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Ʋnum Neceſſarium: OR, The Poore Mans Caſe: BEING An Expedient to make Proviſion for all poore People in the Kingdome.

Humbly preſented to the higher Powers: Begging ſome Angelicall Ordinance, for the ſpeedy abating of the priſes of Corne, without which, the ruine of many thouſands (in humane judg­ment) is inevitable.

In all humility propounding, that the readieſt way is a ſup­preſſion or regulation of Innes and Ale-houſes, where halfe the Barley is waſted in exceſſe: Proving them by Law to be all in a Prae­munire, and the grand concernment, that none which have been no­toriouſly diſaffected, and enemies to common honeſty and civility, ſhould ſell any Wine, ſtrong Ale, or Beere, but others to be licenſed by a Committee in every County, upon recommendation of the Mi­niſter, and ſuch of the Inhabitants in every Pariſh, where need re­quires, that have been faithfull to the Publike.

Wherein there is a Hue-and-Cry againſt Drunkards, as the moſt dangerous Antinomians: And againſt Ingroſſers, to make a dearth, and cruell Miſers, which are the Caterpillars and Bane of this King­dome.

By John Cooke, of Graies Inne, Barreſter.

Prov. 11.26. He that withholdeth corne, the people ſhall curſe him, but bleſsing ſhall be upon the head of him that ſelleth it.

LONDON, Printed for Matthew Walbancke at Grayes Inne Gate. 1648.


The Matters briefly touched are,

  • 1 THat God ſuffers ſome to be poore, that rich men may have occaſion to do good.
  • 2 That it is lawfull to hoard up corne to prevent a dearth, but not to make it.
  • 3 Ingroſſers of Corne to make a dearth, ſeldome die unpu­niſhed.
  • 4 That it is treaſon againſt the Kingdome; and the Ingroſſer to be puniſhed as a Patricide.
  • 5 The ſcarcity of corne is ſuch, that it is better to reſtraine maulting, then inforce men to ſell at a reaſonable rate.
  • 6 Yet we need not fear a dearth, but for the hardneſſe of ſome mens hearts, and intemperance of others.
  • 7 Ale-houſes the great Nuſance to poore people, like ſtub­born children, are grown almoſt maſterleſſe.
  • 8 What puniſhment a Drunkard deſerves this deer yeare; and that the Statutes ought to be ſtrictly executed againſt Vint­ners and Victuallers, which permit exceſſive drinking.
  • 9 How Mault would make good Engliſh Sack, if Barley were cheape.
  • 10 That the Magiſtrate ought to provide bread for every ho­neſt poore man; for ſubjection drawes proviſion with it.
  • 11 How things were ſaid to be in common among the Primi­tive Chriſtians
  • 12 To hold a community is a proditorious poſition; and to drive at a parity, is a ſenſleſſe opinion.
  • 13 What are the true cauſes of all contracts.
  • 14 That charity conſiſts as much in lending and ſelling to the poor at a moderate price, as in giving.
  • 15 In what ſenſe a famine may be ſaid to follow the ſword.
  • 16 A ſad conſideration, that Proteſtants are greater Drinkers then Papiſts; yet not ſo libidinous; and Germane Drun­kards chaſter then others.
  • 17 Why the Hollanders call ſtrong beere great Pharoah, mid­dle2 beere little Pharoah, and ſmall beere Iſrael.
  • 18 The ſeverall ends of meat and drink, and the commenda­tions of bread above all other things edible.
  • 19 Better Beef ſhould be at ten ſhillings a ſtone, then Barley at ten ſhillings a buſhell.
  • 20 In bargaining the ſmalleſt beer ever beſt for honeſt men.
  • 21 Penurious cuſtomes, unworthy of Gentlemen, unleſſe the poor be thereby relieved.
  • 22 The curſedneſſe of that Proverb, Every man for himſelfe, and God for us all.
  • 23 That Almes this deere yeare are the beſt Sermon-notes, and he that is not now charitable, cannot be a Chriſtian.
  • 24 The mercifull man does good to himſelfe, and loſes no more, then the Sun by ſhining.
  • 25 That this is a ſpeciall time for rich men to honour the Go­ſpell.
  • 26 That it is not lawfull to get great eſtates in time of cala­mities; and whether it be lawfull at any time.
  • 27 No wiſe Chriſtian will deſire more then a competency, for many reaſons.
  • 28 A Law, that no man ſhall gaine above ſo much by any Pro­feſſion, or Trade, is both Angelicall and politike.
  • 29 That Brewers and Bakers, that have gained well when Corn and Mault was cheap, ought not to increaſe their eſtates this deere yeare.
  • 30 A Caveat to ſuch Cormorants, that reſemble the ancient Jewes, by ingroſſing all; the poor will not be famiſhed, if they can by any meanes prevent it.
  • 31 No man to be poyſon'd or famiſht for the greateſt offence being againſt the Law of Nations.
  • 32 The diſmall cries at Newgate, Ludgate, &c. a great diſho­nour to the City.
  • 33 More cruelty in Engliſh priſons, then in all the world.
  • 34 Engliſh poore rather languiſh then live, and Farthings made more beggars then ever they relieved.

Twelve Propoſitions and Intreaties for the Poore.

  • 1 That they may have the Forfeitures of all juſt penall Lawes, as the Statutes of 13. Eliz. 8. 39. Eliz. 18. whereby he that3 takes leſſe then 8. per cent. forfeits the intereſt onely: the Statutes againſt drinking and tipling, ſwearing and curſing: the Statutes for charitable uſes to be ſpeedily executed, and maintenance for the poore out of Impropriations, by 15. Rich. 2. 6. and 4. H. 4. 12.
  • 2 That poore people that bring a pledge, may pay no intereſt.
  • 3 That all earneſt-money is Gods money, and to be given to the poore.
  • 4 That men of eſtates, who make but one ſet meale a day, would beſtow the other upon the poore.
  • 5 No health-drinkings this deer yeare, indifferent things to be diſuſed for a generall abuſer, concerning the holy kiſſe, and kiſſe of curteſie.
  • 6 All money won at play to be given to the poore.
  • 7 Things loſt and caſually found, and Mines, which are Na­tures preſents, to come into the poore mans Box.
  • 8 What is unneceſſarily ſpent in mourning, might comforta­bly relieve the poore.
  • 9 That poore men might have their Griſts Toll-free, and the great abuſe of the devouring Engine of corne, called a boulting Mill.
  • 10 That Miniſters would be hoſpitable, and thunder out Gods judgments againſt all oppreſſion, covetouſneſſe, and delayes of juſtice.
  • 11 That Phyſitians, Chyrurgions and Apothecaries might be aſ­ſigned in forma pauperis, aſwell as Lawyers, Atturneyes, &c.
  • 12 That Lawyers would give every Tenth Fee to the poore. Laſtly, concerning good husbandry, and how to make a vertue of neceſſity.

The Poor Mans Plea: BEING An expedient to make proviſion for all poor People in the Kingdome.

IF all men were rich, Charity would be but lit­tle exerciſed, therefore Chriſt ſaies, The poor yee have alwaies with you that rich men may have occaſion to doe good; what a ſad thing is it, that in a plentifull Kingdome, any man, woman, or child, ſhould be ready to famiſh for want of bread: that hunger ſhould kill whom the Sword hath left alive! Of all judgments, Famine is the ſoreſt; to prove which, there need no other argument, but that the Peſtilence is more deſireable: that which is worſe then the Plague, muſt needs be a moſt heavie affliction: and this is very conſiderable, that all evills may be overcome by pa­tience, except Famine; for a hungry man cannot by patience overcome that: For, it ſtill increaſes, and makes him more and more impatient. There is a Famine of Gods ſending, and a ſcarcity of ſome mens making. He that ſtores and hoards up Corne in a plentifull yeare to prevent a dearth, is a good Com­mon-wealths-man; and he that will ſell it in a deer yeare at a reaſonable rate, ſo as the poore may live by him, is a charitable man: For, when Barley is at 18. pence, or 20. pence a Strike, there is commonly too much havock and ſpoile made of it, not eating up our cruſts, as we uſe to ſay; and brewing Ale and Beere exceſſive ſtrong, which occaſions drunkenneſſe, and ma­ny enormities; as if God gave abundance of his good crea­tures to abuſe them; as ſome that will lie in bed till nine or5 ten a clock, becauſe they have nothing to do when they are up, which if their hearts were bent heaven-wards, they would find imployment. Others, when things are cheap, think they may eat and drink their fill, becauſe God ſends plenty: But, as heavenly Doctor Sibbs was wont to ſay,When thou canſt not ſleep in the night, that's a ſpeciall time appointed by God to make thy peace with heaven, for no worldly buſi­neſſe can then hinder:So when God ſends plenty of graine in this Kingdome, we ſhould conſider, that God would have ſome of it ſpent another yeare: The husbandman fills his barnes but once a yeare, and he's all the yeare long in empty­ing them; and this yeare corn goes very cloſe together, as they ſay, it lies in a little room. But if they complain that have ſome, what ſhall the poore do that have none? But now to hoard up corne, or to reſerve old ſtores to make a dearth, as ſome cruell Huckſters have done in this Kingdome, is like the ſin of murder, that is very ſeldome unpuniſht in this world: He that fills his coffers and barnes, and will not re­lieve the poore, for whom nothing is prepared, and ſuch it may be for whom Chriſt died, goes ſeldome unpuniſht to his grave: For, it is a double iniquity, the ſin of robbery and ſtealth: as if a man be robbed and bound hand and foot, and caſt into a wood by the robbers, if an honeſt man that paſſes by, will not play the good Samaritan, but ſuffer the man to periſh, whoſe life he might eaſily have ſaved, this man is guilty both of theft and murder.

There was never more need to make ſome proviſion for the poore then this yeare; for there is leſſe work for them then e­ver; a Labourer will thraſh as much corn in a day, as the laſt yeare in two; and corn being deere, thoſe that kept three ſer­vants the laſt yeare, will keep but two the next; thoſe that had two but one, and thoſe that had one, will do their work themſelves; and every one projects for himſelfe, to ſpend as little as may be, but who takes care for the poore, how ſhall they be provided for? If a poor man have work all this win­ter, and get ſix pence a day; what will three ſhillings a week do to maintain himſelfe, his wife, and three or foure children? For Engliſh families commonly conſiſt of ſix or ſeven.


Butter and cheeſe are exceſſive deare, by reaſon of the dry Summer; the earth having not yeelded her increaſe ſo kindly as other yeares; and if the poore have not bread to eat, what will become of them? He that will not feaſt till his neigh­bours have ſufficient to eat, is the moſt tender-conſcienc'd man; and he that deſires it ſhould raine as well in his neigh­bours garden as his own, is the beſt neighbour.

I know it has been attempted in deer yeares, to ſet a rate up­on corne, that no man ſhould exceed: every man will agree that this is likely to be an extreme hard yeare for the poore; for bread is the ſtaffe of their life; and he that defrauds them of it, is a man of bloud; and it is a truth as cleer as Chriſtall, that as obedience is due to the Magiſtrate for conſcience ſake; ſo it lies upon him in point of conſcience to provide for the ſu­ſtentation of all that are ſubject to the civill government: for ſubjection drawes protection and proviſion with it: but the queſtion is, what is the moſt proper expedient, and ſpeedy way, to abate and bring down the prices of corne, eſpecially Barley: I confeſſe I am out of my proper element, it being a matter rather of diſcretion and State-policy then of Law: therefore my needle having not been toucht in corne matters, if I varie a little in the compaſſe, or meet with a rock, & preſent any thing crude or undigeſted to mature and deep judgments: If the ſtrength of my affection towards the poore, whoſe good I hope every honeſt man will deſire, ſhall diſcover any weakneſſe in judgment, I hope it will eaſily find favour with all charita­ble men; and for others, I know little uſe of them, eſpecially this deer yeare: he that will not be liberall this yeare, does not deſerve the name of a Chriſtian.

Chriſt was moved with compaſſion when the people were hungry, and he wrought a miracle to feed their bodies; let e­very man ſtudie this point as the onely neceſſary thing, and be humble ſuitors to the Parliament all as one man, to ordaine ſome effectuall meanes and preſent remedy to bring down the price of corne, for poor people muſt not be famiſht. I have ridden ſome miles, to talk with thoſe that are honeſt and judi­cious in ſuch matters; and I ſhall humbly preſume to expreſſe the reſult of what I have heard, with all dutifull ſubmiſſion to Authority.


