layes all the blame upon Iſrael, not upon God; for the word of God is become of none effect to that Iſrael, becauſe they rejected this line of faith: for the Apoſtle ſaith in v. 31.32. That Iſrael hath not attained to the law of righteouſnes, becauſe they ſought it not by faith; (that is) Iſrael looked not further then this covenant accord­ing to the fleſh, as they were circumciſed perſons; upon which ground John had ſuch an harſh diſcourſe, Mat. 3.9. Think not to ſay you have Abraham to your father: for that is not the right line, but you are to be the children of Abraham by faith, before you claim this badge of baptiſme, as you ſhall find the words clear; and upon this27 ground moſt of Pauls diſcourſe, is to beat men off from this prop, to wit, outward priviledges, as witneſſe his whole Epiſtle to the Galatians, eſpecially chap. 3. the lat­ter end, For ye are all the Sons of God by faith in Chriſt Jeſus, if ye be Chriſts, ver. 29. then are ye Abrahams ſeed, and heirs according to promiſe. And hence it is that Paul lays low the whole diſpenſation of the law which is called Circumciſion, equall to thoſe with­out it, as Galat. 6.15. For in Chriſt Ieſus neither circumciſion nor uncircumciſion, but a new creature: And here is the Iſrael of God, namely, a new creature by faith. For in Chriſt Ieſus: you may remember I proved being in Chriſt Ieſus, was to be in and under the ordinances or diſpenſations of the Goſ­pel, as Rom. 8.1. not under the law, which is called fleſh, as Gal. 4.29. and by circumciſi­on and uncircumciſion, is meant Iews and Gentiles, the whole world, as Rom. 2.3.4. largely declared, ſo that now it lies here: it is not circumciſion, (that is) all thoſe priviledges, promiſes whatſoever, avails to ac­ceptance with God now, but faith, neither is the uncircumciſion any thing, or the con­trary, to availe for condemnation, if thou be a new creature, as it is clear Rom. 2.26.28 to the end. So it is the circumciſion of the heart, which was typified by the outward circumciſion of the fleſh: and therefore the ſame perſons, Acts 7. who were of this outward circumciſion, yet were uncircum­ciſed in heart, as ver 51. Ye are ſtiff-necked and uncircumciſed in heart and ears, becauſe they did not come under the diſpenſation of the Goſpell by faith. And to this agrees the whole current of Scripture: and if you do but read Pauls Epiſtles to the Galatians and Romans, you may plainly ſee this truth, ſo that here lies the cauſe; now Paul is not ſo much grieved and ſorrowfull for the Iews, becauſe they are no longer ſuch a glorious people as formerly they were: but for the cauſe of it, that they ſhould be ſo blind, as not to ſee the intent of God in all thoſe diſ­penſations, as having reference to Chriſt: for it was upon this ground that Iſrael was rejected of God, and blinded, becauſe they would not ſee Chriſt the end of the law, and that now the juſt ſhould live by belie­ving, as Rom. 1. Then we are come thus far, That the promiſes of God, Gen. 17. and ſeverall other places, were not made with Abraham, as he was a perſon circumciſed, but as a perſon believing, and received the29 ſigne of circumciſion, a ſeal of the righteouſ­neſſe of faith, as Rom. 4.10. and ſo thoſe are his children that believe in Chriſt, as witneſſe Zacheus, Salvation is come to thy houſe, in as much as thou art a child of Abraham, com­pared with Galat. 3.26. Ye are all the Sons of God by faith in Chriſt Jeſus; for as many of you as have been baptized into Chriſt, have put on Chriſt. And thus the Word of God is not fallen away, but the Jews: Iſrael is fallen from the Word or Promiſes of God, ſo that God did never intend that men ſhould be juſtified by fulfilling the law, but by eying Chriſt in it. Rom. 3.28. Thus I am come down again to the words: Neverthe­leſſe it cannot be that the Word of God ſhould fall away, or be of none effect: ſo that thus I conclude, that Iſrael whom Paul ſo much grieved for, and thoſe that have not obeyed the Goſpell, nor entred upon that true line of faith in Chriſt: ſo the comfort lies here, That there is yet an Iſrael of God, which are thoſe that are of a clean heart, Pſal. 72.1. Pax ſuper ills & miſericordia, & ſuper Iſrael Dei, Gal. 6.16. Well then, how doth this comfort Paul concerning the Iews: That at the time when thoſe Iews ſhall believe in Chriſt, they ſhall be counted30 for the Iſrael of God, and their puniſhment ſhall be taken away, 2 Cor. 3.15. When they ſhall turn to the Lord, the vale ſhall be taken away.

And this ſhall be: and therefore Iſrael is yet in a hopefull condition, Iſrael is not yet paſt mercy and grace, and then Iſ­rael who is now hated for their diſobedi­ence, ſhall then be loved, and his adverſa­ries hated: and now we muſt underſtand, that as the Jews or Iſrael ſinned, they were not only blinded ſpiritually, but afflicted outwardly, and given up into the hand of the enemies, as ye know the whole current of the Scripture runs: Now Paul is grieved for this cordition of theirs, and chiefly the cauſe of it, their unbelief: they who were ſuch a glorious people above other nations ſhould now lie amongſt the pots, Pſal. 68.13. that they ſhould now be the undermoſt, who then were higheſt: they the taile, that were the head, they the laſt, which were the firſt, Mat. 20. but in Iſaac ſhall thy ſeed be called, Gen. 21.12. that is, in that line that is moſt unlikely with men: a ſon of laughter omocking, a ſon in Abrahams old age: God in all ages made uſe of the loweſt and weakeſt means and ways to drive31 on this deſigne, becauſe he will have men to ſtoop to him in this way: it muſt not be glorious Iſrael according to the fleſh, deckt with outward circumciſion, and carnall or­dinances, but Iſrael of a clean and circum­ciſed heart, in the mean way of believing in Chriſt: and hence it is that Chriſt himſelfe comes as a Carpenter of mean parents, de­ſpiſed and mocked of men as Iſaac was, and not like a noble learned man, or wiſe after the fleſh, 1 Cor. 1. God will make men ſtoop, let them be never ſo high, never ſo learned, never ſo wiſe after the fleſh; and why ſhould men in this age wonder, if God go the ſame way to make uſe of baſe things, fooliſh things, deſpiſed things, to confound and bring to nought the high and mighty things, as wiſdome, learning, and great­nes? Why then is it that they cry now a days, as it was in Chriſts, have any of the great and learned men believed on him? onely a few poor deſpiſed ones that know not the law. But take notice, that this ſmall chan­nell is that where the promiſe runs: and the Jews for not ſubmitting to this way of God, lye under blindneſſe and hardneſſe till their ſtout heart comes down as Chriſt tels them, Mat. 23. laſt, I will not ſee you hence­forth32 tell you, bleſſed be he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

And here is that treating made good, 1 Pet. 2.7, 8. unto you that are not perſwa­ded, or are diſobedient, The ſtone which the builders refuſed, or diſſolved, the ſame is made the head of the corner. Theſe wiſe builders who at the firſt thought the ſtone not wor­thy to be laid into their glorious building, muſt return, and make it the chiefe ſtone, the corner-ſtone to direct the whole build­ing: Oh miſerable are thoſe people that are too wiſe to build upon this ſtone, eſpe­cially now after they have had this preſi­dent, namely, the Iews folly and miſtake; Men are to take Chriſts Rules, examples, and preſidents to build by, though they be counted fools by the World, it muſt be ſo, 1 Cor. 3.60. become fools to be wiſe; remem­ber the Iews folly was their wiſdom, being too high for Chriſt: ſo much for the 7. verſe.

