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A TREATISE Againſt RECUSANTS, In defence of the Oath OF ALEGEANCE.

With Executions of Conſideration, for repreſſing the encreaſe of Papiſts.


LONDON, Printed by RICHARD HEARN, Anno Dom. 1641.


IT being my late happineſſe to light on this no leſſe ra­tionall than elegant Treatiſe, I ſhould have counted my ſelfe very un­worthy of its view, had I but co­veted to have hid it from thine; For as he whoſe power prevents an ill, and he whoſe purpoſe per­formes a good, may both alike merit reward; ſo he who medi­tates miſchiefe, and he who hides a benefit, as they are both alike debtors to their Countrey, ſo they deſerve to be paralels in pu­niſhment.

Nor is this enſuing Treatiſe like the common Baſtardy of our age, forced to uſurpe an eminent Patron, the better thereby to cloake the baſeneſſe of an illegiti­mate birth: for though with ſtrict­eſt ſurvey you examine its parts, and curiouſly canvaſs both Mat­ter and Method, yet ſhall you finde it in all things ſo acurately excellent, and in every parcell ſo favouring the Father, as that you will freely avouch ſo deſerving a childe may moſt juſtly claime ſo worthy a Parent. And though now being brought forth into the world, I beleeve it cannot but un­dergoe a double and different cenſure, as ſavouring to the one part of too much mercy, and to the other of over-much ſeverity; yet for mine owne particular, I finde it of ſo moderate a temper, mitigating ſeverity by mildneſſe, and mildneſſe by ſeverity, ſtill upholding Iuſtice; that I cannot but conceive, it may give a ſuffici­ent ſatisfaction to any indifferent and impartiall Reader. Howe­ver, our modeſt Author in all things ſubmits to better Iudge­ments, and with an artificiall hand hath drawne a Line, to let thee know the rarely-skilled A­pelles hath been here.


A TREATISE AGAINST RECVSANTS, IN DEFENCE of the oath of ALLEAGIANCE: ALSO, EXECVTIONS OF CONSI­deration for repreſſing the increaſe of Papiſts.

The queſtion whether Re­cuſants ſhold be executed, or rather im­priſoned, well diſcuſſed.I Am not ignorant that this latter Age hath brought forth a ſwarme of buſie heads, which meaſure the great myſteries of State by the rule of their ſelfe-conceited wiſdome. But if they ſhould conſider the Common­wealth governed by grave and wiſe Counſellors, to be like unto a Ship directed by a skilfull Pilot, to whom the neceſſity of occaſions,2 and ground of reaſon why he ſteereth the helme to this or that point of the Compaſſe, are better known than to thoſe that ſtand aloofe off; they would bee more ſparing, if not more wary in their reſolutions. For my owne particular, I muſt confeſſe I am natu­rally too much enclined to his opinion who once ſaid, Qui bene latuit, bene vixit: and freely calling to minde the ſaying of Functius, Diſce meo exemplo mandato mu­nere fungi Et fuge tu peſtem, I could eaſily for­beare to make my hand-writing the record of my opi­nion, which nevertheleſſe I proteſt to maintain rather deliberatively, than by the way of concluſive aſſenti­on; wherefore, without waſting precious time any longer, I will briefly ſet downe the queſtion in the tearmes following.

Whether it be more expedient to ſuppreſſe Popiſh practi­ſes againſt the due allegiance to his Majeſtie, by the ſtrict execution of the Lawes touching Ieſuites and Se­minary Prieſts: or to reſtraine them in cloſe Priſons during life, if no reformation follow.

