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ΠΑΝΖΩΟΡΥΚΤΟΛΟΓΙΑ.

SIVE Panzoologicomineralogia.

Or a Compleat HISTORY Of Animals and Minerals, Containing the Summe of all Authors, both Ancient and Modern, GALENICALL and CHYMICALL, touching Animals, viz. Beaſts, Birds, Fiſhes, Serpents, Inſects, and Man, as to their Place, Meat, Name, Temperature, Vertues, Uſe in Meat and Medicine, Deſcription, Kinds, Generation, Sympathie, Antipathie, Diſeaſes, Cures, Hurts, and Remedies &c.

With the Anatomy of MAN, his Diſeaſes, with their Definitions, Cauſes, Signes, Cures, Remedies: and uſe of the London Diſpen­ſatory, with the Doſes and Formes of all kinds of Remedies:

As alſo a Hiſtory of MINERALS, viz. Earths, Mettals, Semi-mettals, their Naturall and Artificiall excrements, Salts, Sulphurs, and Stones, with their Place, Matter, Names, Kinds, Temperature, Vertues, Uſe, Choice, Doſe, Danger, and Antidotes.

Alſo an

  • Introduction to ZOOGRAPHY and MINERALOGY.
  • Index of Latine Names, with their Engliſh Names.
  • Univerſall INDEX of the Uſe and Vertues.

By ROBERT LOVELL. St. C. C. Oxon,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.

OXFORD, Printed by HEN: HALL, for JOS: GODWIN. 1660.

Sereniſsimo & Invictiſsimo CAROLO II, Magnae Britanniae, Franciae, & Hiberniae Regi, Fidei Defenſori: &c. Omnia Secunda.

AD Regem, Sereniſsime Rex, tardus accedo, ſed laetus; nec laetus, quia tardus; ſed tardus, quia laetus; quia remis veliſque & bonis avibus ap­pulſus; nec quia appulſus ipſe ego, ſed REX IPSE: at at, En Veſtram ad Majeſtatem tandèm accedo, nec carmina apporto, ſed carnem, haud〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, ſed〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, meo etenim (veſtro po­tius, ut rectiùs dixerim) cum grege, cum e­quo, cum Monocerote, cum Leone, & cum agno, & quotquot ſunt; agnoſco etiam, cum vulpe, ſed catenata; & cum lupo, ſed quem auribus teneo; nec ſine avibus, cum aquila, cum pelicano, cum luſci­nia, cum columba cum olivae ramo, nec ſine vul­ture, (utpotè qui bella ſequitur,) ſed de eo concla­atum eſt: nec taceo piſces, cum delphino, cum purpura, cum gladio, ſed non ſine ſiluro, & cum enchraſicolo, ſed ſine capite: nec ſine Serpentibus, Invictiſſime Rex, cum angue, cum jaculo, cum caecilia, cum amphisbaena, ſed ſine venenis, cum ba­ſaliſco, at ſibilare non audet, cum vipera, cum hae­morrhoo; ſed non ſine remediis: nec non cum In­ſectis, ſc. cum ape, cum formica, cum bombyce, nec ſine hirudinibus, erucis, cantharidibus, auricu­lariis, muſcis, crabronibus, veſpis, ſed horum ca­pita filo tam tenui junguntur corpori, ut quoties pungunt, facili negotio devictae ſint vires, & ipſa ſuis ictibus fiant remedia; accedo etiam cum cochlea, ideóque tardus: denique mecum meum affero ſervum, ut Veſtrae Majeſtati fidelis ſi non fuerit oeconomus, omnibus trium regnorum A­natomicis fiat ſpectaculum. Reſtat adhuc aliquid terrae, ſc. ſigillatae, cimoliae & cretae; nec omnia perdidi metalla, etenim aes ſupereſt, ſed quod antea damnabatur in bombardarum uſum, & globulo­rum plumbum, ex ferro fiebant enſes, & ferro fer­rea aetas; nunc verò volente Deo, populo volente, aurum denuò metallorum Rex eſt, & argentum quod totum ferè erat vivum (adeò ut vix quiſpiam loculis retineret,) jam fixum eſto, & veſtrâ inſigni­tum effigie: eſt etiam nonnihil ſalis, quod nullus dubito, quin Veſtra Majeſtas, ne inſipidum fiat, curabit; & ſulphuris, quod ſi nulli alii inſerviat u­ſui, haereticorum utcunque comburendis inſerviat libris: ſed adhuc ſuperſunt gemmae, in quarum nu­mero duodecim ſunt ſacrae, quae nunc reſtant ad co­ronam veſtrā decorandam; & quotquot alii plebeii nimis in Lithologia ſunt lapides, ad nihil aliud ſi u­tiles, ad contegendos inimicorum Regis ſerventur tumulos: hae ſunt (Sereniſſime Rex) quales ſaevi­ente Marte (tanquàm in Arcâ) ſervare potui divitiae, quas Sacrae Majeſtati Veſtrae D. D. D.

Auguſtiſſimae Majeſtatis Veſtrae Devotiſſimus Servus Robertus Louellus. Ex Aede Chriſti, OXON.

ISAGOGE ZOOLOGICOMINERALOGICA. OR An Introduction to the Hiſtory of Animals and Minerals, or Panzoographie, and Pammi­neralogie.

COVRTEOVS READER,

THY former acceptance of my Book of Plants, (Pambotanologie,) containing the firſt part of the materia medica, doth now encourage me to preſent thee with the ſecond, called Pan­zoologie, and a third, or Pammineralogie: in the firſt of which, thou haſt the nature and uſe of all ſorts of uſefull Animals, both dieteticall and medicinall, &c. and that of Minerals in the laſt.

I. As for Animals, they are animate bodies, and ſentient, having locall motion, and are either irrationall or rationall.

I. Irrationall. I. Four-footed beaſts, which are. 1. Soli­dipedes, having whole hoofes; as the Horſe, aſſe, onager, mule, zebra, elephant, unicorne, and cornute aſſe. 2. Biſules, ha­ving divided hoofes; and theſe are either cornigerous rumi­nants, horned and chewing the cudde; as the Cow, empalanga, ure-oxe, biſon, butrones, bonaſus, bugill, ſtrepſiceros, ſheep, muſmon, goat, rock-goat, ibex, bubalis, pygargus. buck, ca­gua cuete, cugvacu-apara; musk-cat, bezartick-goat, vicuna, taruga, Scythian ſuhak, Syriack mambrina, oryx, hart, macame, yztac macame, quauhtlamacame, tamamacame, ſeouaſſeu, tragelaphus, tarandus, rainger, elke, and rhinoceros: or ruminants without hornes; as the Camel, dromedary, hugium, becheti, ragvahil, and camelopardale: or not rumi­nating; as the Hogge, zainus, and tapierete: or aquatick, as the Sea-horſe. 3. Viviperous digitates, having diverſe toes, and bringing forth live young ones, and are either wild; as the Lion, puma, mitzli, quamitztli, macamitzli, cuitla­mitzli, tlalmitzll; Pardal, thcotochtli; lynx, tigre, tlaeooce­lotl; bear, wolfe, gulion, and ſeſef: or wildiſh; as the Fox, co­jotl, cuit-laxcojotl, azcacojotl, oztoa, izquiepotl, conepatl, ba­chirae, annae, ilpemaxtla, carygueja, tajibi, tamandua-gvacu, tamandua-i, coati; ape, orang-outang, baris, monkey, guariba, exquima, cagvi, ſagovin, macaqvo, cay; cynocephalus, papio, upalim; ignauus, priguiza, bay, badger, heyrat, quaupecotli, tzcuintecuani, tlalcoyotl; beaver, otter, ſaricouieme, carygvei­beju; ichneumon, weaſel, hermellani, viſela, girella, roſola, chi­urca, vormela, lardiron, hameſter, fitch, neerza; martes, muſtela zibellina; civet cat, hare, citli, cotias, pacas; coney, pig-coney, pactli, eliztactotli, cuitlatepotli, tocanthoctli, quautochtli, me­tochtli, cacatochtli, cuitlatepolli, hapaztochli, viſcachae; ſquir­rel, quauhtcchallotl, tliltic, quapachtli, techallotl, thalmototli, quimichpatlan, yztactechalotl; dormouſe, mouſe, rat; aquatick mouſe, filberd, ſhrew, Alpin mouſe, & coyopollin; mole, hedghogg, porcupine, and tatus: or domeſtick, as the Dogge, melitean, hound, grayhound, bloodhound, beagle, bandogge, maſtive, curre, xoloitzeuintli, itzceuinteporzotli, tetichi, and cat. 4. Ovipe­rous digitates, having diverſe toes, and bringing forth eggs, and are either covered with skin; as the Aquatick frog, toad, green frogge, temporary frogge, lizard, lizard green, and chal­cidick, Indian ſenembi, tejugvacu, taraguira, americima, ca­ropopeba, ameiva, taraguycu aycuraba, tejunhana; ſalaman­der, ſtellion, ſcinck, cordylus, chamaeleon, and crocodile: or te­ſtaceous, having ſhells; as the Torteiſe, jaboti; lutarie torteiſe and marine, jurucua, jurura: or Exotick and dubious, as the Tlacaxolotl, cabim, animal maripetum, danta, cappa, ejulator, ſu, peva, foetid animal, Graffa, and caoch.