Verſe 8. that is They whiche the Chil­dren of the fleſh, are not the Children of God; but the Children of the promiſe are counted for the ſeed: I ſpeak little to thſe words, be­cauſe I ſpake largely to the ſame thing: In the former only take notice of this, the diſ­courſe33 how it runs: This verſe is as it were an explication of the former, and it is Pauls ſecond Argument to comfort himſelf, con­cerning Iſrael, and to clear God, concerning his promiſe: there are as I ſaid before two deſignes here carried on, the chief is this, Pauls kindred for whom he ſo grieves, ſhall yet again be received and exalted, becauſe they ſhall be found of the ſeed of Iſaac. The ſecond is the manifeſtation of the cauſe of this their blindneſs or hardneſs: the firſt of theſe is the chiefeſt here intended, elſe it doth no way anſwer the former part of the Chapter: neither is it a ſutable plaiſter for ſuch a ſore; for were the ſecond the chief, that is to ſay, that God hath choſen the Co­venant of grace in Iſaac, and rejected the Covenant, the Covenant of works, Iſhmael; therefore I ſay theſe three Chapters treat chiefly of the Jews coming in again to that glory which they had only by promiſe, but ſhall have it really afterward.

I might from this ſtrong affirmation of Paul, that the Children of the fleſh are not the Children of God, prove that it is not Children of believing parents, or the like that are in the promiſe, but believers.

But I hope moſt people are taken off from34 this groundleſſe conceit; therefore I haſten to the main and chief thing here intended, which will lie in the third Argument from the 11.12. and 13. verſes, that is thus, viz. that though Iſrael for whom I grieve ſo, be now thus lowe, yet they ſhall be brought in again, and exalted becauſe of Gods promiſe, to wit, the elder ſhall ſerve the younger: I have Gods promiſe for it, nay, this was Pro­phetically ſpoken by God (to Rebeckah) who calls things that are not as though they were, who cannot be miſtaken: Known unto God are all his works from the creation of the World; but he hath ſaid the word, Iacob ſhall riſe and Eſau fall, therefore it muſt needs be ſo: the place Iſuppoſe is known to all Gen. 25.23. Rebeckah being with child with twins, and ſtrongly ſtrugling in her Womb, or hurting one another as the Hebrew word ſignifieth, ſhe could not but be troubled at this ſtrange work: Now God by this way or in this ſpeaking to Rebeckah would comfort her concerning him whom ſhe loved (who ſhould firſt be ſuppreſt by the elder,) that yet he ſhould be chief and rule over his Bro­ther, therefore he gives her this promiſe, the Elder ſhall ſerve the younger, Jacob ſhall rule Eſau: Now you know that Eſau at the firſt35 had dominion over Jacob, as witneſſeth his calling of him Lord Eſau, and ſubmitting to him when he met him, Gen. 33. This pro­miſe or propheſie of God to Rebeckah, as it then comforted her, ſo alſo it here comforts Paul; and therefore he makes uſe of the ſame words: Now that we may take up the whole ſcope of the words, I ſhall lay down theſe two concluſions.

Firſt, that Jacobs love, nor Eſaus hatred (here ſpoken of) is not yet fulfilled.

Secondly, that the time of Jacobs love, is the time of Eſaus hatred; for the under­ſtanding hereof, we muſt inquire what the love and hatred here ſpoken of is; for the which I ſhall refer you to the ſeveral Pro­pheſies concerning Eſan, as chiefly the whole Propheſie of Obadiah, the whole Propheſie ſpeaks of this particular, as verſe the 8. and 9. they of the Mount of Eſau ſhall be cut off by ſlaughter, and in the 21. verſe, I will judge the Mount of Eſau, and add to it the laſt verſ. where he tells us when it ſhall be, to wit, when the Kingdoms are become our Lord Chriſts, likewiſe the Prophet Malachy, Ma­lachy the 1. and the 2. He hated Eſau, and laid his Mountain and his Heritage waſte for the Dragons of the Wilderneſs; but this is not yet36 made good as you ſhall know, for it is when God brings back the captivity of Sion, Pſalm 137. Remember the Children of Edom, (which is Eſau) in the day of Jeruſalem, ſo that the love of Jacob, and the hatred of E­ſau is in a viſible way of exaltation or laying low: now that this is not yet clear, if you take but the ſaid 3. Chapters together, to wit, the 9.10. & 11. of the Romans, Love and hatred in God are not to be looked upon as inherent paſſions as they are in man; but we ſay God is angry when it appears by his acts and works; and thus ſometimes he is angry with, or hates Iſrael, as in the 2. of Samuel, the 24. when David numbred the People; and ſo likewiſe Eſay the 60. the 14. and 15. verſes, where he ſaith, Iſrael was ſorſaken and hated, ſo likewiſe in the ſe­cond Pſalm, verſe 5. where the Hebrew word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉ſignifieth the noſtrils, or the appearance of anger in the noſe, becauſe we ſhould then ſay God is angry, when we ſee the effects of it, ſo that then God hateth E­ſau as aforeſaid in Obadiah and Malachy, when he layeth his Mountain low, and not before, and then alſo he loveth Jacob when he acts towards him, according to Pſalm the 68. and the 13. Now that God ſhall thus deal37 with Eſau, and that he hath thus dealt with Jacob: I ſhall aſſert ſome Scriptures, firſt, concerning Jacob or Iſrael, the Lord ſpeaks largely by the Prophet Ieremy, Ier. 4.6.7. verſes, he threatned to bring a plague upon them, he threatned to lay their Land waſte, and deſtroy their Cities, waſte without Inhabitant, and this was not for nothing but for their great Rebellion, chap, 3. largely ſet out; by this you ſee how Gods love or hatred appears in his acts: ſo likewiſe chap. 5.14. and 15. verſes, and verſe 25. Your iniquities have hin­dred theſe things from you.

We have further fruits of this hatred, chap. 8.17. I will ſcatter them with an Eaſt-wind before the Enemy, I will ſhew them the back and not the face, in the day of their de­ſtruction, and ſo likewiſe verſ. 19. and many other Scriptures: Now all this while Eſau who is Iacobs perſecutor, is ſaved in a ſence, becauſe Iſrael is given into his hands; for this love and hatred appears in outward Do­minion and ſubmiſſion; and this is that ha­tred and love here ſpoken of in the Text, to wit, the making of the one great, and the o­ther ſmall: the major ſhall ſerve the minor; thus you ſee in ſome part the propoſition cleared. For the underſtanding what love &38 hatred is here meant, and the time of it; For the ſecond propoſition, to wit, that the time of Iacobs love is the time of Eſaus ha­tred, muſt needs be true; for all the world being perſecutors, or perſecuted, Iacobs or E­ſau's, the one being up, the other muſt needs be down: to this agrees the whole current of Scripture, and a pregnant place is Pſalm the 60. which is to this very thing in hand, concerning Eſau, under the name of Edom, where the Prophet mixeth his diſcourſe betwixt them both, as in the firſt verſe, where God is angry with Iſrael, and ſcatters them. In the laſt verſe he threatneth to deſtroy both his and Iſraels enemies: and Ezekiel 39. the whole Chapter being to this very thing in hand; ſo likewiſe Pſalm 68. at the firſt verſe, and the whole Pſalm likewiſe is eminent to this purpoſe.

