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A New Method of CRYPTOGRAPHY, Humbly preſented to The Moſt SERENE MAJESTY OF CHARLES the II.

By SAMƲEL MORLAND Knight and Baronet, and one of the Gentlemen of His MAJESTIE'S Privy Chamber in Ordinary. 1666.

THE two Correſpondents having provided themſelves with a ſufficient number of printed Papers delineated and ſhadow'd conveniently for the purpoſe:

1. They muſt firſt of all by a mutual conſent, compleat their Numerical Alphabet and Clavis Ʋniver­ſalis, in like manner as is done Page 5. placing in the Numerical Alphabet what Letters they pleaſe, (ſome Capitall, others ſmall) from an Unite to 34. and tranſpoſing the Numbers contained in each Marginal Number of the Clavis Univerſalis, in any broken Order whatſoever, each of them reſerving a Copy.

2. They muſt agree in what kind of Figure to write to each other; For by thoſe few Schemes, Page 2, & 3. it is e­vident, that the various Figures, in which any Writing of a conſiderable length may be inſcribed, are very numerous.

3. They are to reſolve what Number of Nulls they will either prefix, adjoyn, or intermingle with that Writing; and where thoſe Nulls ſhall be placed.

4. It is neceſſary to be concluded, whether they will tranſcribe what they intend to Conceal, in Upright Columns, or elſe by way of Diagonalls, or otherwiſe? as likewiſe whether the Tranſcription ſhall be aſcending, deſcending, Alternate, or Retrograde?

An Example or two will clear all Doubts.

Let A. and B. be Two Correſpondents:

  • 1. Let their Numerical Alphabet, and Clavis Univerſalis, be the ſame with that Pag. 5.
  • 2. Let it be agreed between them, to write to each other in a Parallelogram, ſuch as is Pag. 2. Fig. I.
  • 3. Let the Number of Nulls before the Writing be evermore 3, and after the Writing 4.
  • 4. Let the way of Tranſcription be in Upright Columnes, and deſcending.

This done, A. writes to B. the following words: viz. This Way of Writing is of all other the most facil and expeditious, as well to unlock, as to conceale.

The Method of Hiding.

That is to ſay,

  • Firſt, He inſcribes it in one of the printed Papers delineated and ready for the purpoſe, as Page 2. Fig. I. onely every other Word (or thereabouts) he begins with a Capital Letter, for the eaſe of B. in Diſcovering.
  • 2. Then he findes by the ſmall Figures over the Parallelogram, that his Writing has advanced 9 Columnes.
  • 3. Therefore he ſeeks for 9 in the Margent of the Clavis Ʋniverſalis, and in the ſame Row findes (6, 5, 9, 1, 4, 7, 2, 8, 3.) which he places in the void Squares over the ſaid 9 Columnes.
  • 4. This done, he takes the Paper in which he intends to write, and according to the Agreement aforeſaid, prefix 3 Nulls, viz. (s t l) After that, to let his Correſpondent know, that there are juſt 9 Columnes in the Writing, he puts down (N) which by the Numerical Alphabet ſignifies 9. and next to that, another (N) to ſignifie that there are juſt 9 Lines; As likewiſe the following Letter (d) to notifie, that there are 2 Nulls to compleat the Figure; and the next Letter to that, viz. (n) that there are 4 Nulls at the latter end.
  • 5. Laſtly, He tranſcribes all the Columnes, beginning firſt with that which is (1,) and to that adjoyns the Co­lumn over which is (2,) and ſo to the end; to which he addes 4 Nulls, and ſends the Writing to B. thus:s t l N N, d n s t l e l i e c c y g t t s d o t s l f s e F x s, U o d W i l M a t l k, c h r f T c e s l o T W O r a p A n c a n o o n i l A a o i h t E u o t p i i a h i d w o n f o a k.

The Method of Diſcovering.

When B. receives this Writing, Firſt of all (according to the aforeſaid private Agreement) he cancells 3 Letters at the beginning, and 6 at the latter end, for Nulls; then he findes by the 4th and 5th Letters, viz. (N) and (N) that the Writing is compoſed of 9 Columnes, and does contain 9 Horizontall Lines.

Therefore he immediately repairs to his Clavis Univerſalis, and out of that, over the head of 9 Columnes of one of his printed Papers (delineated and ſhadow'd for the purpoſe) he tranſcribes the following Numbers, viz. (6, 5, 9, 1, 4, 7, 2, 8, 3.) and then, having divided the Writing by a Prick, Line, or any other Mark of Diſtincti­on between each 9 Letters, as is hereafter done, he inſcribes the firſt 9 Letters in that Column over which is the Figure (1) and the next 9 Letters in that Column over which is the Figure (2) and ſo on, till all the Co­lumnes be fill'd and compleated; (where is to be noted by the way, that He who writes, if he has written all his minde, and there yet remain any odde blanck Squares, he fills them, and thoſe Letters (ſuch as are (p d) in the2 Example) are always to be Nulls of courſe.) Which done, the Writing diſcovers it ſelf to be the very ſame with that Pag. 2. Fig. I. To which there are alſo adjoyn'd divers other different Figures, containing the ſame form of words.