Some are very zealous that men ſhould be enforced to ſell Barley at 10. groats, or 3. ſhillings 6. pence a Buſhell, which in Leiceſterſhire, is our Strike, as thinking there is great ſtore of old Corne in the Kingdome: but herein I rather commend their zeale then diſcretion, for I do not ſee how men can be conſtrained to ſell their Corne at a certaine rate, they may ea­ſily pretend want of it themſelves, and who can tell how much of it they may have occaſion to uſe? beſides, I ſuppoſe the ſtock of corne would quickly be ſpent; for if the poore might have as much corne as they would ſpend, for 3. ſhillings or 10. groats a Buſhell, they would ſpend more by halfe then now they do: they are forced to make a Buſhell go as farre now, as a Buſhell and halfe the laſt yeare: I heare many ſay, that they which allowed themſelves 12. pence bread in a week, make ſhift with two ſix penny loaves as formerly, though they be farre leſſer; therefore it was a good policy in Caeſar, when corne was deare, to command that they ſhould not raiſe the price of loaves, but make them leſſe, which is well obſerved ſtill to make halfe penny and penny loaves, though leſſe then before: I know in other Countreyes the price of corne is appointed by the Magiſtrate, the great Baker at Rome has all the Corne brought into his Granary,Non Pontifex ſed potifex, non potifex ſed panifex, non panifex ſed carnifex, eſt Papa pater Pontifex. and he ſells it out as he liſts, and ſo it is in the moſt free States where there is the leaſt ſhew of Tyranny; but I ſuppoſe it was long before things were brought to ſo good order, and alteration in States are not eaſily to be admitted, unleſſe in caſe of pregnant neceſſity: England is a Kingdom very populous, and people very queri­monious, how faine would this Kingdome have made them­ſelves ſlaves, and fought themſelves into a perfect bondage? What ſaies the husbandmen, if Corne be dear but one yeare in ſeven, then every one labours to abate the price, but in plen­tifull years, when the husbandmen can ſcarce ſell for 2. ſhillings a Buſhell, who labours to make it dearer, taxes have been mul­tiplied and much free-quarter upon the Yeomanry, and how ſhall they pay their rents and defray extraordinary charges, unleſſe corne beare a good price? and every man that hath Corne to ſell ſaies, let me ſell as deare as the Market goes, though I buy againe and pay dearer for it; as Sir Iohn Need­ham8 alwaies about Michaelmas time goes with his ſack to the Market, and muſt ſell what Corne he hath, and buyes again a­bout ſeeds time, ſo impatient are men of the leaſt reſtraint and regulation, though it be for the beſt.

Others are of opinion, that the beſt way is to reſtraine maulting, or to ordaine that no man ſhall ſell any Mault this deare time above 4. ſhillings a Buſhell, by which meanes much Barley will not be maulted, and ſo they think it a better policy to reſtraine maulting, or the ſelling of Mault above ſuch a rate, then to injoyne the ſelling of Barley at a certaine moderate price, as being generally conceived, that above half the Barley in the Kingdome is maulted, and above half that ſpent in Innes and Ale-houſes.

But it will be difficult to prove what is paid for every Buſhell of Mault, Ale-men and Tipplers will have it whatever it coſt: therefore that which I humbly conceive to be the moſt effectuall remedy pleaſing to God and all good men, will be the preſent ſuppreſſion and putting downe of all Ale-houſes, and the reforming of Innes, which have beene guilty of more enormities, and occaſioned more miſchiefs and diſcommodities to this Kingdome, then the Starre-Chamber, High Commiſſion Court, Councell Table, Court of Wards, and all the Arbitrary Courts have done: And new Licences to be granted in every Pariſh where there is need to ſuch on­ly as know not how to ſubſiſt otherwaies, and are well-affected to the Parliament.

Some conceive it would be ſufficient to reduce and abate the number of Ale-houſes, as where there is foure in a Town to permit but one or two; but this is but pairing the nailes or rather drawing the bloud into one veine: for, if there be any ſtrong Ale in a County, all the good fellowes will flock thither, and good Wine needs no Buſh, men naturally run upon things prohibited, one Ale-houſe will ſpend as much as thoſe foure: rather then ſo, it were better for the King­dome that every man that would might brew to ſell, for then they would out-vie one another, and ſtrive who ſhould make the beſt drink to gain the confluence of cuſtomers: where the moſt ſhops are, there is alwaies beſt choice of commodities;9 but the firſt thing abſolutely neceſſarie for the ſafety of this Kingdome in point of reforming generall abuſes, is a provi­dent care that no debaucht, diſſolute, or licentious perſons, which are notoriouſly diſ-affected to the Parliament, ſhould be permitted to vend any ſtrong Beer or Ale, becauſe it is but put­ting a ſword into a mad mans hand, he that takes away a knife or a ſword from a foole or a mad-man, offends no juſt Law, to prevent the miſchiefe is not to deprive him of his proper­ty; is it fit for mad-men to keep Gunpowder-houſes? In Sici­ly no man of a looſe behaviour is permitted to weare a ſword for feare of doing miſchief, preventing juſtice, like Phyſick at the Spring taken for prevention, is more noble then exe­cuting, becauſe there is neither offence nor puniſhment.

Vintners, Inne-keepers, Ale-men and Hoſteſſes had need to be the moſt abſtemious, temperate and ſober men and women in the Kingdome, becauſe they are moſt familiar and con­verſant with perſons of contrary diſpoſitions, what the wind is to the waters to make them rage, and the evill Spirit to a wicked man by working upon his corrupt humours, ſuch are licentious and diſorderly Inne-keepers and Ale-men to their daily cuſtomers and aſſociates; they ſay every man is free to call for what he pleaſes, but they are diſpleaſed if a man de­part ſober and there be not the Drunkards foure outs as they call it, all the money out of the purſe, all the wit out of the head, all the grace out of the heart, and all the Ale out of the pot, and then the Hoſt reckons as he liſt, 2. ſhillings to pay and you are welcome, and one having ſo much wit left by the help of his buttons to ſay, that he had drunke but ſix pots, ſayes the Hoſt you have ſix in your belly and ſix in your head. For as the caſe ſtands, any man that will may be drunk when he liſts, if he have no company, he knowes where the Hoſt is a bonius ſocius and no ſtarter, it is a ſad obſervation that Drunkards came not into this Kingdome till the Reformation of Religion, and a ſadder obſervation which I have found true, that Proteſtants generally are greater Drinkers then Papiſts, who are farre more libidinous and unchaſt, what a mercie is it, that in Italy, Spaine and thoſe hot Countreyes, Wine ſhould better agree with the conſtitution of their bo­dies10 then beere, and that with us and in Northerne Clymates Beere ſhould beſt agree with our bodies, I verily believe that our Engliſh Mault would make ſuch ſtrong beere, being well boiled, hopped and kept its full time, that it might ſerve in­ſtead of ſack, and be as pleaſing and cordiall Engliſh ſack as the beſt Canary, to the great encouragement of husband­men, and improvement of Hop-grounds: but this muſt be when Barley is about two ſhillings the Buſhell, ſo as a poore man may get a Buſhell of Corne weekly for his Fami­ly, and twelve pence for other neceſſaries; I wiſh it were high Treaſon to ingroſſe any Corne to make a Dearth, ſuch men deſerve the puniſhment of a Patricide, which was in this cruell but proper manner: He that killed his Father was to be put into a great barrell made of leather, with a Dog, a Jackanapes, a Cock and a Viper, and caſt into the Sea, that he might be deprived of all the elements, fire, water, earth and ayre, (for the leather kept out the water, and no more aire came in then to live) whereof all creatures are made, who had killed him that gave him his being, the Dog an uncleane yet faithfull creature to his Maſter, to vex him for his unthankfulneſſe, and after for hunger to teare him in pieces, the Ape to ſhew that he that would imbrew his hands in his Fathers bloud, had nothing of man in him, but a hu­mane figure like an Ape; the Cocke that he might never ſleep, but be perpetually vexed, and the Cock is an ene­my to the Viper, and that Saylors hearing the Cock might know the man, the Viper a thing fearefull to men, and obnoxious to the ſame offence, coming to light by the Pa­rents death: what greter ingratitude can there be that poore people ſhould take all the pains to plough the ground and bring in the harveſt, and then miſerable Huckſters ſhould ſuffer them to be famiſhed for want of bread? a few Ingroſſers may undo a whole Towne or Countrey: but may not I doe with my owne what I liſt? (ſayes the old Cormudgin,) No, that thou maiſt not thou Devill in the the ſhape of a man, a man may not be drunke with his own wine, nor play the Glutton at his own table, but it is none of thine, thou art a Lyar, thou miſerable wretch,11 truly miſerable in ſoule and bodie, thou haſt no money, the money hath thee, it is none of thine, it is the poore mans bread which thou lockeſt up in thy barnes, when thou takeſt ſix ſhillings for a Buſhell of Barley from him which thou maiſt well afford for three ſhillings, thou ſqueezeſt too much bloud out of his veines, and God will call thee to an account for it, however the law of man may be defective; if thou eſcape puniſhment here, thy reſervation is but a pre­ſervation to a greater miſerie; how many Ingroſſers have had their Barns burnt and Corn conſumed that would not ſell at reaſonable rates? we have good bookes printed of Gods judgements againſt ſwearers, and drunkards, and Gods revenge againſt Murders, I wiſh ſome able man would take the pains to make a collection of Gods revenge againſt Ingroſſers and Uſurers of Corn, and covetous cruell men of all ſorts, who de­ſerve to be kicked out of all honeſt mens companies, for God abhorres them, as being moſt contrary to his diffuſive nature.

But, what Law is there to puniſh ſuch men? all the reaſon in the world for it, for the health of a ſick man is the Phyſi­tians ſupreme Law, Law muſt give place to neceſſity, if there be ſuch an inundation of waters that a man cannot paſſe in the ordinary road, a man may juſtifie to go through the next Lands, for the diviſion of Lands was made with this con­dition, reſerving a liberty for everie man to paſſe in ſuch a caſe of neceſſity, and ſo every man muſt have a way through his neighbours ground to goe to his own Land, for by the grant of the ground all things are granted to make it profitable, and when the Magiſtrate inforces men to ſell their Corne at reaſonable rates,Non eſt invo­luntaria vendi­tio ſed accom­modatio prox­imi. ſo as the poore may live by the rich, this is not in judgement of Law, an unvoluntary and inforced ſale, but an accommo­dation of ones neighbour in charity, naturall equity and hu­manity, according to the condition of the fields and nature of the place and ſociety of men with whom we live. Valde bonum, à commodum Gen. 1.31.And God ſaw every thing that he made, and it was very good, the Cal­deans read, very profitable for man.

At Naples the great treaſurer of corn being intruſted with ma­ny thouſand quarters at 3. s. the buſhell for the common-good,12 finding an opportunity to ſell it for 5. ſhillings the Buſhell to forraigne Merchants, inriched himſelfe exceedingly thereby, and Corne growing ſuddenly deare, the Counſell called him to account for it, who proffered to allow 3. ſhillings for it as it was delivered into his cuſtody, and hoped thereby to eſcape, but for ſo great a breach of truſt nothing would content the people but to have him hanged, and though there was no po­ſitive Law for it to make it Treaſon, yet it was reſolved by the beſt Politicians, that it was Treaſon to breake ſo great a truſt, by the fundamentall Conſtitution of the Kingdome, which by all intrinſicall Rules of Government ought to preſerve it ſelfe, and that for ſo great an offence he ought to die, that durſt preſume to inrich himſelfe by that which might indanger the lives of ſo many Citizens; for as ſociety is na­turall, ſo Governours muſt of neceſſity and in all reaſon pro­vide for the preſervation and ſuſtenance of the meaneſt mem­ber, he that is but as the little toe of the Bodie Politique.