So that is an undeniable truth, that the loving of Iacob, is the hating of Eſau, that is, the making of Iacob great, muſt be the making of Eſau ſmall; I might ſpeak much to this, but I muſt haſten. I thus conclude, that God did prophetically ſpeak unto Rebeckah, that though Jacob ſhould firſt be ſmall, and de­ſpiſed (as you know he was,) yet afterwards at his imbracing Jeſus Chriſt he ſhould be39 great and honourable: and ſo I proceed to the 14. verſe, What ſhall we ſay then? is there unrighteouſneſs with God? God for­bid. Theſe words depend upon the former: the Apoſtle argues thus, men are very apt to think that God is unrighteous when he comes to render vengeance upon them, for perſecu­ting his people: theſe enemies are as a rod in Gods hand, that muſt be thrown into the fire, when it ſhall be ſaid as the Prophet Eſay ſaith, Eſay 40.2. ſhe hath received double at the hand of the Lord, for all her tranſ­greſſions, which is the time, which the A­poſtle now points at; that men I ſay are very apt to think that God is not righteous in his rendring a recompence to his enemies, ap­pears in their pleading with him, as in Mat. 25.43.44. When ſaw we thee hungry? &c. but the ſecond part of the words is the affirma­tion, God forbid: the ſumme of which words is this, that God ſhall appear moſt juſt and righteous in his hatred of Eſau, and love of Jacob: this is cleared expreſly by Paul, Rom: 2.4.6. for it is a rightcous thing with God, to render tribulation to them that trouble you: it is an equal and righteous thing, that as Eſau (and in him all the perſecutors and oppreſſors of the people of God) have had40 their time, not only to perſecute, but to in­joy the fatneſs of the earth; ſo Jacob who hath been ſmall ſhall alſo have his time (as it is intimated by Chriſt, Luke 16.25. concern­ing Lazarus) ſhall have their time to enjoy the earth.