*** N N] s t l e l i e c e] y g t s d o t s l] f s e F x s, Ʋ o d] W i l M a t l k, c] h r f T c e s L o] T W O r a p A n c] a n o o n i l A a] o i h t E U o t p] i i a h i d wn ****
[tables of cryptographical transcription]
Fig. I.
Fig. II.
Fig. III.
12           T
Fig. IV.
9        T        
Fig. V.
Fig. VI.
Fig. VII.
9        h        
Fig. VIII.
Fig. IX.

Of all the foregoing Methods, this laſt is the moſt intricate, and for ought I know, the moſt uſefull and (ſure I am) applicable to any Figure whatſoever.


Scriptio Cryptographica.

State cauti, cras horâ decimâ noctis venient hſtes, ut invadant Urbem

[Pentagonum Centrale Pentagonum Simplex: diagram of cryptographical pentagons
[Hexagonum Centrale Hexagonum Simplex: diagram of cryptographical hexagons
[Heptagoni Centralis Heptagonum Simplex: diagram of cryptographical heptagons

Various Methods of Tranſcribing the Words conteyn'd in Fig. I. Pag. 2.

The Firſt Method reads and tranſcribes the Writing (as before, Pag. 1.) in Upright Columnes, and deſcending according to the Numerical Alphabet, and the Clavis Ʋniverſalis.

s t l e l i e c c y g t s d o t s l f s e F x s U o d W i l M a t l k e h r f T c e s l o T W O r a p A n c a n o o n i l A a o i h t E u o t p i i a h i d w o n

The 2d Method reads and tranſcribes it in Upright Columnes, aſcending.

c c e i l e l t s l s t o d s t g y d o U s x F e s f e k l t a M l i W o l s e c T f r h c n A p a r O W T a A l i n o o n a p t u E t h i o n o w d i h a i i.

The 3d Method reads and tranſcribes it in Upright Columnes, deſcending and aſcending, alternately.

c t l e l i e c c l s t o d s t g y f s e F x s U o d e k l t a M l i W h r f T c e s l o c n A p a r O W T a n o o n i l A a p t o u E t h i o i i a h i d w o n.

The 4th Method reads and tranſcribes it in Ʋpright Columnes, aſcending and deſcending alternately.

c c e i l e l t s y g t s d o t s l d o U s x F e s f W i l M a t l k e o l s e c T f r h T W O r a p A n c a A l i n o o n a o i h t E u o t p n o w d i h a i i.

The 5th Method reads and tranſcribes it in Upright Columnes, and deſcending, (and that in their natural Order, as like­wiſe do all the following Methods!) not reſpecting the Numerical Alphabet, or Clavis Ʋniverſalis.

T W O r a p A n c h r f T c e s l o i i a h i d w o n s t l e l i e c c W i l M a t l k e a n o o n i l A a y g t s d o t s l o i h t E u o t p f s c F x s U o d.

The 6th Method reads and tranſcribes it in Upright Columnes, aſcending.

c n A p a r O W T o l s e c T f r h n o w d i h a i i c c e i l e l t s e k l t a M l i W a A l i n o o n a l s t o d s t g y p t o u E t h i o d o U s x F e s f.

The 7th Method reads and tranſcribes Fig. I. in Diagonal Lines, and deſcending, beginning with the firſt Letter [T] in the Dexter Poynt.

T h W i r O s i f r W t a T a a i l h c p y n i e i e A o g o M l d s n f i t o a i w l c s h s n t e o o e t d i l c n F E o l k c x u t A e s o s a U t l o p d.

The 8th Method reads and tranſcribes Fig. I. in Diagonal Lines, and aſcending, beginning with the the ſame Letter [T] in the Dexter Poynt of the Figure.

T W h O r i r f i s a T a t W p c h l i a A e i e l n y n s d l M o g o c i w i a o t i f o o e t n s h s n c l i d t e c k l o E F e A t u x a s o s l t U p o d.

The 9th Method reads and tranſcribes Fig. I. in Diagonal Lines deſcending, and aſcending alternately, from the ſame Letter [T.]

T h W O r i s i f r a T a t W a i l h c p A e i e l n y o g o M l d s n c l w i a o t i f s h s n t e o o n c l i d t e F E o l k c e A t u x s o s a l t U o p d.