THe doubt propounded, conſiſting of two bran­ches to be diſtinctly handled, and by comparing either part, the conveniency mentioned in the queſti­on, may be cleared with meere facility. In favour of the firſt diviſion,Mercy fore­running the repentance of a malefactor, is an ill guar­dian to a prin­ces perſon. there are not a few, who grounding themſelves on an ancient proverbe, A dead man bites not; affirme that ſuch are dangerous to be preſerved alive, who being guilty, condemned, and full of feare, are likely, for purchaſe of life and liberty, to engage their utmoſt in deſperate adventures, againſt their3 King and Countrey. No leſſe is to be feared, while the ſword of Juſtice is remiſſe in cutting off heinous offendors againſt the dignity of the Crowne;A hard hand ſuddenly re­mitted, is ſel­dome by rude people inter­preted in the beſt ſence. the miſ­led Papall multitude in the interim may enter in a jealous ſuſpence, whether that forbearance proceed from the feare exaſperating their deſperate humours, or that it's now become queſtionable whether the exe­cution of their Prieſts be ſimply for matter of State, or pretended quarrell of Religion. There is no hope of refor­mation, were there no con­feſſion of the fault.And whereas in a remedileſſe inconvenience its lawfull to uſe the ex­tremity of the lawes againſt ſome few, that others may by terror of their example be reformed; what hope can there be that clemency can tame their hearts, who interpret his Majeſties grace in tranſporting their Prieſts out of the Realme, to be a meere ſhift to rid the priſons of thoſe whom conſcience could not con­demne of any capitall crime. While juſtice ſleeps, the time ſerves to ſow new laws, and rayſe factions.Neither are there want­ing whiſperings, not to be neglected, by which they ſeeke to confirme the fearefull ſoules on their party, and to inveigle the ignorant, doubtfull, and diſcon­tented perſons. For if the glorious extolling of their powerfull friends, and the expectance of a golden day be ſuffered to win credit with the meaner ſort, the re­lapſe cannot be ſmall, or the meanes eaſie to reforme the error, without a generall combuſtion of the State. Let experience ſpeake ſomething in this behalfe,Fearefull ſpi­rits by ſuffer­ance grow in­ſolent and cruell. which hath evidently deſcryed within the current of a few yeares, that the forbearance of ſeverity hath mul­tiplyed their rout in ſuch a manner, that it remaines as a corroſive to a thouſand of his Majeſties well af­fected Subjects. To what purpoſe ſerves it, to muſter the names of the Proteſtants, or to vaunt them to be4 ten for one of the Romane faction,Vnion in a prepared con­ſpiracy pre­vailes more then number. as if bare ſignes of numeration could prevaile againſt an united party, and reſolved, and adviſed before hand to turne their faces with aſſurance, to all dangers, whileſt in the meane time the Proteſtants nuſling in vaine ſecurity, ſuffer the weeds to grow up, that threaten their bane, and mercileſſe ruine. Sometimes the oath of Allea­giance cloked their preſumptuous imagination,It is hard to perſwade thoſe who by reaſon of their dependance on the pope are ſcarſe ma­ſter of their owne ſoules. and yet could not that infernall ſmoake be wholly ſmo­thered, nor the Locuſts iſſuing thereout be cleanſed from the face of this Land.

Now that the temporall power of the King, con­tained in the oath of Alleagiance, is by the Papall Sea, and may by the order thereof impudently be a­voucht unlawfull; Shall the broachers of ſuch do­ctrine be ſuffered to live, yea to live, and be releeved of us, for whoſe deſtruction they groane daily?

Malis bene­facere, tan­tundem eſt, ac bonis ma­lefacere.To be a right Popiſh Prieſt in true Engliſh ſenſe, is to beare the character of a diſloyall, degenerate of his naturall obedience towards his Soveraigne, whom if by connivency he ſhall let ſlip, or chaſtiſe with a ſleight hand; in what immunity may not treache­rous delinquents in leſſer degrees expect or challenge after a ſort in equity and juſtice? If there were no re­ceiver, there would be no theeves: Likewiſe if there were no harborers of theſe Jeſuites, its to be preſumed they would not trouble this Iſle with their preſence:Fellowſhip in miſery eaſeth griefe, and by a clamor of a multitude ju­ſtice is many ti•••es con­demned. and rigor muſt be extended againſt the receivers, that the Jeſuite may be kept out of doores; were it then indifferent Juſtice to hang up the acceſſory, and let the principall goe free? to ſuffer the Prieſt to draw his breath at length, whileſt the entertainer of him un­der5 his roofe ſubmits his body into the executioners hands? without doubt if it be fit to forbeare the chief, it would be neceſſary to receive the ſecond offendor.

