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VOX TURTURIS vel COLUMBA ALBA ALBIONIS. THE VOICE OF THE TVRTLE, OR, ENGLANDS WHITE DOVE In the deluge of Diviſion, the ſecond time ſent forth from Gods Arke, to preſent a Peace-offering upon the Altar of Jehovah Shalom.

Humbly propoſing that divine direction, which the God of Peace hath revealed in his Word of truth, for determining Differences by an holy Ordinance of his owne Inſtitution, wherein himſelfe is the ſole Judge, Proverbs 16.33. Prov. 18.18.

Shewing how by this Divine way of Gods Judgement, not onely the great diffe­rences here in Church and State depending, may ſpeedily and happily be determi­ned with glory to God, Honour to the King, and happineſſe to the Kingdomes, but alſo all the greateſt Controverſies, both Civil and Sacred throughout Chriſten­dome may be Compoſed, the Effuſion of Blood prevented, Many Prophecies con­ducing to an univerſall Peace fulfilled, the happy uſe of this holy Ordinance made knowne, and the name of God thereby manifeſted, and magnified among all Nations, which by Cruelty and bloody Diviſion is Blaſphemed even among Heathens.

Per E.M. Arm. Chriſti ſervorum minimo minorem.

Should not a people enquire at their God? to the Law and the Teſtimony, if they ſpeake not according to this word, 'tis becauſe there is no light in them,

Iſa. 8.19, 20.

Hearken, and give eare to me, O my people, for a Law ſhall proceed from me, and I will bring forth my Judgement, for the light of the people.

Iſa. 51.4.

When I ſhall take a convenient time I will judge righteouſly, the earth, and all the Inhabitants thereof are diſſolved, but I will eſtabliſh the pillars.

Pſal. 75.2.3.

Per ſortem Deus ipſe in judicio ſedet. Sicut enim Deus per Jethronem conſulait ut cauſis levioribus ab a­liis judicibus dijudicatis difficiles Moyſis Cognitioni reſervaretur: Sic Deus inſtituit, ut quae nulla cujuſquam ingenii, vi & perſpicientia cauſa dignoſci poſſet, ad ſe per ſortim judicium deferretur

Cartw. in Proverbs 16.33.

LONDON, Printed for T.W. 1647.

To the Gentle, Judicious, religious Reader: The humble addreſſe of the harmleſſe Dove.

THis Dove, like that of Noah, at the firſt ſending forth found no reſt for the ſole of her foot, no place for her peace-offering; as in Meſech, and the tents of Kedar, whileſt the Dove perſwades, and pleads for peace; propoſed and preſſed an holy and happy way of peace; the Serpent prevented and perverted the progreſſe therof and preparation was made for war: She looked and laboured for peace, but there was no good and for the time of healing but behold trouble Jer. 14.19. The Land remained like a glaſſie ſea mingled with fire;Rev. 15.2. Every field of our Albyon ſo called quaſi Olbyon, becauſe happy and pleaſant, was become like that place called Armagedon (1) craftineſſe of deſtruction as it is interpreted, Rev. 16.16. The whole land over-ſpread with waters of Marah and Meribah of bitter ſtrife bloody diviſion; Waters like the fountaines on which the third Angell poured out his Vials and they became blood like the rivers of Egypt (which was their firſt plague) all turned into bloud or like that Sea on which the ſecond Angell poured his Vials of wrath ſo that it became as the bloud of a dead man and every living thing died therein Rev. 16.3.4. So deplorable was this deluge of deadly diſſentions,Exod. 7.20.21. that the Rod horſe and his rider who had power to take peace from the earth, and that they ſhould kill one another, &c. Rev. 6.4. may be ſaid to have run a race of ruine through this wretched Land; and foure of thoſe ſeven Angels which ſtood before God with ſeven trumpets, might ſeeme to have ſounded in theſe three ſor­rowfull Kingdomes Rev. 8. that ſeeming but a propheſie, the performance whereof is manifeſted in our unhappy Calamities: at the founding of the firſt of which An­gels trumpet, there followed haile and fire mingled with bloud which falling on the earth the third part of the trees and all green graſſe was burnt up; are not a third part of our trees our ſtrong men, our young men our proviſions and fruits of the earth conſumed? The two ſtaves of beauty and bonds are broken, mentioned Zech. the Bonds of unity and beauty of orderly government are broken, and we may feare the breach of the ſtaffe of bread comes marching towards us like Je­hu, furiouſly, fearfully. At the ſounding of the ſecond Angels Trumpet as it were a great mountain burning with fire, was caſt into the Sea, and part of the ſea he came bloud. and the third part of the living creatures which were in the ſea died, and the third part of the ſhips were deſtroyed. In this mare mortuum, and dead ſea of diſſentions, 'tis to be feared we have ſuffered ſhipwracke, of at leaſt the third part of our martiall men, Munition, and mony, the three ſinews of a State, beſides the decay of Trading and Merchandizing, &c. At the ſounding of the third Angel, there fell a great ſtar from heaven, burning as it were a lamp and it fell upon a third part of the rivers, and fountains of waters, and the name of the ſtar was called Wormwood, and the third part of the waters became wormwood, and many men died of the waters, becauſe they were made bitter: The Lord ha­ving permitted that grand Impoſtor the divell, a dangerous deceiver from the begin­ning, Lucifer in the ſhape of an Angell of light to mix wormwood with the fountaines of living waters the holy word of God; Many men by the wormwood of miſ-interpre­tation, and gall of miſapplication thereof, have ſo imbittered thoſe ſweet and plea­ſant waters that they are to too many become aquae mortis deſtructive and deadly; which in truth in themſelves are the cleere Aquae vitae waters of life quick­ning and reviving the drooping dying ſoule; At the ſounding of the fourth Angel, the third part of the Sun was ſmitten: Chriſt the Sun of righteouſneſſe obſcured by the pride and infidelity of men; the third part of the Moon, the Church; and the third part of the Stars the Miniſters and teachers; ſo as the third part of them was darkened; and the day was ſmitten, that it ſhone not, for a third part of it and the night likewiſe; the light of the Goſpell clouded by the night of blacke igno­rance. Alas!I. om. 4.1, 2. how is the gold become dim? how is the moſt fine gold changed? the ſtones of the Sanctuary are poured out are ſcattered in every place in every corner of every ſtreet. The ſons of Zion comparable to fine gold how are they eſteemed as earthen pitchers the worke of the hands of the potter? The Prince, the Peers, the Prieſts, all ſlandered and ſleighted, derided, deſpiſed deſtroyed. The whole Land is filled with bitterneſſe and made drunke with wormwood. Lam. 3.15. Iſa. 51.19, 20.The mighty have ſtumbled againſt the mighty, and both are fallen together. The whole body is ſicke, and the whole heart is heavy. The Lord hath taken his peace from this people, Jer. 16.5. From the crown of the head, to the ſole of the foot there is no whole part nothing but wound, and bruiſes and putrifying ſores, Iſa. 1.4 5 6. We may with griefe of ſoule heare Englands voyce on high (like the voice in Ra­ma. Rachel weeping and that bitterly not to be comforted for her caeildren be­cauſe they mere not) lamenting the invaluable loſſe of the flower of her Nobility,Jer. 4.31. Gentry and Commonalty in their bud of gallantry wallowing and weltring in duſt and bloud. Thus lofty Lucan;

Bella per Albinios pluſquam civilia Campos,
Juſquedatum ſceleri, canimus, populum potentem
In ſua victrici converſuviſcera dextra
Quis talia fando nefanda
Temperat a lacrimis?
En quô diſcordia triſtem,
Perduxit populum? funeſtos reddidit agros,
Vaſtavitquevias exhauſit civibus urbes.

So that it may be ſaid of England, what the faithleſſe, and therefore fearfull men, which were ſent to ſearch the Land of Canaan, reported thereof to Moyſes, 'tis〈◊〉Land that cateth up the Inhabitants thereof, Num. 13.33. And that which oughtot ſteightly to eſcape Chriſtian conſideration for the building of this Babell of bitter­neſſe continuing of theſe Babyloniſh broyles,Num. 14.17. theſe Contentions carrying us headlong on〈◊〉confuſion) the ſimple and ignorant multitude, as naturall bruits made to bee taken and deſtroyed, not knowing what they did, as ſilly ſheep led unto the ſlaughter, Pſal. 44. they were killed all day long, and accounted as ſheep appointed to bee ſlain; they were forced on both parts to tread morter, made and moyſtened with their owne bloud.

What heart not altogether adamantine, can doe leſſe, then take up the Prophet Jere­mies lamentation;Jer. 14.17. Let mine eyes run down with teares night and day, and let them not ceaſe:Lam. For the virgin, the daughter of Zion is broken with a great breach, with a very grievous blow. There is no healing of thy bruiſe, thy wound is grie­vous: all that heare the bruit of thee,Nahum. 3.19. will clap their hands over thee.

In this ſad and deplorable condition have theſe three Kingdomes now for a long ſea­ſon laine languiſhing: like an Oake cleft in ſhivers by wedges of its own body, like the mad Philiſtines, and as in the dayes of Midian, the Lord ſet every mans ſword upon his neighbour, Judges 7.22. And the people were as meat to the fire, no man ſpared his brother,Judges 7. Iſa. 9. Iſa. 9.19. What will ye doe now in the day of viſitation, and of deſtru­ction? to whom will ye flee for helpe? and where will ye leave your glory? to whom will yee ſeek, and of whom will ye take counſell? Iſa. 10.3.4. Gather to­gether on heaps,Iſa. 10. gird your ſelves, ye ſhall be broken in pieces; take counſell toge­ther, it ſhall be brought to nought, pronounce a decree, and it ſhall not ſtand, Iſa. 8.10. If ye will be ſafe, Then ſanctifie the Lord, let him be your feare, and let him be your dread,Iſa. 8.9, 10. and he ſhall be as a ſanctuary, &c. Bind up the teſtimony, ſeale up the Law; ſhould not a people inquire at their God? to the law, and to the te­ſtimony, if they goe not according to this word, there is no light in them. Iſa. 13.14 Is there no balme in Gilead? is no Phyſician there? Jer. 8 22. Pſal. 10.8, 9.The way of the Lord is an holy plain way, wherein the ignorant cannot erre, Iſa. 35.8.9. A ſtrait way wherein they ſhall not ſtumble. Ier. 31.9. vid. Deut. 17.8 9.15.

If the Lord have in his compleate Treaſury of truth revealed a Divine way for cu­ring our Contentions, and ſetling peace among the Mighty,God enjoynes ſtrict obſerva­tion of his ordinances, Deut., 9. to refuſe that pious perfect way, and rely on our owne humane powers or policies, is an argument either of igno­rance and blindneſſe, there is no light in us, or of pride or arrogance, that wee will not ſeeke after God, Pſal. 10.4. That we take counſell, but not of the Lord, and had need be­ware the woe that waites on all ſtubborne contemners of Gods counſells, Iſa. 30.

Obſerve the Lords gracious invitations and incouragements by language of love, to come and conſult with him, and he cured by his divine direction and preſcription; Come unto mee all weary and heavy laden, I will eaſe and refreſh you. Commit thy cauſe to the Lord he will bring forth thy judgement as the light;Pſa. 37.5, 6, 7.33. and thy righteouſneſſe as the day. Caſt thy burthen on the Lord &c. Aske of me things to come: ſtand in the waies, and behold, and aske for the old way, which is the good way,Iſa. 51. and walke therein, and ye ſhall find reſt to your ſoules. Jer. 6.16. There is none to guide thee, none to lead thee one of the mire of thy miſeries, none to take thee by the hand, of ad the ſonnes that thou haſt brought up. Mans extremi­ty, Gods op­portunity, Iſa. Eſa. 42.10, 11, 12.15, 16, 17, 18, Jer. 33.6.9. Eſa. This righteous branch may returne this Dove with an Olive Branch of Peace and truth, being ſent out with a proſperous ſeed of Peace, Zech. 8.12. The day pro­poſed in this Trtatiſe is a turning & ſeeking to God, conſulting with, inquiring of, relying and waiting on God in his, owne ordi­nance, all which are both commended &c commanded by God in his Word. Sors Intermen­tia divine pre­deſtinationis, non fortune fa­mula. Ogen. Homil. 23. in Joſh.Thy ſonnes lye in the heads of the ſtreets,〈◊〉as wild bull in a net: Heare now, miſerable and dranken, not with wine, but divi­ſion: Behold, I will take the cup of trembling out of thy hand. Hearken and give care to me, O my people: for a law ſhall proceed from me, and I will bring forth my judgement, for the light of my people. Behold, I will give them health and a­mendment: for I will cure them, and will reveale unto them the abundance of peace and truth: And it ſhall be to me, a name, a joy, a praiſe, and an honour, before all the nations of the earth, &c. Behold, the daies come, that I will performe the good thing which I have promiſed; I will cauſe the Branch of righteouſneſſe to grow, and he ſhall execute judgement, and righteouſneſſe in the Land. Jer. 33.14.15. I will raiſe up a righteous Branch, and a King ſhall reigne, and execute judgement and juſtice in the earth, Jer. 23 5, 6. The Lord is our judge, the Lord is our Law giver, the Lord is our King, he will ſave us, Iſa. 33.22. The Lord will not faile his people, nor forſake his Inheritance, for judgement ſhall returne to juſtice, and the upright in heart ſhall follow after it, Pſa 94.14 15. He ſhall not faile till he have ſet judgement in the earth, and the Iſles ſhall waire for his Law, Iſa. And againe, Iſa. 2.4. an univerſall peace is there prophecied to be performed by the Lords Judgement between the Nations. Swords to be beaten into mattocks and ſpeares into pruning hookes, and no more fighting; and in the preceding Prophece••t it is ſhewed that God by Chriſts judgement ſhall reſtore the ſtate and government of things to their right uſe and order.