The 10th Method reads and tranſcribes Fig. I. in Diagonal Lines, aſcending and deſcending alternately, from the ſame Letter [T.]

T W h i r O r f i s W t a T a p c h l i a y n l e i e A n s d l M o g o f i t o a i w l c o o e t n s h s e t d i l c n c k l o E F x u t A e a s o s U t l p o d.

By theſe few Methods of tranſcribing this firſt Figure, the Ingenious and learned Reader will eaſily perceive, that it may yet be read and tranſcribed in a very great number of other different wayes and Methods, and that without altering the Tranſpoſitions of the 9 Columnes. Now, if this firſt Figure afford ſuch variety of Tranſcriptions without new Tranſpoſitions, the other different Figures afford each of them as many more; And by the Clavis Univerſalis, Pag. 5. compoſed from the Table of Permutation, Pag. 7. it is evident, that every ſuch Figure containing but 9 Columnes, admits of no leſs than Three Hundred Sixty two Thouſand, eight Hundred and eighty different Tran­ſpoſitions; And others of them, as Fig. VI. and VII. containing 18 Columnes, admit of Six Thouſand four Hun­dred and two Millions of Millions, of different Tranſpoſitions; More by Three Hundred ſeventy three Thouſand, ſeven Hundred and five Millions; More by Seven Hundred twenty and eight Thouſand; And there being in the Writing 81 Letters, they make an Oblong containing 27 Columnes and three Lines; And conſequently ſuch a Figure will admit of 10888869450418352160768000000 diſtinct Tranſpoſitions.

But foraſmuch as Examples edifie the Reader much better than bare Words, I have in the 6th Page inſerted a longer Writing than the former, in a plain Parallelogram, conſiſting of 34 Upright Columnes, and containing 20 Lines, excepting onely 2 Nulls at the latter end to compleat the Figure.


The Words of the Writing are in French, viz.

Entre les plus belles & admirables Inventions qu' ait jamais produit l'eſprit de l'homme, ſans doute que celle des Chyffres n'y tient pas le dernier lien, puiſque par ſon moyen nous traueſtiſſons nos penſées, & les deſguiſons en ſorte, qu'elles paſſent inconnuës dans les Pays Ennemis, & ſont quelque fois mieux venuës, en Pays de cognoiſſance, & plus cherement accueillés de nos Amis, habillés à l'eſtrangere, & dans ce deſguiſement, que ſi elles y paroiſſoiens ſans Voile, & à la deſcouuerte. Et veritablement c'eſt une raiſon qui la doit faire beaucoup eſtimer, comme ſçauent aſſez tous ceux qui font profeſſion de gouuerner en la Politique, commander en la Militaire, lesquels ſeroient en dainger de voir ſouuent leurs deſſeins trahis par l'infidelité d'un Meſſager, & leurs penſées deſcouuertes par la ſurpriſe de leurs Ennemis.
[tables of cryptographical numerical alphabet]
The Numerical Alphabet.
[table of cryptographical key, the clavis universalis]

Thus is written, what is to be hidden.

[table of cryptographical transcription]
2tos,u 'jmipoutEpidl'2

Thus, by a bare Tranſpoſition (together with a few Nulls,) is hidden, what is above written.

a E C q p s s, s i r o t i A u a r a é s B m e n e n e x e e e D a c o c i s e r e u 'n s u i s i p a ml s s f i l u M a A s p W X n p E k i n d s s s, n q n d s e ao r a r i c i d u e P s e n n c a y r L u d r i h P L E t o i o s c q ſ s e a m u e a L u i e e p c l s t y u e e l o n e s a e s e s n h T M e n l s o D S e a C l e, u l u s b s h u e P & d l e i V t s u M D r e E a d l u, n u 'u E A r s e i a n e a a s e n i m e y D o u a A g n e c u P e e t r s a s l s s d s le e t t o q s r e r e a Q i s ſ s V r s s e i o f o e e r, p & o l e o q E s t t e u u ç o d D r r D e r ff p s s o C i d s r a e r l v i D n v e n' o & t u o e c n b B u E i S d o s r n e, t n s n s c i i V t u 'Q l q t d' e l q a a o u ë o & h e i' e e i t e e n p l t o D r n n i s l t, à n m t e, e D s a l i u e t o P e e à i s s m e m n i & r i t e i o l m a u g a e D n G n g s n u I t e r e e t g s n i t r T e t i f s m l p y e n a s e l & s e f s e i e l' s n e l' y n l I e i N e t l e s n r o e u d m i d u N l e p c n P t a e e e n i e e s r e i s e, s ë n s l u Q S i n n t u e s a t r u e l u h é u a R r, r ù o s g u P i d e T o a m u i n & V i n u S s s l e s, S p n g u f e, s, s o C p u i u l U s t o m n e e n e n m u s n o x o s n é t u j u e a s s e c l q l e e P O r e a ſ l s e r i r a n m l' E c o m s m t n l i r l' s s s e i y e e r E o t o L e P s r s i r a é s n o e a o i i z n i o n e e p f g.