Reputation is one of the principall arteries of the Common-wealth, which Maxime is ſo well knowne of the Secretaries of the Papacy, that by private for­geries and publique impreſſions of calumniations, they endeavour to wound us in the vitall part. How­ſoever therefore that ſome few of that ſtampe, being better tempered than their fellowes, in defence of their preſent government, have not ſpared to affirme that Tyranny is unjuſtly aſcribed thereunto, foraſmuch as freedome of conſcience, after a ſort, may be redeemed by money:It is not good to ſet a price upon that which being ſold, repen­tance is to the ſeller. Notwithſtanding there want not many Pamphlets of their ſide, who opprobriouſly caſt in our teeth, that converting the penalty inflicted upon Recuſants, and refuſers of the oath of Alleagiance, is gone from the Kings Exchequer, to a particular purſe. Surely we cannot preſume that thoſe Libellors ſhould be diſſwaded from ſpitting out their venome malitiouſly againſt us, when they ſhall ſee their Prieſts mued up without further proceſſe of Law. Warineſſe is to be uſed with thoſe Quines to­tamſervitu­tem pati poſ­ſint, nec totà libertatem.For either they will attribute this his calme dealing to the juſtice of their cauſe, the ſtrength of their parts, or patience, or that no act of time hath diſcovered our Lawes, im­porting over-much ſharpneſſe in good policy to be thought fitter for the abnegation of their non-ſenſe, then repealed by a publique decree. Moſt men write good turnes in Sand, and bad in Mar­ble.Moreover it is thought by ſome, that if their Seminaries be only re­ſtrained, that they may prove like ſnakes kept in ones boſome, ſuch as Bonner, Gardner, and ſuch of the ſame livery, ſhewed themſelves to be after liberty obtained4〈1 page duplicate〉5〈1 page duplicate〉6in Queene Maries daies, and if the lives of their ghoſtly Fathers agrieve them, its probable they would take armes ſooner, and with more courage to free the living, then to ſet up a Trophee for the dead.

Fugitives that crave ſuccor, uſe to lie much in favor of their cauſe and power.Howſoever, the Jeſuits band is knowne in their na­tive ſoile to be defective in many reſpects, which makes them underlings to the Proteſtants, as in authority, armes, and the protection of Lawes, which is all in all, nevertheleſſe they inſinuate them­ſelves into forraigne Princes, favouring their parries, with promiſes of ſtrong aſſiſtance at home, if they may bewell backt from abroad; to which purpoſe they have delivered the inhabitants of this Realme into foure Sects, whereas ranking their troopes in the firſt place, as due to the pretended Catholikes, they aſſume a full-fourth to their party, and of that part again they make a ſubdiviſion into two por­tions; namely, of thoſe that openly renounce the eſtabliſhed Church of England, and others, whoſe cer­taine number as yet cannot be knowne, becauſe they frequent our Service and Sacraments, reſerving their hearts to their god the Pope. The ſecond party they allot to the Proteſtants,It is a ſigne When a facti­on dare num­ber their ſide, they conceive an opinion of ſufficient ſtrength to at­tempt ſome innovation. who retaine yet as they ſay, ſome reliques of their Church. The third ranke, and largeſt was left unto the Puritans, whom they hate deadly, in reſpect they will not hold an indiffe­rent quarter with Papiſts. The fourth and laſt mani­ple they aſſigne to the Polititians, Huomini (ſay they) ſenza Deo ſenza anima, Men without feare of God, or regard of their owne ſoules, who buſying themſelves in matters of State, retaine no ſenfe of religion. No doubt if the authors of this partition have caſt their7 accounts aright, we muſt confeſſe that the later brood is properly to be aſcribed to them. Diſcontented mindes in be­ginning of tu­mults will a­gree, though their end be diverſe.For if the un­dermining of the Parliament houſe, the ſcandalizing of the King in print, who is Gods anointed, and the re­fuſall of naturall obedience, be markes of thoſe that ſtand neither in awe of God, nor conſcience; well may the Papiſts boaſt that they are aſſured of the firſt in number, and may preſume of the laſt in friendſhip when occaſion ſhall be offered. A multitude is never uni­ted in groſſe, but in ſome few heads; which being taken away, converteth their fury a­gainſt the firſt movers of the ſedition.For the preventing of which combination, it is a ſure way to cut off the heads that ſhould tie the knot; Or at leaſt brand them with a marke in the forehead before they be diſmiſt: or after the opinion of others, to make them unwel­come to the feminine ſex, which now with great fer­vency embrace them; like unto certaine Germanes in Italy, who calling themſelves Publicans, were marked with a hot iron in the forehead, and whipt, being thruſt out in the midſt of winter, with a prohi­bition none ſhould receive them, and dyed of hunger and cold.