To ſpeake a word how farre the Magiſtrate is to regulate and give a Law to the prizes of Commodities for the publike good, I agree with Ariſtotle and all the Roman Authours a­gainſt that erroneous opinion of Plato, that Property and Di­viſions of Lands and Goods is by the Law of God and nature, yet ſo as one man is not to feaſt and another be famiſh'd: Con­tracts are by a naturall Law and right of all Nations, yet ſo as Gods divine Law is the efficient cauſe of Contracts amongſt men, for we are bound to ſell to one another by Gods Law, elſe mankind could not continue, for all things are made and created for mans ſake, as that Propheticall Pſalmiſt David ſaies,Omnia ſubje­ciſti ſub pedi­bus ejus. thou haſt put all things in ſubjection under his feet; the ma­teriall cauſe of contracts are all things neceſſary for mans ſu­ſtentation: for if there were no meanes to buy thoſe things we want, or to exchange other things for them, as formerly, men when there was a little money, exchanged Corne for Cat­tell, we ſhould teare and deſtroy one another like brute beaſts. Now the formall cauſe is the form and manner of buying and ſelling, for money, or by way of exchange, if the owner will not ſell, then he may lend or pledge, or hire the uſe of it as he pleaſeth; and the finall cauſe of every contract is that we13 may uſe and enjoy Gods good creatures honeſtly and profita­bly, that one man be not grievous to another, that ſo a com­mutative equality may keep the peace, and peace may make the Kingdome happie, wherein we are all, as in the ſame ſhip, therefore all Contracts muſt benefit our neighbours, every wiſe man looks at the end, when I ſell a Buſhell of Corne, the Law ſaies I do thereby do good to my neighbour, yet ſo as that he wants my Corne, ſo I ſtand in need of his money, which is a leſſe principall end and conſideration in the eye of Law; for money is but artificiall, a thing that is turned Trump by policy, not by any naturall inherent vertue that there is in it in compariſon of living creatures, or the naturall fruits of the earth created for mans ſuſtenance; therefore I may take a moderate gaine for my Corn, but not exceſſive, let no man weakly object that, for the Magiſtrate to ſet a price upon Corne or Cattell, is againſt the Freedome and Liberty of the Subject, as if the harmony of health ſhould endanger the bo­dy naturall, when the ſpleen ſwells the body pines; if a cruell miſer have 100. quarters of Corne to ſpare, and 100. of his poor neighbours are ready to famiſh for want of bread, who have not money to pay him an extraordinary rate, if the Ma­giſtrate inforce him to ſell it at a reaſonable rate, it is but juſt by the Law of God and nature: we have been ſo long ac­cuſtomed to the yoke, that moſt in this Kingdome had rather be in ſubjection to their old Task-maſters, then to be ſet at Liberty by our noble Reformers, if there were 100. Marriners in a ſhip, and one ſhould keep bread ſufficient for 20. and the reſt have nothing to eat, does not that Pilote deſerve blame who will not force him to contribute of his ſuperfluity to his brethrens neceſſity? the rule of charity is, that one mans ſuperfluity ſhould give place to another mans conveniency, his conveniency to anothers neceſſity, his leſſer neceſſities to an­others extreamer neceſſities, and ſo the mechanicall poore to relieve the mendicant poor in their extreamer need, and this is but the Dictate of the Law of Nature: and can any man queſtion but that the Magiſtrate is impowred by God to com­mand every man to live according to the rule of nature and right reaſon? The Romans were never more free then when14 they had a certaine price ſet, and taxed upon all manner of commodities and things which were bought and ſold; and ſo it is for many commodities in that well governed State of Venice, the Magiſtrate ſets the price of all fleſh that no man can be deceived in buying in the beſt ground in Spaine: neer Granata, the Land-lords may not plant Olives, nor make Vineyards as they deſire, that ſo there may be more ſtore of Corne for the poor, and more plentifull paſture for cattell, which are brought to that City: by Gods Law a man might refreſh his horſe upon his neighbours ground, and him­ſelfe in the Vineyard,Deut. 23. Mark. 12. though it was not in a caſe of neceſſity, as the Diſciples pluckt the eares of Corne and the gleanings are reſerved for the poore; how much more then may and ought the Magiſtrate to take ſpeciall care that corne be ſold at ſuch a rate as the poor be not famiſhed, for to offer him a Buſhell of Barley for 5. ſhillings, who hath but 3. ſhillings to give for it, is to deny him bread to eat, or to ſet the loafe upon an high place and bid the little child eat, who cannot reach it: every man is bound to love his neighbour more then his owne goods, we are commanded to give our goods to ſave another mans life, much more to ſel our goods at a reaſonable rate, it is a common errour that all charity is in giving, not in ſelling; if I give I ſhall be thanked for it, but let me ſell as deare as I can, is the language of ſuch as will give away but little.

He that will ſell ſo much Barley as he can reaſonably ſpare this deare yeare, to poore men for two ſhillings or halfe a Crowne a buſhell, is a more charitable man then he that now and then gives an Almes to a beggar at his door; no man ought to defraud, or go beyond his brother in bargaining, we ſay in Law that a thing is worth ſo much, as it can be ſold for,Precim Su­premm, me­dium & infi­mum. but in conſcience no more then the buyer is able to give: there are three prizes of things, ſupreme when things are dear, moderate when things are at an ordinarie rate, and inferiour when things are at a low rate; within which latitude buyers and ſellers may deceive one another, becauſe an exact and Mathematicall equality of price would hinder contracts: but there is a difference (as we ſay proverbially) between ſtaring and ſtark blind, if the thing that is ſold for 20. pound be not15 really worth ten pound, this bargaine ought not to ſtand, for the hurt is above halfe the juſt price, I know the price of a thing is perpended by the common eſtimation of men, not from the nature of the thing, for then every living creature ſhould be dearer then things inanimate, a Pigeon ſhould coſt more then a Diamond, but if a man ſhall ſell a Jewell for 100. pound which is not worth 50. pound, this ought not to be ſuffered in a Kingdome well governed; for the buyer muſt either be deceived, or was in great neceſſity, and being againſt the end of Contracts (which is the good of the party with whom you contract) it is a meer nullity and not binding: that old ſaying, let the buyer beware,Caveat Emp­tor. takes all care from the Ma­giſtrate, as if men might cozen or ſurprize one another, and the Judge was not to rectifie all abuſes and extremities in that kind, whereas it is a ſin to offend my brother in bargaining,1 Theſ. 4. Nemo ſuper­veniat. & Lev. 25. Non fratrem tuum. or to contriſtate his ſpirit againſt commutative Juſtice, that of Paul to the Theſſalonians is, let no man overcome his neigh­bour; truly, it is a great ſhame to conſider how men (for the moſt part) abuſe their callings, as I have often ſaid.

The Civilians, who are the beſt moderatours of naturall e­quity, ſay, that a Magiſtrate may inforce a man to ſell his Pa­trimony for publique neceſſity, not for the Princes pleaſure,Eſt neceſſitas quoad rem non quoad precium. Neceſſitatem non utiltiate, pro conſtru­ctione non ampliatione. but then a reaſonable price muſt be given for it, for the State muſt not want money in that caſe: as if any man have a large houſe which is conceived neceſſary to make a Court of Juſtice, the owner ought by the Law of God and nature, to ſell it at a reaſonable price for that purpoſe, and ſo a piece of ground for Martiall Diſcipline, or to erect fortifications for the pub­like ſervice, and the reaſon is evident, becauſe the right which he hath to his houſe or land is by the Law of that Kingdome, which cannot be maintained but by doing juſtice, therefore that which is moſt conducible to publike Juſtice muſt be pre­ferred, and every man is to preferre the publike good before his own private; a man is bound to do good to his Coun­trey and acquaintance when he may do it without his owne deſtruction. Is it not a ſad thing that the poore people which plow the ground, manure it, and ſow it, weed it, and get in the harveſt, and take all the paines, ſhould bring it into a16 Miſers Barne and then be famiſhed themſelves for want of bread? in a time of warre corne was ſo deare that the ſouldi­ers had ſcarce bread: ſaies the Emperour, ſhall the poor men defend your City, and keep your corne in your Barns, and will you not feed them? and conſtrained them to relieve the poore.

Let no man pretend that he may want the next yeare for his owne family, and therefore will not ſell to the poor at a moderate price, for this is a manifeſt diſtruſting of Gods providence, as if he could not ſend plenty next yeare, and putting too much confidence in an arme of fleſh; how diffe­rent is this from that excellent Petition of Give us this day our daily bread? not ſo much corne in my barnes this yeare as may ſerve me ſeven years, ſuppoſe a man did certainely know, which cannot be imagined, that there were ſeven years of ſcarcity approaching, may any man therefore ingroſſe all the Corne in the Kingdome to ſell it as they pleaſe, and ſuffer the poore to famiſh in the mean time? nothing leſſe: the Holy Ghoſt in Deuteronomie moſt convictingly meets with ſuch Objectors, Beware that there be not a thought in thy wicked heart,Deut. 15.9, 10.11. ſaying, the ſeventh yeare, the yeare of releaſe is at hand, and thy eye be evill againſt thy poor brother, and thou giveſt him nought, and he cry unto the Lord againſt thee, and it be ſinne unto thee, thou ſhalt ſurely give him, and thine heart ſhall not be grie­ved when thou giveſt unto him: becauſe that for this thing the Lord thy God ſhall bleſſe thee in all thy workes, and in all that thou putteſt thine hand unto, for the poore ſhall never ceaſe out of the Land; therefore I command thee, ſaying, thou ſhalt open thine hand wide unto thy brother, to thy poore and to thy needy in thy Land.

The Argument is unanſwerable, if I muſt lend to my poor brother when I am ſure to loſe it, much more am I bound to ſell my corn unto him at reaſonable rates, though hard time; ſhould come, which yet are not likely; for God that provided for us in times of warre, when we had more cauſe to feare a famine, will undoubtedly bleſſe this Kingdome with increaſe in times of peace, if our ingratitude and uncharitableneſſe to the poor do not ſet bounds to his mercies.


If any man object, that this generall ſuppreſſion of Ale-houſes is like Lycurgus his Law, to ſtock up all the vines and ſuffer no more wine to grow to prevent drunkenneſſe, as if the uſe of meat ſhould be prohibited, becauſe many Gluttons ſurfeit upon it, and no uſe of candles, becauſe ſome negligent people have thereby ſet houſes on fire: theſe are as weak Ar­gumentations as that the Poiſoner ought not to die, becauſe not he but the poiſon was the immediate cauſe of death: to reforme abuſes is not to extinguiſh or diminiſh the uſe of the creature, there is a neceſſitie to drink, but a greater neceſſity not to be drunke; as the faithfull Meſſenger,Sola neceſſitas eſt non pec­candi. who being im­ployed about the ſafety of a Kingdome, was diſſwaded from imbarking in a great ſtorme, ſayes he, it is neceſſary that I goe not that I live;Peccatum eſt Semper mavis malum. a man muſt ſuffer the greateſt evill of paine rather then commit the leaſt evill of ſin, of two evills we muſt chooſe the leaſt, but the leaſt ſin is the greateſt evill: this giving liberty to none, but ſuch as are well-affected to the Parliament, to ſell Ale or Beer is to prevent ſinfull diſorders;Obſtare prin­cipiis. for they are generally ſuch as doe not allow drinking of pre­curſory healths, which is like giving the firſt blow; it hath ever been obſerved that the firſt health hath been like open­ing the floud-gates, I have in my thoughts compared it to S. Bartholomewes Iſland in Rome, which began by one corne that arreſted at a tree, ſticks and other things came to it which obdurated; and in proceſſe of time became an Iſland, or as the King of Sweden was wont to ſay, the loſſe of a naile may be the loſſe of an Army; for the loſſe of a naile may be the loſſe of the ſhooe, the loſſe of a ſhooe may lame the horſe, and ſo indanger the rider, and the fall of the rider may diſor­der the Troup till at laſt all be routed.

I wiſh the application were not too true, I am confident­ly perſwaded that the diſorders in Taverns, Innes and Tipling-houſes, have been chiefe motives and occaſions of this King­domes miſeries; what miſchiefes almoſt are at any time brought to light, but have been hatched and conceived in ſome of thoſe wombes, to the great diſhonour of Almighty God, and the inſufferable abuſe of his good creatures? and18 when the goods are ill ſpent, the maſter muſt needs be angry: what a monſtrous thing is it for a man to make himſelfe a beaſt, to unman himſelfe and become a Lion for fierceneſſe, a Hog or a Dog for beaſtlineſſe, as the boy that waited upon a great Drinker, who gloried in making others drunk, intrea­ted his Maſter to make him a ſheep, how can I doe that ſaies the Maſter, yes Sir, ſaies he, as well as you made Mr. ſuch a one a Lion, and another a Beare, and a third a Hog, why may not you make me a ſheep?