What this Dove propoſeth and preſſeth, is no other, then that the determination of the great differences depending between his Majeſtie and the Parliament, might be referred to the Lords judgement by divine Lott, being an holy way originally inſtituted by God himſelfe to that peculiar end of ending Controverſies, as by Prov. 18.18. and many preſidents in holy writ, and the authority of Divines both ancient and moderns is plentifully proved. Neither is there any other way revealed in Gods word, whereby ſo apparent, and immediate a judgement may be ſaid to be given by God, as by this way of the divine Lott; And howſoever, by reaſon of the ignorance of ſome who know not, and therefore neither conceive, nor conſider the holineſſe and happineſſe of this divine way; The infidelity of others, who either doubting of the truth of Gods word, (or perhaps diſtruſting the juſtice of their owne cauſe) dare not truſt the judge­ment of God in the diſpoſition of the Lott; The arrogance and ſelfe conceited obſtina­cy of others who preferre their owne wiſdomes, counſells or wayes, before the judgement, Oracle, and ordinance of God: And becauſe of the ſelfe-ſeeking ends of others, who principally proſecuting thoſe deſignes which conduce to their owne private purpoſes, pro­fits and preferments, and ſo grow careleſſe of promoting Gods glory, and the Kingdomes peace, but rather protract it) Although I ſay, by reaſon of theſe Remoraes, this ſa­cred Ordinance, Judgement, and Decree of God, may want its due reſpect among the worldly wiſe (as the beſt and moſt divine matters and ordinances, which concerns Gods glory, and the peoples good, uſually meet with ſtrangeſt oppoſition) (the Devill and his agents labouring the prevention of all proceedings tending to that purpoſe) yet the harmleſſe Dove humbly deſires, that all true lovers of Gods glory, the Kings honourand the Kingdomes peace and happineſſe, would be pleaſed throughly to peruſe this Treatiſe (penned and publiſhed to no other end, then the glory of God, and peace of his people) and ſeriouſly to conſider the matters eſpecially thoſe Texts of holy truth there­in contained, and the happy effects which by the holy uſe of this ſacred Ordinance may be produced and then doubtleſſe they will confeſſe the uſe hereof in this Kingdomes caſe, to be not onely convenient, but neceſſary, and to be preferea before any way or meanes of humans deſignment, in theſe ſeven ſeverall reſpects.

  • 1. In reſpect of the glory of God which will hereby be more advanced not onely by committing of our doubtfull and difficult differences to his divine determination, making and taking God for our onely Judge, ſaying with Jehoſhaphat, and the men of Judah; Wee know not what to doe, but our eyes, hearts and hands,2. Chron. 20.12. are towards thee, but alſo by the juſt, holy, and happy Judgement which the Lord will give by his owne way of the divine Lott; Whereas if peace be procured by humane powers and policies, wee are apt to attribute moſt to the arme of fleſh, and ſacrifice to our own nets, and the Lords glory is too often layd aſide, as the Lord by his Prophet Jeremy com­plaines; Wherefore ſay my people,
    Jer. 1.31.
    we are Lords, we will come no more to thee?
  • 2. All motters in difference, both Sacred and Civill, in Church and State will be ſetled according to the will of Jeſus Chriſt, himſelfe being Judge, which will be more pleaſing to God profitable and ſatisfactory to men.
  • 3. The Kings Honour will be preſerved, and his mind better ſatisfied, being wonn by divine judgement willingly to conſent, not forcibly by Conqueſt and compulſion con­ſtrained to paſſe or ſigne Propoſitions.
  • 4. His Majesty will be more cleerely ſatisfied touching his juſt Rights and Pre­rogatives, being aſſured that the King of Kings, who is the primitive of all Princi­palities, by whom, and from whom all powers are ordained and derived, knowing what is juſtly due to Princes, will give to Caeſar, the things that are Caeſars, as to God the things that are Gods. And as concerning that party of the Nobility, Gen­try, and Comminalty, which adhered to his Majeſty in theſe unhappy warres their pu­niſhments both pecuniary and corporall touching their lives, liberties, and eſtates,
    Deut. Gods judge­ment by Lott will take off all aſperſion of cruelty and oppreſſion. Num. 15.34.35 Levit. 24.12.
    be­ing left to Divine diſpoſition, rather then humane deſignement, will be a way more phaſing to God, and more mercifull, pions, and ſatisfactory in the ſight of men. To this purpoſe you may pleaſe to peruſe the 2 Chron. 28. in a caſe of the like nature between Judah and Iſrael, where the Prophet Oded preſſeth for fraternall pitty and mercy to be ſhewed to the conquered brethren. And Num. 25.34. The man that gathered ſticks on the Sabbath day, and the ſonne of the Iſraelitiſh woman that blaſphemed, being convicted of their crimes, were not put to death, untill Moyſes had inquired of God, and received commiſſion from the great Judge of the world, for their execution.
  • 5. All futureewdes malice and reſolutions of revenge, which might remaine a­mong Families in generations to come, will be much mitigated if not cleans remitted, when the deſpoſition of the Lord, ſhall be diſcorned in diſpatch of the differences.
  • 6. All Vowes, Covenants and Oathes, made by either party in any matter of op­poſition one againſt the other, may by Gods judgement (declaring the illegality of the matter ſworns to be performed) be made voide, and not binding, which by no humane Lawes of diſpenſation could be diſcharged, freed, or made diſobliging to the〈◊〉of the Covenanters, &c.
  • 7. Diviſion and Effuſion of Blood, (deteſtable to God, damnable among men; To the Devill and his diſciples onely delightfull) will bee prevented and avoided,〈◊〉mindes touching all doubtfull and difficult differences more cleerly convinced, reſolved and ſatisfied by Gods owne immediate judgement (againſt which no honeſt godly Chriſtian will preſume to murmure, diſpute, or oppoſe;) And a pious, proſperous, ſ•••, firme, laſting, found and well-grounded Peace with Truth, by the Prince of Peace, who is our Peace, truly and perfectly eſtabliſhed. Which that the God of Peace by his bleſſed Sonne, on whoſe ſhoulders he hath ſet the government of Peace, with the aſſi­ſtance of his bleſſed Spirit of Peace, who is onely able, may pleaſe ſpeedily to performe, heartily prayeth, the unworthieſt of Gods ſervants, who is humbly
Thine alſo in Chriſt Jeſus, E.M.

The Contents of the enſuing Treatiſe.

  • CHAPTER I.OF the ſeverall acceptations, and derivation of the word Lott; of the diviſion, and diſtinctions of the ſeverall ſorts of Lots, And of the definitions and deſcriptions of Lotts; but eſpecially the Di­vine Lott, which is intended for the Subject of this Diſcourſe.
  • CHAP. II.Of the Perſons, places, times, manner and ſubject matter, by whom, where, when, how, and upon what occaſions, Lotts have been, may, are, or ought to be uſed.
  • CHAP. III.Of the manner how Divine Lotts may be applyed, and happily uſed for determining the great differences depending between His Majeſty and the Parliament; and alſo all other diſſentions fit to be decided by the Lords judgement by Lott, in Church and State (not onely in theſe Kingdomes, but alſo through­out Chriſtendome) may be compoſed and reconciled. And of the conveniency, equality and neceſſity of this Divine way, of concluding the Contentions of this Kingdome. Shewing alſo, how by the reviving of this Sacred way of Peace-making many Prophecies in holy writ may be fulfilled.


Page 6. line 4. for It, read the Feaſt of Purim. Pag. 26. l. 10. read before, next after mindes in the 11. line page 35. live 20. for Iizeh read Iireh. Some other faults are eſcaped, which the Reader in his diſcretion may reforme.


CHAP. I. Of the ſeverall acceptions of the word LOT.

THE various acception of the word Lot, as it hath produced ſeve­rall obſervations thereupon, ſo it hath met with many miſ-inter­pretations therof: for being in ſeverall Languages diverſly ta­ken, 'tis thereby of many much miſtaken: Likewiſe the uſe of Lets being ancient and ſacred, hath in all Ages bin frequent a­mong men of all ſorts: And having been ſo much in uſe, by mans corrupt and irreligious carriage hath bin ſubject to much abuſe: Neither ought that to ſeem ſtrange, ſeeing there is no creature of Gods, nor any ordinance, be it civill or Sacred, howſoever good and holy in it ſelfe, but receiveth ſome ſully, if not a deep tincture from the defiled fingers of the unlawfull and irreverent uſers thereof, from the foule hands of the illiterate, ignorant, or ungodly, and ſuperſtiti­ous abuſers thereof, or from the falſe and filthy tongues and pens of the cunning contemners and oppoſers, and ſubtil ſupplanters of it. Among ſuch hath the lot for a long time ſuffered, who for particular deſignes, and ends of their own, endea­vour the utter abolition of this ſacred Ordinance, and ſeek to ſmother and obſtruct the Sacred uſe thereof; They cry down Gods divine way of determining differences, to the end they may fiſh more freely in troubled waters, and advance their own co­vetous and ambitious purpoſes, plotts, and deſtructive devices.

The Latine word ſors, ſignifying in Engliſh a Lot, is often taken, or rather miſta­ken for Caſus, fortuna accident. Chance, fortune, accident, hazard, or the like; as, ſors objecit mihi fortem. Horat. And tuers ſortem quam fortuna dedit. Ovid. But this muſt needs be in an ignorant, heatheniſh, atheiſticall ſence; as the Phili­ſtims, 1 Sam. 6.9. their Prieſts and Southſayers, when they adviſe to ſend away the Acke, made them mark which way it went; if to Bethſhemeſh, then 'twas God that plagued them with deſtruction by Emerods; but if not, then it was a Chance that happened unto them. The wicked attribute almoſt all things to Fortune or Chance, whereas indeed there is nothing done without Gods providence and decree: Quod ſapientibus & piis ſingularis Dei providentia eſt, id inſipientibus & profanis fortuna dicitur, Downham, in Ram. Dial. l. c. 5. Ignorantia cauſarum confuxis for­tunam, Lactant. inſtit. lib. 3. c. 29. Folly, error and blindneſſe, and (as alſo Cicero confeſſeth in his Acad. quaeſt. l. 5.) the ignorance of cauſes brought in the name of Fortune; When the event of the Lot which is onely in Gods diſpoſall is attributed to Fortune, which in very truth is it ſelfe but a mere fiction. Sometimes 'tis2 taken for Conjecture, Divination, Southſaying, &c. but in a ſinfull and ſuperſtiti­ous ſence, as, iſta vetula ſcit multa de ſorte, That old wife or witch ſeemes to know many things by the conjecture, or by the ſuperſtitious uſe of Lots. Ovid ſtiles Lots, faticinae ſortes. And the Diviners, Southſayers, Fortune-tellers, and ſuperſti­tious abuſers of this Oracle are ſtiled fatidici. Darius pro ſortibus uſus oſt hinnitu equi, alii aſpectu ſolis exorientis, Pet. Mart. So the Lot ſometimes is taken for Deſti­ny, Fate, fatall neceſſity, myſterie. To facimus fortuna Deam coeloquelocamus, Ju­venal. Sometimes for poſſeſſion, property, or right in a thing: as, Hieruſalem fuit in ſorte Benjamin, Joſ. 18.28. Mic. 2.5. ſomtimes for Diviſion and parition of lands by Lot. Sometimes for ſucceſſion of time, either from the naturall Condition, or Di­vine diſpoſition there of, Cum dies abſceſſerit, noctemqueſors reduxerit. Sometimes 'tis termed capitale, the whole ſum in a common banke or ſtock, wherein many have part, a principall ſum of money borrowed, or laid out to uſury: Quicquid accipitur ulira ſortem, uſura eſt. Etiam de ſorte nunc venio in dubium. Terent. 'Tis alſo taken for a Prize, prey, booty, reward, had, obtained, given, or gained 1 For charge, office, ſtate, condition, any kind or courſe of life, and for whatſoever befalls a man in any ſtate, courſe, or condition of life, Iſa. 17.14. Iſa. 57.6. The event how­ever caſuall, in relation to the inſtrument, yet falleth out certainly this or that, by Gods wholly diſpoſing the inſtrument, 1 Sam. 14.41. Gratam ſortem habemus. O­vid. We are content with our ſtate or condition. Status ex diſpoſitione Dei pendens. Sorte tua contentus abito. Sorte tori gaudens Ovid. Rejoycing that ſhee was nobly married, for the ſoboles divinitùs data, the iſſue, off-ſpring, fruit of the body: Sa­turni ſors ego prima fui. Ovid. I was the firſt child that Saturn had. In marriage and children, good or bad ſucceſſe is ſometimes ſaid to be a Lot. Oftentimes 'tis ta­ken for the judgement, ſentence, and decree, whereby any thing is adjudged and aſſigned to any one: For the providence of God, the anſwer of God, the Oracle of God, ſo Martìnius. The vocation of the Elect here, and their right to glory here­after is ſaid to be their Lot, Epheſ. 1.4.5. Col. 1.12. Acts 1.16. Dan. 12.13. Thou ſhalt reſt and ſtand up in thy lot, at the end of the dayes. St. Auguſtine calls Pre­deſtination a Lot. In holy Writ wee find that Almighty God was Conſulted with, and anſwers thereupon returned by Lot. Thence even the very Heathen had an honourable eſteeme of this holy Oracle,Per ſacras quae­rere ſortes, O­vid. Met. lib. 1. Tibull. lib. 1. Ille ſacras puri ſortester ſuſtulit, Heathen Poets giving it the name of Sacred; ſhewing more re­verence to Gods Ordinance then Chriſtians doe in theſe times. Sometimes Lot is taken for the ſignum quo ſortimur, inſtrumentum, whereby the will of God is either lawfully or raſhly ſought out. The Divinatorii calculi, the ſignes, notes, or inſtru­ments by which Lottery is uſed and executed, whether beans, ſtones, barks, bran­ches, gold, ſilver, wax, clay, paper, parchment, or the like, whereof the Lots are made,Aret. de ſorte. and are termed in Greek〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, ſors, Lot, as Prov. 16.33. The lot is caſt in­to the lap, &c. Sometimes for the event, as, give a perfect lot, ô Lord. 1 Sam. 14.42.