Theſe are for the moſt part arguments vented in ordinary diſcourſe, by many who ſuppoſe a Prieſts breath to be contagious in our Engliſh aire. Others there are who maintaine the ſecond part of the que­ſtion, with reaſons not unworthy of obſervation. Death is the end of temporall joyes, but it may no way he accounted the grave of memory. Therefore how­ſoever it is in the power of juſtice to ſuppreſſe the perſon of a man, the opinion for which be ſuffered, conceived truly or untruly in the hearts of the multi­tude, is not ſubject to any ſword, how ſharp or keene ſoever. I confeſſe, the teeth are ſeen that bite only out8 of the malice of a ſingular faction,Rooted ſu­perſtition be­ing violently handled, doth grow more wary, not leſſe obſti­nate. but when poiſon is diffuſed through the veines of a Common-wealth, with intermixtures of a blood good and bad, ſeparati­on is to be made rather by patient evacuation, then preſent inciſion. The greateſt biter of State is envy, joyned with the thirſt of revenge, which ſeldome de­clares it ſelfe in plaine colours, untill a jealouſie con­ceived of perſonall danger breake out into deſperate reſolutions. Hen••comes it to paſſe that when one malecontented member is grieved, the reſt of the bo­dy is ſenſible thereof. If Conſpira­tors have one ſympathy of minde, the conſpiracy is never ſuffici­ently ſuppreſ­ſed ſo long as one of them remaineth.Neither can a Jeſuit or a Prieſt be cut off without a generall murmuring of their fol­lowers, which being confident in their number, ſe­cretly arme for oppoſition, or confirmed with their Martyrs blood as they are perſwaded, reſolve by pa­tience and ſufferance to glorifie their cauſe, and me­rit heaven: Doe we not daily ſee it is eaſier to con­front a private enemy, then a ſociety or corporative? and that the hatred of a State is more mortall then the ſpleene of a Monarchy. Therefore except it be de­monſtrated that the whole Romane City which con­ſiſts not of one brood,Opinion ſet­led in a mul­titude, is like Hidras head, which muſt be cured by fearing, not by letting blood. but of a ſucceſſion of perſons, may be cut off at the firſt ſtroke, as one entire head; I ſee no cauſe to thinke our State ſecured by ſitting on the skirts of ſome few Seminaries, leaving in the meane time a multitude of ſnarlers abroad, who only ſhew their teeth, but waite for opportunity to bite fiercely. I will not deny but whom we feare we com­monly hate, provided alwaies that no merit hath in­terceded a reconciliation. For there is a great diffe­rence betwixt hatred conceived againſt him that will take the life, and him that may juſtly doe it, and yet9 in clemency forbeares to put it in effect; for the lat­ter breedeth a reverent awe,Clemency is a divine ju­ſtice, and worketh ſu­pernaturall effects. whereas the former ſub­jects to ſervile feare, alwaies accompanied with deſire of innovation. And though it hath been affirmed of the Church of Rome, Quod pontificum genus ſemper crudele: Nevertheleſſe, out of charity let us hope that all devils are not ſo black as they are painted;Gorticus axiom. polit. ſome, or perhaps many of them there are whom con­ſcience, or in default thereof, pure ſhame of the world, will conſtraine to confeſſe that his Majeſty moſt gratiouſly diſtinguiſheth the throne of Pope­ry from the active part thereof, as being naturally in­clined, Parvis peccatis veniam, magnis ſecuritatem;Tacit. in vita Agricalae. poe­na ſemper, ſed poenitentia aliquando contentum eſſe.

Miſtaking of puniſhment legally inflicted, com­monly proceeds from fond pitty, and the intereſt which we have in the ſame cauſe, both which beget blinde partiality.