A Drunkard breaks all Gods Commandements, he acknow­ledges no God but his belly, he commits Idolatry, drinking healths alwaies uncovered, many times ſtanding and ſomtimes upon his knees, a geſture fit for a prayer, unleſſe ſitting may better elevate the affections, what fearfull Oathes and horrid Execrations are daily belcht out in Tippling-houſes, no wonder that the plague invades them, how ſhamefully are Sabbaths prophaned, notwithſtanding good Lawes and Ordi­nances to the contrary, which are contemned and broken like Spiders webs, for becauſe the doores are kept ſhut in Ser­mon time, that good fellowes cannot enter, therefore they make a perambulation in Moorefields, Iſlington and other pla­ces, till Sermon be done, and then ſwallow it downe with bet­ter appetite, and ſo make good Lawes as good ſawces to drink Ale without an Orenge.

Theſe places principally are the corrupters of youth, and the firſt riſe of diſobedience to Parents is commonly from a Tavern or a Tipling-houſe; youth is like a faire built houſe, an Ale-houſe is the bad Tenant that lets it raine in: is there a­ny quarrelling? it begins there; as there was ſeldome or ne­ver any Treaſon in times of Popery, but there was a Prieſt or a Jeſuite in it, ſo is it in point of murder, the quarrell com­mences or is fomented in ſome drinking-houſe,Nunquam E­brium putabo caſtum. the verieſt coward is pot-valiant, and never was any Engliſh Drunkard chaſt: however the Germanes and Dutch from whom this Nation hath unhappily contracted the guilt of this beſtiall ſinne of drunkenneſſe, are yet accounted chaſte, either be­cauſe their drinking procures ſpeedy ſleep and evaporations,19 as ſome ground is made fruitfull by that raine which gluts other land and hinders it from producing naturall operations, or it proceeds from ſome occult quality in nature, but a particular inſtance againſt a generall ob­ſervation is ſophiſticall.

A Drunkard is the greateſt Felon, he robs himſelfe of all that is worth owning, a moſt odious creature to eve­ry honeſt man, how many Raſcalls drink the very bloud of their poor wives and tender Infants in a Tippling-houſe, and ſpending that riotouſly that would refreſh a wearied family? Drunkenneſſe by the Turks Law is puniſhed with death for the ſecond offence, and whe­ther he that ſteales a ſtrike of Corne this deer yeare, or he that ſhall conſume 20. ſtrike more then he needs, which is but in effect robbing of the poore, better deſerves death, let every ſober man ſeriouſly conſider.

For my owne part, I thinke it would be a moſt excel­lent Law, as the caſe ſtands, to make drunkenneſſe for the firſt offence impriſonment three daies, and to live with bread and water; for when a poor man is drunk to make him pay 5. ſhillings is but to puniſh and adde affli­ction to the innocent and afflicted wife and children for the guilty husband, I wiſh ſuch penall Lawes were re­formed, and more proper puniſhments inflicted: for the ſecond offence a fine to the poore, to the full value of ſo much as according to the diſcretion of a good Judge and Jury he hath conſumed and waſted in exceſſive drinking; as for example, if a man have been a common frequenter of Tavernes or Ale-houſes, or a great drinker in private houſes, for the ſpace of twenty yeares, it is probable he hath ſpent in that ſpace a Crowne a week at the leaſt in exceſſive drinking, more then would have preſerved health and increaſed ſtrength, the only lawfull ends of eating and drinking, which amounts to above 200. l. it is juſtice to make him pay it if he be able, if not let him be whipped or burnt in the hand: The third of­fence to be Fellony, yet ſo as onely to beare the ſhame20 and reproach of it by holding up his hand and tried for his life, but to be ſaved by ſomthing equivalent to Cler­gie as a matter of form, and for the fourth offence to ſu­ſtaine the paine of death, as unworthy to live in a well-governed Kingdome, a Drunkard being the greateſt rob­ber of poore people which are readie to famiſh for want of bread, a rebell againſt divine and humane au­thority, and a ſworne enemy to all humanity, what lies and inventions are daily hatched and contrived in theſe ungodly Seminaries? how are honeſt men diſgraced and ſcandalized, godlineſſe ſcoffed at, and honeſty traduced by theſe vermin and Catterpillars of the Common­wealth? All the lies, calumnies, and falſities that have been contrived, invented, and fabricated againſt the Par­liament, Army, and all the godly honeſt men in the Kingdome, what have they been but the ebullitions of ſome tipſey Taverne, or frothy Ale-bench? and if the moſt godly men are exceeding privy to their daily fai­lings and infirmities which breake forth in the firſt mo­tions and riſings of the heart againſt the deliberate bent of their wills, and yet are ſins againſt the laſt Commande­ment, how guilty is the Drunkard that is a Maſſe of himſelfe, and makes it his daily trade to break the whole Law of God, which is holy, juſt and good? ſo that the Drunkard is the grand Antinomian, againſt whom the Parliament, Army, and all honeſt men are by the Lawes of God and Nature, to ſhoot all the arrowes of their deepeſt diſpleaſures. If Sack were but at ſix pence a quart, and Barley but at twelve pence a buſhell; but now that Barley is at five ſhillings, and in probability will be ten if this drinking continue: but I truſt our noble Worthies in Parliament will ſpeedily take a ſevere courſe to re­ſtraine it: when one is drunke they uſe to ſay he hath got a Fox, and ſo make but a jeſt of it, but he deſerves to be hunted as a Fox, theſe are the Foxes that ſpoile the vines, that drinke the poor mans bloud, and are guilty of the death of every poore man, woman, and child21 that ſhall be famiſhed to death for want of bread, as it is greatly to be feared many will be: there was a Law of Wolfehead in this Kingdome, he that had killed a Wolfe had ſo much for his pains, and we reward him who kills Moles, Hedge-hogs, or ſuch noxious creatures; I remember that a late Favorite in Dublin had a project to get a Patent for all the foxed groats in that City, that every one that was drunk over night ſhould pay him a groat in the morning, conceiving upon good grounds it would have been worth many hun­dreds a yeare, though that ſucceeded not: yet real­ly, I would now have a Law of Foxhead, every man that can find out a Drunkard to be well re­warded, not to kill him, becauſe the Magiſtrate muſt have a care of his ſoule in ſuch a caſe, and if he ſhould die drunk then one great Drunkard was afraid that he ſhould riſe drunk at the Reſurrecti­on, but to bring him into the gates of the City, the Courts of publike Juſtice, that the poor peo­ple may throw dirt in his face, and ſay, this is that monſter in nature that drinks as much in a week in wine and ſtrong drinks, as would relieve many of our hungry ſouls, he ſurfeits and vomits it up again and our little cruſe is almoſt ſpent, we muſt this night ſit downe and eat the laſt bread and die, for there is no more corn to be had, this Raſcall that hath a Devill in his belly, that devoures as much ſtrong drink as the Idoll Bell did, for he had but 6. pots of wine every day; which ſufficed Bells Prieſts being 70. in number, beſides their wives and children, which was not two barrels a day, is there not as much ſpent in many drin­king-houſes in this Kingdom? let us have juſtice upon him or we will ſtone him, or rather hang him upon a Gallows,22 and ſtarve him to death, a proper end for all Cormorants and devouring Gluttons; the Eagle that King of birds dies for hunger, the upper beake ſo inclaſping the other, that it cannot eat: Oh that theſe myſticall Foxes, five times more dangerous then Wolves, which prey upon ſheep, might be hunted into the Sea, that delight ſo much in liquid elements, that they might be abjured the Realm and ſent beyond ſea whence they firſt came, and goe chin deep in water every day, untill they find a convenient paſſage: theſe Serpents ſting poor people to death, I hope there will be a preſent Hue-and-Cry after all theſe exceſ­ſive drinkers, let them be inquired after with Eagles eyes ſome honeſt ſober men in every Pariſh appointed to bring them to condigne puniſhment.

Queſt. But the doubt is, who ſhall be ſaid to be drunk, which makes the Statutes againſt drunkenneſſe to be of little uſe, becauſe it is ſo hard a thing to prove a man drunk, for penall Lawes are to be conſtrued ſtrictly.

Reſp. Tradition ſaies that he is not drunke that can creep out of the cart way from the danger of the cart-wheel, like that of killing a Swan, that it muſt be hanged up by the head, and the killer or ſtealer muſt cover it o­ver with wheat, which muſt goe to the owner. I find no ſuch caſe in Law, but ſomething to that purpoſe of a hog rooting in another mans ground,Dominus por­ci tenetur ver­rificationes frumento im­plere.He that rees or ſtaggers is drunk. the holes muſt be filled up with corn; David ſeemes to compare a drunken man to a ſhip at ſea, they reel to & fro like a drunken man and are at their wits ends; we ſay commonly the man is drunk or mad that does not underſtand himſelf, and ſo make drunkenneſſe to be a privation of ſence and under­ſtanding: but for my owne part I love to adhere to the Scripture, and judge that man to be drunk who hath taken more then his body requires for health or ſtrength inor­dinately: no drunkard like the old Drunkard that can ſit all day from morning to night, & by the help of that witch Tobacco (againſt the moderate or unluſtful uſe whereof I except not,) as K. James calls it, which wil make a drunken man ſober, & a ſober man drunk, wil be as freſh at night as at the firſt cup; oh that ever ſuch deſtroyers of the poor23 ſhould be ſuffered to live in a deere year, I know a man may rejoyce more freely in a lawfull uſe of the creature ſometime then others, but never immoderately, for there is no degree beyond modera­tion; a man may drink to refreſh himſelfe,ut vires reficiant••non ut op­primantur Ebrioſus non ſolum peccat ſed ipſe totum est pecca­tum. but not to oppreſſe na­ture; and the Cannoniſts hold that if the Phyſitians ſhall preſcribe a pinte or quart of White-wine, to a weake braine, to make a vom­mit for healthes ſake, it may be done with muccaution, ſo as health be only intended; becauſe the end of meat and drinke is health, and ſtrength, and the creature is not abuſed to any unworthy end; but, a man may not commit Fornication by any adviſe for healths ſake, becauſe coppulation was appointed for other ends: but a man muſt nor overcharge and oppreſſe nature, as pot companions do, for ſuch a man does not only ſin, but is himſelfe wholy ſin.

Therefore an Ordinance to ſuppreſs and reſtraine exceſſive drink­ing, would be moſt excellent for mens ſoules, bodies, and eſtates; what an Angellicall and Divine Ordinance would it be to preſerve, by Gods bleſſing, the Soules, Bodies, and Eſtates, of many thouſands in this Kingdome from Ruine, Conſumtion, and Perdition; what an infinit happyneſſe would hereby accrue to this Kingdome, if the Ta­verns and Inns were regulated, and Ale-houſes Univerſally ſuppreſ­ſed and reſtrained from ſelling Ale, and ſtrong Beere, after ſuch a time, and in the mean time, to Licence ſo many as are well-affected to the Parliament, honeſt ſober men, that ſhould not ſuffer any diſ­order in their houſes; and to ſell no Beere or Ale ſtronger then what they can afford for a penny a quart, unleſſe it be to ſick or poore people, or ſuch as they are ſure will not abuſe themſelves with it.

Queſtion. But is it not ſufficient to diminiſh the number of Ale-Houſes or to ſuppreſſe and reſtraine unlicenſed and more diſorderly Houſes,

Re. Truly I feare that will not do the deed, that plaiſter will not be wide enough: It is conceived upon good grounds, that above two parts of all the Barley throughout the Kingdome wil be Ma••ed this yeare,Licentia omnes de­teriores ſumus which if that were reſtrained then might the poore buy it for about 3 s. a Buſhell, which is a reſonable price for buyer and Seller: thoſe Ale houſes which are licenced do but main­taine Idleneſſe, Drunkeneſſe, and all mannor of Exceſſe and Riotouſneſſe by authority; and that conceit of my Lord Ba­con may fitly be applied, that for Licences we are al the worſe.

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But why all Ale-houſes to be reſtrained? Truly becauſe that is ſooneſt done, and never did any diſeaſe in the Body Politque ſince the Gunpowder plot, require a more ſpeedy remedy, for the Mal­ſters are traveling up and down the Country in every place, to buy Barley at any rates, to make ſport for Drunkards.