II. Birds, which are 1. Terreſtiall carnivorous, or li­ving upon the land and eating fleſh; as the Eagle, chryſaëtus, haliete, melanete, pygargus, morphnos, percuopter, oſſifrage, ano­paea, white eagle, heteropos, avis ſcythica; vultur, little, cinere­ous, boetick, black, leporarie, and golden; hawk, aſteriu, hobbie, ſparrowhawk, faulcon gentle, merlin, kaſtrell, buzzard, ring­taile, colluriones, kite, harpie, cuckow, faulcon, ſaker, gyrfaulcon, peregrine, mountane, tunetane, gibbous, white, lapidarie, arbora­rie, red, cyanopus, and promiſcuous; Parret, great cyanocroce­us, white criſtate, green, poikilorinchus, green melanorinchus, leucocephalus, erythrocyanus, cinereous, erythroleucus, tor­quatus macrourus, erythrochlorus macrourus, erythrochlo­rus criſtatus; crow, cray, rook, chough, coracia, pyrrhoco­rax; pie, caudate, indian, glandarie, garrulus, marine, perſick ampelide, braſilian, rhinoceros, loxia; owle, ſcrich-owle, horn-owle, ſcops, aluco, howlet, caprimulgus; batt, and oſtrich. 2. Phytivorous, or feeding upon plants; and theſe are either, granivorous not melodious, or feeding upon graine, and ſinging not, and are pulveratricious and wild; as the Pea­cock, japonian, and turky; pheaſant, buſtard, grigallus, heath-cock, haſle-hen, land duck, ſtella, oedicnemus, partridg, grecian, reddiſh, cinereous, white, and damaſcen; quaile, orty­gometra, and cynchramus: and pulveratricious domeſtick, as the Cock and hen, patavine, Turcick, Perfick, Scottiſh, In­dian, and Ginnie; and pulveratricious lavant, as the Pigeon, ring-dove, ſtock-dove, alchata; turtle, ſparrow, white, yellow, ſpotted, whitiſh, mountaine, wild, torquate, juglandine, illy­rick, brachyurus, porphyromelanus, and embriza: or grani­vourous and melodious; as the Goldfinch, ſisken, Canarie ſparrow, finch, brambling, linnet, larke, criſtate, and not cristate, green-finch, citrinella, ſerinus, and lutea: or bac­civorous, or eating berries; as the Thruſh, ixophagus, trichas, black-bird, ſaxatile, mountain, torquate, double-coloured, roſelike, braſilian and indian, ſtare, and clot-bird 3. Inſectivorous, or feeding upon inſects, and are. either not melodious; as the Woodpecker, great, grea­teſt, green, luteous cyanopus, murarie, nutjobber, wit­wal, hickwall, creeper, wren, criſtate, and not criſtate, hedg­ſparrow, aſilus, ſwallow, wild and riparie; martinet, houpe, tit mouſe, great fenniſh, ſylvatick, black, cyuleous, caudate, & criſtate; wagtaile, ſpipola, ſtoparola, muſcicapa; robbin-red-breaſt, bunting, redtaile, phoenicurus, anthus, cannevaro­la, oenanthe, luſciniola: or melodious; as the Nightingal, titling and colemouſe. 4. Aquatick palmipedes, living in the water, having whole feete, which are either, piſcivo­rous, or feeding upon fiſh, as the Pelecane, bird diomedea, ſea gull, white, cinereous, piſcatorie, black, ſterna, fidiped; ſea-drake, cepphus, barnicle, plungion, ſylvatick crow, night-raven, palmipede daw, mergus, rhenane, glacial, longi­roſtrate, rauedulous, red, white, cirrhate, merganſer, gulo, morfex, ſcheladrachus, colymbus, uria, brnthus; Phalaris, avoſetta, and trochilus: or herbivorous, eating graſſe or plants; as the Swan gooſe, tante and wild, barnicle, birgander, capricalca, duck, domeſtick, indian, lybian, cairine, wild, teale, glaucius, fuſcous, muſcovie, platy­rynchus, fiſtularie, candacute, black herle, la tardone, pu­ffin, and bird penelope, coot, and rallus. 5. Aquatick fi­ſſipedes, abiding in the water and having divided feet; and are either carnivorous, or feeding upon fleſh; as the Storke, ibis; phoenicopter heron, blew, dwarfe, garletta, egretta, ſquaioeta, bittour, falcinel, bird pugnax; porphyrion, ho­rion, hlorius, limoſa, barge, haematopus, kingfiſher, and rouſ­ſerolle: or inſectivorous, or eating inſects, as the Arqua-Arquata, crece, totanus, calidris, himantopus, aquatick henn, chloropus, erythropus, rhodopus, erythra, ochra, hypoleucus, ſerica; wood-cock, ſnite, gallinula, chloropodes, trynga, red-ſparrow, water-ſwallow; lapwing, cercio, plover; and charadrius: or herbivorous, feeding upon plants, as the Crane, balearick, and japonian. 6. Exoticks, or outlandiſh, chiefe­ly the American, and they are terreſtriall; or ſuch as live upon the land: as the Manucodiate, rhyntace, bird daie guitguit, maja, xochitenacatl, jajauhquitototl, tuputa, qua­pachtototl, tentzontototl, tritonus, hoactzin, emeu, xochi­tototl, aura, garagay, quetzaltototl, tzinitzian, totoqueſtal, tepetototl, hoitlallotl, dodone, ceoan, cenotzqui, pauxi, picicitli, polyglotta, chicuatli, tominejus, cuntur: of Braſil, Guranhae­engera, tangara, quereiva, tucana, quirapanga, macucagna, and mutu: of Maragnana, ouyra ovaſſou, moyton, toucan, ouru, jandou, ſalian: or aquatick, living in the water; as the Paſſer ſtultus, anſer magellanicus, jochualcuachili, xochitenacatl, tlauhquechul, acolin, quachiltone, aca­calotli, xomotl, acototloquichitl, aca cahoactl, jacacintli, xlepapantototl, hoactli, heatototl, achalalactli, amaloz­que: of Farra, Lunda, alka, lomwia, ilabrimel, goi­fugel, hafflert, ſtormfinck, barnfiard, helfingegans, exand­gans, skua, aves lomsbay, vultur aquaticus, flamenco: or Braſilian, as the Nhanduguacu, jacana, curicaca, tiiepi­ranga jacapu, jambu, gallina africana, quiratangeima, ju­pujuba, ſayacu, ani, guira guainumbi, jaeguacatiguacu, mitu, mituporanga, ibijau guainumbi, jacup ma, jacama­caii, jacurutu, ſoco, matuitui, jabiru, jabiruguacu, ma­nucodiata or paradiſea, guiapunga, quiraquerea, jaca­maciri, cariama, guara, urutaurana, maguari, guarauna, ajaja, picui pinima, pica cureba, tuidara, guaca guacu, tape­ra, pſittaci aiuru, aiurucurau, aiurucuruca, tui tirica, jendaya tui ete, tui para, araracanga, ararauna, anaca, maracana, qui juba tui, paragua, tarabe, ajurucatinga, ajuruapara, ipecu, uru­bu, tamatia, guirajemoja, gurrarunheengeta, cocoi, guiratinga, jacarini, guiratirica, guiran heemgatu, curucui, caracara, tijeguacu, teitei, guiraguacu beraba, guiracoereba, guiraperea, japacani, cabure, andira aca, macuacagua, urubitinga, mare­ca, tijeguacu paruara, tangara, anhima, pitangua guacu, attin­guacu camacu, guira acangatara, matuitui, aracari, anhin­ha, ipecati apoa: the aquatick are, Quiratinga, caripira, calcamar, ayaya, caracura, guara, guirateonteon; the fabulous are, the Gryphin, harpie, ſtymphalides, ſirenes, ſeleucides, phoenix, cinnamologus, and ſemenda.

III. Fiſhes, which are, 1. Marine, and theſe are either pelagious, living in the main ſea, and either ſcaled; as the Linge, molva, morchuel, haddock, ſea tench, herring, liparis, aper, ſcolopax, monoceros, glaucus, and hippurus; or ſmooth, as the tunie, pompilus, amia, ſwordfiſh, ſuckſtone, ſea-ſerpent, conger, orphidion, lamprey, myrus, and taenia; or cartilagi­neous, and they are long, as the Dogg-fiſh, galeus, catulus, eele, muſtelus, aſterias, maltha, vulpecula marina, centrine, ſimia marina, zygaena, mola; or plaine, as the cramp-fiſh, fork-fiſh, ſea hawk, raie undulate and oculate, oxyrinchus, ſtella­rie oculate and clavate, ſpinoſe, rough, fullonick and rougheſt; ſea frogge, skate, lamia, lump, and gibbous fiſh: or ſaxa­tile, living neer ſtones, and are ſquammoſe; as the Golden eye, thruſh fiſh, peacock fiſh, lepras, cook fiſh, julis, phycis, ſea perch, channe, liver-fiſh, black taile, alpheſtes, crow-fiſh, adonis, amber, anthiae, ſea gudgins, ſphyraena, horne-beak, and faber; or ſmooth, as the Larkfiſh criſtate and not criſtate, and pho­lis: or litorall, living neer the ſhore, and are either ſquam­moſe not plaine, as the Mullet, ſwallow fiſh, cuckcowfiſh, keeling, harp-fiſh, pagrus, crythrinus, acarnane, orphus, dentix, ſynagris, chromis, guilt head, ſargus, ſparus, mormyrus, cantharus, ſtock fiſh, ſtromatheus, fiatola, ſcorpion fiſh, ſcorpae­na, blennus, pecten Rom, graundlin, phalerick, membras, co­bites, hephetus, anchovae, atherina, lavaronus, ſprat, mana, ſmaris, and boops; or ſquammoſe plaine, as the Sole, citha­rus, rhomboides, and plaiſe; or ſmooth, and not ſcaled, and they are not plaine, as the Sandilz, dragon, dracunculus, ſtar-gazer, roughtaile, mackrel, colia, ſaurus, corax; or ſmooth and plaine, as the Plateſſa, & ſea flounder. 2. Ma­rine and Fluviatile both, and are ſquammoſe, or ſcaled; as the Salmon, pike, latus, aloſa, ziga, mugil, capriſcus, ſturgeon, galeus rhodius, and cataphractus: or ſmooth, as the Huſo, eperlanus, lamprey, eele, orbes, holoſteos, and catan. 3. Fluvi­atile, or living in rivers, and are ſquammoſe, or ſcaled; as the Trout, grailing, umber, barbel, capitones, little, rapacious, and reddiſh; dace, oxyrinchus Rond, corvus niloticus, naſus, gudgin capitate and not capitate, piſciculus aſper; cobites aculeate, and barbatula, phoxinus, bubulca, and roche; or ſmooth, as the Attilus, antacaei, ichthyocolla, glanis, barbota, muſtela, foſſil fiſhes, ſtonebright, and ſalmerinus; or living in rivers and other ſweet waters, as the Perch, ruffes, ſcrollus, bley, jack, carp, breame, ballerus, tench, and lota; or lakiſh, as the Ʋmbla, trout, carp, lavaretus, bezola, albula parva, albus, farra, pigus, ſchilus, & ſarachus. 4. Exotick, and they are either ſquammoſe; as the Tajaſica, paru, pira acangata, acarauna, guaperua, piranema, acarapucu, pudiano vermelho, pudiano verde, juruucapeba, jaguaraca, carauna, cururuca, guatacuba juba, pira jarumenbeca, tamoata acara, pira pix­anga, vubarana, capeuna, acarapitamba, jaguacaguare, curi­mata, tareira d'Alto, tareira de Rio, piratiapia, ceixupira, piquitinga, camuri, gvara capema, miivipera, guaibi coara, guaperua, piraya, amore guacu, guacari, piraumbu, acaraja, acara, guaru-guaru, cucupu-guacu, maturaque, carapo, piaba, piabucu, nhaquunda, amore pixuma, amore tinga, guara tereba, piracoaba, corocoro, guatucufa, uribaco, guarerva, camaripuguacu, piratia pua, curema, parati, and aramaca: or ſmooth, & that altogether ſo, as Guamaiacu ape, petimbu­aba, nhambdia, guaperua, curvata pinima, puraque, piſcis innominatus, mucu, abacatuaia, acaramucu, punaru, timucu, guebucu; bagre, ajereba, jabebirete, niqui, and guatacupu; or not altogether ſo, as the Guacucuja, guamajacu guara, and guamajacu attinga, narinari, tiburones, and iperuquiba: or monſtrous, &c. as the fiſh Anthropomorphos, remora, piſcis goenſis, oxototl, puſta, michipillin, ambiza, piſcis mularis, piſcis tauriformis, and amilotl. 5. Cetaceous, as the Whale, whirle-poole, puſtes, orca, dolphin, parpaiſe, cetaceous ſco­lopender, ſea-calfe, and indian manati. 6. Exanguine a­quaticks, which are either ſoft, as the Polypus, cuttle, lo­ligo, and ſea hare; or Cruſtate, and are either tailed; as the Lobſter, aſtacus, or creviſſe, ſhrimp, broad, gibbous, and little; or round, as the Crab, majus, grampel, hippeis, undulate, mar­morate, fluviatile, little, and cancellus; Of Braſil, Guaja apara, guaia miri, carara una, cunuru, ciecie ete, ciri apoa, nca una, guanhumi, aratu pinima, maracoani, potiquiquiya, tamaru guacu, paranacare, guaricuru: or teſtaceous, and are, turbinate, which are either involute, as the Nautilus, purple, buccinum, murex, marmorecus, triangularie, white, purple orthocentros, coracoides, aporrhais; and conchylium; or orbicular, as the Welke, trochi, nerita, cochlea, ſea urchin, ſpatagus, briſſus, echinometra: or conchylious and bivalve, as the Chama, oiſter, pectines, muſcles, tellinae, balani, pholades, ſolen, nakre; or univalve, as the Lepas, and concha venerea: as for Zoophytes, or plant-animalls, they are, Ʋrticae marinae, pulmo marinus, holothuria, tethyia, mentula marina, malum granatum, fungus marinus, penna marina, uva mari­na, cucumer marinus, malum inſanum, and manus marina.

IIII. Serpents, which are. 1. The vulgar and leſſer, & are either terreſtrial, or living upon the land, as the Viper, ammodyte, horned ſerpent, hemorrhe, ſepedon, aſpe, dipſas, ſcytal, double head, ſlow-worme, myllet, dart, dryine, elaps, and ſnake; the exotick, and chiefely the Indian, are Boicininga, ibiboboca, boigvacu, boitiapo, iraraca, caninana, apochycoatl, alatus, bojobi, tetrauchcoatl, tleoa, cumcoatl, trinhutili: or aquatick living in the water, as the Water ſnake, torquate and rubeta­rie; boas, hydrus, ſea ſcolopender, accatl, and boquatrara. 2. Dragons, and are not alate, or not having wings, either without leggs alſo, as the Baſilisk, draco pythius, ſerpentes bambae and ſenegae, or not alate with leggs, as the Hydra, & bononian dragon; or alate, as the winged dragon.