I mean to reign with Chriſt on earth, herein is the righteouſneſs of God ſeen very much, and this is cleared by ſeveral Scri­ptures, as Math. the 5. and the 5. The meek ſhall inherit the Earth, ſee Math. 19.28.29. Revel. 5.10. and Revel. 5.20. Pſalm. 49.14. The juſt ſhall have dominion ever them in the morning. But it is objected, that this love and hatred was before they were born, verſe 11. for ere the Children were born, and when they had done neither good nor evil, that the purpoſe of God according to the election, might ſtand not of works, but of him that calleth. For anſwer to which I ſay, the words were ſpoken by God, (that calls things that are not as though they were) before they had done good or evil; and there is no more in the words, leaving out the Parentheſis, it was ſaid unto Re­beckah, the elder ſhal ſerve the younger: but for more particular anſwer, I ſay as I proved be­fore, that Gods hatred and love is known by41 his external actings, which is not yet ex­preſſed towards either of them; for the ha­tred of Eſau Malachy the 1. and the 2. com­pared with Obadiahs propheſie, was not act­ed before he was born, neither was it done without reference to his works, for in Obadiah its ſaid, for thy violence againſt thy brother Jacob, &c. Gods promiſes & threatnings have always been conditionally from the begin­ning of the World. As firſt concerning Ni­niveh, God threatened to bring a Judge­ment upon them, they repented, and he re­pented to conſider alſo Jeremy the 18. If I ſpeak againſt a Nation to pluck up and to de­ſtroy, if that Nation turn, I will repent of the evil which I thought to bring upon them the truth of which condition of God we ſee in Ahab, 1 Kings the 21.27, 28, 29. So alſo Luke the 13. Except they repent, they ſhall all likewiſe periſh. From whence I con­clude, that God doth always threaten and promiſe conditionally: therefore if God did threaten to hate Eſau and to love Jacob, be­fore they were born; it muſt be according to theſe rules of his proceeding, which is ac­cording to their deſervings: for his rule is to render to every man according to his works, Romanes the 2. Now theſe conditions of42 God are not always expreſſed, but implied, which cauſeth the miſtake, as in the caſe of Ninive; Fourty dayes and Ninive ſhall be de­ſtroyed: where there is no condition expreſ­ſed, yet it muſt of neceſſity be implied, other­wiſe God had not been ſo good as his word; for he did not deſtroy them. But a place emi­nent to this purpoſe is, the firſt of Samuel the 23. the 11.12. where David inquired of God whether Saul would come down, or whether the men of the Cittie would deliver him up? the anſwer of God was firſt, that Saul would come down. And ſecondly, that the men of the Citie would deliver him up: neither of which things came to paſſe. If Da­vid had been of the mind of ſome men in our dayes, having a word of God, plainly ſaying that he ſhould be taken, he would not have ſtirred, but deſperately have continued in the Town till Saul had come down upon him, according as I ſaid to the words of ſome men, if they be elected they ſhall be ſaved; If not, do what they can they ſhall periſh: but would ſuch men do as David did, who fled out of the Citie and eſcaped Sauls hands, ſo let them forſake their evil wayes and turn unto God, and they ſhall be ſaved. But it is further added, that the purpoſe of God might43 ſtand, that is, ſay they that God had a purpoſe to hate & love in time, it is true, God did fore­ſee what the actings of theſe two would be, and except Eſau leave perſecuting of Jacob, and turn to love him, God will hate him, and when Iſrael ſhall turn to the Lord, God will lift them, as in the 2. of the Corinthians 3.16. when they ſhall look upon the braſen Ser­pent, they ſhall be healed. Ezekiel the 39. the 27.28. and 29. Gods foreſeeing that men will do good or evil, doth not give them power to act either; for did his fore-know­ledge of mens doing good give them power to act God-like, then his fore-ſight of wicked mens doing evil muſt alſo give them power to act wickedly, and ſo become the Author of ſin, which he is not: as James the firſt and the 13. Galatians the 5. and the 8. But you will ſay, that God hath power to hinder men from ſinning and therefore it lieth upon him. I anſwer, where hath God made any promiſe that he will hinder men from evil, or put them forward to good, but as Perſons ſhall imbrace his word, and by his working unto their reaſons and underſtanding? ſo Luke 14. the gueſts are invited, not forced: he doth not ſend a Troop of Horſe to bring them in by force whether they will or no, but he ſends44 them word all things are ready, and this is likely to work upon their affections and to provoke them to come; for if God did put forth this kinde of power, he might cauſe a horſe or any other bruite beaſt as well as man: but the way that God takes with ratio­nal creatures, men and women; is to woe and intreat and beſeech them to be reconciled: as in the 2. of the Corint. the 5. Eſay the 55. the 6. and 7. from all this we gather that Gods Prophetical ſpeech to Rebecca did not cauſe Eſau to be wicked or Iacob to be God­like. And ſo much for the objection. And the 14. vers; vers the 15. for he ſaid to Moſes, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and will have compaſſion on whom I will have compaſſion. Theſe words were the words of God to Moſes, Exodus the 33. and the 19. where Moſes deſired to ſee Gods glory, he would not be ſatisfied with a little of the back-parts; but he would ſee his face, but God doth as much as tell him, none can ſee his face, but as he is in Jeſus Chriſt that rock. Now the Apoſtle here makes uſe of this promiſe of God there made to him and to Iſrael, and ſo the words are a reaſon of the former; he argues thus Iſrael muſt be loved, and mercy muſt be ſhewed unto them,45 why? becauſe God promiſed ſo to Moſes, and he cannot lie; ſo that this is another ar­gument to comfort Paul concerning his kin­dred according to the fleſh, not onely that promiſe made to Rebecca, but alſo this which was made to Moſes. But it will be objected: Gods ſupream power, is here the cauſe, and nothing in man, for it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that ſheweth mercy. For anſwer to this, I ſay, is not ſaid, it is not in him that willeth, nor in him that runneth, but that it is not of him that willeth, &c. that is, it is not of or from him that willeth or runneth to procure a way of Salvation: for both Jews and Gen­tiles which are here termed willers and run­ners, are both uncapable of doing ſuch a thing; for they had both ſinned, and come ſhort of the glory of God, Romanes the 3. and the 23. Therefore mercy and grace, muſt needs be the gift of God, Epheſians the 2. and the 8. where Grace is called the gift of God, which gift is Jeſus Chriſt, John the 4. So that it may well be ſaid, it is not of him that runneth, but of God that ſheweth mer­cy, Hoſea the 13. and the 9. O Iſrael thou haſt deſtroyed thy ſelf, but in me is thy help. So that the caſe lies here, Paul is very ſad for46 a company of condemned creatures in the beginning of the Chapter, but he is a little comforted, that the finds or hears that the King whom they have been traitors to, hath given out, that all and every one of theſe ſhall be ſaved, if they will but own him for King, which is a ſmall thing. Now the caſe of this pardon cannot ariſe from the crea­ture condemned, but out of the Kings meer mercy. The Apoſtle grieves for a company of men his kindred that are ſtung with fiery Se­pents, but he is a little comforted in that there is a brazen Serpent ſet up to heal them if they will but look, and there is but a look required, and if they periſh it is becauſe they will not look upon the brazen Serpent; and Chriſt in alluſion to this, calleth: look unto me, and be ye ſaved all the ends of the earth. So that now there is hopes for Paul and them in this thing, becauſe willing and running is not now the way of Salvation, but looking and believing in Jeſus Chriſt; it is onely now as coming to a wedding where there is all delightes, and therefore God had mercy on them that fell under the diſpenſation of the Law. But now how ſhall we eſcape if we ne­glect ſo great Salvation? there remains now no more ſacrifice for ſin, but a fearfull look­ing47 for of Judgement. And ſo much for the 16. verſ. the 17. For the Scripture ſaid un­to Pharaoh even for this ſame purpoſe have I raiſed thee up that I might ſhew my power in thee, and that my name might be de­clared throughout all the earth. The words are the words of God to Pharaoh, Exodus the 9. and the 16. For the word here uſed raiſed thee up, or made thee to ſtand, the Greek word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, ſometimes ſignifies a re­ſurrection from the dead, and ſometimes a reſurrection from ſome deep extremity; ſee how God had thus raiſed up Pharaoh: how often had Pharaoh been very low by thoſe plagues which were upon him, yet God did ſtill raiſe him up and deliver him, and gave him as it were a new life, there was never any that we read of, that had more eminent mer­cies from God then this man had; nine ſeve­rall times we know God raiſed him up from the gates of death at his deſire, by the means of Moſes and Aaron, though it were ſuch a great ſin, and evil he lay under; as firſt, the perſecuting the peculiar people of God; and ſecondly his deſpiſing and vilifying of God himſelf, ſaying, what is the Lord, that I ſhould obey him? was there ever any that abuſed deliverances more then this man did? 48But let us a little examine the cauſe, becauſe he ſaith, for this cauſe; the cauſe was partly in reference to himſelf, and partly in refe­rence to Pharaoh. Firſt in reference to him­ſelf two wayes, as is expreſſed in the follow­ing words. Firſt to ſhew his patience, and ſecondly his power; his patience in forbear­ing and bearing ſo many abuſes as Pharaoh offered to him and his people, as in verſ. the 22. Where both theſe particulars are proved, what if God willing to ſhew his long ſuffer­ing, indured with much patience the veſſels of wrath, &c. Secondly, to ſhew his power, that he could take off ſuch a ſtout Enemy in the height of his rebellion & perſecution, and that he did not onely to deliver and for the comfort of Iſrael then, but for the comfort of his people in ſucceeding ages, which is the very cauſe and ground that it is here cited in this Chapter; the proceedings of God upon Pharaoh, that as; their God delivered Iſrael from ſo potent an Enemy, he will alſo at laſt deliver Iſrael from all the Edemites, Moabites, and Amorites, their Enemies. God will wound the head of his Enemies, and the hairy ſcalp of theſe that go on in their wic­kedneſſe, as he did unto Pharaoh; and let men make this conſtruction of all Gods deli­verances,49 to conſider of the patience and power that God holds forth unto them; for Gods raiſing up of perſons gives them power to amend their lives, as Pharaoh might and ought to have done. But the ſecond con­ſideration, why God made his power appear unto Pharaoh, was in reference to Iſrael, who elſe muſt have been ſwallowed up; and this proves the former Propoſition more firmly. That the time of Jacobs love muſt be the time of Eſaus hatred, for the deliverance of Iſrael muſt of neceſſity be the deſtruction of Pharaoh: ſo that now Paul argues thus to comfort himſelf; God that did ſo much for Iſrael of old, in delivering them from Pha­raoh; will do as much or more, in delivering them from their perſecutors, Eſau and the like. This is plainly proved by ſeveral places of Scripture, as in Eſay the 10. verſ. the 24.25. and 26. Where he deſcribes the manner of Gods proceeding, in the ſecond place to be according to that of Egypt, Eſay the 11.16. Eſay the 34. from the fifth verſe to the end; and this deliverance of Iſrael was not pro­cured by or from themſelves, but it proceed­ed from the breaſt of God himſelf, for he looked down upon Pharaoh's cruel dealing with them, and he wrought their deliver­ance;50 onely they were to do what he bid them, to go when he bid them go, and to ſtand when he bid them ſtand; and ſo muſt we or they: in the ſecond Salvation by Chriſt the mercy is free, Chriſt is free, but we muſt do as Chriſt bids us, we muſt hearken to the voice of this Prophet in whatſoever he ſpeak­eth unto us, Acts 7.37. and as it was then to Iſrael, they were to hearken unto Moſes that Prophet, they were to go on when he bid them, and to ſtand ſtill when he bid them, ſo likewiſe it is now; ſo that therefore we con­clude thus that mercy and pardon is free, it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth: yet man muſt receive it, or elſe he ſhall be never the better: for ſo now I proceed to verſ. the 18. Therefore he will have mercy on whom he will, and whom he will he hardeneth. The Apoſtle is now about to deſcribe God as a Su­pream Majeſty that hath power to puniſh or acquit; theſe words are woefully abuſed. Some gather from theſe words, that God hardens and ſhews mercy by his royal prero­gative onely, without reference to mans works or deſervings, yet at the ſame time the ſame perſons deny an earthly King to uſe ſuch a power, but call him a Tyrant51 that doth rule by his will and prerogative and not by his Law declared; but the Apoſtle herein ſhewing the will and power of God, doth not intimate unto us, that he will quit the guilty, or condemn the innocent; but in a way of Juſtice and Equity, according to his declared Law and will, Rom. the 2. and ſe­veral other places, where he declareth to re­ward every man according to his works, and this he hath power to do, namely if men break his Laws to puniſh them, and if men obey him to reward them; Gods will here ſpoken of his his word, part of which will is John the 6. and the 40. This is the will of him that ſent me, that he that ſeeth the Son and believeth in him, ſhould have life; and the ſecond part of his will is, Mark the 6. and 16. He that will not believe, ſhall be damned. God will go by this will, and it being not obſerved, he hath this power to execute his Laws to the uttermoſt. But here I ſhall meet with a great objection, God hardens whom he will, and ſo he har­dens Pharaoh, for his will or pleaſure, to which I anſwer, that as hardneſſe and blind­neſſe is a ſin, ſo God hath no hand in it, but onely as it is a puniſhment of ſin, ſo he hath a hand in it, and ſo he hardned Pharaoh,52 and ſo he blinded the Jews. But for a more particular anſwer; let us a little conſider what way and means God took to harden Pharaohs heart. It is by no other means then by mercies and deliverances, for all the while the judgements were upon him, we find a ſoftneſſe in his heart; but it was upon the removing and taking off the plague (which was an Act of grace and mercy) that Pha­raoh contracts this hardneſſe upon himſelf. Now that this way was a juſt ground from God to harden Pharaohs heart, let all men judge for it is the ſame way and courſe that both God and man takes to ſoften, and we know by experience that by this means ma­ny hearts have been ſoftned, as Ezekiel the 16.63.