A more dangerous generation of men then the late ſpyes were, I doe not finde that a Maulſter is an addition in Law, Maulting is no legall trade, but a craft and miſtery whereby they ingroſſe much money, moſt of them being men of other trades; laſt yeare they bought Barley for 7 groats and halfe a crowne a buſhell, and ſell it for 5 ſhillings and ſixteen groates a buſhell in malt, and yet gaine a ſtrike in a quarter, which is not worth above a groat a bſhell Malting, and ſome of them ſould the ſame Barley againe for four ſhillings, and four ſhilllings and ſix pence a buſhell, and ſo they grind the faces of the poore, and keep them hungery in ſpite of their teeth, and theſe tipling houſes will have vent for it if it were at 10 s. a buſhell, for Ale, in many places, is ſould already for a groat a quart.

But is it juſtice to deprive men of their callings; what ſhall theſe Ale-men and favorites of Bacchus do, they have been fed with the fineſt of the Wheat, and their joynts annointed with the Oyle of Sir Iohn Barlycorne; how would you have them live.

I confeſſe it is a weighty queſtion, therefore I would have ho­neſt poore men to be Licenced to keepe Uictualling houſes, ſuch as have no other trades or calings to maintaine them, and ſome muſt worke for their livings as others doe, If the Majeſtrate would be pleaſed to provide continually corne for the poore at eaſyates, they would make a pretty ſhift to ſubſiſt; ah, ſays many a poore Creature, if I can but get bread for my poore wife and ſmall Chil­dren this deare yeare I care not; I would worke almoſt my heart out, but I can ſcarce get a dayes work, every thing riſes in price, but that which ſhould riſe, the day-Labourers wages, many work now for a groat a day which had 6. d. and 8. d. Certainly it lies upon the Magiſtrate to provide bread for every honeſt man at ſuch rates as men be not enforced to ſteale?

I obſerve a great diſproportion between the prices of things, and the poore hirelings wages, moſt day-Laborers in matters of Hus­bandry yerne but 6. d. a day, who being 6. or 7. in Family, what will 3. s. a weeke do to maintaine them, It will but halfe buy bread,25 for they have little elſe to eat; England is a famous Kingdome for corn, eſpecially for Barley, we exceed all other Countries. Tis mar­vaile that we have not alwayes 2. or 3 yeares proviſion before hand, but the leaſt immoderate raine, or unkind and unfruitfull yeare cauſes a Dearth that the poore people who live from hand to mouth are in danger to be ſtarved, whats the matter in the name of God? Is there not corne ground enough in the Kingdome, why ſo many incloſures ſuffered, there is no neceſsity of having ſo much Mutton and Beefe in the Kingdom, let it be as dear as it will, poor people can live without it, It would be a happy thing if the Juſtices of Peace in every County were authoriſed and enabled to take care and make proviſion that there might be corn ſufficient for every poore man at a reaſonable rate, why are not many Forreſtes (where the poor people will not ſuffer in point of fewell) which have been receptacles for wild Beaſts and Dens, and Nurſeries of Licentious people, where there are many cloſe Ale-houſes that are receivers of Rogues, and Theefes, he being as guilty that holds the Bag, as he that fills it) diſ-aforeſted and converted into tillage and many large farmes erected there and made comfortable habitati­ons for Laborious Husbandmen; I know the preſervation of wood very neceſſary for the well-being of this Kingdome; but under pretence of nouriſhing wood, there is abundance of Depopulation permitted, and the poor people driven into Market-Townes and Corporations, which are ſo populous, that every unſeaſonable year for Corne threatens a preſent dearth, which is ſad in the contem­plation of it, but will be heavy and fatall to this Kingdome if not timely prevented. See the Stat. 1 Iac 9.4 Iac. 21. Iac. 7. Dal 26.31

But for the matter of Juſtice, this is the caſe that all Ale men are in a Praemunire and have all forfeited their Lycences, ſo viſibly, that it needs no further proofe, for the law is poſitive and plaine, that whoſoever ſhall ſell leſs then a full ale quart of the beſt and ſtrongeſt Beere or Ale for 1. d. Is diſabled to keepe an ale houſe for three yeares, after, nay if ſuch a man be licenced againe within 3 yeares ſuch licence is void, and he is to be puniſht as victualling without Lycences

I Beleeve there is no Alehouſe in this Kingdome but is guilty of the breach of this Law. and therefore it is but juſt to ſuppreſs them all for 3. years, or rather then fail, but for this yeare according to the ſtatute, for they have occaſioned this threatned dearth, we have had plenty of late yeares to admiration, and there might26 have been barley enough in the Kingdome for the releef of poore people, at 2. s. a Buſhwell if it had not been ſuperfluouſly conſumed and ſquandred away in Ale-houſes, and though ſome houſes have been more orderly and civill then others, yet all are guilty, and the beſt way to avoid exceptions, and to prevent a Famine, is to ſup­preſſe them all after ſuch a time, and in the interim to lycence ſo many honeſt men as are needfull in every place to keepe Ale-hou­ſes, obſerving the ſtatutes, and ſelling a quart a penny, which they might well affoord if Mault were at eaſie rates, Beſides Ale houſes are none of thoſe trades, wherein men have a free-hold for their lives, no man need to ſerve a Prentiſhip to learne to ſell a quart of Ale or Beere for a penny, and no man ought to live by a ſinfull cal­ling, tis a lamentable caſe that people cannot live unles men be diſ­orderly, and drinke exceſſively in their houſes, tis a cruell courteſie to afford a man his ſupper, for 6. d. at an Inne, but then he muſt ſpend 6. d. or more in drink after ſupper, and commonly goes foxt to bed, or elſe the Landlord gets nothing by his gueſts company, If any man cannot live but by the ſins of other men, ſend him to Bride well, and he will learn a better trade, for he that will not work if he can let him not eate, tis no charitie to ſuffer the chil­drens bread to be eaten up by ſuch ungodly wretches, But it will be objected that there are many good and profitable lawes made to this purpoſe, which if carefully put in execution might be pre­venting Phiſick to cure a Famine which is ſo juſtly feared, I confes the Lawes are very excellent, and by putting of one ſtatute in exe­cution might do the deed; for the Iuſtices of Peace, or the greater part of them may in open quarter-ſeſsions reſtraine the converting of Barley into Mault. 39 Eliz. 16.But they are not pleaſed to do it, and laws without execution, are like Bells without Clappers I know not by what unhappy fate many rich men, and men in office, are turned Maulſters, and ſell Ale and ſtrong Beere, and theſe Cormorants wil not ſuffer any Barley to come into the Market, I know a Mayor of a Towne that now ſels Ale for a groat a quart.

The Juſtices of Peace have abſolute authority to authorize or ſuppreſſe Alehouſes in part, or in all, as they pleaſe, and have the correction and regulation of all diſorders and Irregularities there committed; all immoderate tipling; and Exceſsive drinking is pun­niſhed by ſtatute, Learned and Reverend Mr. Iuſtice ROLLS, in his Mediterranean Circuit with much Wiſdome and Integrity, declared the Lawes in that particular, and gave them charge in a27 moſt Excellent manner deſiring the worthy Ivſtices and grand Iurors every where to be very vigilant and active in putting thoſe good and wholſome Lawes in Execution. His Lordſhip preſsing the neceſsity and uſefulnes thereof with much life and Iudgement, omiting nothing that could be ſaid materially, either to Informe the Cuntrymens underſtanding, or to worke upon their affections but good charges are but like good Sermons,, If Iudges could ſtay till all things were put in Execution, it would be happy for this Kingdome, the truth is that Alehouſes like untoward ſtub­born children are growne too headſtrong and maſterleſſe for their Parents, they are ſo numerous, and ſuch abundance of tipling in e­very Country Towne, that it is a difficult taske to reſtraine it, eve­ry man findes ſome freinds or other to Ingratiate himſelfe for the continuance of his Licence, and before this Epedemicall diſeaſe can be cured in an ordinary way, I feare all our Barley will be maulted.

As for ſome Market Townes I may truely ſay, as the Ingenious Biſhop did; All our houſes are become Alehouſes, No Galants but in their Gallons; was it ſo in the dayes of Noah? ah no, to con­ſider which of theſe are fitteſt to be ſupreſt, will require much time and deliberation, which this violent diſeaſe will not permit, there­fore one good Ordinance to batter them all downe, roote, and branch, No more ſtrong beere or ale to be ſold by retaile after ſuch a day, but good wholſome drink of a 1 d. a quart, by honeſt ſober men, licenſed to keepe victualing houſes, and to lodge Tra­vellers where need requires, never was any Law more ſeaſonable and reaſonable; the very wind of ſuch an Ordinance would kill half the Maulſters, ſuch an Ordinance of Parliament being like an Or­dinance of God, not to be diſputed, but obeyed; ſuch a Parliament muſt needs be bleſt that has the prayers of ſo many poore people, If God to ſave the life of a poore ſheep, was pleaſed to diſpence with his Holie Law, at leaſt in the Letter of it, being delighted in works of mercy, how active and zealous ſhould good Magiſtrates bee, to ſave the lives of many thovſand of poore men and woemen, and Children, who are likely to be famiſhed, and pined to death, before the next harveſt, if ſome ſpeedy courſe be not inſtantly taken to prevent it.

For thus it ſtands, either the poore mans wages muſt be raiſed, or the price of Corn abated, or this poore man muſt make bold with themhahave it, or he muſt be famiſht in probability, for28 mens hearts are as hard as the nether milſtone, beleeve it, this ar­gument is made of braſſe, and cannot eaſily be batter'd; the beſt peace & ſettlement which we have ſo long prayed for, and can be imagined will not make us happy, if there be a famine of bread; all the Malignant blood is not as yet drawn out of this Kingdome, there are thoſe that are negotiating to ingage us in a Second and more bloody and deſtructive Warre, and where bread is wanting, Mens humors are ſo corrupt, that the leaſt ſcratch may turne into a Gangraen, the leaſt ſparke into a great flame, the poore wil riſe upon ſmall occaſions if they want bread, which muſt unavoidably follow for ought I can ſee to the contrary, unles Alehouſes be ſuppreſt, and Innes and Victualing houſes regulated, and the Sta­tutes for ſelling a quart 1. d. executed withall vigilance and ſeve­rity.

We have been beholding to our Neighbours for Dans Rye, which hath ſomething kept downe the prices of Corne, by furni­ſhing Sea Townes, and London, which makes them I feare not ſo ſenſible of the poore Countries.

In many places great Farmers have ſcarce their ſeed againe, and now that the wayes have been faire, Husbandmen, have little to doe, and Rents, muſt be paid, ſome Corn is brought to the Market, & the poor by help of their gleanings have not been much hunger bitten, This firſt quarter but the rich Farmers that threſh but little, the corn being well inned they expect better Markets, and if they reſolve to ſell barley for 10. s a buſhell they know the Maulſter will buy it, and the Aleman may well afford to give 12, s. a buſhell for Mault, if he may ſell his Ale for a groat a quart as they begin to do, but what ſhallhe poore man do in this Caſe, that has his Wife and 5. or 6. ſmall Children, that gets but 3. s a week at the moſt, and ſome weekes not 12, d, he muſt beg, ſteale, or ſtarve, a great ſtrait, ſomething like Davids caſe, for ſtealing brings the ſword of Juſtice, and begging does but prolong the Malady, the laſt deere Yeere, barley was not above 6. s. a Buſhell, and yet many were famiſhed in ſeverall places, and dyed for want of bread, yet Fleſh and other Proviſions were cheaper then now they are, what will become of poore Priſoners? who muſt Inevitably be ſtarved to death, for three halfe pence will not buy a pound of bread,

But I meet with two Rubbs 1. what ſaies one, will you work a miracle to feed many with a little Corn, if God ſend ſcarcity who can help it, if there be not barley enough, the poor muſt pinch.


I Agree, that there is generally leſs Corn this yeere then the laſt, but were it not for the hardneſſe of ſome mens hearts; and the ri­otous exceſſe and Intemperance of others, we need not much fear a Dearth, tis a fond obſervation that a famine followes the Sword, Unles the Husbandman cannot Labour, and be diſabled by the war, for when God gives victory to the truth, as bleſſed be his Name he hath done,**If we be true to our firſt Prin­ciples and do not de­ſtroy our ſelves. it is a ſign of his love, and he will accompany it with plenty, if the faithfull Magiſtrate do not neglect his duty, I am confident Englands glorious dayes are approaching for peace and plenty, the next yeere is likely to be fruit full, Quick and cheape, juſtice will make this Kingdome happy.