V. Inſects, which are. 1. Terreſtrial with feet and wings, and are either anelytra, having no wing-coverings, and have four wings, and theſe membranaceous, as Bees, drones, waſps, hornets, graſhoppers, bliſter-flies, cimices, perlae; or farinaceous, as Butterflies, phalanae, great, midle, leaſt, great diurne, midle diurne, leaſt diurne, and ſilken; or having two wings, as Flies, aquatick, phryganides, macedonick, ti­gurine, aeſchnae, luteous, fuſcous, and water-ſpider; terreſtrial, zoophagae, carnivorous, canine, equiſugae, bucularum oſores, oviſugae, ſerpentivorae, merdivorae, bombylivorae, humiſugae, her­bivorae, ſtrutiopteros, erinopteros, chelidonios, ſeticaudae, unifeta, bipiles, tripiles, quadripiles; oxeflie, aſylus, dayflie, and gnat: or coleoptera, having wing-caſes; as Locuſts, tenamazna. napaloa, gryllus, beetle, cornute platyceros, aigoceros, quici, bo­vicornis, naſicornis, ariecornis; not cornute, as the pilularie, melolonthes, purple, atrate, arboreous, fullo; ſcarabaeus, proſcarabaeus, water-beetle, taurus volans, cantha­rides, burn-cow, ips, cucujus, glow-worme, blatta, eare­wig, ſcorpion, piſmire, and pediculi alati. 2. Terreſtrial with feet, and without wings; and are ſuch as are pau­cipedes, or have fewer feet, and theſe are ſepedes, having ſix feet, as the Piſmire, wall-louſe, louſe, reduvius, flea, nits, forbicine, talpa Ferrantis, ſphondyle, ſtaphylinus, and anthre­nus; or octipedes, having eight feet, as the Scorpion, ſpiders, harmeleſſe, as the ſubdiale, & domeſtick, retiarie, & telarie; and various, longlegged black, white, red, nhamdui; or hurtfull, as the phalangia, formicarie, venatorie, rhagia, ſtellate, ceruleous, ſphecia, tetragnathia, cantharidea, erve­ſtria, cranocalaptes, ſclerocephala, ſcolecia, lanuginous, and lentiginous, or tarantulae & tunga; or having 12 or 14 feet, as Caterpillers, ſmooth, as the green, liguſtrine, ſambucine, lactucarie, meſpilarie, quercine; yellow, vinula, fuſcous; various; or hirſute and rough, with much haire, as the pity ocampes, ambulones, corylarie, polymidae, neuſtriae, tuber­culous, meſoleucae, urticarie, braſſicarie, and ſepiarie; or with leſſe haire, as the Geranivora, jacobaea, antennula, echinus, rubicola, & cornute; ſilk-worme, & myre: or multipedes, having many feet, as the Cheſelippe, pollin, coyayhoal, ſcolopender, and gally worme. 3. Terreſtriall without feet, as Wormes, plantarie, as the arborarie, ligniperdes, corticarie, ſyrones, and fructuarie, nopal ocuillin, axocuilin, cuchipilutl, deces, enxulon, thripes, termites, coſſi, teredines; fruticarie, legumina­rie, frumentarie, herbarie; or breeding in animals, with the litta, tarnia, meldera, cleri, humane, ſinones, broad, ſharp, aſcarides, and monſtrous; earthworme, and ſnaile. 4. Aquatick, and are either pedate, having feet, and theſe are paucipedes, having few feet, as the Squilla, locuſt, ſcorpi­on, notonecta, cicada fluv, anthrenus, forficula, neute, corcu­lus, aquatick flie, cantharides, beetle, water ſpider, attelabus arachnoides, ligniperda aquatica; or multipedes, having many feet, as the Tinea, ſea flea, ſea louſe, aquatick aſilus, ſea ſcolopender and cadices: or apodes, and without feet, as the Leech, ſtellae, cartilagineous, teſtaceous, ſmooth, pecti­nate, echinate, arboreſcent, & ſolar, hippocampus, & uva ma­rina: Theſe are the generall differences of irrationall animals.

There is further conſiderable. 1. Amongſt Quadru­peds, that thoſe that bring forth animals have haires, and the oviperous have ſhells: horſes have moſt haire upon the mane, lions upon their ſhoulders, conies upon the corners of the mouth and leggs, and the hare is moſt villous; in all, they grow thick in old age, and gray in the horſe; hogs and porcupines have briſtles, the ſheep is covered with woole, and the goat is bear­ded. The skinne, in the ſea horſe is ſo thick, that ſpeares may be made thereof; and in the elephant and rhinoceros, it is almoſt impenitrable. The hornes, in the ſtagge are ramous, ſimple in the ſpitter, palmate in others, ramous and little in roes, not ſheeding, turning round in rammes, dangerous in bulls, bending backwards in the rock-goat, adverſe in the damae, erect contort and ſharp in the ſtrepſiceros, the Phry­gian have moveable hornes, the Troglodyte direct to the earth; alſo ſome have robuſt for butting, others for wounding, ſome aduncate, others reduucate, others for toſſing are ſupine, con­verſe or connext: and all are mucronate. The eares, are move­able, and all have them, at leaſt all that bring forth ani­mals, and ſome have great eares, others have little; they are divided as it were in the hart, and pilous in the rat; in horſes, and labouring beaſts they ſhew their ſpirits, being emarcid in thoſe that are weary, micant in the fearfull, ſomewhat erect in the furious, and looſed in the ſick. The mouth, is large in the lion, and dog, and as it were rent, in thoſe that live by hunting, and meane in ſwine. The trunk, is onely in the ele­phant. The jawes, are long in working cattle, and round in apes. The neck is ſtiffe in the lion, woolfe and hyena. The duggs are two, in thoſe that have two young ones, and ſolid hoofes, and thoſe betwixt the thighs, ſo in biſulcs and thoſe that are cornigerous: cowes have foure teats, and ſheep and goates two thoſe that have a numerous breed, & are digitate, have more along the belly, in a double order, as ſwine; the beſt 12, the vulgar 10, ſo bitches: ſome have 4 in the middle of the belly, as panthers: others two, as lioneſſes, the elephant hath two under the ſhoulder: none have them between the thighs, that have toes. The toes, of thoſe that live by prey, are five in the forefeet, and foure in the reſt; but lions, woolfs, dogs, and a few others, have five in the other alſo, one hang­ing down neer the joint of the legge; the reſt, which are leſſe, have five. The nailes are in all that have toes; but the ape's are imbricate, thoſe of the rapacious aduncate: in others they are ſtraight; as in doggs, except that which for the moſt part depends on the legge. The hooſes, are ſolid in thoſe, that are not cornigerous: and thoſe that are horned, are com­monly biſulks, the jllyrick ſwine in ſome places have ſolid, and they are renewed only in the veterine. The taile is in all, except apes, and in thoſe that have eggs according to the body: they are bareiſh in thoſe that are rough, as boares; little in the ſhagged, as beares ſetoſe in thoſe that are longiſh, as horſes; and being cut off, they grow again in lizards, it's very long in kine, and rough at the bottome, in horſes the dock is ſhorter than in aſſes, but ſetoſe in the veterine; in the lion it's like the cowe's at the bottome, &c. but not ſo in panthers: it's buſhey in foxes and woolfs, as alſo in ſheep. Alſo in the internall parts, there is a diverſity. The teeth, are exerted in the boar, ſerrate in the dogge and lion; contiguous in the horſe and cow, the foremoſt acute, and the interiour plaine. The cornigerous have but one row: they are exert in none, in which they are ſerrate they are not exert or ſerrate in any that are horned: but concavous in all, & ſolid in the reſt, and in the ape as in man; in thoſe that are ruminant, the lion and the dog, they are changed in ſwine they never fall out. The tongue, in croco­diles, doth all adhere: in lions and cats, it's of an imbricate aſpe­rity, and like a file: and broad chiefely in the elephant. The ribbes, are 10 in ſwine, and 13 in thoſe that are horned. The heart, in all, is in the midle of the breaſt; in that of horſes, kine, and ſtaggs, there are bones. it's greateſt in proportion, in mice, hares, aſſes, ſtaggs, hyaena's, and all that are malefick by reaſon of feare. The lungs, in the tortiſe are without bloud: and grea­teſt in proportion in the chamaeleon, and nothing elſe within. The belly, in ſolipedes is rough and hard: in others that are terreſtriall, of a denticulate aſperity, and in ſome mordaceous cancellate. The ſpleen, is round in biſulks, and thoſe that are cornigerous: prolix in the multifid; & very long in ſolipedes. The reines are in all that generate animals; & only in the tor­tiſe amongſt the oviperous. The bladder, is in none of the oviparous, except the tortiſe: and in none that want ſangui­neous lungs, or feet. The fat, is often in the horned, having teeth in one part, and huckle bones in the feet, theſe have tal­low; biſulks, or the cloven footed, and without hornes, grow fat, and this when cold is fragile, and ever in the extremity of the fleſh; but the fat between the fleſh and the skin, is ſucculent and liquid: ſome grow not fat: but all thoſe that are more ſterill, are fat. The marrow, is red in the young, and whitiſh in the old: it's only in hollow bones, and not the leggs of labouring beaſts, and dogs: it's fat in thoſe that are fat, and ſevous in the cor­nigerous: bares have none, & the lions little in their thigh bones & fore leggs. As for the place, for the moſt part it's the land; but ſome live in the water, as the crocodile, ſea-horſe, beaver, and ſea tortiſe; ſome in denns, others in trees; ſome in a hot climate, others in a cold; and in Africa, there are no boares, ſtaggs, nor goats. The diet alſo is not alike, cowes, ſtaggs, hor­ſes and ſwine, feeding upon herbs and fruits; ſheep, low, goats high, upon bowes and ſprouts; woolfs, lions, and dogs upon fleſh; the beaver, and cat, delighting in fiſhes; and the chame­leon in flies; ſome chew the cud, others not, the ape and mon­key eate any thing, and the beare is ſaid to lie hid in winter, and to live by ſucking the moiſture, which is then in their ſwollen forefeet. The generation is diverſe alſo, but moſt generate in autumne, ſummer or ſpring, and bears and bulls with ferocity, but doggs without it: for the moſt part, they bring forth live young ones, but the tortiſe crocodile and li­zard have eggs, and cowes have their young only in the right ſinus of the womb. The geſtation is various alſo, the woolf goeth a month or forty daies, the bitch nine weeks: the ſow 4 months, the goat 5. ſheep 6, cow 10, and mare 11. The number of their young differeth likewiſe, the mule is ſaid never to breed, the woolf but once, & the hare is often troubled with ſuperfetation. The bigneſſe is differing, ſolipeds and biſulcs uſually being greater than the digitate. And the magnitude differs accor­ding to the place. torteiſes being of an hundred pound weight in Taprobana, and lizards 8 cubits long in Aethiopia. The life, in ſome is ſhort, in others long. hares and cats live ſeven yeares; rams and goats ſeldome above ten; hogs twenty, and dogs ſometimes; the exe ſeldome above 16, horſes 35, mares till 40 or 50, or as Pliny, till 70 or upwards; the mule 80, & ſtags an 100. The ſight is moſt acute in the lynx and dorcas; hyaenas and cats ſee in the night; moles, very little or not at all. The hearing is moſt exact in the hare. The ſmell is beſt in the dog, and ſo weak in ſwine that they are not offended with dung. The taſte is exacteſt in the ape. The inward ſenſes are very dull in the bugill, which having hid his head, thinks the whole body covered: others are more ſubtil; apes are full of imitation: the fox tries the thickneſſe of the ice he is to paſſe over, by laying his eare to it: dogs remember the waies beſt, and are not excelled by any but onely man: ſtaggs hearing the dogs bark, run down the wind, that their ſent may not betray them: and moſt beaſts know what remedies are beſt for their di­ſeaſes: the panther ſeeks mans dung, the tortiſe ſtrengthens himſelfe againſt ſerpents, by eating the herb called cunila, and the weaſel uſeth rue. The love of apes is ſuch towards their young, that they often kill them by hugging them. The luſt of ſwine is ſuch, that then they will wound ſuch as ſtand in their way, the bull is moſt impetuous, but the camel en­genders only in the covert. The motion alſo, is differing; ſome being ſwift, others ſlow, and the hare ſwifteſt, the elke will goe as farre in one day as the horſe in three, but the aſſe is exceeding ſlow. The voice in horſes is called neighing, lowing in bulls, braying in aſſes, grunting in ſwine, roaring in lions, houling in woolfes, barking in dogs, yelping in foxes, and croaking in frogs, &c. The uſe likewiſe is various, thoſe that are hairie yeelding milk, others fleſh; ſome, gar­ments: and that of the dogge, cat, and horſe &c. is known, and the uſe of their ſeverall parts follow.