Thus, by the help of the Clavis Univerſalis, and Numerical Alphabet, a bare Tranſcription diſcovers what was hidden.

[table of cryptographical transcription]
2os,u 'ijmipoutEpidl'2

I Am not ignorant that there are ſome Virtuoſi of this Saeculum, who vainly perſwade others, and (I believe!) deceive themſelves, by pretending that they are able, by I know not what Analytick Art, to unfold all Myſte­ries of this nature whatſoever, and that no Secret can be made ſo to wander in any Paper-Labyrinth, But they will finde an Ariadnian Clue to trace it in, and fetch it out.

I muſt confeſs, as to the ordinary Methods of Cryptography, (vulgarly termed Writing in Cypher) where they are weakly contrived, or careleſly written, it's very poſſible, with much pains and induſtry, to gather the Contents; (I have often done it my ſelf, and ſeen it done by others!) But where a Cypher is dexterouſly compoſed, and made uſe of warily, There let any ſuch Pretender ſhew his ability in making the leaſt diſcovery, & erit mihi Magnus Apollo!) In the mean time, if he pleaſe, he may contemplate the following Reflections upon the foregoing Method.

  • 1. The foregoing Method is comparatively with others, wonderfully facil and practicable, foraſmuch as it re­quires very little more pains than a double Tranſcription of the Letter to be written, (which is no more than what all States-men do, whether they write in Cypher or no!) And to uncypher or open, one ſingle Tranſcription do's the Buſineſs.
  • 2. Let him conſider in how many Parallelograms, Triangles, and other mixt Figures, any Writing may be inſcribed.
  • 3. The various wayes, windings, and turnings by which any Writing may be tranſcribed out of any ſuch Figures.
  • 4. The many places each Line affords for inſcribing Nulls, beſides the beginning, and latter end; as likewiſe whole Columnes, which may, by a private accord, be reſerved.
  • 5. Into how many Millions of Millions, of Millions, of Millions, of Millions, of Millions, of diſtinct Orders, both the Numerical Alphabet, and Marginal Numbers of the Claſſis Univerſalis, may be tranſpoſed, as in the following Table; for an Explanation whereof, I refer the Reader to Clavius, Kircherus, and others.
[tables of various cryptographical permutations]
A Table of the various Permutations, or Tranſpoſitions of 34 different Letters, Numbers, or Things.

Learned Tacquet in his Arithmetick, lib. 5. c. 8. affirmes, That the Permutations of 24 Letters are ſo nume­rous, that a Thouſand Millions of able Clerks, in a Thouſand Millions of Years, (and that neither ſparing Dominicals or Feſtivals) were not able to tranſcribe them! And Guldinus aſſerts, That the Books which might be compiled of the variety of 23 Letters onely (accounting 500 Pages, or 1000 Faces to each Volumne, and 100 Lines to each Face, and 60 Letters to each Line, and not any two Words in any of thoſe Volumnes the ſame!) would do more than twice cover the whole Superficies of the Earth and Sea. Nay further, he ſeems to be of opinion, That the Paper of thoſe Volumnes, laid ſingly Sheet by Sheet, would cover the very Firmament. Now, if the Tranſpo­ſitions of 24 Letters be ſo numerous, what are thoſe of 34 (which are yet of greateſt uſe in this Method)? The laſt Sum of the foregoing Table is a Number conſiſting of 39 Places, and that for the bare Tranſpoſitions of 34 Let­ters or Numbers: But when each of thoſe ſhall come to be altered, intermingled with, and tranſformed by all the various Figures of Inſcription, Methods of Tranſcription, and Nulls; I am bold to aſſert, that the Sum. Tot. would be greater than that of Archimedes in his ΨΑΜΜΙΤΗΣ, whereby he would expreſs the Number of Sands, which would do more than fill the cavity of a Sphere equal to the Orb of the Fixed Stars, according to the dimenſions of the Coeleſtial Bodies determined by Ariſtarchus Samius.


To apply this more cloſely to the purpoſe, ſuppoſe the Writing, as it layes hid Page 6. were given to the ableſt Cryptograph-Analyst in the World, to open, or Uncypher; and grant that he knew, that it was written according to ſome of the Rules of the foregoing Method.

1. It is impoſſible for him to divine the Number of Nulls, or where they are placed.

2. It's as impoſſible (without being privy to the Numerical Alphabet) to know certainly how many Columnes, or how many Lines this Writing conſiſts of, or where thoſe Indicial Letters are placed.