When trai­tors in mif­chiefes will not chooſe the leaſt, it argues they are deſperate and breathe nothing but extremity of miſchiefe.Admit then, that the Papall ſide affecting merit by compaſſion, may be nearely touched with the re­ſtraint of their Seminaries; I cannot be denied I hope, except they had the hearts of Tigers, that in humanity they will prefer their eaſe of durance, be­fore the rigor of death. And albeit that Parſons, Bel­larmine, and the Pope himſelfe conſtraine their ſpiri­tuall children to thruſt their fingers into the fire by refuſing the Oath of Alleagiance; Notwithſtanding we have many Courts, Judiciall teſtimonies, and printed Bookes, that the greater part of them are of the. The bane hunters minde, who would have rather ſeen his dogs cruell acts, then have felt them to his owne coſt: Garnet himſelfe alſo in one of his ſecret10It was a pre­cept of Ma­chivell to put on the maske of religion, which is now become a po­piſh aph­riſme. Letters, laments, that after his death he ſhould not be extolled amongſt the Martyrs, becauſe that no matters of Religion were objected againſt him, yet in his demeanors it plainly appeared, that he would gladly have had the poſſibility of that glory, if any ſuch had remained; neither is it to be preſumed, that being in priſon, he would ever have conceived that we durſt not to touch his reverence, or that the Law was remiſſe that had juſtly condemned him, and left his life to the Kings mercy. It is the diſtance of the place,So it pleaſed Parſons to cavill: of whom it may be truly ſaid, Malus ma­lum peiorem, peiorem eſſe vult & ſus ſimilem. not Parſons, that interpreted the ſending over the Seas of their Prieſts, to be a greater argument of their innocency, than of his Majeſties forbearance: for had Parſons himſelfe been Coram nobis, his ſong would rather have been of mercy, than juſtice. It is truly ſaid, that we are inſtructed better by examples, than precepts. Therefore if the Lawes printed, and enditements recorded cannot controlle the calumnia­tions of 2023. of that back-biting number, I doubt not but that the queſtion may be readily decided:

Namque immedicabile vulnus,
Eſſe recidendum eſt, ne pars ſyncera trabatur.