2. Amongſt Birds. The neck and parts towards the earth, are common with thoſe of other animals: and wings, feathers and bill are proper; but they want lips, teeth, au­ricles, and noſtrils, yet have little holes inſtead thereof. The eyes, are as thoſe of other creatures, two in number, but without lids; but they winke, a membrane paſſing from the angle. The thigh is like the hip, long, reaching to the middle of the belly, fixed to it. The hip is large in thoſe that have crooked clawes, and the breaſt is ſtronger than in others. The taile is ſupplied by a rump, it's ſhort in thoſe that have long leggs, or whole feet, but long in others. They bend the wings forewards. The leggs are two, as in man, but they bend them backwards as quadrupedes, they are long in thoſe that have claws, and live in the water: yet the manuco­diats want them: they all have diverſe clawes, and in ſome meaſure divided; thoſe which flie high have all foure toes, three in the forepart, and one backwards, in ſtead of a heele; a few have two forewards, and ſo backwards, and ſome have ſpurs, but not the crooked clawed. The comb, is in the cock, yet ſome have feathers inſtead thereof. The inward parts are differing alſo. The tongue is found in all, in ſome long, in others broad, which may be taught to counterfeit ſpeaking; in ſome it is hard and ſharpe like horne, and fleſhie backwards. The throat ſtopper is in none, yet they tem­per the motion ſo, that nothing may fall into the throat. The bowels are diverſe, in ſome the craw lying before the ſto­mach. The ventricle in very many is carnoſe and com­pact, having a very ſtrong skin within. The craw being wanting, the gullet is broad and large where it's joyned to the ventricle, as in jack-dawes, crowes, and quailes; and thoſe that want it, have a long one, and their excrements are more liquid, as the porphyrio. The inteſtine in ſome is ſmall, and ſingle. The appendices are explicate, but few, and not a­bove, as in fiſhes, but in the lower part, at the extremities of the inteſtines. The gall in ſome is in the belly, in others in the in­teſtines, as in the ſwallow, and pigeon, &c. The teſticles, are joyned to the reines, and in ſome are little and obſcure, and in the time of coiture they are greater. The ſperme is white. The bladder is wanting, a great quantity of humi­dity being required to the nouriſhment of feathers. The place, is the aire, water, or earth, & ſome abide not in the ſome region, the ſwallow tarrying but halfe a yeare, the thruſh and turtle three months, others depart after breeding, as houps, and ſome live in hidden places. The meat, is fleſh, inſects, herbs, grains, ſeeds, fiſhes and frogs: of theſe, ſome drink by ſucking, as thoſe that have long necks, with intermiſſion, and reſupination of the head and the porphyrio by biting. The generation is by the lying down of the female, as in hens; or ſtanding, in cranes: in ſome at any time, as in hens: and they breed at any time, except in the two brum all months of winter; but for the moſt part in the beginning of Spring, and Summer, when alſo they breed, and commonly but once: they all lay Eggs, except the bat, which bringeth forth young ones. Thoſe that have aduncat clawes are infecund, and their prey more fruit­full: of their eggs, ſome are white, as thoſe of henns and par­tridges: others, pale, as of the aquatick; others ſpotted, as the turkie's; ſome red, as the pheaſant's; and within they are all of two colours; the young when hatched, paſſe out by the round­eſt part, the ſhell being ſoft, but preſently waxing hard: the time of ſitting and number hatched is various, ſometimes onely the hen ſitteth, ſometimes only the male: amongſt pi­geons the cock in the day, and hen in the night: amongſt ring­doves, the henne from noone till morning, and the cock the reſt; after coiture they quiver, and ſtretch, themſelves; amongſt theſe there is ſympathie; and antipathie, as betwixt the ſwan and eagle, crow and kite, and ſo as to beaſts. The motion, is various, ſome walking, as crowes, ſparrowes and black­birds leaping, partridges and woodcocks running, ſtorks and cranes throwing their legs forewards, kites ſtretching their wings, and ſeldome ſhaking them; others, oftener, but only their feathers, the crow ſtretching the whole ſide, hick-ways for the moſt part cloſe, linnets moving the wings once or twice, ſwallowes flying high, low, directly, partridges low, larks high & falling, quailes leaping, ducks upright at firſt & high; vul­tures and thoſe of heavy bodies, flying from ſome high place, and being ruled by the taile; ſome looking about, others ben­ding the neck many making a noiſe when they fly, others being ſilent, ſome flying ſtraightiſh, others pronely, obliquely, ſide­wiſe; and others reſupinate; thoſe that have long legs fly hol­ding them backwards; if ſhort, they hold them contracted: thoſe that have crooked clawes uſually fly high, except the nocturnall. The voice is moſt frequent in thoſe that are ſmall, and chiefely when about generation, ſome make a noiſe in fighting, as quailes; others before it, ſc. partridges, and cocks, after it; and amongſt ſome, the cocks have one note and the hen another. ſome ſing all the yeare, others at cer­tain times: the noiſe in ringdoves is the ſame in all, the bird taurus imitates the lowing of cattle, and anthus the neigh­ing of horſes. The life, is various amongſt them, the male ſparrow not living much above one yeare, pigeons and tur­tles eight, & quailes & crowes many. Their diſeaſe, is known by their feathers, and they are ſubject unto many. Their divination is known, cranes foretelling faire weather by their ſilence, and tempeſts by their noiſe; ſo herons, crying at break of day, faire weather is expected when the owle hooteth at night, the crow and quaile making a noiſe in the evening portend foule weather, and ſwallowes flying up and down about waters. Their uſe, is for meat, medicine, and ſport &c. and their fleſh is light, wholeſome, and well digeſted. Their difference, is according to their parts, ſo ſome have ſtraight bills, ſome crooked; ſome long legs, others ſhort; ſome have toes, others whole feet, others without: ſome are criſtate or hor­ned, others not: ſome have long necks, as cranes, others ſhort: their wings uſually are proportionable, except in the dodo which is covered with doune, and for the moſt part all have tailes: they are great or little, terreſtriall, marine, lakiſh, fen­niſh, domeſtick, wild, feelden, or ſolitarie; their colours are diverſe, ſo their meat, and frequency of generation. The voice in nightingals is called ſinging, croking in crowes, cal­ling in partridges, gagleing in geeſe, groaning in pigeons and turtles, crowing in cocks, chackling and clucking in henns, crunkling in cranes, quacking in ducks, cherping in ſpar­rows, chattering in pies, and hooting in owles, &c.

3. Amongſt Fiſhes, The Cartilagineous, are plaine or long: the leſſer of them are above a cubit in length, and their ſpine is cartilagineous, their gills are detect, their finnes are double, and five on each ſide, they have egges all like birds; their place is various. The heart is pen­tagonous, and gall placed in the liver in the galeus. The womb hath ſinus's, and thoſe placed under the ſeptum of the midriffe, as birds. Some have their mouth upwards, or in the extreame, and cannot take the prey, without reſupination. They live in the deep ſea, and when they bring forth, they goe to the foords & ſhores. Their meat is fiſhes. Some of them generate averſly; the plaine that have tailes, copulate being ſupine upon the backs of the females, and they have egges in the ſuperiour part: and hate the forkfiſh. The Raie hath a long and rough taile, the eye is covered with a nebula: the genital is like that of the ſea-calſe. Their place is in dirty places not farre from the ſhore. They generate by the con­junction of their ſupine parts, and beget egges, and bring forth animals. The Pſettaceous, or plain and ſpinoſe, have a ſpine that ſeemeth to be divided in the midd'ſt. Their finns are foure, two in the prone part, two in the ſupine, & circum­vallate round. Their gills are foure, on each ſide. The tongue is wanting. The eyes are in the ſupine part of their heads. Their jawes are rugous and rough, and ſerve inſtead of teeth. Their Throat is ſomewhat like a craw, and con­tiguous to the ventricle. Their mouth is little in reſpect of their bodies. The heart is gibbous in one part thereof. The liver is broad, and embraceth the ventricle. The gall is in the extreme part thereof. The ſpleen is black; ſituated under the ventricle, which is broad. Their place is the ſea, and muddie rivers. Their meate is of cru­ſtats and ſhell-fiſhes. They breed once in a year: & they ſwim tranſeverſly. They take their prey, by hiding themſelves in the mudde and putting out their virgulae, and ſo alluring the ſmall fiſhes, comming to them as weeds. The Cetaceous, have lungs, arterie and neck, and other members common with the terrene quadrupedes. Their skin is extraordinary thick. Their lungs ſerve to coole their great heat: therefore they want gills; but have fiſtules. Their mouth is down­wards, that the fiſhes might eſcape, when they are reſupina­ted. The teeth are wanting in ſome, others are toothed, ha­ving them broad forewards, and ſharp backwards. The teats in the female yeeld much milk. Their fat increaſeth much, they eating fiſhes, and moving ſlowly. The internall parts, under the peritonaeum, which are made for nutrition and generation, are more like thoſe of terreſtriall quadrupeds, than of fiſhes: for the epiploon is leſſe fat in them, the ven­tricle is great. The pancreas is joyned to the fundus there­of, and it paſſeth to the inteſtines, which have many win­dings. The meſentery is joyned to the vertebra's, having black glandules, veines and arteries interwoven. The reines are ſituated betwixt the liver and teſticles. The urine is percolated through the ureters into the bladder, which is like that of terreſtriall animals, and in the inferiour part of the belly, and it is retained by the ſphincter. To the u­rachus the umbilicall arteries are joyned. The teſticles are on each ſide, longiſh, having preparant veſſels, ſc. many ramuli of veines and arteries ariſing from the great veine, which after many turnings are inſerted into the epididymis. The genital is in the urinary paſſage, conſiſting of a hol­low nerve, the end of which hangeth out, terminating in a ſlender glans; and within it's replicate, and hath its veines, nerves and arteries. The thorax conſiſteth of true and ſmall ribbs, a ſternon, vertebra's and muſcles. The lungs fill the capacity of the ſame, and are of a thicker ſubſtance than in terreſtriall animals, in thickneſſe and colour reſembling the liver of quadrupedes, and are divided into two parts. The heart is on each ſide embraced thereby, being included in the pericard, and placed in the middle of the thorax, like that of the hog: alſo they have the rough arterie, oeſophagus, muſcles, &c. as in the terreſtriall animals, the clavicle excepted. The head is articulated with the vertebrae. The brain is di­vided forewards and backwards, thence conjugations of nerves ariſe, the choroid plexus, rete mirabile, and two me­ninges. The womb in the females hath a neck of one hand in length, and then it's divided into two rami, as in terrene quadrupedes, their teſticles are placed at the hornes of the womb, and the pudend is betwixt the navill, and anus. Their magnitude is various. Their place is the ſea onely, yet not in all, and in the deep; they are ſeen chiefely about the ſolſtices, and are at other times in the bottome of the water. Their meat is fiſh, and chiefely herrings, which ſometimes they ſo gree­dily follow, that they caſt themſelves upon the ſhore. They generate within themſelues, and bring forth young, which when young follow the damme. Their motion is ſlow, by reaſon of their largeneſſe. Their ſight and hearing is dull: ſome ſay they uſe a little fiſh for their guide, they love the ſmell of pitch, inſomuch that they rub themſelves againſt the ſides of ſhips: & they are driven away by noiſe. The Molluſca, or ſoft, having neither a rough or teſtaceous skinne, nor ſcales: they have a middle nature betwixt fleſh and nerves. Their head is betwixt the feet and belly, in the mouth are two teeth, inſtead of a tongue they have a certain carnoſe ſub­ſtance in the mouth, by which they taſte. Their eyes are two, and large. Their feet are in the forepart, about the head, bending about the eyes: ſome have acetabula, and two long trunks, which they uſe as anchors in ſtormes. They have a fiſtule above the head before the alveus which they move a­bout, they have a little finne compaſſing in their alveus, by which they ſwimme and direct themſelves therein. To the head is joyned a venter of large capacity, the fleſh of which is orbicularly fiſſile. They have capillamenta in the ſide, ſerving in ſtead of gills. The throat is narrow, after which is a receptacle, to which the belly is joyned; the inteſtine is ſlender, which tendeth towards the upper parts. The bladder is wanting. They have a black humour ſer­ving in ſtead of blood. Their place is in ſalt waters. Their meat is fleſh. Their womb is bifid, and they have two teſticles neere the genitall. The male hath the prone parts of the body more black than the ſupine, and all parts more rough than the female, various by intervening lines, and the taile ſharper. They copulate long, and the females have egges, at firſt undivided, afterwards ſeperated, and then increaſe, after they have received a vitall ſtrength from the ſperme of the male ſhed thereon, and that after the manner of wormes. The Cruſtates are in a mean be­twixt the teſtaceous and ſoft. They want bones. They have a head, capacity, throat, and belly, common with other ani­mals without blood. The belly is little in reſpect of their bulk, and the inteſtine ſingle, to the paſſage of excrements. They have two foreteeth in the mouth, and three in the ventricle, one on each ſide, and the third below: betwixt thoſe in the mouth, is a carnoſe part, ſerving in ſtead of a tongue. above the mouth are the eyes, which are hard in all, fit to move inwards, outwards, obliquely, and ſwiftly, there­fore they want eyeleds. Their head is little, with hornes and appendices, with which they fight, and feele their way. Their feet are eight, and move obliquely. They have two clawes, which they uſe inſtead of hands, of which the right is biggeſt and ſtrongeſt uſually. Their fleſh is red­diſh like blood, and in the belly is a kind of paliſh humour. Their place is about the mouthes of rivers, ſtony and dirty places. Their meat is little ſtones, reites, mud, and ex­crements, and fleſh alſo. Their coiture, is as theirs that piſſe averſely, in the ſpring time, and long, being without blood, and cold: the female bringeth forth a reddiſh egge, compaſſed in with a very thin membrane, ſticking to the belly and ſides, which afterwards increaſeth: the male is biggeſt and thickeſt, and the firſt foot is ſingle, and taile narrower. Their age is long, yet none of them breath, but they are refrigerated by caſting out water with their fiſtula. Their ſight is dull, but ſmell and taſte well, they ſleep like other aquatiles, they are without voice, goe obliquely, and ſwim onely with the taile. they lie hid in the winter, and are fat in ſpring and autumne. they fight with the hornes, and caſt their ſhels after breeding. The Squillae have a taile, but no forceps. The body is blackiſh in ſpring, but whi­tiſh after. Their hornes are ſharp and in the top of the head. The inteſtine is terminated in the taile, as in creviſſes, by which they evacuate excrements, and bring forth eggs: they live in marine, fenniſh or ſtony places: their meat is oiſters, & reites. The male is known by two white particles in the fleſh of the breaſt, and the female hath egges annexed to the belly: they copulate like quadrupedes that piſſe backwards, in the ſpring time, neere the earth. They are enemies to the pike, whom they wound by their hornes. The round cruſtates, ſc. the Cancri, have moveable eyes, an indiſcrete head, without a brain, yet having a part ſerving in ſtead thereof. The taile is turning: they look obliquely, and go ſo, having ten feet with clawes, the right of which is biggeſt, and in the foremoſt, the ſuperiour part is moveable and the infe­riour not. they have two teeth inwards, betwixt which, is a caruncle like a tongue: to the mouth, the ſto­mach is joyned which is little. They live in rockey places, open in the winter, and hidden in the ſummer. Their meat is ſhell-fiſhes, they draw the water into the mouth and ſo paſſe it out again. They copulate in the forepart, by joyning their opercula, in which alſo they bring forth eggs: alſo the fe­male hath the firſt foot double, and the male ſingle; theſe on­ly amongſt cruſtates ſwimme not, but goe, and that ſide­wiſe. They are very crafty, and in danger hide them ſelves in the mud, or amongſt ſtones: they fight like rams with their hornes: they feed on ſhelfiſhes by caſting in a ſtone, when they open themſelves; they lie hid five months, and in the be­ginning of ſpring caſt their ſhell, like ſerpents, under which is a ſoft ſhell, ſo that they can hardly move. The Teſtaceous are without blood, their ſhell within is ſmooth. Their fleſh increaſeth in the increaſe of the moon, which is contai­ned by the ſhell which is terrene, and preſerveth their little heat, and they caſt it not. They have teeth, and ſomewhat proportionable to a tongue. Their head is downwards. The ſtomach is joyned preſently to the mouth, and is little; after which is the belly, in which alſo there is a papaver, from which paſſeth a ſingle inteſtine. They are nouriſhed like plants, by pores, and that by a ſweet humour. Their motion is adverſe. They differ in the hardneſſe of the ſhels, the holo­thuria, pulmones, and echini having ſofter, than the purple and buccina; ſome are covered on every ſide, as oiſters, cocks, and tellinae; others have but one valve, the other ſide ſticking to rocks; the chamae, and ſolenes, are uncovered in the ex­tremes, ſo that they put forth the head, and hinder parts: of thoſe that are covered on every ſide, ſome are turbinate, as the purple, and buccinum; others not, as the conchae; ſome have one ſhell as the lepas; others two, as muſſels; of the ſhels, ſome are ſmooth, as of the ungues, and muſſels, others rough, as of the purple, buccina, and oiſters. their place is the ſea, and they lie hid in great heate and cold. Their generation is ſpon­taneous, of ſpumous faeces. Their ſenſe is denied by ſome, though others grant it, and they have an antipathie againſt thunder. The Turbinate have a torcular ſhell, out of the middeſt whereof commeth the head with two hornes: ſome of them have ſmall teeth; ſome have a proboſcis like flies, and it's hard in the purple and buccina. neere to the mouth is a venter, like the craw of birds, after which is the gula, to which the inteſtine is joyned, which is ſingle, and recipro­cating towards the head, about which the excrement is evacuated in all turbinates terrene or marine. they grow like wormes their motion is as in the former. The turbines, are great, eared, tuberous, angulous, muricate, or pentedactyls, and they are orbicularly turned, &c.