Alſo the res ipſa,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the ſubject matter of the Lottery, as the inheritance to be divided, is termed a Lot. Alſo〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, poſſeſſie quicquid cuiqueſortitò obveniſſet, Whatſoever is given to any one by Lot, is termed〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉


In the Hebrew language a Lot is called, and that moſt properly〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Ghoral by which word they expreſſe the inheritance, place, and portion, which by divine diſpoſition is aſſigned to any or every one;Dict-a〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 Of the ſame ſignification is〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Na­chalah, hareditas, cu ſors haereditaria: according to this ſence is Davids expreſſi­on, the Lot is fallen to me in a faire ground, I have a goodly heritage. In this ſence the Land of promiſe is ſaid to be the generall Lot of the children of Iſraell, and therein the poſſeſſion of every particular tribe, the Lot which the Lord gave them. So the Lord himſelfe is truly ſaid (for ſo he is) the Lot of the righteous, as they are the Lot of the Lord. Hence Moſes, Deut. 32.9. The Lords portion is his people: and Jacob is the lot of his inheritance. And Jer. 10.16. The Lord is termed the portion of Jacob, and Iſrael the red of his inheritance. To this purpoſe the ſweet ſinger of Iſrael; The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance, and of my cup: thou ſhalt maintain my lot. Troubles and perſecutions in this vale of miſery, the Church militant, are the Lot of the faithfull, which the Lord allotteth to them for confir­mation, and obſigation of their faith, and proofe of their patience; But the rod of the wicked ſhall not reſt on the Lot of the righteous. Their troubles are many, but yet tranſitory, not perpetuall, the Lord delivereth them out of all, and after crowns them with joy and life eternall in the new Jeruſalem, which is likewiſe the Lot of all true believers.

Clerus, the Clergy takes denomination,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, à ſorte from a Lot, and are ſo called either quia ſorte fuerint electi, & ſic ſors ſint Domini, vel quod Dominus illorum eſſet portio either becauſe the Clergy, and all that ſerved in any office or place in the Temple, from the higheſt to the loweſt were originally elected by Lot to their ſeverall places of ſervice, as appeareth 1 Chron. 24.25.26. chapters, as Aretius, a late learned Writer in his Problemes confirmes. Aret. de oſſiciis Eccleſiaſticis, Problem. 68. Or elſe becauſe the Clergy are (or ought to be) the Lords peculiar Lot, as was the tribe of Levi, ele­cted and ſelected, ſeparated and ſet apart, ſpecially from the reſt of the Tribes, for the Lords ſervice: for Election is alſo termed a Lot, as Acts 1.26. Sort cecidit ſuper Matthiam, The Lot, the Lords election fell upon Matthias.

Or els the Clergy is ſo called, becauſe God alone is, & ought to be accepted as their ſole & chief portion, and to whom they have, or ought to have ſolely and wholly ſe­parated & dedicated themſelves to ſerve the Lord in his Sauctuary, whence alſo they received their ſubſiſtence; For the Levites had no inheritance with their brethren, but the Lord was their Lot and portion. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, ſors, Lott, is alſo uſed and taken for that part of the Lords flocke, which is committed to the charge of any Paſtor,Acts 07 20.28. whereof the holy Ghoſt hath made him overſeer, as the Apoſtle ſaith. And as that pariſh or flock is termed the Lott of the Paſtor, ſo may the Paſtor be ſaid to be the Lott of that flock or Pariſh, as being thereunto allotted by the Lord: So the Pa­ſtor and pariſh, may be ſaid to be mutually each others Lott, ſo diſpoſed of by the Lord. Many other acceptations Authors afford, which I omit to recite, as not very pertinent to the preſent purpoſe of this diſcourſe, fearing I have been overtedious in this point.

I ſhall therefore proceed to the next point conſiderable concerning Lotts, which4 is the Derivation of the Word in the ſeverall Languages of Greeke,Derivation. Latine, Eng­liſh, and ſome others, whereof I ſhall endeavour brevity, but withall ſet downe ſuch Collections as I have made concerning the knowledge of the name, and the Etimologie or derivation thereof, much conduce into a more cleare knowledge of the nature, property, and condition of the thing it ſelfe. Quandoquidem cum nomen & ejus etimologiam, vel notationem. (ut appellat Cicero) rectè noveris tunc etiam na­turam, proprietatem conditionem, effectum, materiam, formam, vel finem rerum optimè noſſe queas: Seeing that by the right knowing of the name of things, and the true Etimolegy, or (as Tully termes it) notation thereof, we may attaine the know­ledge of the nature, property, condition, effect, matter, forme, and end of thoſe things in more perfect manner. Therefore nomen (a name is ſo called) quaſi nota­men, quod notitiam facit, becauſe it affords a more perfect notice, and a more nota­ble knowledge of the nature of the thing named. Whence Plato ſaith,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉1. Qui intelligit nomina, resetiam intelligit; He that underſtands the names of things, underſtands the things themſelves. And Iſiderus ſaith, Nomina ſi rerum neſcis perit cognitio rerum: Ignorance of the names hinders the knowledge of things themſelves. Nibil aliud eſt ſcientia niſi ſerre per cauſas, & originationes.Wherefore,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, in a true method of teaching, the names ought firſt to be ſought out, ſifted and ſearched into, Quia rerum notitia â nominibus dependet, the knowledge of things doth much depend upon the derivation and Etimologie of their names.

Now the Etimology of the word Lot in ſeverall Languages, I find very ſignifi­cant and proper to the end for which Lots were firſt ordained, the ending of con­troverſies and ſetling of Peace.

The word Lot (as Martinius obſerves) is a Saxon word, and hath its derivation, A lite quam terminat, from ſtrife which it determineth. In the German tongue, Lot is called los a〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉litis, from ſolving of doubts and difficulties, and ſalving of diffe­rences and diſſentions; for which end it was primarily and principally ordained, as herein afterwards I ſhall endeavour to demonſtrate. Likewiſe the word Lot (as 'tis the proper name of a man) is rendred to ſignifie, involutas colligatus, involved, rolled up, wrapped up, either becauſe the inſtrumentall notes or ſignes, the Lots (as they are termed) by which Lottery is uſed, are uſually folded and rolled up, until they are drawn, or elſe becauſe upon the unfolding and opening thereof in extricable difficulties and knots are diſſolved, ſecret and hidden things and myſteries are un­veyled and revealed, and contentions to humane apprehenſions irreconcileable are compoſed.

The Latin word ſors, ſignifying a Lot, as Martinius Aretius, and others affirm, is derived from ſeries, which ſignifies a methodicall courſe order, and rule, not per antephraſin, (as ſome malevolent ignorants would ſurmize) as meerly caſuall and being voyd of order; but becauſe in doubts indiſſoluble, Chaos-like confuſion, and ambiguous matters; The Lot reduceth ſuch diſtractions and diviſions to a cer­taine divine order and rule; When the Apoſtles doubted who ſhould ſucceed in the place of the Apoſtate Judas, the Lot immediatly decided that doubt, Act. 1. When5 the queſtion grew among the nine Hero's, which of them ſhould Duell with He­ctor,Hom. Iliad. 7. In adeunda hae­reditate haeredes diſceptant de partibus, ſortes adhibitae cuiquedeclarant ordi­nem. Ideoqueab uſu & eventu rectiſſime a ſerie ſortes dictas eſſe judico. Aret. de ſortibus, loc. 180. the Lot determined that diſpute, and fell upon Ajax, as Homer ſaith,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. In any difference touching partition of Lands, goods, or the like; the readieſt way to reconcile is by Lot: ſo that ſors à ſerie may ſeem a very proper derivation, reflecting upon the uſe and end for which the God of peace and order prepared the Lot, viz. to be a peace-maker, a ſpeciall means of ſetling contenti­ons, and procuring peace. The earth and the inhabitants,**Diſſolved, Pſ. 75. & 3. are divided and out of order, I will eſtabliſh the pillars thereof, ſaith the Lord, Pſal. 96.10. and the world ſhall be eſtabliſhed, and I will judge the people in righteouſneſſe, and reunite their diſ-jointed ſoules, left it run into an irrecoverable ruine.

〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, ſignifying ſors, a Lot, ſome ſeeme to derive from〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, vocare, relating to the calling, condition, place, or profeſſion which God hath conferred and caſt upon any one as his lot or portion: or〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, à ligno, from the wood whereof the ſignes, or inſtrumentall notes, or markes, the Lots were uſually made. Or elſe〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉quaſi〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, bonus, formoſus; beatus, from the goodneſſe,The Clergy ſhould be without ble­miſh, defect, or deformity. beauty and bleſſedneſſe, which ſhould alwayes attend the Clergy (being the Lords lot) both in purity of doctrine, and piety of life and converſation, or from the good, beautifull, and bleſſed operation, fruit and effect, which〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉the Lot produceth, 1. Peace, which may well be ranked amongſt the beſt, moſt beautifull, and bleſſed of all ſublunary comforts, and then which the wofull experience of the contrary in theſe three Kingdomes for theſe three yeares paſt will force us to confeſſe, nil dele­ctabilius, ſi rerum ſeitur verus egendo valor; If the true worth of things be knowne by the want thereof. Therefore the words in the Chaldean and Arabian tongues which ſignifie〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a Lot, are in the native and genuine conſtruction rendered dulce, a ſweet, delightfull deſirable thing, as Martinius relates, and expounds the words. And this is no improper ſympathizing of the words, in regard the very feet of the Peace-bringer (as God himſelfe tells us) are beautifull, and the Prince of peace himſelfe hath pronounced the Peace-makers bleſſed. And this ſurely ſhould move the Clergy to remember and give due reſpect to, and not to deſpiſe that divine Ordinance which originally gave them not only this denomination of Clergy, but alſo their place and dignity, vid. 1 Chron. 24 25.26. whole chapters. And withall, if without offence I may be ſo bold, I ſhould pray them to conſider the Covenant that God made with the Tribe of Levi,Mal. Mal. a Covenant of peace; and, as they were intended for Embaſladours of peace, ſo they would preach and preſſe peace, and withall their power promote and further thoſe holy and divine wayes that conduce to peace, magnifying God in thoſe Ordinan­ces (whereof this of the Lot is at this time a moſt uſefull one) which conduce to his glory, and the Kingdomes peace.

I find alſo another, and that a proper derivation of the word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, viz. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, quaſi〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, from the verb〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, ſignifying frango, to breake or diſſolve, which (Euſtathins ſaith) is contracted from〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. And Martinius ſets downe another moſt apt and pertinent derivation of〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, not unlike this laſt, ſcil. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉6quaſi〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Dici videtur quia〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, (1) tollit contro­verſiam.1 Quia tollit, fraugit controverſias, takes away and concludes Con­troverſies; which ſuteth directly with the end for which the Lot was ordained〈◊〉the effect which it operateth, Vide plus de hoc apud Martinium de ſorte. Aret. Problem. de offic. Eccleſ. 68. & 180. de ſorte. It was inſtituted in remembrance〈◊〉the Jewes delivery from Haman, before whom Lots were caſt day by day,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉from〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉or〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉voco, to call, whence it is that in ordi­nary ſpeech men are ſaid to be of this or that vocation or calling. and moneth by moneth for their deſtruction.