It was that that ſoftened Saul, when David ſhewed him mercy in cutting off the lap of his Garment onely, when he might have ſlain him, but this hardneſs of Pharaohs heart is no other ways to be attributed to God, then the ſtinck of a dunghil to the Sun, or the hardening of a clay-Wall, which we know falls out accidentally, not intentionally; and thus God provoked David to number the people, which in one place is attributed to God, and in another place to Satan;53 which was true on both ſides: for firſt, as he had life and motion and heat, that was frow God, but as he ſupplied this life, motion and heate, to triumph in the arme of fleſh; this was from Satan: and thus God is the authour of all the great tranſactions of the Sons of men; and thus he was the cauſe of Adams ſin, at the firſt, as Adam pleadeth: The woman which thou gaveſt me, &c. As much as if he ſhould have ſaid; if thou had'ſt not given me a woman to have given me the fruit, I had not committed this ſin; So if God did not uphold the lives of men, they could not ſin: but it is a very unworthy application of the mercies of God. It was the miſapplying, and miſ-improving the mercies and deliverances of God, that did neceſſarily occaſion that hardneſs to grow upon Pharaohs heart; for if he were not ſoftened, he muſt needs be hardened: for Gods Word returns not em­ty and void, Eſay 55.10.11. and in this it is like unto the Sun. But you may object, that as a judgement and puniſhment, God doth harden and blind as you ſay; therefore let us ſee what kind of hardening that is?

For anſwer to which, I ſhall refer you to thoſe ſeveral Scriptures which ſpeak of this thing, as Pro. 1.24. Becauſe I have called, &54 ye have refuſed; ye ſhall call, & I will not hear. Wherefore we may obſerve Gods part, and mans part what they were. So likewiſe, Acts the 28.26. Go ſay unto this People, hearing, ye ſhall heare, and not underſtand. The ground or reaſon is from themſelves, as in the next verſe, 27. The heart of this People is waxed fat, their eyer have they cloſed, leaſt they ſhould ſee with their eyes, and underſtand with their hearts, and be ſaved. Thus God likewiſe dealt with the Jewes, Luk, 19.42. Now they are hid from thine eyes. Thus God puniſheth ſin with ſin, Pſal. 69.27. Add iniquity to their iniquity. And this he hath power to do, to all thoſe that deſerve it, as the Apoſtle, Ro­mans the 2. largely declareth. Here then is the ſcope of the words, Paul is comforted concerning Iſrael again, becauſe he finds God to be righteous & juſt, and alſo power­ful to deliver Iſrael, and puniſh their ene­mies: he uſeth this as an argument to ſta­bliſh his heart, concerning his kindred, the Iewes, that thoſe dry bones ſhould live; that Iſrael, the whole Iſrael of God, ſhall be at laſt ſet free from the perſecuting Lord Eſau, to injoy that promiſe, Gen. 25. The elder ſhall ſerve the younger Iacobs enemies ſhall be ſubdued. Let us then with Paul, incourage55 our ſelves, it will be ere long made good, and let us not queſtion how this can be, that theſe dry bones can live; but looke upon the power of God, who can ſhew mercy on whom he will, and whom he will, harden and deſtroy, verſe the 19. Thou wilt ſay then unto me, who hath reſiſted his will? why doth he yet complain? In the words we muſt inquire what he meaneth by this word complain. The Greek word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉hath ſeveral acceptions in Scripture, Mark. 7. and the 2. They complained, or found fault. So Heb. 8.8. Col. 3.13 it is tranſlated quarrel, 1. Theſ. 5.23. It is tranſlated, blame. So that put theſe together, and it is thus much. A contentious complaining to pick, a quarrel, and that is, a man complains or quarrels againſt God. This appears, Lamen. 3.29. why doth living man complain? man ſuffers for his ſin; So that this it is, notwithſtanding Gods equal dealing with man, yet ſome will not be ſatisfi­ed, but will reply againſt God, as in the for­mer verſe, the 14. that God is not ſo righte­ous in his ways, therefore God pleads with Iſrael, Ezekiel 18.25. Yet ye ſay, the way of the Lord is not equal, though God dealt as exactly as he tels them that they could deſire no juſter dealing, yet they are not contented,56 he appealeth to all men, if this be not equal dealing, that if a righteous man, turn from his righteouſneſs, he ſhall die, and if a wicked man turne from his wickedneſs, he ſhall live and not die; yet they are not ſatisfied, verſe 29. they ſay his way is not equal, So here one might aske Paul, to what end doth man complain of Gods dealing to men, their folly appears in complaining? the reaſon is given, becauſe none hath reſiſted his will; that is, when God commeth down to render ven­geance upon his enemies, and to exalt his people, none then ſhall be able to reſiſt; ſo that is a further comfort to Paul concerning Iſrael, that God comes irreſiſtibly to deliver them, as you may ſee more largely if you conſider ſome Scriptures, as Eſay. 14. the where he ſpeaks of the thing in hand verſe the 6. He ſmote the people in his wrath, and none hindred. So Eſay, 31.13. I will work, and none ſhall let. And to clear up this irreſiſtibleneſs in God, (when he comes to recompence his enemies,) he adds the follo­wing verſe, ver. the 20. Nay but O man, who art thou, that replieſt againſt God? ſhall the thing formed ſay to him that formed it, why haſt thou made me thus? ver. 21. hath not the Pot­ter power over the Clay, of the ſame lump, to57 make one veſſel unto honour, and another to di­ſhonour?

In theſe verſes as I have ſaid before, the Apoſtle doth undeniably prove this unreſiſt­able power of God, in that he renders God as the Potter, and man as the Clay, which is expreſſed alſo, Eſay, 64.8. For the under­ſtanding of theſe words, we muſt conſider whether the making of Veſſels of honour and diſhonour, here ſpoken of, hath reference to the firſt Creation or no. Secondly, how it comes to paſſe that men are made Veſſels of honour and diſhonour. Thirdly, why he here addeth theſe words, Of the ſame lump. Fourthly, what he meaneth by veſſels of ho­nour and diſhonour, and how we ſhall be able to ſay how ſuch a perſon, or ſuch per­ſons are veſſels of honour, or diſhonour. I ſhall by other Scripturs indeavour to clear theſe particulars. For the firſt, whether this making of Veſſels of honour, and diſhon­our hath reference to the Creation?

I anſwer no, in no wiſe? for if theſe veſ­ſels be onely of man-kind, as all men acknow­ledge; then God made but one of theſe veſ­ſels, namely Adam, who was a Veſſel of ho­nour; and for the whole Creation, God takes off this aſſertion, for he juſtifieth them to be58 xceeding good: and ſo Solomon in Eccle­ſiaſtes ſaith, God made man upright. Therefore I conclude, that God at the firſt made man a Veſſel of honour fit for the Maſters uſe: man is called a Veſſel, becauſe he is to containe ſome thing which the Maſter is to put into him, and he is honourable, ſo long as that li­quor remains in him, but when he leaketh or that liquor runneth out, then he becomes a diſhonourable Veſſ Secondly, neither hath it reference to what man was after A­dams fall, it is true Adam became a diſho­nourable Veſſel by diſobeying God, but he was not thus a Veſſel of Gods making but of his own; for God created him honou­rable as I proved before.