But without all queſtion there is barley enough for all the poor in the Kingdome at reaſonable rates, if it be not converted into mault, it were better there ſhould not be one drop of ſtrong beere or ale brewed in the Kingdome this yeare, then that the poore ſhould periſh for want of bread; but neither is there any ſuch ne­ceſſity; men of eſtates may keepe good beere for there own Fa­milies; and when Alehouſes are ſuppreſt in little villages, what a great matter is it if the Lord of the Town, or the rich men would bee pleaſed to beſtow a quart or two of Strong Beere, or Ale, up­on a poore Neighbour, that is ſick or weake, many Honourable Gentlemen and rich men have begun a very Laudable cuſtome in their Families, to make but one ſet meale a day, and ſome curſo­rie Collation at night, if need require; which in a great family, ſaves much expence, but poſsibly the poore may ſuffer in point of broken meat, if this Faſhion was taken up out of a covetous and pennurious deſire to ſave Charges (as ſome conceive that not ſet­ting beere upon the table, proceeded from covetouſneſſe to ſave drink, Strangers being loath to trouble the Servitors, notice be­ing taken what every man drinks) then it is unworthy the name of a Gentile cuſtome, poſsibly it began and proceeded partly for healthes ſake, and partly by the ſtraightneſſe of the times, occaſio­ned by taxes, and non payment of Rents, for one fruit of this War will be I hope, to teach men good Husbandry, and frugality at their owne Tables, that they may the better remember them for whom nothing is provided, and if that which is ſaved by ſparing ſuppers were given to the poore, how many prayers would the rich man have? as the Spaniſh beggar ſayes, give me an almes for your owne ſake God will repay you in Paradiſe; the corn is not the grounds but the ſowers, the poor are the beſt Debtors, what30 is given to them for Gods ſake ſhall ſurely be repayed, I profeſſe I cannot tell how to Judge him a Chriſtian that is not a mercifull man, he that ha's found mercy from Heaven to this poore ſoule, cannot but be a good Samaritan.

But if there be no ſtrong beere or Ale to be ſold in com­mon Alehouſes, what ſhall poore men doe that are not able to brew it for themſelves? will you turne our Engliſh ſack, and our Native wine into Water; our ſtrong beere which breeds good bloud into ſmall beere, that affords little nouriſhment, and Hop it ſo, that if it hop one foot further It will hop into the Water, does not good Liquor cheriſh the vitall Spirits, and prove a reſtorative to weake mankind, eſpecially ſuch as are oppreſſed with hard la­bour all the day to ſend for a quart of Ale and a white loafe at night, how merry are they with it, as Vitellius with all his Dainties,

God forbid that we ſhould deny or diminiſh the vertue of any of Gods good Creatures, but rather admire ſo great a mercy, that the ſame Corn ſhould make good bread, and ſuch wholſome Li­quor for ſo ungratefull a people, that have abuſed his good crea­tures by beſtiality, and exceſſe; and far be it that ſober men ſhould be deprived of comfortable refreſhment of thoſe good Creatures which ſome have prodigally waſted in drunknes and exceſſe.

good Liquor is no more to be diſcommended, then the Candle for burning bright, or a woman for that which is the Priviledg of her Sex Modeſt beauty, If wine be a mocker, and ſtrong drink raging, or a man thruſt his finger into the Candle, the fault was not in the wine or Ale, but in him that abuſes it, from which abuſe the Creature in its kind groanes to be delivered,noneſt culpa vini ſed culpa bi­bentis. and if it had a tongue to ſpeak would curſe the drunkard for ſo doing.

It is in ſeverall ſorts of beer, as in peeces of Gold, of greater and les values, hee that commends a 22, s. peece does not under­value a 20. and he that preferres a Diamond to a peece of Gold, does the Gold no wrong, he that commends one ſort of beer, does not diſgrace the reſt, but certainly middle beere not too ſtrong nor too ſmall is the beſt for moſt bodies, for it cooles a hot body, and warmes a cold bodie, I will not argue whether ſtrong Ale or beere be neceſſary for health or ſtrength, this is obſervable, that the greateſt drinkers are the leaſt eaters, for the drink nouriſhes, and if they would drinke les, they might eat more, Now as Phyſi­tians obſerve, meat affords a far better and more ſolid nouriſh­ment31 then drinke does for drink is more properly taken to diſtri­bute the meat and helpe concoction, rather then for nouriſh­ment, many Germans and Italians which drinke nothing but water have ſtrong appetites, and are generally the ſtrongeſt men, beſides the generall abuſe of ſtrong Ale and Beer which hath ſo long continued in this Kingdom, worſe then the ſweating ſick­neſſe, hath occaſioned the wiſdome of ſtate to Enact that no beer or ale ſhould be ſold for above a quart a penny, and barley was not then much dearer then a yeeres ſince, I would faine know why men ſhould drinke better drinke at Faires, and Markets or at Inns and Alehouſes, when they lodge abroad, then they doe at home; tis but a vaine cuſtome which occaſions much expence of time, and Coyne to make Bargaines over a Cup of ſtrong Liquor, whereby many honeſt people come to be ſurprized and defrauded in bar­ganing, though a man canot ſtand upon his legs when he contracts, yet as the Law ſtands he muſt ſtand to his bargain, though ite to the utter undoing of himſelfe, his Wife and Children, and ſome Crafty ſtrong brained Chapman will abuſe 20 honeſt ſimple men by the help of an Alehouſe, I profeſs theſe things ought not to be ſuffered in a well governed Kingdome, good wholſom drink of a quart for a 1 d. and no better for, there is no degree be­yond wholſomneſs will remedy and prevent one Thouſand miſ­cheifes exorbitances and extreamities, which otherwiſe will fall out in this nation, If ſtrong beere be uſefull at any time it is a cup in the morning, to keep out the cold, or at night comming out of the cold for a weak body, but that in Market townes every houſe ſhould, ſel ſtrong drinkes, is but a ſnare to intrap weake braines, and miniſters daily occaſions of Riot and ex­ceſs.

The Hollanders call their Strong beere great Pharoah, their middle beere little Pharaoh, and their ſmalleſt beere Iſraell, fin­ding by experience (which is the beſt learning) that the Stronger-beere men generally drinke, the more they rebell againſt God and they that drinke the ſmalleſt beere are the moſt healthfull men, and beſt Chriſtians, and I beleeve our learned Phiſitians for the moſt part, drinke but little either ſtrong beere or Ale, as being not good freinds to L••ga vitie, it were the moſt innocent thing in the world but if it once cometo be a generall greivance to the Kingdome, as Alehouſes are at this day, as they are uſed, are the moſt greivous nuſances, and juſt offence to the whole king­dome,32 Deſtroyersf poore people, Corruptes of good maners the recptacle of alld ſorderly and Law les perſons: and the nur­ſeries of all ſenſualties and prophaneſſe therefore they ought〈◊〉all reaſon to be reduced and reformed.

For the queſtion is but whether ſtrong drinkes ſhall be made in abundance is formerly or the poore to be pined for want of bread, oh bread, oh precious bread how much more excellent art thou then ſtrong drinke, for the life and ſervice of man: thou maintai­nſt his beeing, ſtrong drinke at the beſt is but for his well being one man writes of the Vet••e of Noble Ale another of the Ver­tue of Warme beere, and other things are highly commended, but who writes in commendation of that which is worth all other things in the world that is food for man, bread and faire water, and the Goſpell is good cheare for a chriſtian, Veniſon and fair water, is not ſo good: a man may live better with bread alone, without any other thing, then with all the fleſh and dainties in the World and want bread therefore is Jeſus Chriſt the bread of be­leevers, as being abſolutely neceſsary to ſalvation let us have bread at any rate, and part with it at no rate, it is better for this King­dom to have Bo••e and Mutton at 10 s. a••ouhen barley at0 s.

Buſhell, but let us hope the beſt and feare the worſt, for that put upon Action to prevent it.

Heere I muſt needs take notice of a late printed ſheet called a Vindication of ſtrong beere and ale [to be ſold in Licenced Ale-houſes,] written I am perſwaded by a ſober man, for he declaimes againſt drunknes, and intemperance, his principall drift being firſto vindicate the Company of Brewers, which he calla diſtreſſedompany whoſe ſad Condition groanes for releife, who are looked upon with an unkind aſpect, as if they were guilty of the drunkards ſins, becauſe they brew ſtrong beere and Ale, which I conceive is to ſet up a man of Cloutand to ſhoot at him, or to fight with his owne ſhaddow for no man that is but halfe ſound in his Intelect­uall, will blame the Brewer for ſelling good Liquoro them that are Licenced to buy it, no more then the Cutler can be blamed for making a Sword, wherewith another man is unjuſtly kill'd, the Brower muſt be acq••ted by the Law of God, and man, as be­••g neither principall, nor acceſſary to the Prodigalls intempe­rance, I rather wſh that the Brewer be not blame worthy for ma­king his Beere to ſmall, for no pure Element can nouriſh, I confeſſe Immediatly upon the Excize which concerned not the33 Brewer ipoint of Damag, being paid by the houſe-kee•••,t was generally obſerved that the brewers made their〈◊〉Beere ſmaller then before, though Mault were at the ſameat••; and I have obſerved for this 20. yeare that a man might ſenſibly caſt the dearneſſe of Mault in 6. s. Beere, but not theheapnes of it, Good my Maſters of the Company of Brewers theſe things ought not ſo to be: If you cannot afford to make good beer when mault in very deare, you may make it better then ordinary when Mault ivery cheape; I will not be of Counſell againſt you, for Matter of ſtrongeere, let your cuſtomers looke to it; I but I pro­feſſe in the words of ſobriety, that if you do not make your 6. s. beere this yeare as good as poſſibly you can afford it, for the ſuſt­enance of poore people, you muſt expect to heare of it, you that have gained much in cheape yeares, ſhew your ſelves charitable men, and put in the other handfull of Mault for poore mens ſk, you, and the Bakers, ſhould now ſtrive this hard yeer who ſhould deale the moſt honeſtly and kindly with poore people, you ſhould not thinke to increaſe your eſtates in a deere yeer, he that does ſo abuſes his calling, to an unworthy end, we have a curſed Proverb; every man for himſelfe, and God for us all, God will not be for that man that uſes it, the end of your Trades is not to gain riches to your ſelves, but to do good to your Neighbours, the maine end of our lives is to ſerve God in ſerving of men in the workes of our callings,Col. 3.24. and God allowes us to gaine moderately for ouLabours, butot to gaine great eſtates, for there is nei­ther precept nor eample in Scripture their ever any man prayed that he might be rich, and get a great eſtate, more then what in the Judgement of wiſe and godly men was ſufficient to maintain himſelfe, and comfortably provide for thoſe that depended up­on him though it be got honeſtly in regard of mans Law, yet it is againſt the mind of God, Gives this Day our daily bread, and and give me neither poverty n••riches, He that prayes not accor­ding to the Lords prayer, ſaies learned Auſtin, his prayer is ſin, what you may not pray for you may not labour after, Not one Godly man in Scripture that ever got a great eſtate by his owne induſtry, many were left rich by their Anceſtors, Abraham,Gen. 28.20. Pro. 30.8. So­lomon, and others, were rich by Gods ſending but not by their ſeekinge, Iacob ask'tnt food and rayment.