Pur in the Syrian tongue alſo ſignifies, a Lot, Sors; thence the Feaſt of P••••the feaſt of Lots, mentioned Eſther 9.27. ordained by ſpeciall decree to be obſer­ved and celebrated by the Jewes, and their poſterity, in perpetuity as a memorial of Gods mercifull deliverance in their depth of miſery. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉in the Greek ſignifieth ignis, fire: vel per antiphraſin, quia ignem contentionis extinguit; By contraries, becauſe it extinguiſheth the fire of contention, as before Lot, à lite quam terminat, Lot, from the ſtrife it determineth. Or〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉ignis quia purgat, & purificat ab effe•••, and that not improperly according to the nature of fire, becauſe it purgeth & puri­fieth, diſperſeth, diſpelleth, and cleereth thoſe black and ominious clouds of contenti­on, and deadly diſſention, which if not reconciled may ruine whole flouriſhing Kingdomes upon the Rocke of confuſion. And thus hath it been plainly pro­ved by the very derivation of the word & name of Lot in ſeverall languages to ſue very properly with the nature of the thing it ſelfe, and moſt aptly to anſwer the reaſon and end for which the Lot was by God originally inſtituted and ordained, and correſponding alſo very fitly to the purpoſe for which 'tis now propoſed, videli­cet, the advancing of Gods glory, preſerving the Kings honour, and promoting the peoples good in determining thoſe differences which by humane endeavour can hardly be ever happily compoſed. But hereof More amply hereafter. I proceed now to the diviſion and diſtinction of the ſeverall ſorts of Lots.

Touching the diſtinction and diviſion of Lots, whereof there are ſeverall ſorts, according to the ſeverall Authors treating on the ſubject, I ſhall uſe all poſſible brevity.

Lyra ſets downe two ſorts;Lyra in Num. c. 34. in Prov. 16. in Je. c. 1. 1. Diviſory, uſed for dividing of any thing among divers perſons, which he holds very lawfull, if uſed without Avarice, revenge, or injury to any.

2 Conſultory uſed for determining of ſomewhat to be done, which he holds alſo lawfull if in caſe of neceſſity it be uſed with due reverence, and the event expected from God; but unlawfull otherwiſe, if uſed in triviall occaſions, without reverence, and the event expected from any created power.

Lavatur and Sheindler two ſorts, Diviſory, Divinatory; Diviſoriae licita quibus haereditates, poſſeſſiones pradae, &c. dividuntur.

Divinatoriae illicitae, quibus occulta inveſtigantur, quiſve rerum aut perſonarum fu­turus ſit exitus.

Serarius heapeth up ſeverall ſorts,〈◊〉Joſh to. 2. c. 7.1.17. Tho. ſum. part. 2 q. 95. art, 8. & de ſoctibus. cap. 2.3.4. Sacra, profana; permiſſa, prohibita; bona & laudabilis; mala & reprehenſibilis. Conſultory and Divinatory; Serious, Ludicrous.

Thomas Aquinas makes three ſorts, viz.

  • 1. Diviſoria, quâ quaritur quid cuiqueſit exhibendum, determining what each ſhall have.
  • 7
  • 2 Conſulteria, quâ quaeritur quid ſit agondu••, Inquiring what were beſt to be done: to implore a divine ſentence, judgement, or decree by Lot, is not only law­full, but commanded by holy Writ in caſe of neceſſity.
  • 3 Divinatoria quá quaritur quid ſit futurum, Searching what ſhall hereafter enſue. Moſt learned Writers are of the ſame opinion with Aquinas.

Diviſoriae cui aliquid ſit adjudicandum, ut in diviſione agrorum, bonorum, &c. Conſultoriae quibus quaritur quid potiſſimùm ſit agendum; aut quid ſit futurum, ut ſunt Divinatoriae.

Peter Marter, a late learned Writer ſetteth down the ſame ſorts of Lots,Pet. Mart. in 1. Sam. cap. 10. with the ſame cautions and obſervations in the uſe thereof, as hereafter ſhall be ſhewed.

Peucer & Krackevitz ſet down three ſorts, but in another ſort,Peucer de Di­vin. C. de ſorte Krakevitz in Je. c. 1. Sortilegium triplex.

  • 1. Divinum, divinitùs rectum & directum, Lots divine, divinely diſpoſed, and directed, guided, and governed immediatly by God himſelfe.
  • 2 Civile ceu politicum, Civill or Politicke uſed for the ending of ſtrifes, law­ſuites, or other great contentions, or the parting of Lands, Goods, Gifts, Legacies, or the collations, of honours, offices, places, &c.
  • 3 Divinatorium & ſuperſtitioſum, Divinatory and ſuperſtitious, whereby men preſume upon unwarrantable grounds to find out hidden matters, and gheſſe at fu­ture events without any precept, direction or preſident in Gods word, and this by moſt Authors is held diabolicall.

The two former being piouſly applyed, may prove moſt profitable and proſpe­rous meanes of ending the bloody diviſions in theſe three Kingdomes.

Perkins mentioneth three ſorts in his Caſes of Conſcience.

  • 1 Civill or Poli­ticke, uſed as before is expreſſed for ending of ſtrifes and contentions, dividing poſ­ſeſſions, goods and places.
  • 2 Sporting uſed (as he ſaith) cōmonly for the ſetting up of Bankrupts, dicing &c.
  • 3 Divining, uſed for the foretelling of future events; The firſt warrantable in caſes of weight and neceſſity, with prayer, and other religious duties preceding. The other two notable abuſes, having no warrant in Gods word.

Eaſtius maketh foure ſorts;Eaſt. hiſt. of the Goſpell.

  • 1 Politicall for election of Magiſtrates in caſes of War, in places of the Common-wealth, &c. approved by many.
  • 2 Ludicrous for ſport and paſtime, queſtioned and diſallowed by moſt, and by him denyed as unlawfull.
  • 3 Diabolicall, for Divination, Soothſaying, &c, condemned of all as dangerous, damnable.
  • 4 Divine, appointed, approved, directed by God, confirmed by the practice of Patriarks, Prophets, Apoſtles in the Old and New Teſtament, and by the opinion and writings of the moſt learned Divines, both ancient and modern.

Martinius Di­ctionar. Theo­logicum.Martinnus ſets down three ſorts;

  • 1 Divine, which by Gods command and in­ſtinct is uſed, and this is not to be practiſed, but with prayer to God preceding, who declares certainly his will in humane dubitation, Joſ. 7. 1 Sam. 10. Jon. 1. Act. 1.
  • 2 Humane, which are lawfull for men to uſe in thoſe things which are ſubject to their will and liberty. This is termed ſort politica, a politick Lot:
    A Lot is ſome­times ſtiled a••inſtrument whereby Dei voluntas, aut legitime, aut te­mere exquiritur. Legitimae ſortis exempla ſunt, Levit. 16. Num. 26. Deut. 1. & 31. & lib. Joſ. de illegiti­ma ſorte multa in hiſtoriis ſu­perſtitionum Gentium. Martin, ib.
    being either firſt8 Diviſory in parting common goods, Levit. 16. Joſ. 18. or ſecondly Conſultory in things of free Election, as when among perſons which ſeem to bee alike fit for place or imployment, ſome one is elected. Here beginneth a ſpeciall note, which is, that Lots are not raſhly to be uſed, but then at length when a matter cannot other­wiſe conveniently be decided or concluded, and truly with reverence of God, without temptation or contempt of him, and without any impoſture.
  • 3 Diabollicall, abuſed to inquire curiouſly of things, either paſt, or to come. This kind of Lot is called〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, becauſe chiefly 'twas uſed for Divination.
  • 4 Sortes judiciorum apud Romanos erant (ſaith Martin. ) the Romans uſed Lots of judgements, or judiciall Lots. Servius in Aen. 6. non audiebantur cauſae niſi per ſortem ordinatae; Cauſes were not heard, unleſſe ordinated by Lot.


  • 1. ſort••s mitto, I caſt a Lot;
  • 2. Sorts eligo, I chooſe by Lot;
  • 3. Secun­dum ſortis caſum aſſigno & do, I aſſigne and give according as the Lot falls;
  • 4. Ser­te diſpono, I diſpoſe by Lot;
  • 5. Ordino generalitèr, etiam ſine ſorte, I ordain gene­rally, alſo without Lot.
  • 6 Sorte accipio, I receive and accept by Lot.
  • 7. Obtinetanquam ſorte, I obtaine or gaine as it were by Lot.

Sortiri & dimicare, ſeeme to beare the ſame acception. Apud Sueton in Auguſto cap. 13. where ſortiri eſt ſorte le­gere vitam vel mortem; at dimicare, ferro decernere,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, to Duell or deter­mine by the Sword. Micare is alſo ſortiri. nempe, ſortiri per digitos ſubitò expanſes ſub certo numero. Micare,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Hence Cauſabonus ſaith dimicare to duell or fight is derived, which is properly by Lot or mication to put an end to controver­ſie. Thence it was taken for taking away Controverſie any way: but becauſe it was often done by the Sword, it is put for pugnare, to fight in the ſame manner as〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and cernere, to diſcerne Varro in Parmenone micandum erat cum Grace. Utrum illius numerum, an ille meum ſequatur.

Thus much touching the diviſion and diſtinction of Lots. I ſhall now proceed to the definition and deſcription thereof, which is no leſſe various then the diviſion.

Definition of divine lots.Touching the deſcription and definition of Lots, I ſhall not endeavour to deſcribe or define the ſeverall ſorts thereof, but principally, and only that which I intend as the ſubject of my preſent diſcourſe, which is the divine Lot, and the diviſory or po­litique Lot.

Now thoſe deſcriptions and definitions which Authors afford, ſeem to be drawn either from the operation, fruits, and effects which the uſe of theſe Lots do produce, or from the end and finall cauſe for which they were ordained.

St. Auguſtine upon the0th Pſalme, deſcribes a Lot thus: Sors res eſt in huma­na dubitatione, indicans divinam voluntatem; or thus, as Peter Martyr quotes it: Sors nihil aliud eſt, quam Judicium divinae voluntatis in humana dubitatione. A di­vine reſolution of humane ambiguity and haeſitation; A divine declaration of Gods will and pleaſure in humane dubitation. Diez in Mat­thioe feſtum.Divina voluntatis decretum. A di­vine decree of Gods divine will as Diez on 06 Matthias Election. Divinum judicium & voluntatis Dei ſolennis teſtificatio.

Which deſcriptions doubtleſſe are meant of divine Conſultory Lots, which in caſes9 difficult and doubtfull were preſcribed by God, to be uſed in a pious religious man­ner, anſwerable hereunto is that expreſſion of St. Ambroſe, where he ſtiles Lottery a divine tryall: Sors voluti divino pendet examine, Ambroſ. A divine ſentence:Ambroſ. de Tob. cap. 20, Ele­cti ſunt due judicie humano, & electus de duobus unus judicio divino, Auguſt in Pſal. 30. de Matthia, Act. 1.26. Ubi ex fide integra & oratione praemiſſâ ſrs ducitur; ea que Dei voluntas continet in occulto, (that the Lot diſcovereth to men Gods hidden will) Sors declarat in manifeſto, Orig. in Joſh. hom. 23. the lot maketh it known openly what God decreeth ſecretly: Dei judicium quod est in occulto, ſors pandit in publico:Orig, in Joſh. hom. 23. ib. Which ſayings all may be well underſtood of Gods approving will, what he would have done, or not have done of us, and muſt be reſtrained to divine lots a­lone, which God hath appointed to be uſed to that purpoſe. Accordingly it is true what St. Auguſt. Solent quae ſorte dantur divinitùs dari. Auguſt. de Gen. a lit. lib. 10. c. 18. Thoſe things that fall to vs by Lot, are given us of God, according to that of the Pſalmiſt, Pſal. 16.6, 7. the lines or lot are fallen unto me in pleaſant places yea, I have a faire heritage, I will bleſſe the Lord for it. Dionyſius ſaith that the election of Matthias by lot was a di­vine revelation: I ſta ſors (ſaith he) fuit ſplendor quidom divinus per quem oſtendebatur quod Matthias in Apoſtolum aſſumendus erat; A certain Divine ſplendor, whereby was ſhewed that God had choſen Matthias to be his Apoſtle, Praecedente oratione, non jam caſu ſed providentiâ ſors divinum judicium deferebat,Aret. ſuper. Act. 1. Origen. ibid. Aretius ſaith that the lot falling on Matthias, was divina vocis inſtar: & Matthias non mi­nùs divinitùs erat electus quàm reliquundecim, A divine voice or choice, declaring that he was no leſſe divinely elected then any other of the eleven, whom Chriſt him­ſelfe perſonally and immediatly called to follow him.