4. Amongſt Serpents. The head is light in ſome, heavy in others, broad, narrow, white, black, yellow, or ſpotted, and ſome turn them ſo quick, that they ſeem to have two heads. Their cares are not protuberant, but hollow. Their eyes are hardiſh. Their upper eye-lid moveth not, but they wink with the lower. The neck is wanting. Their ſlough is in ſtead of a skin. The taile is various. As for their inward parts, their head is covered with one bone. The teeth are ſerrate & ſharp, and two are long in the upper part, perforate, by which they ejaculate their poyſon. The tongue is thin, long, black, bifid in the end, and ſharp, under it is a cuticle, which like a veſicle covereth the teeth, in which is poyſon, which is ſhed forth by the holes of the teeth in biting. The heart is little, long, and repreſents the figure of the reines, and is very hot. The arterie is very long, and ſeemeth to be under the tongue, and after it's carried to the lungs, by which they differ from fiſhes; their lungs are ſingle, fibrous, divided by pipes, very long and fungous. The epiglottis is wanting, but they contract and dilate the paſſage at their pleaſure. The ventricle is as it were a great inteſtine, like that of a dogge, ſc. anguſt, and of a long figure. The in­teſtine is ſmall and long, reaching to the vent. The liver is long and ſingle. The ſpleen is little, and round. The gall in all, except the water-ſnake, ſticketh to the inteſtines, and is full of a certaine black and liquid exerement. The bladder and reines are wanting: as alſo the genitall, they not having leggs, and teſticles, the body being long; but they have two meatus, like fiſhes, ariſing from the ſeptum, paſſing on both ſides the ſpine, which in the time of congreſſe yeeld a white ſperme. They want duggs, not having milke. The womb is bifid and long, in which eggs are begotten, and paſſe thence in a certaine continuous ſeries. Their bones are like thoſe of fiſhes. Their vertebra's are cartilagineous & flexile, & there are as many ribbs in ſnakes as daies in a month; alſo in re­ſpect of the heart, lungs, and rough arterie, ſerpents are like birds; and in the liver, inteſtines, and abdomen, like fiſhes; but differ from both, in reſpect of the gall and diſpoſition of the eggs. Their place is Ophiuſa, Melitaea, Theſſalia, Apulia. Arabia, Numidia, Aethiopia, Africa, and the Indies. Their meat is earth, and oniſcs, and they live long without meate, & when they devoure any great baite, they contract themſelves; when they ſwallow birds, they vomit up the bones and fea­thers: they delight in wine, milk, water and yolks of egges, which they get, by twiſting themſelves about them: as for their temper, ſome are cold, and others hot. They are genera­ted of the putrifaction of the earth, of the blood of certain birds, and of the marrow of mans back: they generate by con­junction, ſo, that they ſeem but one ſerpent having two heads, they lay eggs and hatch them, hanging together like a brace­let; but ſome of them bring forth animals. Their voice is hiſſing. Their motion is creeping, and their ribs ſerve them as leggs. Their enmity is againſt men, eagles, peacocks, ſtorks, hawks, vulture, ſwallowes, cocks and henns, elephants, leop­ards, ſtags, ſwine, rats, tortiſe; ichneumon, chameleon, crabs, & ſpiders; the aſh, oake, betony, garlick, rue, wormwood, mugwort, ſouthernwood, herb frankincenſe, nep, elecampane, and fire. They love one an other, eels, foxes, cats, ivy, fennel, and ſavin. As for their nature and manners, they have their poyſon in the taile, which they bring to a little bladder neere the mouth; which, after the former is evacuated, is againe filled with more, in the ſpace of a naturall day. in the foure coldeſt moneths they lie hidde, and eate nothing, and their poyſon then is ſo weake, that they may then be handled without danger: at the riſing of the dogge ſtarre they are ſo furious that they cannot reſt. in the ſpring when they come out of their holes, they caſt their ſlough, beginning at the head. they live long, eating but little. they ſleep with their eyes open: in danger they chiefe­ly defend their heads; expoſing their bodies to wounds, which are ſoone healed againe. if they are ſtruck, they ſtrive as much as poſſible to wound their enemies. their poyſon is under their tongue, and there are as many kinds thereof, as ſpecies of ſerpents: of theſe, the males, old, great, and faſting are moſt pernicious, and all in ſummer, more than in winter. As for their differences, the female is leſſe than the male, and ſome grow to be above an hundred foot long. As for their colour, ſome are ſpotted, ſome ſtreaked, ſome of the colour of braſſe, gold, ſilver, red, and green; as to their place, ſome are aqua­tick, others terreſtriall, ſome live in mountaines, others in plaines, ſome amongſt oakes, others about bee­ches, and haſels: in reſpect of ſmell, ſome are ſweet, like musk. in Hiſpaniola ſome are harmleſſe, Some have great eyes, ſome little; and others, of a bloody colour. ſome have narrow mouthes, others very large, ſome have combs, others have hornes, or wings, and are monſtrous.

5. Amongſt Inſects, the hornes are in ſome, others are without them. The eyes are open in all, and hard, and moveable, The eyelids are wanting, and cheeks alſo. The tongue in ſome is ſoft and weake, but hard and ſtrong in all ſuch as have no ſting in the taile. The teeth are wan­ting in ſuch as uſe moiſt meat. The covering is of a mid­dle nature, betwixt skin and cruſt, and dry, and they ſeeme to have no nerves, bones, ſpine, cartilages, fat, or fleſh, but have parts of a middle nature betwixt all theſe. The wings are in ſome, others are without them. The taile is onely in the ſcorpion. The caſe is uſually caſt by ſuch as have wing caſes. The legges are moved obliquely in thoſe that have them: and in ſome, the foremoſt longeſt are bended fore­wards; but thoſe that leap, or have the hindmoſt feete longeſt, are bended backward, and nature hath given ſome longeſt feet forewards, that thereby, wanting good ſight, they might remove what might trouble them: alſo thoſe have moſt, which by reaſon of the length of their bodis are moſt cold; and the wild fewer, in ſome their want of feet is recom­penſed by the help of wings. Their generation is partly ſpontaneous, partly by coiture. gnats and little worms doe neither copulate, nor are bred of animals. few of the males in coiture inſert into the female; but the females have a long genital, by which they attract the generative ſpirit from the male. thoſe that generate without coiture, en­gender wormes, and thoſe that are ſpontaneous. the coiture of the reſt is long, and they part ſlowly. whether they emit ſperm or not is uncertain, their generation is perfected for the moſt part in three or foure ſeptenaries, as in oviperous creatures, ſeven daies after coiture there is a concretion and conſum­mation of the egges, in the other three ſeptenaries they che­riſh and hatch them, ſc. thoſe which procreate with their foetus, as ſpiders. Their motion, is creeping, walking, & flying, &c. they all move with more kinds of motion than the ſan­guine animalls. Their breathing is not acknowledged by diverſe, who acknowledg only perfrigeration; but they want lungs, and not refrigeration, they being of a cold temper. the noiſe that bees and flies make, is occaſioned by the agi­tation of the interiour ſpirits. thoſe that ſeem to ſing, make a noiſe by the membrane under the ſeptum tranſverſum, againſt which the included ſpirit is moved. Many of them are exanimated under the water, and recovered in aſhes, not be­cauſe they cannot inſpire; but by reaſon that, that interiour ſpirit was ſuffocated by the humour, which being diſcuſſed by the heat, it's againe reſtored to it ſelfe. Their ſmelling is performed by their native ſpirit. Their ſound is by the at­trition of the interiour pllicle, locuſts make a noiſe by rub­bing themſelves with their gubernacula; that of the bee is humming, but it's ſhrill in the graſſehopper. The life is more tenacious in them, than in the ſanguineous, chiefely in thoſe that have long bodies and many feet, as in the palmer-worme, by reaſon of the multiplicating part of their originall, yet they are eaſily killed by pouring oile on them, its viſcoſity ſtopping the narrow paſſages, and ſo intercepting the ſpirits. They differ according to place, the fier-flie living in the fire, rough-wormes in the ſnow, ſcolopenders in the ſea waters, water-beetles and leeches in ſweet waters, wormes in the earth, wood-worms in the roots of trees, the ceraſtes in the ſig­tree, red and hairy wormes in the ſervice-tree, the butyri in vines, and ipes, and the vinefretter in the leaves thereof, maggots in the cypreſſe, caterpillers on leaves, praſcurids in leekes, crambides in cabbages, punies in mallowes, weevills in wheat, the mida in beans, nits and lice in beaſts, tikes in ſheep, brees in cowes, or horſe-flies, the ſcolichia in the mullet, others in the carp, perch, gudgin, and dace; the clerus in bee­hives, & moths in garments. The colour in ſome is the ſame, in others various. As for quantity and figure; ſome are little, others great, round, ovale, angulous, ſmooth, or rough, &c. ſome are winged, others not; others change their forme, as catter­pillers, which turne into butter-flies. Some have wing­caſes, as beetles, and cantharides &c. others have their wings alwaies open, as flyes, bees, &c. Some have two wings; others foure, ſc. thoſe that have ſtings in their bellies; if in their mouthes, two, The wings pulled off, grow again in none of them, and thoſe that have cruſts over their wings are without ſtings. Some have wings not divided, as bees, and waſps, and in butterflies they are mealy: as for the leggs, wormes are without them, others have many, and moſt have not fewer than ſix. The tongue in ſome is ſoft and weake, in others hard and ſtrong, as oxe-flies, and it is in all that have not a ſting in the belly. very many have teeth; but not thoſe that live on moiſt things, ſome have a ſting in their mouth, & is in­ſtead of a tongue & lips; others in the belly; alſo they are terre­ſtriall or aquatick, with or without feet, &c. Alſo amongſt the aforeſaid living creatures, ſome are Solar, ſc. thoſe that are generous, and lively, as the bull, goat, horſe, lion, and ramme. Amongſt Birds; the eagle, cock, crow, ſwan, and vulture. Of Inſects; the pilularie beetle and ſpaniſh flies: the contrary, are ſuch as are Lunar, Saturnine, and Martiall, &c. The Lunar, are the Cat, beaver, dog, goat, hart, otter, and men­ſtruall blood. Of Birds; the Duck, gooſe, heron, and merguli, &c. Of Fiſhes; the carp, crab, gilt-head, frog, ciſter, pearch, and cockle. Of Inſects, Spiders, &c: the contrary are ſuch as are Solar and Martiall. The Saturnine, are the ſolitary, nocturnall and ſad: as the Aſſe, camel, cat, ape, hare, mule, mouſe, mole, bear, toad, and wolfe. Of Birds, the Bat, crow, crane, houpe, oſtrich, owle, and peacock, and Serpents. Of Inſects, Flies, ſcorpions, piſmires, and wormes: the contrary, are all but the Martial. The Joviall, are the Hart, bull, ele­phant, lamb, and ſheep. Of Birds, the Hen, eagle, partridg, pheaſant, pigeon, ſtorke, and ſwallow: the contrary are the Martiall. The Martiall, are thoſe that are quarrelſome, impetuous, powerfull, bilious, & rapacious; as the Dog, goat, kid, fox, mule, purdal, & woolfe. Of Birds, the Crow, chough, eagle, hawke, faulcon, kite, owle, and vulture. Of Fiſhes, the Dogge-fiſh, jack, pearch, and fork fiſh: the contrary are all, except the Venereall. The Venereall, are the delitious, laſcivious, mild, kinde, pleaſant, and tame; as the Calfe, cony, dog, goat, and ſcinck. Of Birds, the Crow, cock, eagle, pigeon, peacock, partridg, pye, ſwallow, ſwan, turtle, and wagtaile: the contrary are the Saturnine. The Mercuriall, are thoſe that are ingenious, crafty, ſagacious, fauning, and lo­quacious; as the Dogge, ape, hare, hart, mule, fox, and weaſell. Of Birds, the Bat, colemouſe, blackbird, gold-finch, larke, parret, pie, nightingale, ſwallow, and thruſh. Of Inſects, the Beetle, bee, kind, locuſt, and piſmire: the contrary, are the Martiall and Saturnine. Of the influence of which Plants, See my Iſagoge Phytolo­gica, &c.