3. Admit he ſhould (which is never to be imagined!) accidentally gueſs at the Number of Columnes, Lines, Nulls, and Indicial Letters; yet ſtill he is to ſeek in what Figure it is inſcribed, that is to ſay, whether in a Parallelo­gram, Triangle, Trapezium, Rhomboides, Polygon Simple, Polygon Central, or ſome other mixt Figure, or Figures?

4. Put caſe he knew that it was (as it is) in a Parallelogram; He is but little nearer his ends than before, unleſs he knew whether the Tranſcription were in Upright Columnes, or Diagonalls? And that Deſcending, Aſcending, or Retrograde? Or whether in Circular, Serpentine, or Horizontal Lines?

5. But imagin he had all theſe: As likewiſe that he knew in what Language it were written, (for that alſo is no ſmall Difficulty!) He has yet another Task, which is, to finde out the true Tranſpoſitions of theſe 34 Columnes, by often trying, and comparing Columnes with Columnes; where there are no leſs than 295288899039603018847618609643519999999 falſe wayes, and but onely one, which is exactly true. Now how any Mortal ſhould hope in all his life time, (were he ſure to live Quadrillions of Trillions, of Billions of Methuſalem's years!) to hit upon ſo many Heterogeneous Quaſita mentioned in the Premiſes, for which he has in a manner no Data, it cannot enter into my Underſtanding. And I leave the Ingenious Reader to Judge, whether the rolling of Sicyphus his Stone up the Hill, be not a Labour as likely to ſucceed as His? But if all this will not ſatisfie, Then let ſuch a Pretender give me leave to lead him yet a Step further, where he will quickly ſee, what falſe footing all his Zetetick and Analytick devices are like to finde upon theſe Steganographical Quickſands: And that it will be as eaſie for him to diſcover the way of an Eagle in the Ayre, and to mark out preciſely, where that ſubtil Element has been devided and cloſed up again; as to trace a Secret through all the turnings, windings, and dark Paſſages of ſo many Cryptographical Maeanders, Unleſs he work (and that moſt profoundly!) by the Black Art, or elſe an Angel from Heaven, in kindneſs, reveal it to him.

CRYPTOGRAPHIA CRYPTOGRAPHICA duplex, triplex, quadruplex, &c. in infinitum.

LET the Correſpondents A. and B. mutually agree, in all Matters of great importance, to write to each other by a Cryptographia Cryptographica Quadrupla, for which they have ſome private Mark. And ſuppoſe A. deſire to ſend B. the following Intelligence:

Sir, Look to your Self; for this Night your Perſon is to be ſeized, And the Caſtle to be deliverd up to the Enemy by your own Souldiers.

1. It is accorded between them, that whatſoever they write, muſt be inſcribed in 4 diſtinct Figures: the firſt whereof is to be a Rectangle Parallelogram, as Pag. 9. Fig. 1. The 2d Figure a Rhomboides, as Pag. 9. Fig. 2. The 3d a Rectangle Triangle, as Pag. 10. Fig. 3. And the 4th a Trapezium, as Pag. 10. Fig. 4.

2. Theſe 4 Figures are to be inſcribed, and read as follows:

The Firſt Figure is to be inſcribed in Horizontal Lines, and to be read in Upright Columnes, and deſcending (ac­cording to the foregoing Precept) by the Numerical Alphabet, and Clavis Univerſalis. The Second Figure is likewiſe to be inſcribed in Horizontal Lines, and to be read in Upright Columnes; that is to ſay, The firſt Upright Co­lumne of the Firſt Figure, makes the firſt Horizontal Line of the Second Figure. And ſo the ſecond Upright Co­lumne of the Firſt Figure, makes the ſecond Horizontal Line of the Second Figure; And ſo all the Columnes of the Firſt Figure is to be inſcribed into the Second Figure one after the other in their Order.

The Third Figure is to be inſcribed in Horizontal Lines, that is, The firſt Upright Columne of the Second Figure makes as many, or as few Horizontal Lines of the Third Figure, as it falls out to be longer or ſhorter, (beginning with the Vertex or Rectangle of the Third Figure.) Thus of (o r n u s e e) the firſt Letter (o) makes the firſt Horizontal Line of the Third Figure; and (r n u) make the ſecond; and (see) make a part of the Third, which (i r) the two firſt Letters of the ſecond Upright Columne of the Second Figure make good; And the fol­lowing Letters (s C D e o o s) make the fourth Horizontal Line; And ſo on, till the Third Figure be fully compleated.