Orig. in Joſh. c. 18. De ratione ſortium. homil. 23. Epheſ. 1.11.12. Coloſ. 1.12. Gratias agentes Deo patri qui dignos & ido­neos nos fecit ipartem ſortis ſanctorum in lumine.St. Paul, Epheſ. 1.11.12. ſaith, In Christo ſorte vocati ſumus, as Origen obſer­veth, praedeſtinati ſecundùm propoſitum ejus qui omnia operatur ſecundum Conſilium voluntatis ſua, ut ſimus in laudem gloria ejus: Whereby the Apoſtle noteth the im­partiality of this divine way of election, and teacheth that as all the works of God are without reſpect of merit: ſo to be a Chriſtian is Gods free gift, ſhewing that both himſelfe and the reſt of the Apoſtles were choſen in Chriſt by lot, by the free mercy of God, without any merit of theirs, according to the counſell of Gods di­vine pleaſure, that as from him, and by him, and for him, are all things, ſo in his name, and according to his way, and will revealed to his praiſe and glory, ſhould all our intentions and actions be directed.

To this purpoſe St. Auguſt. ſaith, Praedeſtinationem & gratiam poſſe diei ſortem, Predeſtination and Grace may be termed or called lots, Secundùm interiorem veró in­tellectum (ſaith Origen) Paulus videtur judisarquam dicit, In parte ſortis ſanctorum,Epheſ. 1.11. Coloſ. 1.12. Origin Joſh. hom. 23. & ſorte vocati in Christo, nonſolùm in hominibus, ſed in ſupernis virtutibus ſors agatur; Et quod in occultis habetur apud Deum, ſortis gubernatione etiam hominibus demonſtra­tur: Quod ita geſtum eſſe nonſolùm in terris arbitror, verùm etiam in coeleſtibus, &c. 10Origen upon thoſe fore-cited places of St. Paul, and other places of the old and new Teſtament, ſeems to be of opinion that lots are uſed, not only among men upon earth, terreſtriall fraile morealls, but even among the ſupernall and celeſtiall prin­cipalities and powers, and**The Angels in heaven had their ſeverall places & char­ges aſſigned to them, who ſhould rule this or that Province, Dan. 10.13.21. who tend this or that perſon, Mat. 18.10. who governe this or that Church, Rev. 1.20. Orig. in Luc. hom. 13. Pet. Mart. com. loc. 7. Cart. com. in Prov. 18.18. ſpirits in heaven, grounding his opinion upon that text, Deut. 32.8. when the high God diuided to the Nations their inheritance; When he ſeparated the ſons of Adam, he appointed the borders of the people accor­ding to the number of the Angels of God, according to the 70 tranſlation. The Lords portion is his people, and Iacob the lot of his inheritance: Whence he infer­reth, that by Lot God had Iſrael for his peculiar lot and people.

Peter Martyr termes Lottery, or the religious uſe of divine Lots, Modus conſu­leudi Deum, inquirendi per divinum conſilium, A divine way or meanes of conſult­ing and adviſing with Almighty God, of inquiring and deſiring divine counſell and direction in caſet of doubt and difficulty; and to that purpoſe ſaith, that ſortiri ni­hil aliud eſt quam aliquid agere, ex eujus eveuta rem incognitum poſſumus deprehen­dere: Uſe of Lots is nothing elſe but the way or meants by whoſe event, hidden and ſecret matters are brought to light and knowledge: according to that of Cartwright in Prov. 18.18. uſus ſortis valet ad rerum reconitiffimarum per veſtigationem quom­admodum ſoeps ad eam rem adhibita est; the uſe of Lots is very prevalent for the per­veſtigation and diſcovery of the moſt recondite things, and to that purpoſe hath of­ten been applied. And in another place upon that text ſaith, that Sort eſt Dei mundi juditis quaſi vicarius, quâ Deus ipſe de rebus dub••t, & nulla hominum artaut ingo­nio inveſtigandis decernis. The Lot is as it were the Vicegerent or deputy of God, who is the Judge of the whole world, whereby he doth diſcover and determine ſuch doubtfull and obſcure matters as by the art and wit of man cannot be diſcerned and found out: And the ſame Author ſaith alſo upon the ſame text, that the ſingular and ſpeciall uſe of a Lot is ſhewn, and was ordained for the continuing of concord and unity, and compoſing of ſtrife and enmity, eſpecially among the mighty. Hoc autem proverbio Balomon ſpecialem & ſingularem eſſe ſortis uſum deſignat ad concordiam alendam, & in componendis litibus & dirimendis controverſiis, maximcùm inter magnates contentio aboritur, indicans, lites inter magnates agrè & difficulter tol••docens ſimilitèr concordiam & pacem ut inter omnes fic praecipuè inter magnites & cos qui principatum obtinent colendam & fovendam eſſe; ut quae difficulter, ſemel vio­latae, recuperetur & redintegretur; quod clientelis, ſocietatibus pecunia confiſ•••tuò non cedunt, & cedere ſibi infamiae ducunt, cum quod ſorte divimitur, ad neutrius in­famiam redundat: neutrius enim aut ſapientie aut potentiâ, aut opibus in hoc jud•••praejudicatur. But in this Salomon ſets forth the ſpeciall and ſingular uſe and end of Lots to be for the nouriſhment of concord and amity, and the compoſing of con­tentions, and taking away of Controverſies, eſpecially among the mighty, ſhew­ing that ſtrife among Princes, Potentates, and Rulers of the people are very hardly decided, teaching likewiſe that peace and unity, as among all men, ſo eſpecially among the mighty, ought principally to be preſerved and cheriſht, in regard that love among ſuch being once violated, is not without much difficulty and danger recovered and reſtored, becauſe each ſide confiding in their friends powers and11 policies hold it infamous to yeild or ſubmit either to other: whereas, when the controverſie is decided by Lot, it redoundeth to the infamy of neither, for the wealth, wiſedome, power, or valour of neither is hereby prejudiced or diſ­paraged.

Alſo the ſame Author in Prov. 16. v. 33. ſtileth a lot judicium Dei, the judge­ment of God, Gods immediat judgement, and ſaith that Deus ipſe ſedet in ju­dicio per ſortem, God himſelfe is preſent, and ſits in judgement by the lot, grounding his opinion upon the very words of the text it ſelfe, in ſinum conji­citur ſors à Jehovah autem eſt totum judicium ejus, tota diſpoſitia, tota ratia, Whereby is confirmed the event of a divine lot to be the evident judgement of God: the Lot is caſt into the lap, but the whole judgement thereof, the whole reaſon and diſpoſition is of the Lott.

St. Ierous upon thoſe words in the Canticles 4.1. ſpoken of the Church, Eces ſpecioſaes, &c. oculi tui, oculi columbarum,Hieron. ſuper Cant. hom. behold thou are faire my love &c. thine eyes are the eyes of Doves: hath a very conſiderable obſervation con­cerning this ſubject of Lots: which I here the rather inſert and relate becauſe it alludeth in ſome ſort, both to the title and ſubject of this preſent diſcourſe, and will not (I hope) be held impertinent, in regard the Dove is ſent to preſent a peace-offering by this holy way of the Lort.

The words of St. Ierom are theſe; Quòd autem oculi ejus comparantur co­lumbis, ab hoc profactò contingit, quia divinas ſcripturas nejam ſecundùm lite­ram ſed ſecundùm ſpiritum intelligat, & aſpiciat in eis ſpiritualia myſteria: Co­lumba enim eſt indicium Sp. ſancti, ſpirituali ergo ſenſis intelligere leges & pro­phatas, h. e. oculos colub a habere; That the eyes of the Church are compard to Doves. Hence it comes, becauſe ſhe underſtands the holy Scriptures, not ac­cording to the letter, but according to the ſpirit, and therein beholds ſpiritu­all myſteries: for a Dove is the emblem of the holy Ghoſt: in a ſpirituall ſenſe therefore not in a literall, to underſtand the Law and the Prophets, that is, to have oculos columbe, the eyes of a Dove.

And Jerom proceeding in that interpretation ſaith thus; In Pſalmis verò hujuſ­modi ani••a pennas ſibi dari columba deſiderat ut volare poſſit in intellectū ſpiritua­lium miſteriorū & requieſcere in••riis ſapi••tia: Sed & ſi dormire quio poſſit hoc eſt collocari & requieſcere in medio ſortium, atqueintelligere ſortium rationem, & cog­noſcare divi••judicii cauſas no••ſolù••penna quibus in ſpiritualibus intellectibus volet, pro••tuntur ei ſed dearentate pennae, id eſt, verbi & rationis ornamentdeco­ratae ſcapula quoqueejus in ſpeciauri fieri dicuntur, ubi conſtantia fidei & dognatunſtabilitas judicatur perfectorum: In the Pſal. The devout ſoule deſires the wings of a Dove, that ſhe may fly into the underſtanding of ſpirituall myſteries, and to reſt in the Courts of wiſedome: wherein if any ſhall have the happineſſe to repoſe that is, to be placed and enjoy reſt in the midſt of lots, and to under­ſtand the reaſon of lots, and know the cauſes of that divine judgement not only wings whereby he may fly into ſpirituall underſtanding are promiſed to him, but alſo ſilver wings, id eſt, to be decorated and beautified with the ornament12 of elegant language, and right reaſon. Yea, and alſo feathers of pure gold, that is to ſay, reſolution and conſtancy of faith, and ſtability and firmneſſe of perfect arguments, and firme reſolutions to maintaine the ſame; To have the diſcern­ing eyes of a Dove, is to ſee with a ſpirituall eye into the lofty learning of di­vine lots; to have the ſilver wings of a Dove, is to fly to the ſpirituall under­ſtanding of the reaſon of divine lotts; and to have the golden feathers of a Dove, is with ſpirituall faith and wiſdome, to mount into the tranſcendent knowledge of the myſterious cauſes of that divine judgement; to know and remember the divine author thereof, the God of peace, and the holy end for which this Sacred Oracle and divine ordinance was originally inſtituted, to wit, compoſing of differences, and ſettling of peace and unity.

St. Hieron. on Prov. 18.18. thus defines a Lot, Sors eſt occulta & incomprehen­ſibilis praedeſtinatio ex divinâ regula procedens, quae inter potentes, dum ſingulis propria aſſignat. dijudicat; The lot is an hidden, and incomprehenſible predeſti­nation proceeding from a divine rule, ſo judging betweene the mighty; that what is juſtly due to each one the Lot aſigneth, being guided and governed by God alone. As Eaſtius in his hiſtory of the Goſpell upon that place of Hierom obſerveth and thereupon ſaith thus, I wonder then how any fraile and mortall worm dares deride or deſpiſe ſo high and holy an ordinance.

Dudley Fennor, a divine moderne writer, defines a Lot thus, Sors eſt medium à Deo conſtitutum quo Deus ipſe controverſias quae aliter ab hominibus dirimi non poſ­ſunt, componit; The Lot is a way or meanes inſtituted by God himſelf; whereby he compoſeth thoſe controverſies, which otherwiſe cannot be decided or determi­ned among men; remedium quo nullum facilias, nullum felicius, A remedy to prevent ruine, then which none can be more ready and, eaſie, none can be more holy and happy.

The Apoſtles perſiſted in the ancient cuſtome of the Church under the Law in difficult caſes to caſt Lots,Maier in act. 1.2.26. for they had no figne, which of the two propoſed was moſt worthy, and therefore left the Election to the Lord. Neither was their Lott in vaine; for if lots being caſt in (Jonah by common ignoble and heatheniſh perſons) had the due effect much more by the Apoſtles preparing to it by prayes & invocation of the Lord. Election by Lot, Gods judgement.Calvin in Act. 1. As there is an abuſe ſo there is a good uſe of Lots, as by the Apoſtles practiſe appeareth. The corruption of the abuſers doth no more vitiate nor vilifie this ſacred Ordinance, then the adulterate vani­ty of the Caldees genuine Aſtrologie, or an hereticall Reader the holy Scripture, an ungodly preacher, the word of God, or an unworthy receiver, the Euchariſh In this Election we may diſcerne the conveniency and neceſſity of Gods judge­ment by lot in caſe of difficulty by the Apoſtles care and piety to wait on God. Commit a doubtfull caſe to Gods determination in the way preſcribed in his Word; Inquire of God, addreſſe themſelves to the Law and the teſtimony, not preſumptuouſly rely on their own judgement (though doubtleſſe they might, with much more ſafety then any of the moſt ſanctified of theſe times) but go to god in his own way, wherby they gave him the glory and the good redounded to13 themſelves; For whereas (as Mayer ſaith) they ſeemed to eſteeme more of Ioſeph then Matthias, as naming him firſt, and givin him two names of excellent ſignification. Barſabas the ſonne of reſt, ſirnamed Iuſtus, ſigni­fying his ſingular honeſty; yet God contrary to their opinion prefer­reth Matthias and leaveth Ioſeph. Thereby teaching them and us not to glo­ry in the eſtimation of men, but ſtudy to be approved of God, and in our opinion and acceptance of others, not to give too much way to our owne wilfull partiall humour, by neglecting the one party, and reſpecting too much the other, but rather in a caſe of doubtfull difficulty, to leave the judgement to the Lord by lot, leſt we ſhould ſeeme to ſleight Gods judgement, or to fight againſt God, in preferring our owne wills before his, which naturally all men incline unto be­ing partially affected to their owne deſires and deſignes, which are weake and wretched, and whoſe hearts are deceitfull above all things, rather then to ſub­mit to the Lords wiſdome, which cannot be deceived and who ſeeth not as man ſeeth but giveth to every one what is juſtly due, To Caeſar the things that are Caeſars and to God the things that are Gods.