The ſecond thing to be inquired into is, how it cometh to paſſe, or at what time, man becomes a Veſſel of diſhonour? I anſwer, when men be diſobedient to God and Chriſt, then they become Veſſels of diſ­honour, for this conſider the 18. of Iere. is plain to this purpoſe, from the 1. verſ. to the 17. In which Scripture we find, that God intended Iſael an honourable Veſſel till they broke in his hand; God in this declares himſelf after the manner of men, we know the Potter doth not make a Veſſel with an59 intent to break it when he hath done, but this falleth out accidentally; for want of the well managing of it when it is made, neither did God make Iſrael a Veſſel wherein he might dwell intentionally to break them, and ruine them; but the caſe lay here whilſt God was in framing Iſrael for a glorious and happy condition, in that very time they re­belled againſt him, as is plainly expreſſed in this Chapter. A diſhonourable Veſſel in this place is a broken Veſſel; now it is not for a ſmall ſin that a Perſon or people becomes a diſhonourable Veſſel, but it is thoſe that threaten and deſperately ſay, we will walk after our own imaginations, and do every one after the ſtubbornneſſe of his own heart; here is a people fit for deſtruction, fit to be made a diſhonourable Veſſel; and now there is no other means to be uſed, this crack in ſuch an earthen Veſſel is incurable; therefore now he muſt be unchurched or excommunicated from God, therefore to ſuch a people God ſpeaketh ſadly, Eſay the 1.24. Notwithſtanding in the 14. verſ. he had promiſed them that if they would be willing and obedient, they ſhould eat the good things of the land, but if they were diſobedient, they ſhould be deſtroyed, for60 the mouth of the Lord hath ſpoken it; God will ſpue ſuch a people out of his mouth; here is a Veſſel of diſhonour when God will no longer communicate himſelf unto him as a Veſſel for his uſe; therefore let us not mi­ſtake God: it is for the higheſt and greateſt ſin that can be, to be a Veſſel of diſhonour under the Goſpel, it's to be excommunicate from the offices and fellowſhip of the Go­ſpel, according to that in the firſt of the Corinthians 16. and the laſt, If any man love not the Lord Jeſus, let him be Anathema, Maranatha; this was the puniſhment of Iſ­rael.

God excommunicateth them, taketh away his preſence and his Laws from them, and delivereth them unto Satan, an adverſary; as the fornicator was to be in the firſt of the Corinth. the 5. But you have a more plain place to prove that an excommunicated Per­ſon is a diſhonourable Veſſel, as in the ſe­cond of Timothy the ſecond and 21. If a man purge himſelf from theſe he ſhall be a Veſſel of honour fit for his maſters uſe. If the que­ſton ſhould be asked from what he ſhould purge himſelf? it is anſwered from the Do­ctrine of Himeneus and Philetus, who were excommunicate, as we may gather from the61 firſt of Timothy, the firſt for denying the re­ſurrection, ſo that from hence we gather thus much, that the imbracing their Do­ctrine was the ready way to be excommuni­cated and ſo to become diſhonourable Veſ­ſels, and the cleanſing or keeping a man pure from thoſe Doctrines was the ready way to be made or continued Veſſels of honour; ſo that we ſee the cauſe of mens being Veſſels of diſhonour, is their high diſobedience, re­bellion and blaſphemy againſt God, when men do as it were by theſe means break in Gods hand; when God is in making a Perſon honourable, and he doth not walk ſuitable to it, then it is that God deſigns him to be a Veſſel of diſhonour. Thirdly, why it is ad­ded of the ſame lump; to ſhew that it is not nearneſſe of relation that ſhall excuſe or exempt men from puniſhment, though they be of the ſame lump of the ſame fleſh and bloud, Jacob and Eſau you know were of the ſame lump, not onely children of one Mother, but brought forth at one birth, they were twins, yet God hateth the one and loveth the other, as is declared Ma­lachy the 1. and the 2. Is not Eſau Jacobs brother? ſaith God, yet have I hated Eſau, and laid his mountain waſte; ſo that it ſhall62 be no advantage to Eſau in the day of Gods wrath to plead that he is Jacobs own bro­ther, this Chriſt tells the Jews, John 8. and 37. I know that ye are Abrahams ſeed, ſaith Chriſt, but you ſeek to kill me; there­fore they ſhould not abide in the houſe, they muſt not be Veſſels of honour in his houſe, verſ. the 35. So likewiſe in Matth. the 3. Chriſt ſheweth that it is not near re­lation that can ſerve the turn, though they be Abrahams ſeed. So likewiſe Matth. the 24.40. Two woman ſhall be grinding at the Mill, one ſhall be taken, and the other left.