But now the Third Figure is to be read, (not in Upright Columnes, but) in Diagonal Lines, according to the follow­ing Method, That is to ſay, Beginning with the Diagonal Line (r b e t t n y, &c.) from Numb. (1) under the Hypo­tenuſe of the Figure; And ſo aſcending to the Letter (o) at the Vertex, and from thence deſcending to (a) which anſwers to Numb. (2); Then again beginning with the Letters (n n e e t y, &c.) of the Diagonal Line anſwering to Numb. (3) and aſcending to (n) in the Angle, and from thence deſcending to the Letter (i) which anſwers to Numb. (4). Then repeating the ſame Thing from Numb. (5) to Numb. (6), Then from Numb. (7) to Numb. (8); And ſo on, till the Figure be as it were wound off to nothing.


The Fourth and laſt Figure is to be inſcribed in Alternate Diagonals, Thus, namely of the Letters [r b e u t n y s s r o] of the firſt Diagonal Line of the third Figure, A. places the firſt Letter [r] in the Dexter Poynt of the fourth Figure. Then, leaving the two next Squares voyd, he fills the third Diagonal with the 3 next Letters [b e u] After which he leaves another Diagonal voyd, and the fourth Diagonal he fills with the Letters [t n u s s] And ſo he proceeds, till the whole Writing be inſcribed.

This done, A. might fill the voyd Diagonals with Nulls; But ſuppoſing him to be in the Enemies Countrey, and fearing his Letter may fall into their hands, and he be conſtrained to open the Writing, he fills the voyd Diagonals with another Diſcourſe altogether different from the former, viz.

Dear Cozin, I do not a little wonder at your long ſilence, and am exceeding fearfull, that ſome accident has befallen you ſince your arrival.

After which Writing he puts ſix Nulls [p l s a d d] to fill up all. But of this more at large in the Method of Opening, or Diſcovering the forementioned Intelligence.

3. This fourth Figure is to be read in Ʋpright Columnes, according to the foregoing Method, by the Numerical Alphabet, and Clavis Ʋniverſalis, and ſo tranſcribed fairly, as it ought to be ſent to B. leaving onely room for 13 Letters at the beginning of the ſecond Line.

4. Of the 13 Letters at the beginning of the 2d Line (which are to ſerve for Indices, or Exponents!) the firſt three ſerve to expound the firſt Inſcription or Figure, the three next, the ſecond Figure; the three following ſerve for the third Figure, and the laſt three for the fourth: That is to ſay,

The firſt Letter [T] gives B. to underſtand, that the firſt Figure conſiſts of 10 Columnes; The next Letter [f], that there are in it juſt 11 Lines; The third Letter [d], that there are two Nulls to compleat the Figure.

The fourth, fifth, and ſixth Letters [k T s] let B. know, that the ſecond Figure has 20 Columnes, 10 Lines, and no Nulls to compleat it. For [s] and all other Letters that are not found in the Numerical Alphabet, may be uſed at pleaſure, to ſignifie Negatives; as here [s] ſignifies that there are no Nulls to compleat the ſecond Figure.

The ſeventh, eighth, and ninth ſignifie, that the Baſe of the third Figure contains 21 Places, the Lines there­of are eleven, and the Nulls to lengthen out the laſt Line eleven, viz. [s p k m d a s w x n a.]

The tenth, eleventh, and twelfth denote, that the Columnes of the fourth Figure are 27, the Lines 11, and the Nulls 3. viz. [n f n.] And the thirteenth and laſt Letter [G] ſerves to inform B. that there are 6 Nulls at the latter end of the Writing, as A. ſends it to him. All which may be ſeen by the reſpective Figures, in which are the 4 Tranſcriptions.

[tables of cryptographical transcription]
Fig. I. The Firſt Inſcription.
Fig. II. The Second Inſcription.
10         rioltl


Fig. III. The Third Inſcription.
11          o           
14589121316172021  1918151411107632
Fig. IV. The Fourth Inſcription.

The Writing, as it is ſent to B.

s e l r o n r F t o o s o t e n n n u m x r r k b e t c m l d r u i i s l o u b a n D e n l u e i n y A w y p c r i p a l H E u b r y I s T f d k T s p f f H f n G i n r e i i A l i d a p r e u o s o e t e t h r o d o i o e a t a u y n o d s h t t s o h y c o a t y e o n e e d T r n o y i r a n n r l n e C s d x D e C s d t t e A z l c t l a d a e r r n n S S v k f o c l l l o o a f l y u i A o g f s h s t i u a a d e g e E W A e f g e F o s s i e B S n m l o t o d e o n e t e a e n e W o L h d i e u m s p w o n k.

The Method of Diſcovering what is before, by a Quadruple Inſcription, hidden.

1. WHen B. receives the Writing, The firſt thing he do's, is to draw a Line under, or to put ſome other Mark of diſtinction upon the 13 firſt Letters of the 2d Line of the ſaid Writing, which he knows to be Indices of the 4 Figures.