Seeing then Lotts in generall are Gods ordinance, and have been uſed by the holieſt and beſt of Gods ſervants with ſuch good ſucceſſe, the uſe of them under the old Teſtament ought not ſo to prejudice the uſe of them now, as that it ſhould be counted an imperfection in theſe dayes to caſt lots upon any juſt occa­ſion (which tends to Gods glory in ſetling peace and unity among his people, then which nothing is more pleaſing to God) ſeeing none will affirme that whatſoever was in uſe then, is an imperfection now, eſpecially of matters mo­rall, which all Divines hold to be perpetuall, and none can deny the Proverbs of Salomon to be ſound canonicall morall Divinity: And this Auguſtine alſo ac­knowledgeth, where he confeſſeth Lots upon Miniſters to be lawfull,Auguſt. Epiſt. 119. c. 20.180. Conc. 2. ad Doct. Chri­ſtis 28. eſpecially in the time of perſecution if it be diſputed amongſt them who ſhall tarry, that the Church may not be leſt deſolate, or they being ſlaine, it is by Lot to be de­cided who ſhall ſupply the place. And with him conſents Gregory. 1 Reg. 14. and Origen. Nom. 23. in Joſ. It followeth in the next place, that ſomething be ſaid touching the perſons, places, times, manners, caſes, & occaſions; who where, how, and when Lots have been uſed, and are ſtill in uſe, a briefe collection whereof in the inſuing chapter appeareth.


IT was the opinion of Origen, and others of the learned Fathers grounded on the**〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Septuagints tranſlation of Deut, 32.8. and other places of Scripture that Lots were not only uſed among men on earth, but even by the Lord him­ſelfe among the celeſtiall powers and Angels in heaven, who had their ſeverall places and charges aſſigned to them by Lot, who ſhould rule this or that Pro­vince Dan. 10.31. who tend this or that perſon, Mat. 18 10. Acts 12.15. who govern this or that Church. Rev. 1.20. Quod ita geſtum eſſe non ſolum in terris arbitror, verumqueetiam in coeleſtibus; & hujuſmodi ſortem quae apud Deum di­ſtinguitur, etiam illo tempore habitam cum divideret & conſtitueret excelſus gentes 14 & diſſeminaret filios Adam, & conſtiturit fies g••tium ſecundùm〈…〉lorum Dei: Which thing was not uſuall upon earth alone, but in heaven alſo with God himſelfe, who allotted to the Angels according to their ſeverall excellencies the tuition of the Nations of the earth, at what time they were diſpoſed of into their ſeverall territories, Origen, in Jeſu Nave. cap. 18. 〈◊〉. 23.

Ambroſan Luc. c. 1. ſummus ſa­cerdos adhac ſorte quaeritur. The high Prieſt is ele­cted by Lot.St. Ambroſe alſo upon the firſt of Luke, and many (not of former times only, but of later dayes alſo, and thoſe of good eſteeme and note) affirme that the high Prieſt in the old Teſtament was elected by Lot. Beda in Act. c. 1. Alexan. de Ales ſ••part. 2. q. 185. in. 4 Tom. de ſort. c. 2. & Cajotan. in Luc. c. 1. Bulling. in Act. c. 1 Perkins aurea armill. c. 22. Schindl. Lexlc. Pontaglot, Luc. 1.9. The Hebrews, ſaith Mayer on the firſt of the Acts v. 26. were wont to begin no weighty buſineſſe, but having firſt conſulted with the Lord, and the Bible by Lot.

By whom, where in what caſes, and upon what occaſion Lots have been uſed, and where they are ſtill in uſe, is the next point conſiderable.

The Apoſtles of Chriſt parted among themſelves (as Prochorus writeth) the whole world to preach and plant the Goſpell in. Proch. hiſt. Joan. c. 1. And in like manner the 72. Diſ­ciples, which of them ſhould accompany and attend on each Apoſtle, as the Levites did on the Prieſts, and Johns lot light for Aſia, and Prochorus his Lot for to attend on John. And in the Jewiſh Church for the more ready and orderly performance of Sacred offices, the diviſions thereof were made among them by Lot: where the whole body of the tribe of Levi was ſorted into ranks;1 Chron. 25.8.9. & firſt the Prieſts all divided, into twenty foure Companies according to their Families, which took their courſes by turnes, every weeke after weeke in order, the order of their courſes being de­termined by lott, to take away all murmuring, that none might complaine as be­ing leſſe regarded and caſt behind others: And accordingly the Levites were di­vided into twenty foure Companies,1 Chron. 14. . &c. and appointed to attend the former companies of Prieſts: but who, which, and when, was decided likewiſe by Lot. Moreover, the Prieſts that were of each company caſt lotts for the ſharing of offices among them­ſelves (ut tolleretur materia querimoniarum, for the avoiding of emulation and diſcord in the Church:) as alſo for the better ſettling of ſerviſes, namely who ſhould tend the Altar of Inſence, who the Table of holy Bread, who the dreſſing of the Lampes, who the Altar of burnt-offerings, who ſhould feed the fire, &c. as from the books of the Jewiſh Liturgies is very evident.

Zachary the Prieſt of the courſe of Abi, went in by lot to burne Incenſe, Luk. 1.9 The Levites Muſicall, and Porters decided by Lot, what courſe ſhould be obſerved in their miniſteriall and muſicall imployments by the one, and which gates of the Temple ſhould be waited at by the other, 1 Chron. 26.13.

The election of Matthias to be an Apoſtle, was by lot, Act. 1.26. Claſſius in meditat. Sacr. ſup feſtum Matth. dicit ſortem eſſe judicium Dei immediatum, & ſolennem divinae voluntatis teſtificationem. Et res (viz. Electio Matthia) ad ejuſ­modi fuit inſttuenda i, e. per ſortem, ut omnibus conſtaret, non tam hominum ſuffra­glis quam Dei arbitrio & voluntate rem omnem peragi. & in Act. 1.26. precti dixe­runt, Tu Domine qui corda noſti omnium oſtende utrum elegeris ex his duobus, v. 25.15 Ddi••e dic•••ur ſ••tes Durui•••rum virorum, i. . in•••am aut〈◊〉•••jciſſe,〈◊〉extracta poſt modum certam de rcognſcenda ſentntiam patfacrnt. Srs••ci­dit ſuper Matthiam: SiDous hoc judicio manifeſtè declaravit Matthiam eſſe divi­••ùt deſig••tum & electum Christi Apoſtlm ſortibus, qua in pople dei••aut oli••in uſu ad explorandum Dei voluntatem certam, Cajet. Levit. 16.8. Numb. 33.58. 1 Sam. 10.20. Prov. The Apoſtles uſed Lots here, becauſe as the Lord had immediatly called the eleven, ſo it was a fitter ſupply of the twelfth roome, that not men, but God ſhould elect one, Mayer in Act. 1.26. Matthias non minus di­••itùs electus quam reliqui undecem.

It was St. Auſtius deſire to have it determined by lot amongſt the Paſtors of Gods people, where divers of them are in a City, which of them ſhould ſtay by it, and who retire themſelves in time of publick perſecution, that neither the ſtayer might be taxed with preſumption, nor the removers with cowardize, Auguſt. Epiſt. 80. According to which rule the Geneva Miniſters to this day (as it is reported by ſome) uſe to caſt Lots who ſhall viſit the Peſthouſe, Bar. in Io. c. 1.

Lotts were uſed alſo in the diſtribution of civill ſervices among Gods people or­dinarily, and that firſt in a military matter, wherein the Levites quarrell, that had his Concubine raviſhed, ſo that ſhe died upon it at Gibia in Benjamin: the other Tribes reſolved to goe up againſt Benjamin by lot, viz. who of them ſhould be Warriours, and who bring in proviſions for thoſe that abode abroad in the field: which thing without much tumult in a Democracie could not eaſily have been de­termined otherwiſe, Iudg. 20.9, 10. Pet. Martyr, and Fran. Iunius: and ſecondly in a City buſineſſe, where the ſame people after their Babilonian captivity caſt Lots among themſelves, who ſhould take the burden of bringing in wood for the Altar, by Ezra's own direction.

Lotfrequent among other Nations, beſides Gods owne people, the Jewes.

NEither was the uſe of Lotts leſſe frequent among other Nations, then among Gods choſen people the Iſraelites:Plato de〈◊〉. for Plato in his imaginary Modell of a Common-wealth, intended the moſt part of his Magiſtrates, to be deſigned yearly by Lot, for the preventing of, and meeting with the peeviſhneſſe and way ward••ſſe of the people. For which intent he adviſeth that60. be Elected yearly by moſt voyces of the Commonalty out of foure rankes of Citizens, 90. out of each ranke, for Aldermen or Senators;Mr. Gatak. of the nature and uſe of Lots, p. 44. and the one halfe of them by Lot aſſigned to govern the City for that yeare: as alſo ſixty Sheriffs to govern the territory thereunto belong­ing, which was divided into twelve parts; And furthermore it was yearly determi­ned by Lot, which part of the City ſhould ſend Rulers into this or that part of the Country. And beſides theſe three Surveighers of houſes, edifices, highwayes, water­courſes in and about the City; Five Clarks of the Market, a Maſter of the Revels, and three for Triers and diſpoſers of prizes in ſolemn gnes, and Judges for private Cauſes, to prevent Corruption, were all appointed by Lot.


Choice of Prieſts by lot.The choice of Prieſts, and ſuch as undertook the charge of Sacred things was to be left to God himſelfe, to diſpoſe of by Lot, as it pleaſed him. Many of their Offi­cers likewiſe at Athens, both Civill and Sacred, were diſpoſed of by Lot.

Officers both civill & ſacred choſen by lot.The Athenian Senators ſent to the Common Councell at Delphos, and their ordi­nary Councell of five hundred were all choſen by Lot: the Election being alter this manner; The names of all thoſe in each Ward that were capable of that dig­nity were noted on little Tables, or tokens of braſſe into one veſſell, and as many Beans black and white, all but fifty black into another; and ſo each mans token being drawn out of the one, and a bean withall out of the other, either he paſt to further tryall, and held it if he were approved; or he was for that yeare rejected, as his Bean proved white or black: ſo fifty apiece being extracted out of each of the ten Wards, the number was made up of five hundred. And out of thoſe ſo dig­nified with the Bean, nine were advanced by like courſe to further place of autho­rity named Rulers, or Regents: out of which were ſix Maſters of the Ordinancethe King, or Maſter of the Ceremonies, the Major for the yeare, and the Marſh•••. The nine Regents thus called out of the five hundred, Lots were caſt againe for the ten Wards, which ſhould rule firſt, which next, and ſo on to the yeares end: after­wards ten Preſidents for the firſt ſeven dayes, and ten for the next ſeven, and ſo on till thirty five dayes were expired, the full time of their whole principality. Our of which ten, Lot was again drawn for a Commander or Provoſt, whoſe government laſted but one day of ſeven. Neither might any one of the ten have it above one day at once, becauſe the keys of the Caſtle of Athens were in his keeping; ſeven of them had it as the black Bean favourd them; and three were neceſſarily debarted of it. Sigon. de Repub. Athen. l. 2. c. 3.

Iudges elected by Lot.For hearing and tryall of Cauſes a competent number of perſons according to the quality of the ſuites to be heard, were aſſigned by Lot, as they drew Beans or Acorns with the letters upon them that belonged to thoſe Courts: each of which perſons ſo allotted received a rod from the Cryer, with the name of the Court writ­ten on it, or of the ſame colour that the letter was over the Court-gate, and then went with that, and his Bean or Acorn, unto that Court that had the letter on the one of the ſame colour with the other, and was there admitted for a Judge.

Beſides theſe ordinary Judges, there were certain Arbitrators, or umpires by Lot aſſigned for deciding of lighter matters; which matters were divided among them by Lot. Their Clearks alſo of the Pleas, with ten Treaſurers taken out of the beſt rank, ten Comptrollers or Auditors, ten Surveyors or Scavengers, ten Wardens of the Ports, ten Clerks of the Market, one Regiſter, ten of Sheriffs and Bayliffs, ten Sacriſts for ſuperſtitious ſervices. And if any one preſumed to come to Court or Councell not being deſigned by Lot, a penalty was laid upon him.