He that Implyehis Talent onely to get Honours, pleaſures, of profits, prophanes his calling, living to another end then God has34 appointed, and an action will lye at the day of Judgement, againſt many rich men of all Trades and profeſſions, for abuſing their rich­es, For God commands them that are rich to be rich in good workes,A contra formam co­lationis f­offamenti. and releeve the poore, eſpecially in a deare time as this is, and many that put out their money to that unnaturall act of Generation for 100. l. to beget another and they will have the Intereſt, though the Creditor have loſt the principall, in theſe late calamities, a horrible ſhame that ſuch things ſhould be ſuffered, honeſt men plundered of their eſtates to lye in Goale for Intereſt, a­gainſt the Law of God, and the Law of the Land, for all Intereſt money is forfeited by ſtatute, if but ſix pence be taken, againſt all reaſon and humanity for the Iriſh Rebells had ſo much mercy to Ordaine that no Uſury ſhould incurre in time of Warre, nor would the late Oxford party I am confident have ſuffered any of their Adheerents to have fotted in Priſon for principall or Inte­reſt, that Vſerers which have no lawfull calling, but a thing per­mitted for the hardnes of mens hearts, ſhould gaine in a time of Warre? fie upon it; fie for ſhame, but I truſt our moſt Honorable Worthies will ſtop that torrent of cruelty, and order a repay­ment to ſuch from whom it had been extorted. And others lock up their Gold orather their God in an Yron Cheſt, and leave their hearts there, as St. Anthony told a Uſurer that his heart was in his coffer, and the Legend ſaies that ſo it was,

But is not abundance, the gift of God, and a great eſtate, a bleſsing and may not every bleſsing be ſought, I anſwer, A bleſ­ſing may not be ſought, unleſſe it be a bleſſing to every one that hath it, as faith, Patience, Humility, &c. riches in our Savi­ours time were of the nature of thornes and bryers, thy that will be rich fall into many ſnares, may any man Labour for ſnares, they have not changed their qualities, I know a rich Saint may doe abundance of good this deare yeere, and I would earneſtly entreat all rich Beleevers for the Honour of the Goſpell this dear time to do good to all, and eſpecially unto ſuch as be of the houſ­hold of faith Almes are the beſt Sermon noates in a deare yeere, and when rich men are liberall then the poor receive the Goſpell, but yet a man may not pray for a great eſtate, though he intend therewith to releeve the poore, for he that is of a bountifull af­fection being poor, poſſibly being rich may be of a covetous diſ­poſition, for one poor man to love another is but Narciſſus like to love himſelfe, we ſee the love of money increaſes as the money35 comes in, and for any man to thinke if he had a great eſtate, hee would do much good with it, ſavors of pride as if a man ſhould brag that he could go upon Mountaines, and rough craggy places and tred upon thornes; how doeſt thou know but that thou maieſt be Covetous if thou wert rich, and no wiſe Saint will de­ſire more then is ſufficient for him in the Judgement of Godly men, for being liberall in affection, and reſolution, God accepts the Will for the deed, as in the Widdowes caſe, and it muſt needs be ſo for God workes both the will and the deed,Phil. 2 1 whereas if he were rich in poſſeſſions he might be covetous at leaſt he runs a hazard which no wiſe man will do, when he may go upon cer­tainties, I wiſh the Saints would weigh this argument and tell me wherein it ilight, the caſe is thus, a Chriſtian that hath for the purpoſe 100. l, per annum or 2000, l. in perſonall eſtate, this man may live comfortably and make proviſion for poſterity, and doe many good charitable offices for the poore, now if this man can get another 1000. l. he reſolves to give it away to the poor, for effecting weereof he muſt ingage himſelfe in many troubles, riſe early, go to bed late, eate the bread of carefulneſſe, and ſcarce take time for moderate refreſhments; much leſſe can he afford to allow any time for the Excerciſes of Godlineſſe, to keep Religion alive in the power and purity of it, and nothing is more deceitfull then his owne heart, whether it be wiſdome for this man to im­barque into an angery Sea when hee may reſt in a ſecure harbour, in a Condition pleaſing to God and good men; Is the queſtion, which I conceive no wiſe Chriſtian but will diſlike it, beſides who knows whether it be not Gods will to exerciſe a Chriſtian impo­verty, or a meane condition for the tryall of his Faith, and other glorious ends, beſt known to his divine Majeſty; but then what in­couragement ſhall men have in their honeſt callings? much every way, if heavenly commodities were more eſteemed then earthly; what an excellent thing is it for a man to do good to all men in his generation! I am aſhamed to hear men commended forgetting great Eſtates, there is a noble Gentleman, if all be true that is re­ported of him, deſerves more commendation for his Liberality then many ohers,Sir Paul Pindar. a wiſe man will make his owne hands his Exe­cutors, and his eyes his overſeers for the ſurpluſage of his eſtate, beſides what is convenient for poſterity.

But may not men get great eſtates honeſtly, I will not argue how great Eſtates are got in this Kingdome, but this I obſerve, that the36 richeſt men, are not the moſt liberall to the poore, the more ſhame for them, there are a Generation of miſerable wretches that like the Auncient Jews have ingroſſed a great part of the publique trea­ſure, and have vaſt eſtates, but do no good to any living creature, many of them are haters of their owne fleſh, and will dye Indebted to their backs and bellies, ſure t'is that they might be thought to be very poore, but Cardinall Richlieu would have told ſuch a fel­low, you ſpend little in Clothes and dyet, therefore ſure you are full of money, tax him ſoundly, if a rich man did weare good cloths, and fared well, Sir ſayes he ti's a ſigne by your Clothes and dyet that you are full of moneys, I hope theſe Cormoggians will be met withall, one time or other, I am not a Jugde to name any man in particular, but let them take it for a warncing; If I doe not heere of their good deeds this deer yeare, (I doe not meane their bonds, and ſpecialties which they ſo dearly love and count their good Deeds ſealed and delivered) but if they be not charitable to the poore, I will doe my beſt to get a catalogue of them, that if they ſhall perſiſt in their baſeneſſe and cruelties they may be publiſht to the world and hooted at as Enemies, of humane ſociety. I would not be miſtaken as if I were an enemy to great Eſtates, the God of order hath appointed ſeverall degrees of men, and ſet them in their ſeverall ſtations; the rich to be liberall to the poore, and the poore to be ſerviceable to the rich, the greateſt Prince ſometimes or other may have need of the pooreſt man living, at leaſt of his prayers, therefore he ought not to ſuffer that man to famiſh for want of bread.

I am not of their opinion that drive at a parity to have all men a like, ti's but a Vtopian fiction, the Scripture holds forth no ſuch thing; the poore ye ſhall have alwayes with you, but there ought not to be a Beggar in England, for they live raher like beaſts them men; Holland is a true Common wealth, where none are ſo excee­ding rich, nor any beggars permitted, yet different degrees amongſt them, Lords and others, but in Kingdomes and larger territories, there will be a larger diſproportion, corragious Noblemen are the walls of a Kingdome, and a rich bountifull man is like a Sun E••ll in the high way, every man is the better for him; and though he••give much away, yet in realitie he looſes no more by his Charity, then the Sun does by comparting his beames upon the earth, for it is but a ſowing, he that caſts his bread upon the waters ſhall finde it againe, And that Kingdome is moſt flouriſhing where the beſt37 men are the greateſt men, and the greateſt men, are the beſt men, at leaſt morrally good, for Juſtice, liberality, valor, and ſuch noble ver­tues, unleſſe a rich man be liberall and bountifull, there is no more need of him in a Kingdome, then of a Croſſe which the ſilly Papiſts put off their Hats too, leaſt they ſhould be hurt in their Journey, poore people are faine to reverence many cruell Ingroſſers, as the Indians do the Devill leaſt he ſhould get them into his clawes, or like the Baſilisk kill them with a frown, as for any hopes to right themſelves by Law, tis for a Lamb to contend with a Lyon, but when a rich man in place of authority is curteous to all, and liberall to the poore, the Kingdome is preferred in that mans Honors, and ſuch a man is a beautifull proſpect; I am no Advocate, for the poore further then to provide bread & neceſſaries for them, with­out which, life cannot be maintained, let rich men feaſt, and the poore make a hard meale, but let them have bread ſufficient.

Kings and Potentates, Noblemen, and Gentlemen, may rejoyce in their great eſtates, left unto them, and look upon them as tokens of Gods love, if they be bountifully minded, and give their bread to the hungry, and more then ordinarily in ſuch a deere yeere as this is likely to bee, but they may not by the Law of God make it the chiefe end and main ſtudy of their lives, to multiply riches, nor ſo much as to Improve their eſtates, unles they have a greater charge then their Anceſtours had, men of Honourable profeſſions as the law Phyſick and armes, and of publique Imployments in the Kingdome, may gaine a competence to raiſe their families, being eminent for vertues and deſert, yet there is a meane in ſuch a caſe to be uſed; but for Marchants and Trades-man, and Uſurers to gaine ſuch vaſt eſtates, as many have done It is neither warran­table in religion nor policie, for men in ſelling their commodities ought not to ſell as dear as they can, but as others may live by them and as they can afford it for a moderate gaine. As put caſe there were 6. ſhips of ſeverall owners laden with Sugars, Spices, Drugs, or any commodities to be Imported for the ſervice of this Kingdome, which all ariving ſafe the commodity would be af­forded at 20. d. a pound, but it pleaſes God that 5. of them ſuf­fer ſhipwrack, now the 6th man ſels his Comodity for 5. s. a pound, and by 3. or 4. ſuch providences he becomes rich I ſay this ought not to be permitted, he ought in conſcience to have ſold his commodity as cheape as if the other ſhips had arrived, the Kingdome is but one body politique, and every member ought to38 have a care of the others preſervation, this Kingdome Is ſo popu­lous and there are ſo manie of a trade, that one man can ſcarce live by another, In the Infancy of the world there was enough for eve­ry man,Gen. 30. therefore that pretty policy which Iacob uſed to make himſelfe rich with Labans loſs is no objection for Laban was willing to give him what he pleaſed, the Scripture is cleare in it, that every man is bound to do good according to his ability,Deut. 17.16.17, and that the King may not ſeeke abundance nor accumulate treaſure, and if not Kings certainly not Subjects.

I have read that in ſome places there are Herculean Pillars ſet to mens eſtates, that a Marchant ſhall get but 10000. l. another Tradeſman 5000. l. and ſo for others. and when they are worth ſo much, they muſt either trade for the publique good, or elſe give over their callings and give way to others, betaking themſelves to Gods immediate ſervice, or taking paines for Orphans, and Wid­dowes, that having ſmall perſonall eſtates left them, if they ſhould live upon the principall, it would quickly conſume and know not how to Improve it themſelves, therefore able experien­ced men beſtow their paines freely for them, for all Catholique Councells have ever condemned Vſury in point of Conſcience, by this meanes men would not be ſo covetous as now they are, for now mens deſires are infinite, the Covetous man is in a dropſie the more he gets, the more he deſires, the laſt thing that dyes in him, is a deſire of having more he makes no will till he lyes a dying & then dyes to think he muſt make his wil, ſome ſayes he, are wiſer then others & puts gold in his mouth becauſe he wil not give al a­way, he would fain keep ſome for another world, as the old wretch that ſent for a Prieſt to make his will, who bad him pray, not I ſayes he do you pray for me, or elſe why ſhould I pay you tithes, well ſayes the Preiſt ſhall I Write, do as I bid you ſayes Dives, Firſt I bequeath the ſoule of our Pariſh Prieſt to the Devill, what my ſoule ſayes the Scribe, no ſuch matter, yes thy ſoule ſayes he, for thou never reproveſt me for my covetouſnes, whereas if there were a Law that no man ſhould be worth above ſo much, then no man would deſire more, mens affections would not be ſo infinitely ſet upon wealth, but their deſires would be finite, and ſo much ſinne would be prevented, now that is ever the moſt Angelicall Law, which prevents ſin, and Politique, it muſt needs be, for one man cannot poſſibly be ſo exceſſive rich, but it muſt be upon the ruines of others, you may obſerve, that where there is one man ſo excee­ding39 rich, thoſe that live neer him are moſt of them poore, for hee looks as eagerly after every ſmall purchaſe to joyne houſe to houſe, or rather to pluck down all the houſes but his owne, that the poor may not live too neer him, as a Hawke lookes after the Partrige; I like not alterations in government, when a Kingdome is well ſet­tlkd, but when we are upon the wing of Reformation, I wiſh it might be to purpoſe, but my deſire is not to write any thing herein, but what may advance Liberality, and advantage the poore theſe ſtrait times.

He argues for the continuance of ſtrong Beer and Ale, as being neceſſary for poore people, a preſervative of health, and a reſtora­tive in ſickneſſe, ſurely the man is extreamly miſtaken, for poore people cannot afford to buy any ſtrong Liquor, whil'ſt bread is ſo ſcarce, I meane principally the Country poore; who begin to make lamentable complaints already, many of them being ready to die for feare of being famiſhed to death.

If the poore drink any Ale this yeare, it muſt be very ſparingly, as ſome Italians uſe Wine inſtead of Oyle, or Butter, to get down breap (which ever loves a Companion) in the way of Toſts, now a Toſt in Ale hath 7. excellent properties.

  • 1. It ſatisfies hunger.
  • 2. It quenches thirſt.
  • 3. It helps concoction, by removing obſtructions.
  • 4. It cauſes ſleep.
  • 5. It exhilerates the Spirits.
  • 6. It gets a good Color, a lover of Toſts has ever a ruddy and a cheerefull countenance.
  • 7. It keeps the to the fleame, therefore let no Toſt be loſt, as there hath been too much abuſe in that kinde.