2. That done, by the 10th and 11th of thoſe Letters, [H f] he marks with pricks, as here underneath is expreſt, the firſt Figure of Tranſcription, (which by the forementioned Accord, he knows to be a Trapezium!) And then tran­ſcribes the Writing into that Figure, till it be compleated; as it is, Pag. 10. Fig. 4. omitting onely a certain Num­ber of Nulls, which are eaſily known by the 13th and laſt of thoſe Indices, viz. [G]

3. In the next place, he daſhes out all the alternate Diagonal Lines of that Figure, commencing from the Letter [r] in the Dexter Poynt of the Figure excluſivè, which by the ſame private Agreement were deſtin'd for Nulls, (or at leaſt for Diſguiſes) And then tranſcribes the remainder into a Rectangle-Triangle, of whoſe Height and Hypotenuſe, the 7th and 8th Letters of the 2d Line of the Writing, are ſufficient Indices, onely a certain Number of Nulls, denoted by the 12th Index, viz. [n] are omitted.

In the 4th place, having, by the 4th and 5th Indices, with poynts or pricks, determined by limits, the 3d Figure of Tranſcription (which he knows is a Rhomboides) he fills and compleats it out of the Rectangle-Triangle, omit­ting onely ſo many Letters for Nulls, as [f] the 9th Letter of that 2d Line, indigates.


Laſtly, By the firſt, 2d, 3d, and 6th Letters, he determines and fills the 4th and laſt Figure of Tranſcription, (which was the firſt Figure of Inſcription) and conſequently he has before his eyes what he ſought for, which I do not believe the Underſtanding of any Mortal man were, by any other means than by being privy to the forementioned Accord, ever able to diſcover.

I have here underneath inſerted the Scheme of that firſt Figure of Tranſcription, (or 4th Figure of Inſcription,) that ſo by it, the Reader may plainly diſcern the manner of performing all the reſt.

[table of cryptographical transcription]
Fig. I. The First Tranſcription.
11  s  y      r
e r  o  e    eu  e i   
u y  t  l c   i      
o I  e  r r l i  ca    
s s  n  o  i      p    
o i  n  n    e l   l      
e n  n  r  a  i o  d      
t r  u  F  l  n u  ·       
e e  m    H  y  ·        
t i  x  o  E  A ·         

But foraſmuch as thoſe who write much in a Crytographical Method, have oft times occaſion to hide a Word, or ſhort Sentence, and not a whole Page, or Letter, I have thought it convenient (beſides thoſe Printed Papers which I have provided of all ſorts) to publiſh the Deſcription and Uſe of a ſmall portable, and low-priz'd Ma­china, very uſefull for that purpoſe.


THe lower part of the Inſtrument conſiſts of two Circular Plates, the one turning round on a Center within the other, And in that which turns there are 25 ſmall holes or Foramina at an equal diſtance. And both above, and beneath thoſe 25 foramina, there are 25 Letters, as Pag. 12. Fig. I.

The upper part or lid is a Circular Plate, the inner part whereof is curt away, and upon the inner Limbe thereof 25 Letters graved, and in it a ſmall hole or window. And thoſe 25 Letters in any broken Method whatſoever, (vid. Fig. II, III, IV, & V.) onely the two Correſpondents muſt have each of the ſame Alphabet, in the very ſame Order, Letter for Letter: For Example, let their Alphabet be this, viz. h q f r e i ſ d k s v l c t m y b x n w o z g a p.

The Uſe of this Machina.

Let the Correſpondents A. and B. agree,

1. That one of thoſe 25 Letters ſhall be their Key, ſuppoſe (m).

2. That a certain number of Nulls (ſuppoſe 3) ſhall be placed between the 3d and 4th Letter of the Writing, and another number of Nulls (viz. 4.) at the latter end.

Then, let A. write to B. theſe words:

Your Brother betrayes you.

The Method of Hiding.

Firſt, A. with the Digital Index (which is to be put on the third Finger of the Right hand, that ſo he may not be conſtrayn'd to lay down his Pen, at every motion, vid. Fig. VI. ) turns the Letter (m) which is the Key, under the Window.

2. He puts the ſmall end of the Digital Index into the foramen or hole under the Window, and turns about the move­able Plate, till the ſmall end of the Index ſtand over againſt the firſt Letter of what he is to hide, and the Letter that appears through the Window is (b), which he ſets down; This done, he puts the Index again under the Win­dow, and turns it over againſt the 2d Letter of the Writing, viz. (o), and then (f) appears, which he ſets down likewiſe; And thus he repeats the ſame thing till the Writing be finiſhed, only between the 3d and 4th Letters he intermingles 3 Nulls, viz. (p w x), and addes 4 Nulls, viz. (n p s o) at the end; And then the Writing ſtands thus, viz.