Thus of the more generall differences of Animals, in reſpect of parts, quantity, quality, place, meate, generation, motion, voice, life, ſenſe, and actions, &c.

Now follow their differences, as uſed in Meat, & Medicine, & they are as followeth. 1. Of Quadrupeds, or fourfooted beaſts, thoſe moſt uſed in diet are the tame, ſc. the calfe, oxe, cow, bull, lamb, weather, ram, ewe, kid, goat, pig, ſow, boar, and hog: amongſt the wild; the wild boare and ſow, red and fallow deere, roebuck and capreol, hare, conie, and ſquirrels, &c. of which, ſee more in their proper places. Of theſe, the Subſtance of ſome is thin and light, fit for fine complexions, idle and tender perſons, and ſuch as recover out of ſome great ſickneſſe, as rabbets, &c. others are more groſſe, tough and hard, agreeing chiefely with country perſons and ſuch as labour, and ſecondarily with thoſe that are ſtrong uſing much exerciſe, and accuſtomed to feed thereon, as the bull, and hog, &c. others are of a middle ſubſtance, and generally the beſt, and moſt proper aliment, ingendering mean blood, agreeing almoſt with all ages, times, and complexions, neither binding the body or looſening it, neither ſtrengthning nor weakening the ſtomach, neither procuring nor hindering urin or ſweat, cauſing no alteration in the firſt qualities, neither over-nouriſhing or extenuating the body, but preſerving it in ſuch ſtate as before, and reſtoring little more than is daily decayed; as the heifer, calfe, ſheep, lamb, kid, pig, and coney. As for the Temperature, ſome are hot; as the lamb, hog, pig, in the firſt degree; in the ſecond, the hare, and roe-buck: others are cold as the cow, ſteere, coney, rabbet, & young hedg­hogs, in the firſt degree; ſome are moiſt, us the wild boare, &c. in the firſt degree, in the ſecond, the hedgbuck, &c. in the third, young hogs, and pigs: others are dry; as the oxe, deere, hare, and coney, in the ſecond degree. In reſpect of Taſte, ſome are ſweet; which agree well with nature, being of a tempe­rate heate, and ſo fitteſt for nouriſhment, they delight the ſto­mach, and liver, fatten the body, increaſe naturall heate, fill the veines, digeſt eaſily, ſoften that which is two hard, and thicken what is too liquid; but if over ſweet and glut­tiſh, they ſoone turne into choller, ſtop the liver, puffe up the lungs, and ſpleen, ſwell the ſtomach, and often cauſe ſharp feavers: the bitter, if exceeding, doe not much nouriſh, except firſt boiled or infuſed in many waters, they otherwiſe engen­dring cholerick humours, and burning bloud, they kill worms, open obſtructions, cleanſe the body, but nouriſh little or not at all, and that which is, is derived only to ſome ſpeciall parts: thoſe made ſharp, dry the body exceedingly, hurt the eyes and liver, &c. drawing down humours, ſending up vapours, infla­ming the blood, fretting the guts, and extinuating the whole body; therefore they are to be taſted or fed upon, their ſharp­neſſe being allay'd with waſhing, infuſion, oiling, and inter­mixture of ſweet things: thoſe made ſoure, though they na­turally offend ſinewey parts weaken concoction, coole naturall heat, make loane, and haſten old age; yet they are profitable in cutting phlegme, opening obſtructions, clenſing impuri­ties, bridling choller, reſiſting putrifaction, extinguiſhing ſu­perfluous heat, ſtaying loathſomeneſſe of ſtomach, and procu­ring appetite; but if made ſoure without ſharpneſſe, they ſtrengthen the ſtomach, bind and corrborate the liver, ſtay fluxes, heale ulcers, and give indifferent nouriſhment to them that eat them: if made ſalt, as ſuch, they nouriſh little or nothing; but rather accidentally, in procuring appetite, ſtrengthening the ſtomach, & giving it a touch of much heate; for if very ſalt, they engender choller, dry up naturall moi­ſture, inflame blood, ſtop the veines, gather together viſcous and crude humours, harden the ſtone, cauſe ſharpneſſe of urin, and leanneſſe, ſc. the accidentall ſalt, not the naturall, and inbred: the fat, if exceſſive, glut the ſtomach, decay ap­petite, cauſe belchings, loathing, vomitings, and ſcowrings, choake the pores, digeſt hardly, and nouriſh little; ſo if two dry and leane, on the contrary, it's worſe, and nouriſheth leſſe, but the mean is beſt: the inſipid, are of weak nouriſhment, yet extraordinarily they nouriſh ſome, nouriſhment being according to the reliſh uſually, and the unſavoury nouriſh leſſe and not ſpeedily: alſo what hath here been ſaid of ſub­ſtance, and taſte, agreeth alſo to birds, fiſhes, and other edi­bles. As for the age, the fleſh of thoſe that are young, eſpe­cially if newly brought forth, is ſlimy, ſoft, moiſt, and excre­mentitious, eſpecially when they are moſt moiſt by nature; yet it is ſooner concocted, and makes the belly ſoluble: the fleſh of thoſe that are old, is hard, dry, nervous, hard of di­geſtion, and of little and bad nouriſhment: wainelings, are leſſe hard and dry than the one; and more firme, temperate, and nouriſhing than the other; but generally they are beſt for moſt complexions, when they are almoſt come to their full growth, both in height, length, and bigneſſe, their temper being then beſt, and ſo moſt agreeable to our naturall moi­ſture, being in a mean: the ſame may be ſaid of birds, as of beaſts. In reſpect of ſex, the fleſh of the males, is more ſtrong, dry, and heavy of digeſtion; the females ſweeter, moi­ſter, and of more eaſy concoction; but the males are to be preferred, being hotter, dryer, more laborious, and leſſe ex­crementitious, when gelt, as appeares, in oxen and weathers: when gelt they are more tender, ſweet, and of an eaſier di­geſtion, as appeares in barrow hoggs; they then being of a middle nature. As for their feeding, thoſe that feed in moiſt and mooriſh places, have moiſt fleſh, and full of ſuper­fluities; but thoſe that feed on dry places and mountaines, are without excrements, more eaſy of digeſtion, and fit to nouriſh: thoſe that feed in good paſtures, are ſweeter and more nouriſhing; ſo thoſe that feed upon ſweet herbs; alſo the fleſh of wild beaſts is leſſe excrementitious and dryer, than that of the tame; ſo likewiſe of birds. And as to the preparation, beaſts after they have been fatted with goood food, as often as they deſire it, in a clean and ſpatious place, and chaſed, then killed in their ſeaſon; they either keep relinquiſh or al­ter their property by preparation; here therefore it's to be noted, that flaſhy meate and naturally moiſt, ſhould be dreſſed with a dry heate, (as in baking, broiling, frying, and roſting,) and meats naturally exceeding in aryneſſe and firmneſſe ſhould ever be boiled; and the temperate may be uſed any way: if crude, it's eaten only by the barbarians: if roſted, it yeeldeth a dry aliment, and often retaineth the excrements: if aduſt, it's worſe: if fryed with externall hu­midity, it's ſweet, by reaſon of its fat humidity, but by rea­ſon it doth not conveniently emit its internall ſuperflu­ity, but rather imbibeth more of the redundant externall, it's hardly concocted, nidorulent, and torrifieth the bloud: if ſeaſoned with ſalt, and ſpices, it is yet dryer: if boiled it's dryer within, yet by reaſon of exteriour humi­dity, it moiſtneth and deſcendeth ſooner; but roſted meat hath more of it's own proper and naturall moiſture, that of the boiled paſſing into the broth, and therefore it nouri­ſheth leſſe except eaten with the broth; yet boiled fleſh is beſt for ſuch as are yet growing, and ſo of a hot temper, as alſo for ſuch as are ſick of hot and dry diſeaſes, and that in hot and dry countries, and ſeaſons of the yeare; but ro­ſted meats are beſt for thoſe who are of a cold and moiſt tem­per, who are looſe, and ſubject to cold and moiſt diſeaſes: if ſtewed, being equaly prepared, it generateth good, tem­perate, and permeable juyce: if ſeaſoned, it's according to the cookery. Note alſo that fleſh engendreth better, purer, and more perfect bloud, than fiſh, & for ſound men is the beſt ſuſtenance. As for the Parts of beaſts. The muſculous fleſh is more hot by vivifick heate, than in birds, & therefore they grow larger: the head, is edible, ſc. of the cow, calfe, ſow, boar, kid, & hare, &c. but of hard concoction, thick and viſcous juyce, yet of much nouriſhment: the tongue is looſe, fungous, humid, and glu­tinous, therefore it yeeldeth not a ſolid, thick, or laſting ali­ment; yet in ſome it is moſt ſweet, ſoft, of good juyce, eaſy con­coction, and good aliment; but the part exerted is harder; the tongues of calves, kids, lambs, hogs, and ſheep, are of eaſy digeſtion, and breed laudable juyce, neats tongue is thicker, but more fit for nouriſhment and not dryed: the eares, are cartilagineous, & nouriſh little, except eaten with the vieine parts: the eyes, of thoſe that are young, ſeperated from their skinne, fat, bals, and humours, are of a tender and muſ­culous fleſh, which is very eaſy of digeſtion, eſpecially the calves: the cheeks, if of young, ſat, and carnoſe beaſts, are of good juyce, and thoſe of calves moſt tender: the brain, is pituitous, of thick juyce, hardly diſtributed, and concocted, cauſing nauſeouſneſſe and vomiting, and helps againſt poyſon by its viſcidity; thoſe of calves, lambs, kids, and pigs, are to be eaten at the beginning of meales, the pigs are to be dreſſed at the fire being the moiſteſt: the pallate, which is commended in the cow, hath a certaine membranous fleſh, and is often uſed in pies: the ſnowt, in hogs, is worſe than the feet, but better than the head. The heart, is hard of concocti­on, and that of the hog cauſeth ſadneſſe, it nouriſheth little; but if well concocted, the nouriſhment is not weak or bad. The lungs, are of a cold and moiſt temperament, pituitous juyce, & of eaſy concoction and diſtribution, by reaſon of their rarity and levity, ſome ſay they cauſe inflation of the belly, they are of a froathy ſubſtance, & they are good for young men ſick of hot agues; but bad for ſtrong and labouring men, ſo light a meat not ſufficiently nouriſhing them, but putrifying in the ſtomach; thoſe of foxes are not wholſome, but rather medicine for ſore lungs; they are ſofter than the heart, liver, kidnies, and ſpleenes; but not inferiour to the liver, as to nouriſhment. The liver, of all animals, is of thick juyce, hardly concocted, & ſlowly penetrating; that of hogs is preferred, that of lambs and kids doth more eaſily paſſe along, and is of leſſe thick juyce; that of goats is ſaid to cauſe epi­leptick convulſions, no leſſe than the hee goats; but the hogs with the fat, is commended; uſually they cauſe obſtructions. The ſpleen, drawing thick lutulent and melancholick blood, yeeldeth alſo a like nouriſhment; thoſe that are reddiſh, as the hoggs; being tinged with a leſſe evill blood, are not of ſo bad juyce; others are hardly concocted and diſtributed, & of an un­pleaſant taſte. The reines, are of ill juyce, an ungratefull ſapour, & hard concoction; thoſe of kids and calves, being nei­ther hard or virous, are commended; others are of thick juyce, betwixt fleſh and kernels, allwaies having a ſmack of that which paſſeth through them, and being two ſtrong for moſt ſtomachs, after ſucking. The teſticles, being virous, eſpe­cially after coiture, are hard, and not eaſily concocted, but thoſe of hogs are preferred, and thoſe of lambs are not diſ­commended; thoſe of boares help decayed bodies, and cauſe luſt, ſo thoſe of bucks, and ſtaggs. The womb, is of cold and crude juyce, therefore hardly concocted and of little juyce. The ventricle, what nouriſhment it yeeldeth, may eaſily be con­jectured from its conſtitution, it is filmy, and therefore cold, hard, dry, and glutinous; it is of hard digeſtion, generates phlegme, begets obſtructions, and is the cauſe of many diſeaſes; ſoft and ſedentary men muſt abſtaine from it, it being fit only for porters, ploughmen, and mariners. The guts, are of the ſame nature; but thoſe of lambs, and kids, are of an ea­ſier ſubſtance and concoction; the other are farre harder than fleſh, hardly concocted, of little nouriſhment, & unwhol­ſome, cauſing itches, and leproſies, &c. The meſentery, if of a young calfe and fat, is good with a little vineger. The ud­ders, of milch beaſts, as kine, ewes, dos, and ſhee-goats, are of laudable taſte, and better than tripes, being of a more fleſhy nature; the lean muſt be ſod tender in fat broth, the fat may be ſod alone; but each of them needs firſt a little corning with ſalt, being naturally of a phlegmatick and moiſt ſubſtance. The feet, and other extreme parts, of fourefooted beaſts, conſiſting ef membrans, ligaments, nerves, veines, arteries, and griſtles, are cold, and