In Sparta the Competitors for any office, were ſometime in order by lot admitted to paſſe the ſuffrages of the aſſembly.

At Syracuſa in Cicily,Cican Verr. 4. Joves prieſt out of three choſen by Voyces out of three Fa­milies, was deſigned yearly by Lot.

At Rome the Veſtall Nuns were elected by lot. Attic. l. 1. c. 12.


The two hundred Gentry of Rome, divided into tens, caſt Lots for governing the State in courſe among themſelves after Romulus his death, each ten their fifty daies, and each of the ten his five, &c. till all had taken their turnes: which Cuſtome ex­pired at Na••a's Election.

The two Conſuls ſo often as any extraordinary buſineſſe fell out, that was to be done by them, and could not conveniently be done but by one of them (as the De­dication of a Temple, the nomination of a Dictator or Soveraign Generall, the keeping of Courts for creation of ſome new Officers, &c.) uſed by lot to decide whether of them ſhould have the honour of it: and in time of War they caſt lots alſo, which ſhould goo the wars, and which ſtay at home: And being both toge­ther in the ſame ſervice with equall authority, they did ſometime in the execution thereof by Lot daily take their turnes.

The Pretors parted the Government of the City between themſelves by lot.

And by lot the Queſtors or Treaſurers charge was aſſigned unto them: out of which Queſtors the Tribunes were ſometime deſigned by lott; and out of the Tri­bunes were allotted certaine perſons for forraigne Plantations.

In warlike employments Conſuls & Praetors had their legions and armies by this courſe alotted them. Alſo ſuch Tribes as ſhould afford Souldiers for ſervice: and ſuch perſons of each tribe as ſhould ſerve were aſſigned by lot; And hence it fell out that M. Curius when a ſudden Muſter was made in his Conſulſhip, & none of the youn­ger ſort appeared, caſt lots upon all Tribes, and citing him which was firſt drawn of that Tribe that come next to hand confiſcated his goods, and ſold him to be a ſlave.

Doubts in choice of Ediles or Surveyors (where divers Competitors had an equall number of voyces) were decided by Lot which of them ſhould hold.

And in their Aſſemblies for election of Officers the Lot determined, which Com­panies or hundreds ſhould be demanded their ſuffrages the firſt, and give the lead­ing voices.

Severall Pleas were ordinarily parted among them by lot, ſome to have and try Cauſes of treaſon, ſome of murder, ſome of extortion, and the like; and the the Judges tooke aſſiſtants to them which they elected by lott, as they themſelves, were by lot appointed for the hearing of ſuch Cauſes as were allotted to them.

Plin. ſec. E­piſt. 3. lib 9. In Vintage time Senators were made choice of by Lot, to attend the Court in the abſcence of the reſt by the appointment of Auguſtus.

Dion. Caſſ. lib. 55. Auguſtus by Lot ſet apart a certain number of Senators to conſult with at con­venient times for preparation of Cauſes to be heard in the Court afterward: or ra­ther to diſpatch buſineſſes by without the Court, yet ſo as the whole Court might ſeem to have ſome hand in them: he did likewiſe aſſay by Lot to reform the Senat: he firſt parted the City into certain Regions and Wards, and then appointed the yearly Officers to ſhare them amongſt them, and to undertake the charge thereof, By lot he enjoyned two of thoſe that had been Pretors formerly to be elected year­ly for the cuſtody of the common Treaſury.

In Tiberius his reigne, there were certaine perſons aſſigned by lot to cleare the Lawes in ſome caſes then queſtionable.


Veſpaſian aſſigned perſons for redreſſe of wrongs done during the civill wars, and to rid the Courts of multiplicity of ſuits; which intermiſſion of Juſtice had cloyed them with, Taeit. hiſt. l. 4. Suet. Veſp. c. 10.

Certain perſons were aſſigned by Lot to mitigate harſh Lawes, Claud. c. 23.

Legates or Lievtenants were ſometime deſigned by lot: in which caſe the uſe of Lotrery ſometimes being queſtioned,Tacit. hiſt. l. 4. Cic. ad Attic. Epiſt. 17. Liv. hiſt lib. 43. & cic. Verr. 1. though it were by ſome oppoſed, yet the ma­jor part went with itand would have it ſtill retained as a ſoveraigne preſervative againſt ambition and corruption; and a ſingular remedy for the preventing both of injury and envy: in which regard they eſteemed it as a kind of divine Ordi­nance, where it was carried without fraud and covine, as it ought.

Panorm. ad 5. de ſorti leg.Neither is the practice of civill Lottery unuſuall in Italy, even at this day: for in Venice (the mirrour of Policy, and ſuppoſed modell of Plate's Platform) the Gen­try at twenty yeares of age come to the Generall Councell by Lot, (but otherwiſe not till twenty five yeares of age,Contaren. l. 1. Gat. of Lots p. 58. by the ordinary courſe: in Election of whom, every fourth of December, they that ſeek it, having made proof of their Gentry, have their names all caſt into one pot, and brought to the Duke, before whom ſtands another pot with as many balls in it, wherof a fifth part is gilt, and all the reſt ſilver only: the Duke draws out of the one each mans name, and a ball out of the other, which if it prove a golden one, he is thereupon admitted; if a ſilver one only, he ſtayeth at leaſt a yeare longer.

When their Duke (the chiefe Magiſtrate) hath his deſignation, there is Lottery upon Lottery, and Voycing in a prolix and intricate manner, interchangeably mix­ed together the one with the other: the place being voyd either by depoſition or deceaſe, all their Gentry of thirty yeares of age or upward (and none under) aſ­ſemble and come in order as they ſit (Lotts firſt being caſt which ſide of them ſhall come in firſt) to the Lot-pot, having as many balls in it as there be of them in number, whereof thirty only be gilt, there a child draweth for each of them till for thirty of them, thoſe thirty gilt ones be drawne. For which thirty the child draw­eth againe the ſecond time out of another pot having nine gilt ones. The nine, withdrawing into a conclave, among themſelves name forty ſuch as have each of them ſix voyces at leaſt: out of the forty ſo named, are twelve ſelected by Lot; which twelve chooſe twenty five, each at leaſt by eight Voyces: of theſe twenty five are nine ſet apart by Lot, which nine do further nominate 45: thoſe forty five againe reduced to eleven, the eleven chuſe forty one of the chieſe Senators, which forty one have power to elect a Duke. Theſe forty one after an oath by them ſeve­rally taken, to elect whom they judge worthieſt, and ſome other ſolemnities per­formed, write each of them in a ſcroll whom he thinketh good: the ſcrolls being mingled together, are drawn as they come, and the fitneſſe of the perſon firſt drawn is diſcuſſed: who, if he have twenty five Voyces with him, uſed anciently to carry it without further ado: but now hee that hath moſt voices above that number, come he firſt or laſt to hand, hath the place. If none hath voices enough, they be­gin again, and continue till ſome be nominated that hath.

And in their yearly Aſſemblies at election of other Officers, all their Gentry19 that have ſuffrage in Councell, draw firſt for ſixty gilt Balls out of two Pots by one Lottery: and after thoſe ſixty, for thirty ſix other gilt ones out of another by a ſecond Lottery: and the thirty ſix that have thus drawn gilt Balls twice, have power to nominate to ſuch offices as are then to be choſen: which is done in this manner, they go apart into certain conclaves by nine and nine, in foure Companies: where all thoſe of each company in order of years draw out of a Lot-pot, balls with markes upon them for the ſeverall offices; and according to the ball that each of them hath drawn, he nominates what Citizen he will for that office, who, if he hath ſix voices of thoſe nine, the party yet holdeth; if not, another muſt be nominated by him till ſome one be ſo approved. By this meanes among thoſe foure Companies are foure compettitors nominated for each of their offices, whereof one is choſen by moſt voices of the whole aſſembly, the Electors and the whole Kindred of the parties nominated being only firſt excluded.

In the Tuſcan State, though not the Electors,Grimſton. yet their offices are elected after the ſame manner: for dividing thoſe that are capable of office into three rankes, and caſting them into three boxes: out of the firſt they draw the Magiſtrates of higheſt place, the middle ſort out of the ſecond; and the loweſt, out of the third: and ha­ving thus drawn five ſeverall ones for each office, hee carrieth it that hath of the five the moſt voices in the Councell: which election ſtandeth, and is alwaies con­firmed by the Duke.

Theodoſius the Emperour, though at that time a great Commander, diſdained not as a common Souldier in martiall ſervices, to take his turn among the reſt.

Hom. Iliad. n. Sophoc. n Aiale. Ovid. Metam. l. 13. Hom. Iliac. 3. Plaut. in Timol.In Duells, a Champion hath been ſometimes ſingled out by Lot, by lot it hath been determined which of them ſhould give the onſet.

By lot it was determined who ſhould be encloſed in the belly of the wooden horſe at the taking of Troy. Virg. Aen. 2.

Plaut. in Timol.By lott, Timoleon being to tranſport his Army over a river in the face of the ene­my tooke the rings of the ſeverall Leaders, by drawing them to decide in what order they ſhould pſſe, and when the ring of one of them that had a trophey en­graven on it, came firſt to hand, they left off further lotting, and very cheerfully made each of them with all the ſpeed they could over, and ſo diſcomfited thoſe for­ces that ſtood on the other ſide to inhibite their paſſage.

Plaut. in Pericle.Pericles, to reſtrain his Souldiers inconſiderate eagerneſſe to fight, divided them into two parts, and by lot aſſigned ſome to fight, and others (that lighted on the white Bean) to reſt the whileſt, and make merry.

Joſeph. Captiv. lib. 7. c. 35. Joſephus, with his company being in a deſperate condition, and they chooſing ra­ther to dy than to fall into the hand of the enemy, and to be at his mercy, decided by Lot who ſhould ſlay each other and by that means he eſcaped; his lot comming out with the laſt mans, whom he perſwaded to ſurrender himſelfe to the Romans.

Joſ. captiv. l. 7. cap. 35. The Jewes beſieged in Maſada, at Eleazars inſtigation, choſe by lot ten men to ſlay all the reſt, with their wives and children, which being done, one of thoſe ten again ſingled by lot diſpatcht the other nine, and in the laſt place himſelfe.

At Syracuſe they uſed to deliver their minds in Court by Lot, which practice20 continued unto Tullie's time: and likewiſe the delivery of their minds in courſe after the order of Alphabet is celebrated for Dinyſius his act, who having drawne the letter M. when one jeſting, ſaid he would play the Mome, made anſwer that he would not play the Mome, but the**〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 Monarch, which proved accordingly, for be­ing choſen Generall, he turned tyrant: whence grew the Proverb, to ſay, M. is his Lott.

In Voyages ſome were by Lott ſet aſhore for diſcovery, principally where there was conceived to be difficulty or danger.

At Sea ſometimes Lots have been caſt, to determine who ſhould row, and who were to have other employments.

It was the cuſtome of all the Rhodian State, both rich and poore, to ſpeak freely in their turns by Lot.

In Publique works, as at the building of Tyre and in private labours, as at Vul­cans Forge; and in mutuall combinations, as in aſſaulting the Cyclops, each man had his task or ſtanding often aſſigned him by Lot. Aen. 1. Aen. 8, Hom. Odyſſ. 1.

Pta. hiſt. l. 33. Seſoſtris the Egyptian King compelled Kings that were tributary to him, to draw his Coach in their turns by Lot, like horſes in a Charret, when it pleaſed him once a yeare to ride in ſtate.

Thus it doth appeare that the uſe of Lots hath been frequent among all ſorts, both for the diſtribution of Civill and Sacred offices and employmems; and alſo it will be made clear, that it hath been no leſſe frequent in the diviſion of lands and poſſeſſions, goods and chattells, yea, oftentimes of rewards too (aſwell as penalties) as honours and dignities.

Num. 26.55. & 33.54. & 36.2.1 For at the entrance of Gods people into the Land of Promiſe, the whole Country in generall was divided by Lot, by Gods own ſpeciall appointment, among the twelve Tribes: Concerning the manner of Lottery in that particular buſmeſſe, there is ſome diverſity of opinion; 1 Some think, that the Lots of the Land were put into one pot, and the Tribes names into another, and that one choice perſon, to wit, Eleazar drew for all: Others that out of one Pot of Tickets containing the names of the portions, one of each Tribe drew for the Tribe he was of. Others laſtly, ſup­poſe that the Tribes names only were put into the Lot-pot, and that each Tribe as it was drawn, had his choice of which part he would, yet undiſpoſed of, when he drew. The firſt opinion ſeemes moſt probable, and that firſt, becauſe once drawing ſo, might well end all: which could not be in the ſecond, where queſtion might be who ſhould draw firſt: and ſecondly, becauſe it is not ſaid that ſuch a Tribe drew, or was drawn firſt or ſecond ſimply, but that the Lot came out firſt or ſecond for ſuch a Tribe, which agrees not with the third.