[table of cryptographical transcription]
You   rBrotherbetrayesyou    

Here by the way it is obſervable, that of this Writing, as it is hidden, the Letter (d) is thrice found; in one place it ſtands for u, in another for o, in a third for t. Thus l, for e and u; and ſ, for o and b; and t, for b and t. In fine, the nature of this Machina is ſuch, that in long Writing each Letter of the Alphabet may ſtand both for it ſelf and all the reſt, which makes the Intrigue a thouſand times more difficult, and leaves the Diſcoverer in infi­nite Doubts, and Uncertainties.

The Method of Diſcovering.

When B. receives this Writing, he immediately knows where the Nulls are, and cancells them; then placing the Key (m) in the Window of his Machina, he turns it about, till the firſt Letter of the Writing, as it is hid­den, viz. (b) appear through the Window, and look what Capital Letter in the Cover, anſwers to the ſmall end of his Index (which he is not to take out till he has obſerved!) That is the firſt Letter of the given Intelligence. Again, he puts the Poynt of his Index in the hole under the Window, and turns it about till the 2d Letter of the ſame Writing, viz. (f) appear, and That is the 2d Letter of the Intelligence; And this B. repeats, till the whole be diſcovered; and then it ſtands thus:

[table of cryptographical transcription]
you   rbrotherbetrayesyou    

AND THAT this Method may not appear to be leſs ſecure than the other, I ſhall, to ſatisfie the Reader's cu­rioſity, ſhew him how it may be hidden doubly, trebly, &c. in infinitum.

For Example,

Let the Writing ſingly hidden ſtand as underneath, and a 2d Key being foredetermined between them, ſuppoſe (p), A. places it under the Window, and then turns it about till the Poynt of the Index ſtand againſt the firſt Let­ter of the ſimply-hidden Writing, viz. (b), and in the Window appears (g), which he ſets down for (b): And thus for (f) he finds (b) and ſo to the end, putting between the 3d and 4th Letters 3 Nulls, and 4 at the latter end.

[table of cryptographical transcription]
bfd   ytzdtihkſqdymblnofl    

After this very manner may this alſo be hidden by a third and different Key, and Alphabet, For ſo is the Machina contrived, that any Alphabet may be inſcribed and ſhifted, at pleaſure, either in the moveable Plate, or the Cover, vid. Fig. 2d, 3d and 4th.

And for a clearer proof of what has been aſſerted, The very ſame Sentence which is here underneath, by the help of that Machina, concealed, is alſo expreſs'd Word for Word, and Letter for Letter; And which is moſt of all, without any Nulls or inſignificant Characters; To ſee, if there be any Artiſt in the World who is able, by any lawfull means, or certain Rules, to give the true Geneſis, and Analyſis of that, or any ſuch Cryptographical Writing; And to diſcover the Original Alphabet, of each reſpective Permutation, by determining the ſeveral Stations and Aſpects of the Literae Exemtiles, and their Nova Clavis; and from what Foramina they are to be turned on and off by the help of the Digital Index, and conſequently how each Superior Letter is ſignified by its Inferior, and no other.

[Fig: I Fig: II Fig: III Fig: IV Fig: V Fig: VI Inde•Digit•lis: diagrams of cryptographical machine
[Scriptio Steganographica.: tables of steganographical transcription]
Xlyut rxi, qbd
Iimilbygh gb rgwp
wzrgteqnf bwmnfz xm

Soli DEO Gloria

About this transcription

TextA new method of cryptography, humbly presented to the most serene Majesty of Charles the II. By Samuel Morland knight and baronet, and one of the gentlemen of his Majestie's privy chamber in ordinary. 1666
AuthorMorland, Samuel, Sir, 1625-1695..
Extent Approx. 44 KB of XML-encoded text transcribed from 7 1-bit group-IV TIFF page images.
SeriesEarly English books online.
Additional notes

(EEBO-TCP ; phase 2, no. A89320)

Transcribed from: (Early English Books Online ; image set 132557)

Images scanned from microfilm: (Early English books, 1641-1700 ; 2432:3)

About the source text

Bibliographic informationA new method of cryptography, humbly presented to the most serene Majesty of Charles the II. By Samuel Morland knight and baronet, and one of the gentlemen of his Majestie's privy chamber in ordinary. 1666 Morland, Samuel, Sir, 1625-1695.. 12 p. : ill. s.n.,[London :1666]. (Caption title.) (Imprint from Wing (CD-ROM edition).) (Reproduction of original in the Folger Shakespeare Library.)
  • Cryptography -- Early works to 1800.

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ImprintAnn Arbor, MI ; Oxford (UK) : 2012-10 (EEBO-TCP Phase 2).
  • DLPS A89320
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  • EEBO-CITATION 99899730
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  • VID 132557

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