dry, clammy, viſcous, of little nou­riſhment, and hard digeſtion, except of young and ſucking animals, as of hogs, pigs, lambs, and calves; alſo a tender cow heele is counted reſtorative, and pigs pettitoes boild in barley water for the aguiſh; the ſodden feet of geeſe alſo were counted reſtorative. The kernels, are ſweet, tender, and ſhort, yeelding a thick nouriſhment; and if the beaſt be ſound, very good; and being well concocted in the ſtomach, they nouriſh as much as muſculous fleſh; not well digeſted, they breed flegmatick and raw juyce, ſc. thoſe of the breaſt; of the other, thoſe that are ſoft generate phlegmatick blood, & the hard, that which is raw; the ſweet breads of beaſts, are beſt firſt roſted, then boiled, their ſuperfluous moiſture being ſo conſumed. The fat, hinders appetite, gluts the ſtomach, hardly digeſteth, turneth wholy to excrements, & decayeth the retentive powers, eſpecially that of greater beaſts; it relaxeth the ſtomach, cauſeth nauſeouſneſſe, turnes into choller in hot bodies, and is rather ſawce for our meat than nouriſhment. The marrow, is the ſweet of fat, as it were, ſecretly convey'd, into bones; ſweet, unctuous, and pleaſant of taſte, nouri­ſhing ſuch whoſe bodies are dry, and ſtomachs able to digeſt it: it may be ſod uſually with capons, cockrels, and henns, in a nouriſhing white broth; or pies may be made thereof; but it ſoone cauſeth ſurfeits: of all; that of the deere is coun­ted by ſome to be eaſieſt of digeſtion, next that of a young mutton, and that of beefe the heauieſt, that of a goat is offenſive, and that of lambs or calves not good, being crude, bloody, and imperfect for want of age: the chine or pithmarrow, is much harder and dryer, than the brain it ſelfe, eſpecially towards the further end of the back; which dryneſſe makes it leſſe loathſome to the ſtomach, than brains are; and it ſtrengthneth that body, which is able to concoct it: ſome make candles therewith and yolks of new laid eggs, to reſtore nature, and recover the weakneſſe of the loines cau­ſed by venery. The tripes, are farre harder in ſubſtance, than their fleſh, long in concocting, nouriſhing little, and ex­crementitious, ingendring filthy diſeaſes. The skinne of beaſts, even of roſted pigge is ſo farre from nouriſhing, that it can hardly be well digeſted of a ſtrong ſtomach. This is the Ʋſe of the ſeverall parts of Quadrupedes: there are diverſe other things taken and made from them. As milk, which is the abundant part of blood, whited in the breaſts of ſuch creatures, as are ordained by nature to give ſuck; ſerving for the young, ſick, or old; which, if crude, it's to be taken freſh, that it may not provoke flatulency, and it is not good pre­ſently after bringing forth, it may be corrected with a little ſalt or ſugar; if boiled it's leſſe flatulent, but thicker, the ſerum being boyled away, and ſo is apt to obſtruct the veines; if caſeous, it nouriſheth much, but is leſſe wholſome; if bu­tyrous, it's ſomewhat more viſcous, more difficultly diſtri­buted, and cauſeth inflations; if ſerous, it nouriſheth leaſt, but preſently paſſeth through the belly; if of lean beaſts, it nouriſheth little; if of fat, it cauſeth danger of a convulſion; if of black, it's better than that of white beaſts; if milked after delivery, that which is moſt liquid and thin, is after more thickned; the beſt is that which is tepid, of equall ſubſtance, not quickly running off the naile if put thereon, light, not viſcous, but ſweet, without ſmell, white, ſomewhat ſhining, and taken from a ſound beaſt of good feeding, that hath good dugs. The moſt uſuall are the womans, which is the beſt; the cowes is thicker, fatter, more nutritive, obſtructive and hardly concocted; the ſheeps, is worſe and obſtructeth more; the goats, is a little hotter, than the former, of a thinner ſubſtance, more nouriſhment, and ſooner paſſeth away; the mares is very thin, hot, and de­terſive; the aſſes, is colder than the reſt, thinner; and more ſerous, leſſe nutritive and obſtructing, and cleanſeth without acrimony and mordeity, of all which, ſee more in their pro­per places: here note, that the milk of any beaſt chewing the cud, is bad for rheumes, coughs, feavers, headach, obſtructions, inflammations, ſore eyes, ſhaking ſinewes, young men, cramps, convulſions, the ſtone, & teeth, & the camels is the beſt of thoſe, that chew not the cudde, being ſweeteſt and thinneſt; alſo all is thinneſt in the ſpring, and thickeſt in the ſummer; and that of horned beaſts is not to be eaten unſdden, it ſo, not curdling or eaſily engendring wind; but that of women, aſſes, or mares, will never curdle into any hard ſubſtance, raw; the other is to be ſeaſoned with ſalt, ſugar, or hony, ab­ſtaining from wine, or foure things after it, eating it upon an empty ſtomach, and faſting an houre after it, abſtaining from exerciſe, and ſleep, after that of beaſts chewing the cud, and cleanſing the teeth after it it's beſt for children, and old men, in the maraſinus, atrophie, and phthiſick, and the camels for the firſt, the womans for the ſecond, and aſſes for the third, being of a middle age, kept cleane, fed with grinded malt and a little fennel ſeed, then drink the milk morning and evening with ſugar of roſes, alſo ſhee is to be kept in fine leaze, or with good hay in winter, and red cowes milk may be the ſubſtitute, ſo fed: alſo milk is in active qualities, temperate, inclining to cold, in the paſſive moiſt by the fat and watry ſubſtance, thickning by the cheeſy, abſterſive by the ſerous, and aſſwaging by the butyrous quality, and the beſt is ſoon turned into blood, and fattens the healthfull and clean, but is ſoon ſoured in cold ſtomacks, aduſt in the chollerick, and ſwels the ſtomach and guts. The whey, as to its aqueous ſub­ſtance and phlegmatick, doth refrigerate and moiſten; and cleanſeth as to that which is ſharp, ſalt, and bilious. The but­ter, helpeth the breaſt and lungs, bringeth forth ſpittle, hel­peth hot and dry coughs; if taken much, it looſeneth the belly, and hath a faculty of digeſting, diſcuſſing, concocting, and gently evacuating; but if old, it groweth acrimonious: alſo butter is hot and moiſt 1°, and almoſt of the ſame na­ture, as oile of ripe olivers; but it's more moiſt than hot; the ſtale is hotter and thinner; and the new, almoſt temperate in the active qualities, it nouriſheth and fattens; if too much uſed, it looſens, hurts retention of the ſtomach, takes away the appetite, and begets a naufeouſneſſe, and it's therefore to be avoided by thoſe who are ſubject to looſeneſſe, as alſo by men of hot complexions, who turn it into choller; it is to be eaten firſt, it quickly deſcending into the belly, and making way for other meats; but if it be eaten laſt, it looſens the ſtomach, and hinders the orifice from embracing the meat, and cloſing up, haſtning meat into the belly before it be con­cocted, it's rheumatick, and eaſily converted into oily fumes, hurtfull to the throat and head, and fluxes of blood, humours, or ſperme, and it's rather to be uſed as ſawce and phyſick, than as meat to feed upon: it's beſt at breakfaſt, tollerable at the beginning of dinner; but no way good at ſupper, it hin­dring ſleep, and ſending up unpleaſant vapours to annoy the brain; it is alſo beſt for children whileſt they are growing, and for old men decaying; but unwholſome betwixt thoſe two ages, hot ſtomachs turning it into choller, and the weak not concocting it, it floating in the ſtomach; the fatteſt is made of ſheeps milk the ſtrongeſt of goats milk, and the beſt and moſt of cowes milk, of which ſee more afterwards. The creame, which is either the flower of raw milke taken from it without fire, after it hath ſtood in a cold place; or the other, from it, when ſod, or clouted creame; the firſt of which though pleaſant, yet weakeneth concoction, hindereth retention, and is of harder digeſtion than any milk; the laſt, uſed in tarts, fooles and cuſtards, is leſſe offenſive, and of better nouriſhment; but it's to be eaten firſt, it being light and unctuous: ſome count the former, to be like butter, and to agree with it in vertues and qualitie; the other is of thick juyce, & helps hot de­fluxions, and watching. The curds, which are freſh, with­out ſalt or runnet, or the other, with the one or both, are both utterly unwholſome when of skimmed milke, clamming the ſtomach, ſtopping the veines and paſſages, ſpeedily bree­ding the ſtone, and many miſchiefes; but if they be equally mixed with the butteriſh part, the cheeſe made thereof is wholſome; except age, or ill ordering hath done hurt. The cheeſe if new, ſweet and freſh, nouriſheth much; the middle aged nouriſheth ſtrongly; but the old and dry hurteth dangerouſly, it ſtopping ſiege, obſtructing the liver, cauſing the ſtone, choller, and melancholy, lying long in the ſtomach undigeſted, procuring thirſt, making a ſtinking breath, and a ſcurvy skin; ſo that no more thereof is to be eaten, than to cloſe up the mouth of the ſtomach after meat, though the freſh may be eaten more liberally of: as to the Differences, the good is neither too ſoft or hard, cloſe or ſpongy, clammy or crumbling, ſalt or unſavory, dry or weeping, pleaſantly or ſtrongly ſmelling, eaſily melting in the mouth, and never burning when toſted at the fire; Alſo that of ewes milke is ſooneſt digeſted, that of cowes more nouriſhing, and the goats moſt, when new and ſoft; for it ſoon becomes dry, earthy, and crumbling the beſt is counted that of Banbury, & Cheſhire, & the Holland cheeſe with ſalt. Alſo the old is hot and acrimo­nious: when new; cold, moiſt, more windie, leſſe provoking thirſt and binding, making fat, helping the stomach, eaſily di­ſtributed, yet hard of digeſtion, cauſing the ſtone, &c. the ſtin­king is worſt; the ſharp and ſalt is hot and dry, and cauſeth thirſt and evil juyce; the ſower is of evil juyce and cold, the ſweet and fat is moderately hot, and more nouriſhing and of better juyce; and the lean is farre worſe, the laxe is better than the cloſe, and the friable bad. As for medicine, the carnoſe parts, as alſo the creatures themſelves uſed alive or divided, and hot, applied to any member, have a fomentative vertue, paregorick, and diſcutient, and ſo are of great uſe in the phrenſey, headach, and watching; and they may be applied to the head, neck, and ſoles of the feet; applied to pestilent tu­mours, and ſtinging of poyſonſome animals, after ventoſes, they draw out the poyſon, defend gallings by the ſhooes from inflammation; and more particularly, every part reſpects its like; as the liver, the liver; and ſpleen, the ſpleen &c. The hornes, are cold & dry, diſcuſſe, incide for the most part, cauſe ſweat, and are alexpharmick, according to the various nature af animals. The bones, dry, diſcuſſe, bind, or ſtop fluxions, & ſtrengthen the bones and ligaments; thoſe of the heele burnt, help the collick, &c. The gall, heateth, dryeth, incideth, clen­ſeth, ſtimulats the expulſive faculty, kills wormes, applied it helps dimneſſe and ſpots of the eyes, and purulent eares, and they differ according to the nature of the aliment and animal: amongſt thoſe of quadrupeds, the bulls is the chiefeſt, that of partridges and hens amongſt birds; and generally thoſe of birds are ſtronger, than of the terreſtrials. The blood, heateth, bindeth, ſtops fluxes of bloud, more or leſſe according to the various nature of animals, and nutriment; that of birds, being for the moſt part nitrous, doth incide, cleanſe, break the ſtone, and help ſuffuſions of the eyes, as that of the pigeon, kite, and vulture: alſo bloud is hard of digeſtion, moiſt, and excrementitious; that of geeſe, ſwans, hoggs, and ſheepe, is uſed in ſawce and puddings, but it's a groſſe and fulſome nouriſhment, except meeting with a ſtrong and good ſtomach. The tallow, is hot and moiſt moderately, or 1°. mollifyeth, diſ­cuſseth, and ſomewhat bindeth. The ſiege, is according to the nature of the aliment and animal, which by the chylifick ver­tue is altered; the excrements of birds, (being of a moſt hot na­ture,) are altogether nitrous, and therefore have a woonder­full ſtrength, to diſcuſſe, incide, attenuate, diſſolve, open, and cleanſe the ſpots of the skin; but diverſly, according to the di­verſity of birds and their aliments: thoſe of labouring beaſts, are anodyne, refrigerant, diſcutient, and are uſed both in­wardly and outwardly. The urin, is the colamen of chyle and blood, conſiſting of ſalt and a viſcous earth, mixed with phleg­matick humidity; it heats, dryeth, cleanſeth, reſiſteth putrifa­ction, and expels urin, &c. The rennet, even all, is of a ſharp and digeſtive faculty, and drying.