Num. 35.7, 8. Loſh. 25.2.Now as the Land in generall was thus divided by Lot, ſo in particular were the forty eight Cities aſſigned to the Levites, divided among them by Lot according to their Families: and whereas the Levites were divided into three Families, accord­ing to Levi's three ſons Kohath, Gerſhom, Merari: and the Koathites ſubdivided21 into two ranks, i.e. the Antonites, or the iſſue of Aaron, Kohath Nephew by his ſon A••••, which alone had the Prieſthod, and the reſt of that houſe which came not of Aaron; Lots were caſt among them for theſe their ſeverall Families,Ioſh. 21.8. in what Tribes there ſhould Cities be aſſigned unto each: and in concluſion the Aaronites had thirteene in Juda, Simen, and Benjamin; the other Koathites. ten in Ephraim, Dan, and the one halfe of Manaſſes; and the Merarites, twelve in Reuben, Gad, and Zebuln: the whole number forty eight.

At the return of the Jews unto the Land of promiſe from the Chaldean captivity a colonie was drawn by Lot for the peopling of Ieruſalem, one being taken of each ten, and a tenth of the whole company for the ſtoring of the City. Yea, the whole City it ſelfe was by lot ſhared in three parts, by the three ſeditious Commanders in the time of the Roman ſiege.

Moreover Lots were uſed for partition of movables, goods and chattells, and the like, as in the caſe of ſetting forth the tith, of Bullocks, Goats and Sheepe, Levit. 27.32.

And ſecondly in diviſion of booties, of prey and ſpoyles taken in warre, Lorts are ſaid to have been caſt upon Jeruſalem when it was ſacked by the Chal­dees, and her people by Lot ſhared among the conquerours for ſlaves, Obad. v. 11. Joel. 3.3. Nahum 3.10. as the Nobles of Niniveh were ſhared by lot among the Medians, or Scythians, for ſlaves, when it was ſeverall times ſurprized by them.

And thirdly of goods gotten by pilage or ſtealth, as David complaines that they had parted his garments among them, and caſt Lots upon his Veſture, which is juſt­ly ſuppoſed to have been practiſed upon David, 1 Sam. 19.11.12. but was certain­ly fulfilled in our Saviour, Math. 27.35. Mark 15.24. Luk. 23.34. Ioh. 19.24. Such a Lot as this is alluded too by Solomon, where he brings in theeviſh compani­ons inviting to joyne and adventure with them, ſaying, Coſt in thy lot among us, Prov. 1 14.

By Lott certaine perſons were picked out to be ſaved, or ſlain: ſo David meaſured out the Moabites with two cords to be deſtroyed, but with one cord to be ſaved alive, as the Chald. Paraphr. expounds the place, 2. Sam. 8.2. and in this ſence do Interpreters underſtand that place of Ezech. 24 6. where the Lord bids the Prophet pull the fleſh piece by piece, every piece of it out of the Pot or Caldron, and caſt no lot in it, thereby ſignifying that the people ſhould not be ſome ſaved and ſome deſtroyed, but all utterly deſtroyed without diſtinction or difference. In this kind was the lot caſt on the two Goats (for it was diviſory meerly, not divinatory to tell whether was fitter for ſervice, both being alike fit for it) whereby the one was taken for the ſcape-goat, to be ſent out alive and ſaved, the other left to be ſlain to make a ſin ſacrifice to God in behalfe of his people.

Among Prophane writers nothing is commoner than the uſe of Lotts in this kind: Inheritances among coheires were by lot divided: Saturns three Sons parted among them Heaven, Sea and Hell, by this way of Lottery. Claros and Lacedaemon according to ſome Grammarians derive their names from hence: that is,Ex Near Euſt. ad Claros〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉and Lacedamon, quaſi〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉i.e. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.


Thus Poloponneſus after right of poſſeſſion by joynt conqueſt recovered, was parted between Creſphontes, Temenus, and the ſons of Ariſtodemus.

Thus Lotharius his foure ſons parted the Realme of France amongſt them after their Fathers deceaſe. Greg. Tur. hiſt. l. 4. c. 22. Thus Fredereck the ſecond King of Denmarks, and Adelph Duke of Holſt divided between them the Territory of the elder Iohn of Holst de­ceaſed without iſſue. The goods and chattels of every Courtier deceaſed, where a fourth part is to come to the Court, is to be parted into foure parts by the Heire or Executor, and Lots are to be caſt whether he ſhall chooſe his three, or the Court her fourth by the civill Law. And our common Law alloweth this courſe of partition of Land among Partners or female coheires, viz. that by dividing the land into parts as equall as may be, and then wrapping up of ſcrolls of each part in as many waxen Balls, to be drawn by the partners in order of yeares out of the bonnet of ſome other indifferent party.

In Cities new built, and at the firſt foundation or altering of a ſtate as alſo upon enfranchiſing forreigners, or non-freemen, each one uſed to have his houſe, portion of land, or tribe, he ſhould belong to, aſſigned him by Lot: a thing practiſed by Lycurgus in the Spartan Republique: and by Aeneas alſo, Aen. 5. and by Romulus at the founding of the Roman State.

In Egypt they yearly aſſigned by Lott to each man or Kindred what land they ſhould till.

After Victories obtained over ſome Countries, the Greek and Roman Conque­rours were wont to divide the land by lott among the Souldiers,Ariſtoph. Dio­nyſ. Hal. li. 2. or other of the people.

In Countries overburdened with multitudes of people, or ſuch as were unable to maintain the Natives by reaſon of a long and grievous Famin, it was an uſuall courſe to decide by lot who ſhould remain at home, and who remove to ſeek their fortunes abroad, Liv. l. 5.

In the Paleſtine expedition it was tryed by lot which ſhould be firſt aſſaulted, Tyre or Askalon.

A Prey taken in the field, or in the ſacking of a City, were it goods or jewells, or garments, or beaſts, or mens perſons, it was ordinarily divided by lot,

A ſwift horſe able to travell one hundred miles a day, was put to lot with the reſt of the prey, and drawn for one Probus (one of the Emperours name) of which name there being foure, and Probus ſtill comming out of the Lot pot, to end the con­troverſie, it was agreed on by all, that Probus the Emperour ſhould have him, who ſaid at firſt he was fitter for a flyer then a fighter, when the people thought he would have kept him to himſelfe, and not have put him to lot with the reſt of the booty.

In diſtribution of rewards, almes, and gifts, where every ones turne could not be ſerved, or that which many had alike intereſt in, could not equally be divided, it was by Lot deſigned which way it ſhould go, or to whom, Digeſt. l. 40. tit 5. leg. 24.

The two Tarquins, Titus and Araus decided by Lot, who ſhould firſt kiſſe their of an Olive leafe. 23Mother the Oracle telling them, he ſhould reigne that gave his Mother the firſt kiſſe: wherein Brutus went beyond them both in kiſſing his Grandmother the ground.

When 'tis queſtionable in ſome caſes at civill Law, whither party is Plain­tiff, and whether Defendant (both commencing ſuit (as they may) at once) that doubt is commonly put to the deciſion of a lot Ʋlpian. l. 14.

At the Popes Election, the Cardinalls in the Conclave have their cells aſſig­ned them by lot.

At ſolemn Feaſts, meſſes of meat were anciently aſſigned by lot unto each man in particular.

Among Gods people the Hebrews,Levit. 27.32. Thucyd. lib. 3. Gods part in the tith of their cattell was by lot ſet apart; and among the Heathen likewiſe, where by a ſolemn Vow a tenth of the increaſe of the fruits of the earth, or of their cattell, had been be­fore made over to their Idols, Dyoniſ-Hal. l. autiq. 1.

The Arabians formerly conſecrated yearly a third part of their Cinamon, which the lot lighted on, to the Sun, and the Sun did fire that part of himſelfe, as they fable. Among thoſe heathen in their feaſtivall Lottery the meſſe firſt drawn was accompted holy, and held to be ſome Gods ſhare; Mercuries moſt commonly, whom they deemed preſident of Lottery: that which is rather ter­med to be Mercuries Lot, then that which others ſay of an Olive leafe.

In the diviſion of lands at the ſettling of new Colonies or eſtates, ſome part was uſually by lot ſet apart for Sacred uſes in the firſt place.

In former times they had a Cuſtome,Herodot. lib. 3. when buyer and ſeller could not a­gree to draw Cutts (as we do) or caſt croſſe and pile, and by mication or ſhift­ing of finger, to decide whether ſhould come to others price, and this kind of Lot was likewiſe employed in pecuniary penalties, where the offenders were too many to be all of them amerced. Auguſtus enforced every fifth man (of ſuch as frequented not the Senat as they ſhould) that the lot lighted on, to pay his fine for his abſence, which was remitted to the reſt. Yea in caſes of life and death there was an eſpeciall uſe of it: as when Melchi, Melchizedecks father, who having a purpoſe to ſacrifice one of his ſons caſt lots with his Wife whether he or ſhe ſhould chooſe one of them to be exempted, and after that, upon the reſt of them (She having choſen Melchizideck by that meanes preſerved a lot was caſt for one to be ſlain for a ſacrifice, as 'tis ſurmiſed by the Pſeudo -thanaſ. hiſt. Meleh. Like that of Heſione the Trojan Kings Daughter, who by the deter­mination of a lot was to be expoſed to a Sea-monſter.

The Perſian King tithed out his Magicians upon diſcovery of their frauds: and Combiſes his Army in his Ethiopian expedition for want of victualls ſe­queſtred a tenth part of themſelves for the reſt to make meat of: Auguſtus commanded the two Flori to caſt lots for their lives, the one whereof offering himſelfe withoutot to be ſlaine the other thereupon ſlew himſelfe. Lots frequent and famous a­mong the Ro­mans.

Moſt famous and uſuall was the Roman practice in this kind, termed there­fore by them their ancient Law, or their Countrey cuſtome: whoſe manner it24 was when ſome troopes of their Souldiers had deſerted their Colours, left their ſtations, carried themſelves cowardly in fight, or diſorderly otherwiſe, for frighting of all, and ſaving of ſome; to draw out by lot ſometime more ſome­time fewer, but moſt uſually a tenth part of all that were faulty, or deepeſt in fault, by an ignominious kind of death to be made an example to others, the reſt of them puniſhed only with ſome other kind of diſgrace. This tithing of Delinquents to death by lot, was attempted by Caligula but practiſed at ſeve­rall times by Appius, Jul. Caeſar, Auguſtus, Antonie, Apronius, Craſſus, Galba, Macrinus: Nor is this kind of military diſcipline out of uſe with Martiall men among us at this day, with whom Souldiers that are taken tardie are per­mitted, ſundry of them together, to caſt the Dice for their lives on the Drums head, ſome of them to be puniſhed or executed, and ſome to be cleered and ſaved.

The uſe of Lotts was alſo very frequent in theſe Dominions among the an­cient Brittaines (as Cambden in his Britannia ſaith) in matters of doubt and difficulty,Cambden. fol. 135. Engliſh Saxons. and although ſometimes in a ſuperſtitious divinatory manner, and in matters not fit thereby to be inquired of, yet never without all poſſible reve­rence and prayer preceding: Contrary to the irreligious courſe of theſe later diſtempered times, where Gods ſacred ordinance is moſt impiouſly abuſed in all manner of vain & vile wayes of luſorious ſporting, playing, Dicing, Carding, Lotteries, and the like, whereby God is diſhonoured, and men therefore juſtly thereby cheated and abuſed, and yet theſe wicked wayes continually practiſed by many not of the meaneſt, yea, maintained by ſome of our Clergy in preſſe and pulpit. And that holy way which God ordained for ſetling peace and unity, is abuſed by prophane ſports and vile vanity whileſt we runne on in a moſt de­ſtructive way of ruine and miſery by bloody violence and barbarous cruelty. So that we may lament with David Woe is me that I am conſtrained to dwell in Meſech, &c. Gods holy ordinance inſtituted for ending differences and ſetling peace is utterly deſpiſed and wee like the men of Meſech make ready for warre. And no marvell ſeeing Cambden derives the Brittaines from Iaphets line,Ezek. 38. whence the Prophet Ezekiel proves Gog and Magog the princes, and the men of Meſech to ſpring, and ſo by a derivative line, the Brittaines may ſeeme to ſpring from thence or to have affinity to the men of Meſech, both ſeeming to ſpring from the ſameine of Iaphet; But from the terrible deſtruction there threatned after their diviſions and warres, The God of peace deliver and pro­tect the poore diſtreſſed Brittaines, that they never partake of the fearfull judge­ments there menaced to the men of Meſech, though they ſeeme to ſuite with them in their contentious cruell courſes.


How this ſacred Ordinance may be uſed and applyed as a ſoveraigne Medicine to heale the unhappy diviſions of this diſtracted Kingdome, and to cure and compoſe theſe deſtructive diſſentions and contentions between the King and Parliament.

1. THat a Treaty,