If I may have bread ſayes one, I care not though I drink water all the winter.

In the laſt deare yeare, when Barley was about a Noble a Bu­ſhell, Peaſe, and Oates, Fleſh, Butter, Cheeſe, and other Proviſions were plentifull; a poore man might have bought him a paire of ſhooes for 2. s. which now coſt him about 4. s. Oh ſaies a poore man laſt night, I would be content to goe barefoot this winter, if I were ſure to get bread for my poore Wife and Children; I con­feſſe it melted my heart to heare it: I remember that Sir Knevet being to looſe one of his hands for ſtriking in the preſence Chamber; he Petitioned King H. 8. to vouchſafe him a pardon40 for his right hand, and he would willingly looſe his left, ſayes King H. ſince he is ſo ingenuous let him keep both his hands, oh, that the patient humility, and meeke ingenuity of the poore, that would be well contented with bread and Water might move the heart of the Kings moſt excellent Majeſty, the Nobles and Honourable Worthies in Parliament, the Noble Generall Sir Thomas Fairfax, and the Army under his Excellencies Command, the Aſſembly, and every honeſt man of abilities in the Kingdome, to reſolve as one man acting in their ſeverall ſphears of Government, and ſubjection to find out ſome timely expedient to prevent this eminent dearth and death of poore people, and to ſay with that Noble King Henry ſince the poore will be content with bread and Water without ſhooes; they ſhall have both Bread Beere and Clothes, to defend them from hunger, and thirſt and from the cold Winter,

But I hear the husbandmen cry out, that taxes and extraordina­ry charges are ſo great that he cannot ſubſiſt unles corne be deare; mark the conſequence, then it ſeemes the poore labouring man muſt pay for all, if there be barley enough to be had at 5. or 6, s. a buſhell, why may there not be ſome ſpeedy way thought upon to eaſe the Farmer, that he may afford to ſell it for halfe a crown, and 3. s. ſo as the poore may live, but whether barley be at 2 s, or 1. s. a buſhell it makes neither more nor leſſe in the Kingdome, there is a Myſtery in it, which I hope the Wiſdome of State will unfold, and prevent the ſad conſequences, which are otherwiſe likely to enſue before another Harveſt.

But it may be ſaid, what need any ſuch ſupplication ſince the wor­thy Juſtices may in every County if they pleaſe, reſtraine malting, & conſequently Alehouſes will fall with the weight of their owne Luxuriance; I agree it, and the Lordtirre up their Hearts to bee faithfull and Couragious, but I conſider that the worthy Juſtices, are otherwiſe burdened with Country affaires, many weighty buſi­neſſes Incumbent upon them, for the publique good, therefore if they were for the preſent disburdened, and exonerated of ſo great a charge, and trouble, and that it were ſpecially recommended to the Committees in every Country or a Committee of moderation Accomodation, or proviſion, for the poore, appointed in every County to licence ſuch onely in every neceſſary place to keepe Victualling houſes and to ſell good wholſome drink for paſſen­gers, as are the moſt ſober and beſt affected perſons to the Parlia­ment,41 I ſuppoſe the price of barley, and conſequently all other gaine and proviſion would deminiſh and abate, ſuch victuallers to be preſented and commended to the ſaid Committee by the Mi­niſter of every pariſh, where one or more Alehouſes are neceſſary if he be a man well affected to the publique, and ſuch and ſome of the beſt affected perſons in every Pariſh to be by the Committee appointed Superviſors of ſuch Victualling houſes, to looke dili­gently and narrowly into all exceſſive and exorbitant courſes, that ſhall be acted there, and to bring offendors before the ſaid Com­mittee, to receave ſuch condigne puniſhment, as the wiſdome of Parliament ſhall ordaine drunkeneſſe and diſorders to be puniſh't five times more ſeverely then formerly, for the neceſſity of the Kingdome to provide bread for the poore, does neceſſarily re­quire it.

But ſayes one, have not the Vintners given you a Fee to Plead a­gainſt Alehouſes, that ſo Taverns may be more frequented? For good fellowes will be merry at any rate, and ſack will make them madder then ſtrong Ale or beere Nothing les, if it ſhould be ſo it is beſides my intentions, I wiſh that Sack might be ſold againe in Apothecaries ſhops as formerly, as being an occaſion of much ſin and wickedneſſe in this Kingdome, and if men of eſtates and ſober men finde it healthfull for them, let them keepe it; in their owne ſellars, for their private refreſhments, but to ſell it ſo publiquely as it is, is but to put a ſword into a mad mans hand, every man that can borrow but 5. s may go and be drunk with it, and then con­temnes both divine and human authority; and ſcornes to be re­proved by any man living, it is not ſo in other Countryes men dare as well be hanged as be drunke, the Vintners, Drawers, and exceſ­ſive drinkers are all throwne into a Pond to coole themſelves, but pluckt out againe alive like drowned Rats and fined halfe their e­ſtates, and if they will not take warning, ſuch men ought not to live, It was but juſt to make a Law that every Vintner, that ſuffers a man to drink drunke in his houſe ſhould be fined 100. l. to the poore, and ſome corporall puniſhment, tis a fond objection that ſome men will be drunke with a little, 3. or 4. Gallants come in and drinke a Gallon or more of Spaniſh wine at a meeting, and yet Mr. Vintner minces the matter, and ſayes they drunke but lit­tle in his houſe, they had it before. A pint of Sack is a moderate re­freſhment for 3. or 4. men, if they drinke a quart upon buſineſſe it may tollerably paſſe; but to carrouſe healthes and call for quart42 after quart, this ought to be ſeveerly puniſhed, if any mans braine be ſo weak, that a Glaſſe or two diſtempers him, this may be given in evidence without much difficulty and indoubtfull caſes, let the Vintners be acquitted conſult with the beſt Phyſitians, and they will tell you that a Pinte of Sack is more then ſufficient for any man to drink at one ſitting, but I do not yet conceive that the Ta­verns have any great influence upon the prices of Barley, I beleeve the Taverns have made many poore, but now the Alehouſes threa­ten to deſtroy them:Nemo Athleta ſine ſudore co­ronatur difficile et ſed ten­dit ad ar­••a vi tus I know it is hard to reforme abuſes, and ex­orbitances in every trade and profeſſion, but no wraſtler or cham­pion, is crowned without ſwearing, great Reformations are for the greateſt Courts, what miſcheifes are not occaſioned by drunken­neſſe, but what may not a Parliament do to prevent it?

A Parliament can do every thing for the publick good of the Kingdome, and certainly a greater good cannot be thought upon, then to prevent drunkennes, & to provide bread for poore people, without which we ſhall put the Lord upon a miracle for the pre­ſervation of this Kingdome;Quid non corietas &c. ſed quid non Parlia­mentum. Therefore I ſ••ll in the loweſt de­gree of humility, Crave leave In forma pauperis to move our moſt Honourable Worthies for all the poore people in this Land, whoſe feares are very great, and their complaints and cryes already in many places moſt lamentable.

That Bread, Bread, Bread, for the Lord Jeſus Chriſts ſake bread, which we heare at New gate, Ludgate, and other Priſons, is but a fancy in compariſon, we are a Company of poore Priſoners, almoſt ſtarved and pined to death, if it be ſo indeed, the more ſhame to the Government of the Citty, and others who muſt anſwer for the bloud of every man that is famiſh't in Priſon for want of bread, be his offence what it will, for no Offendor may be poiſoned or fa­miſhed to death by the Law of Nations, it being abhorred by the Law of Nature; there needs no other ſin to bring the Plague into the Citty, which the Lord in his goodneſſe remove, and make the higher powers wiſe as Angells of light, before the wrath of the Lord break forth upon us, for ſuffering ſuch unmercifull dominee­ring, over the bodies of poore creatures; poſſibly one old Vſurer has 20. ſlaves rotting and famiſhing to death, in ſeverall Dungeons: that he may make Dice of their Bones, as the Cuſtome is when the Priſoner is dead in Execution, the Creditor has Dice delivered him at the Office ſuppoſed in a fiction of Law to be made of the Cre­ditors bones, and that is all that he gets by his cruelty, till he be de­livered43 to thoſe Infernall Goalers to be tormented for ever, and if it were poſſible for ever after,Mat. becauſe he had no pittie of his fellow ſervant: If there be ſo much barbarous cruelty uſed in all the world, as there is in this Kingdome concerning poore Priſoners, I dare looſe my life for it: the Turks and others beat their Galley ſlaves for their pleaſures, but they feed them that they may endure the blowes, but we caſt men into a Dungeon; and ſuffer them to rot and famiſh, now I hyſitians will agree with me that a death by Famine, is moſt cruell and painefull of all other deaths, and the Law ſaies that they muſt ſtarve before they come there, for the writ whereby they are impriſoned imports, foraſmuch as the Deb­tor has no eſtate, therefore take his body for ſatisfaction.

And here give me leave to put this Caſe, ſuppoſe (which God for­bid) that Barley this yeare, ſhould be at 10. s. a buſhell, or ſo exceſ­ſive deare, that the poore labouring man that hath nothing but what he gets by his day labour, can gaine but 2 s. a week, as many already work hard for no more; every man now ſtriving to get work out of one anothers hands, as rich men contend for a good bargaine, this man having a wife, and 5. or 6. ſmall children to maintaine, tells his Neighbours that he and his Family are ready to ſtarve, and famiſh, they have not their bellifull of bread once in a week, well ſaies the Miſer, Corne is a precious commodity this yeer, I cannot help you, when corne is cheap, every man will give an Almes to the poore, but now corne will make money, oh this yeal­low Earth, how does the Miſer love that which has one Letter more in it then the name of God? his beloved Gold.

This poore man to keep his Family alive, finding an opportunity takes away ſome corne, from one of theſe miſers Rickes, or ſtackes of corne, for his Barnes will not hold halfe his Proviſions, and hee will not build greater Barnes as Gods foole, but the worldlings wiſe man did, who thereby ſet the poore on work, the Queſtion is whether this be Felony by the Law of God,Luk 12.20 for which this poore man ought to ſuffer death by any juſt poſitive Law of man.

Certainely Chriſtians ought to be more mercifull then the Jews, and therefore the judgement of the beſt Chriſtian polititians, ha's ever beene, that no offence ought to be death under the Goſ­pell, which was not death by Moſes Law, but many offences which were death by that Law ought not to be death, under the Goſpell, becauſe Chriſtians ought to be more mercifull then the Iewes; who being by nature, a cruell people: God gave them Lawes according­ly,44 as the Adulterer, Sabboth breaker, and the diſobedient child were to be ſtoned, certainly our Fore-fathers were either very covetous or cruell. to make it fellony to ſteale a Lambe, or a Pig, which by the Law of God was onely puniſht by reſtitution, but the Scripture puts a difference between a theef who ſteales for ne­ceſſity, men doe not deſpiſe him that ſteales to ſatisfie his hunger (ſayes Solomon) and a preſumptious Theefe, who has no neede to ſteal that does it not for want but for wantonnes, ſuch a one was to dye, our law is exceeding ſeveere, and never Inquires after the motive and impulſive cauſe, if a man that is ready to ſtarve or fa­miſh, take away from his Neighbour a ſuit of Clothes, or a ſtrike of Corn this man muſt dye the death, as if he had killed a man, I know there is a culpable neceſſity, as my Lord Bacon calls it, if a man ſhall waſt his eſtate, and then pretend want, he deſerves the les pity, and there is alight neceſſity, a great neceſſity, and an extreame neceſſity, If a poore man farre from any Towne, that is almoſt famiſht, for want of foode, meets with a Baker, who will not be intreated to give him a loafe and he takes away by force ſo much bread from him, as in the Judgement of wiſe men is neceſſary to keepe him alive, In this caſe I conceive he hath not offended the Law of God; and therefore ought not to be puniſht by any Law of man; becauſe the Law of property muſt not dero­gate from the Law of nature, much leſſe abrogate it, I am not of opinion that all things were at any time in Common, by the Law of nature, for then the eighth Commandement would not have been morrall and the very dictates of nature and right reaſon as Sir Walter Rawley moſt learnedly evinces them to be,2, Acts 44. but thoſe Authors which ſpeake of all things being in common are to be un­derſtood in the ſame ſenſe as the Apoſtles are ſaid