To dally with pragmaticall Papiſts, eſpecially thoſe that by their examples and counſels pervert his Majeſties ſubjects,To beſtow benefits on the bad, ma­keth them worſe, and vi­lifies the re­ward to the vertuous. I hold it a point of meere injuſtice: for what comfort may the good expect, when the bad are by connivency freed to ſpeake what they liſt, and emboldened to put their diſloyall thoughts in execu­tion. For example therefore of my meaning, it is ne­ceſſary to have regard to the nature of the Kings11 liege people that are to be reformed to the example of juſtice, and other forreiners, who will they, nill they, muſt be obſervers of our actions. It hath truly been obſerved, that the Nations of Europe which are moſt remote from Rome, are more ſuperſtitiouſly inclined to the dregs of that place, then the nearer neighbours of Italy; whether the humor proceed from the complexion of the Northerne bodies, which is naturally inclined to old cuſtome, more than Sou­therne regions: Or that the vices of the City ſeated on ſeven hills, are by crafty Miniſters of that Sea, concealed from the vulgar ſorts; I liſt not now to diſ­cuſſe: but moſt certaine it is, that the people of this Iſle exceed the Romanes in zeale of their profeſſion; inſomuch that in Rome it ſelfe, I have heard the Engliſh fugitives tasked by the name of Piſchia petti Ingliſi, Knock-breaſts, hypocrites. Now as our coun­trimen tooke ſurer hold of Papall traditions from o­thers, ſo are they naturally better fortified with a courage to endure death for the maintenance of the cauſe. For this Climate is of that temperature, out of which Vigetius holds it fitteſt to chooſe a valiant ſol­dier, where the heart finding it ſelf provided of plen­ty of blood to ſuſtaine ſudden defects, it is not ſo ſoon apprehenſive of death or danger,Valour is o­vercome, by meekneſſe, but being too much ſup­preſſed turnes to unbridled fury. as where the ſtore­houſe of blood being ſmall, every hazzard maketh pale cheekes and trembling hands. Angli (ſay ancient writers) bello in trepidi, nec mortis ſenſu deterrentur. And thereupon Botero the Italian beares witneſſe in his re­lations, that many ſtrangers comming out of forrein parts, amongſt the rarities of England, deſired to ſee whether report had not been too laviſh in affirming12 that our condemned perſons ſold their bodies to death with chearefulneſſe, and were it not that by daily ex­perience we can call our ſelves to witneſſe this truth, I could produce the reverent Judge Forteſcue,The beſt laws are made out of thoſe good cuſtomes whereunto the people are naturally inclined. who in commendation of our Engliſh Lawes, made ſutable (as he well obſerveth) to the inbred conditions of the inhabitants of this foile, avoucheth that the Engliſh people in trial for criminal cauſes, are not compelled by tortures to confeſſe, as in other Nations it is uſed; foraſmuch as the Engliſh Nation is knowne to bee leſſe fearefull of deaths torments;Vſe to ſee men die with reſolution, ta­keth away the feare of death, for which reaſon the Romanes uſed the fights of the gladiators. for which cauſe if the torments of the Civill Law were offered to an in­nocent perſon, he would rather yeeld himſelfe guilty and ſuffer death, than endure the houres of lingering paines. Inſulam plerumque fures inhabitant, ſaith one, and ſo true it is that this Country is ſtained with that imputation, notwithſtanding that many are put to death, to the end that others by their facts might learn in time to beware. If then it doth not appeare that terrors doe not prevaile to keep men from offences,The Here­ticks and publicans be­ing whipped, took their puniſhment gladly, their captaine go­ing before, and ſinging, bleſſed are men that hate you. which are to be condemned by Law and Conſcience, what aſſurance can they have to ſcare thoſe which are conſtantly ſatisfied in their mindes, that their ſuffer­ings are either expreſly, or by implication for mat­ter of Religion, and health of their ſoules; in ſuch a death to threaten death to Engliſh men, is a matter of ſmall conſequence: Purpur at is Gallis, Italis, aut Hiſ­panis iſt a minitare. To a ſettled reſolution it bootes not to ſhew the dreadfull vizzard of deaths menaces, to prolong a weariſome life prevailes much more in ſuch caſes. Androma­chen cogere ſivis, vitam monitare. SenRightly did Clement the eighth conſider, that by burning two Engliſh men in Rome for ſup­poſed13 hereſie, rather impaired his cauſe, then better­ed it, inſomuch that many being preſent at the death of Maſter Marſh, who was brought to duſt, In campo de ſancta Flora, ſpared not to proclaime him for a Martyr, carried away his aſhes for a relique, and wiſh­ed their ſoules at the ſame place with his, which newes being brought to the Popes eare, cauſed him, as it was bruted about in Rome, ſolemnly to pro­teſt that none of the Engliſh nation ſhould publique­ly from that time forward be conſumed with fire. Worldly de­ſires may be quenched with godly meditations, but heavenly hopes cannot be abated by earthly pu­niſhments.On the other ſide, if we reade the Volumnes written in praiſe