Fourthly, what he meaneth by, or when a perſon or people may be ſaid to be a diſho­nourable Veſſel. This was partly cleared in the 2. particular, but you ſhall a little fur­ther ſee this cleared: when Iſrael was deli­vered up into the hand of her Enemies, then ſhe was a diſhonourable Veſſel; when ſhe lieth amongſt the pots, as Pſal. 68.13. When ſhe is caſt aſide, as men commonly caſt aſide a broke pitcher as a Veſſel of no uſe or honour; and ſhe is again received to be a Veſſel of honour, when ſhe believeth in Jeſus Chriſt, ſhe ſhall again be imployed for the Maſters uſe, Rom. 11.23. If they63 abide not ſtill in unbelief, they ſhall be graft­ed in: ſo that we underſtand thus much, that God doth not make men Veſſels of honour and of diſhonour, but upon juſt ground and ſufficient cauſes. I might prove this by ſeveral Scriptures, but I ſhall onely cite two; Rom. 1.26. For this cauſe God gave them up to uncleanneſſe, the 2. of the Theſſ. the 2. and 11. For this cauſe God ſhall ſend them ſtrong deluſions; there is a juſt cauſe why God dealeth ſo with men, and God doth ſo far condeſcend as to give man an account of it, therefore he doth not rule by his will or prerogative as ſome men ſay. Let us then a little inquire into the cauſe why Eſau ſhall be thus hated, or made a diſhonourable Veſſel. Eſau is now an ho­nourable Veſſel, as God maketh uſe of him to correct Iſrael; but when Iſrael ſhall be ſufficiently corrected by him, he is to be thrown into the fire, becauſe he hath corre­cted Iſrael, not as being in Gods hand, but as ſatisfying his corrupt heart and cruel hands, Obadiah the 10. For thy cruelties to thy brother Jacob ſhame ſhall cover thee. The cauſe of Eſaus being made a Veſſel of di­ſhonour, is granted by the Prophet Amos, Amos the 1. The whole chapter ſpeaks of64 this thing, but eſpecially verſ. 7. he hath not remembred the brotherly Covenant, but pur­ſued him with the ſword, and caſt off all pit­ty, as verſ. the 11. Yet the cauſe of this up­on Jacob or Iſrael is juſt too Mich. 1.5. For the wickedneſſe of Jacob is all this come upon them; ſee likewiſe Michael the 6. Yet God had not given Iſrael any ſuch cauſe as he pleadeth with them to be ſo rebellious, verſ. the 3. O my people what have I done unto thee? or wherein have I wearied thee? teſtify againſt me. The Lord appealleth unto man in all his proceedings, that if man doth ſee, or Judge, that God hath not in any thing dealt juſtly, or equally, let him ſpeak, or plead, for he is not afraid that men ſhould dive or ſearch into his proceedings in reference to man as ſome men will affirm; therefore Veſ­ſels of honour and diſhonour are of Gods making for juſt cauſe and grounds, given by themſelves and no otherways, verſ. the 22. What if God willing to ſhew his wrath and to make his power known endured with much long-ſuffering, the Veſſels of wrath fitted to deſtruction? I ſhall be very brief in the following diſcourſe. The words are a further vindication of God, that he doth not (as ſome ſay) make Veſſels of honour and65 diſhonour, without reference to their works, nay, he is ſo far from that that after they deſerve to be made Veſſels of diſhonour, yet he waits a long time upon them; and uſeth all means to reclaim them, he ſuffereth with long patience, the Veſſels fitted or made up for deſtruction, this the Prophet Ezekiel, Ezekiel the 33.11. ſpeaketh largely to, why will ye die. O houſe of Iſrael? and how ſhall I give thee up, (ſaith God to Iſrael,) it grieves him to do it; and therefore it is called his ſtrange work, executing of judgement of this long-ſuffering and patience of God, the Apoſtle Peter ſpeaketh, 2. Pet. 3.15. And ſup­poſe that the long-ſuffering of God is for Salvation: to this agreeth the firſt of Tim. the 4.2, and the 4. and remains the 2. and the 4. Which is very pregnant to this purpoſe, but this is not the thing which is ſo much con­tradicted, but the queſtion is, whether this fitting or or making up to deſtruction, be not Gods appointing and ordaining men to de­ſtruction from eternity? becauſe Peter the 1. the 2. and the 8. He ſpeaks of ſome that were diſobedient whereunto they were appointed, and Jude ſpeaks of ſome that were of ould ordained to this condemnation: for that of Peter the words run thus according to the Greek, being not perſwaded, becauſe they66 were agreed or reſolved〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉the ſame word is uſed, Joh. the 9. and the 22. The Jews had agreed or ordained, that if any ſhould confeſſe Chriſt, they ſhall be caſt out of the Synagogue: for the 2. place, Jude the 4. of old ordained, the Greek word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉praeſeripti, ordained by writing: in the Law, and who were them, but un­godly men, turning the grace of God into wantonneſſe; deſtruction muſt be to the workers of iniquity. And the curſe of the Lord are in the houſe of the wicked, Pro­verbs the 3. and the 33. But he bleſſeth the habitation of the juſt. The wiſe ſhall inhe­rit love, but ſhame ſhall be the portion of fools. So it is fitting for deſtruction is one mans part, it is he that muſt fill up his mea­ſure, as Chriſt ſpeaks to the Jews, Matth. the 23. Fill ye up the meaſure of your Fathers, and then wrath muſt come upon them to the uttermoſt, without remedy when they are thus filled up they are fit for deſtruction; ſo was Pharaoh fitted for deſtruction by his of­ten hardening his heart, the firſt of Samuel the 6. and the 6. Yet upon ſuch a perſon or people God waits, Romanes the 10. and the laſt verſ. All the day long have I ſtretched out my hand to a gain-ſaying, and rebellious67 people. So God waits all the day long upon wicked men, to ſee whether they will return. Thus you ſee how theſe words agree with the former. Man is very apt to reply againſt God, becauſe he doth not preſently make his power appear in puniſhing the wicked, and rewarding the Godly, according to that which Solomon in the Eccleſiaſtes ſpeaks, Be­cauſe judgement is not ſpeedily executed, therefore the hearts of the Sons of men are ſet in them to do wickedly. This is the uſe that moſt men make of Gods long-ſuffering and forbearance. So Peter ſpeaks of mockers walking after their own luſts: the reaſon is becauſe all things continue as they were the people of God alſo are very apt to repine and mourn that God doth not preſently re­ward them, Hebrews the 10. Ye have need of patience, ſaith the Author, that when ye have done the will of God, you ſhould re­ceive the promiſes. But here in the words you have the cauſe why he doth thus wait, that his blow might be the heavyer unto all the Pharaohs in the World, and that his riches of grace might appear the more eminently unto the Iſrael of God; which brings us to the 23. verſ. the 23. ver. And that he might make known the riches of his glo­ry68 on the Veſſels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory. He hath pre­pared unto glory all thoſe that believe in Jeſus Chriſt and obey him, Romanes the 2. and Pſal. the 4. and the 3. He hath ſet apart for himſelf the Godly man. The firſt of the Theſſalonians the 1. and 4. They were elect of God, becauſe they became followers of Paul, and the reſt, as verſ. the 6. Theſſalo­nians the 2. the 2. and the 13. You are cho­ſen of God, through ſanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth: ſo that if you be ſanctified and obedient, you may con­clude you are the elect of God, Gods cho­ſen ones, Gods Jewels, thoſe that own Je­ſus Chriſt for the foundation-ſtone to build upon: the firſt of Peter the 2. and the 7. God hath prepared glory for no other Per­ſons; for no unclean thing ſhall enter in­to his Kingdom, therefore the Apoſtle ad­deth, they muſt be ſanctified, they muſt be called, not onely on Gods part (which all men are,) but ſuch as have ſubmitted un­to Gods call. Choſen; that is, thoſe that are counted Gods choice, that are con­tented to follow him as an obedient ſpouſe; there is a great miſtake in ſuch expreſſi­ons as theſe: you have not choſen me,69 but I have choſen you; where we are to conſider Chriſt as one woing a wife, ac­cording to that the 2. of the Corinthians the 5. Now we know it is not uſual for the wife to look for, or to chuſe the husband: yet there muſt be a conſent­ing or elſe it is not a match, and thus the wife chuſeth the husband above all the men in the VVorld beſides; and thus Marie was ſaid to have choſen the better part, but Chriſt is the firſt mover in this buſineſſe; ſo that the ſum of all is, God waiteth with long patience upon all, good and bad; Eſau and Jacob; he waits on Eſau to ſhew the power of his wrath, and on Jacob to ſhew the riches of his mercy; and not onely ſo, but ſo, but for the Gentiles ſakes, that they may come in, the fulneſſe of them, as Paul ſpeaks in the 10. and 11. verſes. The 24. ver. Even as whom he hath called not of the Jews onely, but alſo of the Gentiles. For the right underſtanding of the words, we muſt look into the Prophet Hoſea; Hoſea the 1. and the 9. and 10. And indeed the whole Chapter, where he ſpeaks both of Iſraels cutting off, and coming in; he in­deavours to take them of from their car­nal70 confidence that they were high in the eſteem of God, being his children of whoredom, Chapter the 2. verſ. the 4. And ſo he threatneth them as ſuch a people, yet he interlines his threatnings with pro­miſes of mercy, as verſ. the 23. I will ſowe her unto me in the earth; I will have mercy upon her that had not ob­tained mercy, &c. So that when the A­poſtle ſpeaks of calling, he means calling by the Goſpel, offering Iſrael the means which once they abuſed and contemned, and in this appeareth his love; yet this appearance of love from God, is when they ſhall ſay, bleſſed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, Matth. the 23. and the 39. They ſhall be glad to imbrace him whom once they rejected, the 1. of Peter the 7. and 8. So that it is to theſe cal­led ones that the promiſe runs, to thoſe that are not rebellious, as Chapter the 10. and the laſt verſ. For had God come by this power as ſome do imagine, to force men to accept him, then his power was too weak to deal with Iſrael; for he com­plains, I have ſtretched out my hand all day long to a rebellious people; and he ſaith, what could I have done more that71 I have not done? as in the parable of the vine-yard; therefore there was all the power Acted on Gods ſide, but this would not do; therefore this calling here ſpoken of, is onely the invitation of the Goſpel, and thoſe that are overcome by this invitation, as to come upon Chriſts call, they are the called ones, that Chriſt ſpeaks of; and upon this we are exhort­ed to make our calling and Election ſure: it lies on our part when the means is of­fered, when Chriſt calls we are to anſwer. The word voabo doth imply the giving a name to a thing; it is ſo uſed in the next verſ. In the place where it was ſaid they are not my people, there they ſhall be called the children of the living God: ſo it is uſed, Epheſians the fourth and the firſt. That you walk worthy of the vocation whereunto you are called. That is, you know that you are called Chriſtians, or Saints; I exhort you, that you walk ac­cording to ſuch a name. So that Paul here intimates that upon their return they ſhall have a new name, that is, they ſhall be called or named〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: a people. Ye are to know; they had this name before, but they loſt it by their rebellion72 and diſobedience; a people that is in oppo­ſition to Nations or Gentiles; ſo that they were a Church for corporation, having Laws and ſtatutes to walk by, verſ. the 25. As he ſaith alſo in Oſea; I will call them my people, which were not my peo­ple; and her beloved, which was not be­loved. And it ſhall come to paſſe, that in the place where it was ſaid unto them, ye are not my people; there ſhall they be called the children of the living God. In theſe 3. verſes the 24.25. and 26. is de­clared ſome fruits of the long-ſuffering and patience of God towards the Veſſels of mercy, prepared unto glory; the 25. verſ. Seemeth to relate to the Gentiles, and their grafting in: but look diligently into the plaee which Paul cites, and it will appear to be undone, or unchurch­ed Iſrael; which were rejected for their whoredoms, and fornications, as plainly appeareth by that Propheſie. And unto that add Peter the 1. the 2. and the 10. And it makes it more plain, for Iſrael now are not a people, by reaſon they are ſcattered, and diſſolved, and in that ſence they may be called Nations, as once the Gentiles were. So that laying the Jews73 equal with the Gentiles in reſpect of being a people, was the onely way to make them capable of mercy. This appears plainly in Romans the 3. at the 25. and Romans the 11. at the 32. God hath ſhut up, or concluded all in unbelief; that he might have mercy upon all. Thus God hath hedged up their way with thorns, and ſtopped all paſſages every way, that no life or comfort can come unto it, but by believing and ſubmitting to the Goſpel, as Galathians the 3. and the 22. All are ſhut up under ſin. So that now there is no people but believers, as appeareth plainly the 1. of Peter the 2. and the 9. Ye are a peculiar people (to wit,) believers; and the Jews are not a people, becauſe they do not believe. Therefore God may well make a promiſe, to make them a people, who are not a people now. In the next verſes the Apoſtle doth (as it were) produce a Copy of Iſraels commitment; wherein is declared, firſt, the extent and depth of their miſery, ſecondly the cauſe, why it was ſo; where­upon he directeth you to the propheſie of Eſay, Chapter the 10. Which I pray ſeri­ouſly read and conſider, for the better un­derſtanding of theſe things; wherein is de­clared at large the extent of their puniſh­ment,74 with the cauſe thereof; and alſo a promiſe of their return: for the extent of the puniſhment it was ſo ſore, that a very ſmall remnant eſcaped; in-ſo-much, that it was almoſt brought to Sodom and Gomorrah's condition, wherein there were but eight per­ſons ſaved, 1. Peter the 3. and the 20. Now in the 30. and 31. verſes the Apoſtle begins to make the application of all that hath been ſaid, (to wit) that a righteous Iſrael could not be acceptable with God, but the un­righteous Gentiles. For Chriſt came not to call the righteous, but ſinners to repen­tance. Which ſinners we find were under the name of Gentiles; the Jews were whole, therefore they needed not the Phyſitian, they muſt be ungodly ones, that Chriſt muſt be a Saviour to. So that he concludes thus: a people ſelf-righteous, are thoſe that ſtumble at Chriſt Jeſus, and ſtumbling at him they become broken to pieces like an earthen Veſſel: And upon this Iſrael now lies amongſt the pots, caſt aſide as uſeleſſe. So that from the whole chapter we draw thus much that Paul was very much trou­bled at the Jews ſad condition, becauſe they are fallen from the word or promiſe of God. But he calleth to mind ſeveral promiſes of75 God concerning them, or at leaſt ſo many of them, as ſhall believe in Ieſus Chriſt. We may gather thus much from what is here comprehended, that all external pu­niſhments are inflicted upon Nations, peo­ple, or Perſons, as they are found in Arms or oppoſition againſt Chriſt, and the de­ſpiſed way of the Goſpel. And ſecondly, people, Nations, or Perſons, ſhall be out­wardly exalted, as they are found friends to Ieſus Chriſt, and obedient Perſons to the Goſpel. I ſhall produce ſome Scriptures to prove this, and ſo conclude my diſcourſe. For this conſider Matthew the 19. from the 27. to the end. Revelations the 5. and the 10. Revelations the 20. and the 4. Luke the 12. and the 32. And a place eminent to this purpoſe is, Luke the 23. and the 43. Where as ſoon as the thief confeſſed Ieſus Chriſt, whom (all thereabouts) mocked and de­ſpiſed; Chriſt makes him a promiſe, that he ſhould have a ſhare with him in his King­dom. I ſay unto thee to day, thou ſhalt be with me in Paradiſe; which is this Kingdom. So that you ſee, the onely way to have Ho­nour and greatneſſe; is, to believe in Ieſus Chriſt, though moſt in the World deſpiſe and reject him; for if we ſuffer with him we76 ſhall alſo Reign with him, the 2. of Timothy the 2. and the 12. the 1. of Timothy the 4. and the 8. Godlineſſe hath the promiſes both of this life, and of that which is to come. The juſt ſhall have domini­nion in the morning of the Reſur­rection, Pſal. 49. & the 7. There­fore ſeek firſt the Kingdom of Heaven, and the righteouſ­neſſe thereof, & all other things ſhall be added unto you.