2. Of Birds, thoſe moſt familiar unto us, are the tame, as the cock, hen, capon, chicken, turkey, peacock, gooſe, guiny-hens, duck, and pigeous: Amongſt the wild; feeding chiefely upon the land, are, the biſtard, crane, heronſhaws, bittors, ſtork, pheaſant, heath-cock, partridg, plover, lapwing, cuckoe, pye, crow, woodcock, railes, redſhanks, gluts, woodſnites, godwits, ſmiring, turtles, ſtock-doves, rock-doves, ring-doves, jays, wood peckers, ſtone-chatters, thruſhes, mavis, feldefares, black-birds, ſtares, quailes, and all ſorts of little birds, as ſparrows, reed-ſparrows, larks, bulfinches, goldfinches, thiſtle-finches, citron-finches, bramblings, linnets, nightingals, buntings, waggetailes, robin-redbreaſts, wrens, witwalls, ſiskens, ox-eyes, creepers, titmiſe, titlings, ſwal­lows, and martlets: Others in or upon the waters, as the ſwan, bergander, barnicle, wild-geeſe, wild-duck, teale, widgin, fly-duck, ſhovelars, cormorant, curlnes, gulls, black-gulls, ſea-mews, coots, water railes, ſea-pies, pufins, plovers, ſheldrakes, moor-cocks and moore-hens, dobchicks, water-crows, kingfiſhers, and water-ſnites, &c. of which ſee more afterwards. Amongſt theſe, ſome are of a thin and light Subſtance, as chickens, young pheaſants, partridg, heath poulſe, godwitts, all ſmall birds when young, wings and livers of hens chickens and partridges, and their warme egges; others are more groſſe, and ſtrong, as geeſe and ſwans; others are of a midle ſubſtance, as hens, ca­pons, turkeyes, and houſe-doves. The Temperature, of ſome is hot, as of the goſling, partridg, quaile, thruſh, in the firſt degree; in the ſecond, the turkie, peacock, pigeon, duck, & turtle; others are colder than the former; ſome are moiſt in the ſecond degree, as the turkie, young pigeon, ducks, & young quailes; others dry, as the peacock, and heath-cock in the first degree; in the ſecond, the partridg, turtle, thruſh, and blackbirds, &c. others are temperate, as a young pullet, crowing cockrel, grown capon, hens egges poched, and all ſmall birds when young. As to the taſte, they are diverſe. The preparation after feeding with good meat as often as they deſire it, in a ſpa­cious place, and rightly killed, garbelled, and pulled, must be by boyling, rosting, or baking, &c. according to the aforeſaid rules, about beasts. In reſpect of age, the young are moſt moiſt tender and excrementitious, and the old more tough heavy lean and dry, and the full grown beſt. As to the ſexe, the males are more ſtrong, dry, and heavy of digestion, and the females are ſweeter moiſter and more eaſily concocted; but the kerned are of a better nature. According to their feeding, thoſe that feed themſelves abroad fat with wholſome meat, are of better nouriſhment, than ſuch as are cram'd in a coop: and thoſe that live in moiſt and mooriſh places, have a more moist and ex­crementitious fleſh, and harder of digeſtion; thoſe that feed upon mountaines, have dryer fleſh, more eaſily concocted, and void of excrements; the fleſh of the tame nouriſheth more than that of the wild, and roſted or fryed they are dryer than boyled: Alſo the purer their meat is, the better they are themſelves; and thoſe that feed upon fleſh and garbage, are not ſo wholſome as thoſe that feed upon corne, bents, and ſeeds, thoſe that feed upon wormes and fiſhes at the ſides of the water are worſe; and ſuch as eate ſerpents, and ſpiders, &c. the worst, yet, may be more medicinable, and thoſe taken by flight are preferred; and thoſe that have the whitest fleſh are of eaſiest digeſtion, the red fleſhed are of ſtrongest nouriſhment; and that which is of black fleſh, is hardly digeſted, and of ſlow nouriſhment, and ſo much the worſe, by how much the fleſh and skin is blacker. As for the Parts of birds. The combs of cocks, ſome reckon amongſt meats, and they are counted aphrodiſiaſtick. The wings are of good juyce and eaſy concoction, their crude ſuperfluous humi­dity being conſumed by exerciſe; the Pinions are of like diſpo­ſition with the feet of beaſts; yet thoſe of geeſe, hens, capons, and chickens are of good nouriſhment. The rump which is most fleſhy and fat in thoſe that have ſhort leggs, doth often cauſe nauſeouſnes, they are correſpondent to the rumps of beaſts, having kernels, and cloying the stomach. The brain is more dry and hard, than that of quadrupeds, and that of mountain birds better than the other of ſuch as live about fens and fields; that of cocks, partridges, and pheſants is moſt ſweet, and that of ſparrows and pigeons is venerious; but none are abſolutely commendable, except of ſuch foul as are temperate, as cocks, chickens, capons, pullets, partridges, and pheaſants; alſo thoſe of roſted wood-cocks, ſnites, black birds, and all ſmall birds, are counted wholſome; but thoſe of great birds, water-foule, pigeons, and all ſorts of wild doves are counted bad; yet thoſe of quailes help the epilepſy, and the cranes the hemorrhoids. The neck is hurtful to the eyes by reaſon of blood coagulated there, yet ſome ſay, ala mala, coxa noxa, crura dura, cropium dubium, collum bonum. The tongue, the more muſculous it is, the better, and that of geeſe cauſeth luste; but thoſe of birds, are generally very dry, hard, and griſtly, except thoſe of parrets. The heart is of a fibrous and hard ſubstance, hardly concocted and diſtributed, and of­ten eaten, it cauſeth melancholick blood, & it nouriſheth little, except overcome. The lungs are eaſily concocted by reaſon of their rarity, and nouriſh little. The ventricle, which for the most part is carnoſe and callous, is moſt ſweet in geeſe, that of hens is more fleſhy than callous. The inteſtine, of ſome is uſed, as the larks, wood-cocks, and ſuites, when freſh. The liver is hot and moiſt, ſutable to our heat, that of geeſe is very nouriſhing; thoſe of tame foule, as hens, capons, chickens, ducklings, and geeſe, fatted with wholeſome meat, pleaſe the taste, clear the eye-ſight, agree with the ſtomach, and in­creaſe blood; thoſe of cranes ſod in the broth of cicers, aſſwage the pain of the back and kidnies, but they are of ſmall and bad nouriſhment; thoſe of larks & ſuites are very ſweet & reſtorative, as alſo of the wood-kock, which hath the greateſt in pro­portion of all other birds. The teſticles, which are beſt in cocks fed with a ſeroſe meat, steeped in milk, are deſired by the delicate, as promoters of luſt, and ſome ſay, that being kept from the hens, they will every day adde ſo much fleſh to the body, as the ſtones themſelves are in weight; ſome attribute the ſame to thoſe of ſparrows, pheaſants and partridges. The feet, having but little fleſh, nouriſh but little; and having nerves and tendons concoct difficultly, thoſe of geeſe are counted reſtorative. The skin of thoſe that are fat, is ſweet, but of little nutriment, and hard concoction, but that of the loines of cocks is moſt ſweet; that of the neck, if rugous and fat, is better boiled than ro­ſted; yet the skin of no bird turneth to nouriſhment, but rather to ill humours, or filthy excrements, and ſome birds are ſodden or roſted without them, being black or bitter, as rookes, daws, coots, and moore hens. The marrow of the back, is of the ſame vertue, as the brain, but ſomewhat harder; that of the bones is more pleaſant and fat, but being leberally eaten, it cauſeth nauſeouſneſſe. The fat, moderately taken with ſalt, nouriſheth a little but not well, yet pleaſantly; it deſtroyes ap­petite, wine being drunk after it, the ventricle being made ſmooth, and the wrinkles taken away; but that of little birds and ſmall chickens, is not amiſſe, being ſoone overcome, but of ſuch the lean is best. The kernels are counted reſtorative. The egges conſiſt of a yolk and white, that is eaſily inflamed and turned into fumes; but this is cold, glutinous, begetteth ill blood, and is hardly concocted, but together they generally agree with all ſtomacks: the beſt are thoſe of hens, partridges, and pheaſants, being of the young and fat trodden by the cock, new, white and long, ſuch nouriſhing quickly, plentifully, clearing the voice and breast, & strengthing the stomach, helping con­ſumptions, and increaſing nature; & are beſt in the winter, & morning eaten alone, they otherwiſe corrupting; and hurt chil­dren and old men, but are good for temperate young perſons, in fluxes, ſharp humours, and weakneſſe; others are of a bad re­liſh, and ſtrong ſavour, and worſe, as of ducks, geeſe and pea­cocks, and of all water-foul, and the paler, being more aqueous; the trembling are of much nouriſhment, good juyce, eaſy con­coction and distribution, and generate good blood; the ſorbile nouriſh leſſe, and help aſperity; the boiled are hardly con­cocted, paſſe ſlowly, and yeeld thick aliment; the roſted are groſſer, and worſe if covered with aſhes, but better on the coles, and ſod in water; if tryed, they become nidorous, corrupt other meat, and cauſe thick juyce; and the poch't are beſt for hot cōplexions. As for their uſe in medicine, ſee the proper places.

3. Of Fiſhes thoſe we feed on