of their Prieſts conſtancy, their Martyrology, or Calendars of Martyrs, and path way of ſalvation chalkt out to the Papiſts, by ſacrificing their lives to the Pope; we ſhall finde that by taking away of one, we have confirmed and invited many, whereof I could give particular inſtances, if I thought any ſcruple were made in that point. As for forraigne parts which hold with the Papall ſupremacy, it is cleare they will be ſevere and partiall judges in this cauſe. for albeit here in England it is well knowne to all true and loyall Subjects,It is a point of wiſdome to maintaine the truth with as little diſpu­tation as may be, leaſt a good cauſe be marred with ill hand­ling. that for matter of Romiſh doctrine, no mans life is directly called in queſtion, but that their diſobedience in matters of State is the only motive of their perſecution: Nevertheleſſe where a great Canton of Chriſtendome is rooted in a contrary opinion, and things of the world are for the moſt part eſteemed by outward appearance; the Land cannot eſcape malitious ſcandals, neither ſhall there want Colledges to ſupply the faction with Semina­ries. Therefore againe and againe I ſay, that if the ſtate of the queſtion were ſo ſet, that it were poſſible14 by a generall execution of Prieſts, and their adhe­rents to end the controverſie, I could in ſome ſort with better will ſubſcribe thereunto. But ſeeing I had little hope in that courſe,It is hard to make a rule ſo generall, againſt which difference of circumſtance cannot ex­cept. I hold it ſafer to be am­bitious of the victory which is purchaſed with leſſe loſſe of blood, and to proceed as Tully teacheth his Orator, who when he cannot fully overthrow his ad­verſary, yet ought he to doe it in ſome ſort, and with­all to endeavour to confirme his owne party in the beſt manner he can. Hee that forbeares to ſow his ground in expectance of a good winde, and favoura­ble moone, commonly hath a poore crop, and a leane purſe; So ſhall it fare with the State, if private whiſperings of diſcontented perſons, that never lear­ned to ſpeake well, never to be nicely regarded, yet are they not to be ſleightly ſet at nought, leſt our cre­dit grow light, even in the ballance of our deareſt friends. He that is ca­lumniated by many, is in danger, firſt to be ſuſpect­ed by his friends, and ſhortly to be condemned, if the ſlan­der continue.The papiſticall Libels informe againſt us, that we are deſirous to grow fat with ſucking of their blood, the very walls of their Seminary counſels at Rome are bedawbed with their lying fancies, and in every corner the corner-creepers have ſome badge of their malitious ſpleene againſt us, crying out of our cruelty and perſecutions. But if the penalty of death be changed into a ſimple durance of priſons, what moate can they finde in our eyes to pull out, or with what Rhetorick can they defend their obſtinate mala­pertneſſe, with repaying us evill for good, but deſerve to have coales of indignation poured upon their heads. Viſne muliebre conſilium, to Auguſtus, let ſeveri­ty ſleep a while, and try what alteration the pardon­ing of them will bring: The Emperor hearkened un­to15 the counſel,That counſell takes beſt ef­fect, which is fitted to the nature of the times and perſons. and thereby found his enemies mouthes ſtopped, and the fury of their malice abated; ſome there are perchance that will terme this clemency innovation, and vouch the preſident of that City, who permitted none to propound new Lawes, that had not a Collar about their necks ready for vengeance, if it were found unprofitable. But let ſuch Stoicks know that there is a great difference betwixt the penning a new Law, and advice given for manner of executing it;Thoſe chan­ges of State are ſafely made, which reſerving moſt part of the ancient forme, bet­ters it, and re­duceth effects into order. neither by their leaves are all innovations to bee rejected: for divine Plato teacheth us, that in all Common-wealths, upon juſt grounds there ought to be ſome changes, and that Stateſmen therein muſt be­have themſelves like skilfull Muſitians, Qui artem Muſices non mutant, ſed Muſices modum. That an ill weed grows faſt by the example of the new Catho­liques increaſe, is cleerely convinced; but he that will aſcribe this generation ſimply to his Majeſties heroi­call vertue of clemency, argueth out of the fallacy which is called Ignoratio Elenchi. Was not the zeale of many cooled towards the end of Queene Elizabeths raigne? Have not the impertinent heads of ſome of our owne ſide bereft us of part of our ſtrength, and the Papacy with tract of time gotten a hard skin on their conſciences? Parvametu primo mox ſeſe,The Church is moſt zea­lous when perſecution is moſt freſh in memory; when thoſe times forgot­ten, we fall to loath that which we in­joy freely. attollit in altum. But if we will have a better inſight, behold how this great quantity of Spawne is multiplyed; we muſt eſpecially aſcribe the cauſe thereof to their Prieſts, who by their deaths prepare and aſſure more to their Sect, then by their lives they could ever per­ſwade. It were incivility to diſtruſt a