John Downame.

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TextThe hatred of Esau, and the love of Jacob unfoulded being a brief and plain exposition of the 9. chapter of Pauls epistle to the Romanes, being the heads of what was delivered in several discourses, both publick and private. By Samuel Loveday servant of the church of Christ.
AuthorLoveday, Samuel, 1619-1677..
Extent Approx. 109 KB of XML-encoded text transcribed from 43 1-bit group-IV TIFF page images.
SeriesEarly English books online.
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Bibliographic informationThe hatred of Esau, and the love of Jacob unfoulded being a brief and plain exposition of the 9. chapter of Pauls epistle to the Romanes, being the heads of what was delivered in several discourses, both publick and private. By Samuel Loveday servant of the church of Christ. Loveday, Samuel, 1619-1677.. [8], 76 p. Printed by John Clowes, for Gieles Calvert, at the black Spread-Eagle, at the west-end of Pauls,[London] :[1650].. (Place and date of publication from Wing.) (Annotation on Thomason copy: "Nou: 27. 1650".) (Reproduction of the original in the British Library.)
  • Bible. -- N.T. -- Romans IX -- Commentaries -- Early works to 1800.

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ImprintAnn Arbor, MI ; Oxford (UK) : 2011-04 (EEBO-TCP Phase 2).
  • DLPS A88607
  • STC Wing L3233
  • STC Thomason E1380_2
  • STC ESTC R209387
  • EEBO-CITATION 99868267
  • PROQUEST 99868267
  • VID 169893

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