friend, or one that hath the ſhew of an honeſt man, if he will frankly16 give his word, or confirme it with a ſacred Oath, but when proteſtation is made at the laſt gaſp of life, it cauſeth a greater effect, and poſſeſſeth thoſe that can­not gainſay it upon their owne knowledge. The num­ber of thoſe Prieſts which now a daies come to make a Tragicall concluſion is not great, yet as with one ſeale many Patents are ſealed, ſo with the loſſe of few lives, numbers of: wavering ſpirits may be gained. Sanguis Martyrum,In this caſe the queſtion is not ſo much of the truth of it, as who ſhall judge, and what cenſure be given. ſemen Eccleſiae, and though their Prieſts having a diſadvantagious cauſe, are indeed but counterfeit Martyrs to a true underſtanding, yet will they be reputed for ſuch by thoſe that lay their ſoules in pawne upon their doctrine, with whom, if we liſt to contend by multitude of voices, we ſhall be cryed downe without peradventure. For the gate of their Church is wide, and many there be that enter there­into. By divers meanes it is poſſible to come to one and the ſelfſame end,In the firſt yeare of Qu: Elizabeth it was eaſier to ſubdue pope­ry then now, for then they feared to irri­tate the E­ſtates, not knowing how far ſin­cerity might extend. Now knowing the worſt, they are reſolved agere & pa­ti fortia. ſeeing that the Sum of our wil­lingneſſe and well wiſhing is all one; namely, that Popiſh prieſts may have no power to doe harme, it is impertinent to try ſundry pathes, which way to lead us to the perfection of our deſires. Polititians diſtinguiſh Inter Rempublicam conſtitutam, & Rempub­licam conſtituendam: according to the ſeverall natures therof, Statiſts are to diſpoſe of their counſels and or­dinances. Were the Rhemiſts and Romuliſts new hatcht out of their ſhell, the former courſe of ſeveri­ty might ſoone bury their opinions with their per­ſons; but ſince the diſeaſe is inveterated, variety of medicine is to be applyed, but judiciouſly. The Ro­manes did not puniſh all crimes of one and the ſelfe­ſame nature with extremity of death, for ſome they17 condemned to perpetuall baniſhment in priſon, and others they baniſht into an Iſland, and ſome remote Countrey. In caſe of religion they were tender to dip their finger in blood; for when Cato was Conſull, and it ſeemed good to the Senate to ſuppreſſe with violence the diſordered Ceremony of the Bacchanals, brought into the City by a ſtrange Prieſt, hee withſtood their ſentence,Vulgus eſt moreſum animal, quod facili­us duci poteſt quam cogi. alleadging there was nothing ſo apt to deceive many as Religion, which alwaies pretends a ſhew of Divinity; and therefore it behooves them to be very wary in chaſtiſing thereof, leſt any indignation ſhould enter into the peoples minde, that ſomething was derogated from the Majeſty of their god. Others more freely, have not feared to place re­ligion which is ignorantly zealous, amongſt the kindes of phrenſie, which is not to be cured o­therwiſe then by time giving, to direct or qua­lifie the fury of the conceit. Tantum religio po­tuit ſuadere malorum. Howſoever in valuing the power of a City, as therein ſtrength of argu­ments, quality, and worth is to be preferred be­fore number. Nevertheleſſe, where the utter­moſt of our feare is not knowne,Many Partizans en­courage the faint hearted: and where an enemy cannot pre vaile againſt number, his thoughts are not how to offend, but how to make a ſafe retreate. it imports much, to have it conceived that the multitude ſtands for us. For doubts and ſuſpitions caſt in an enemies way, evermore make things grea­ter, and more difficult than they are indeed. We have by Gods mercy the ſword of Juſtice drawn in our behalfe, which in ſhort time is able to diſunite the ſecret underminers of our quiet. 18We have a King zealous for the houſe of the Lord, who needeth not to feare leſſe ſucceſſe in ſhutting up of the Prieſts, then our late Queen had in reſtraining them in Wisbitch Caſtle, where leſt factious ſpirits ſhould ruſt, they converted their canker to fret upon themſelves, and vomiting out their gall in Quodlibets,More Prieſts may be ſhut up in a yeare, then they can make in many. ſhew­ed that their diſeaſe was chiefly predominant in the ſpleene: what tempeſts they have raiſed in their Colledge at Rome, their owne bookes, and many Travellers can witneſſe, the ſcorne whereof was ſuch, that Sixtus Quintus com­plained ſeriouſly of the vexation which he re­ceived oftner from the Engliſh Schollars, then from all the vaſſals of his Triple Crowne. And truly is the Magiſtrate noted of negligence,Deſire of Innovation is raſh and contenti­ous, and therefore can hardly agree of a head. or overmuch ſecurity, that laies not wait to catch the Foxes, the little Foxes which ſpoile the Vineyard, as without further puniſhments, re­ſerving them to the day wherein God will take account of their ſtewardſhips. For if Ariſtotles City deemed to be a ſociety of men, aſſembled to live well, be the ſame which in our Law hath reference to the people in peace, ſo long as we taſte of the ſweet of the peaceable government, we cannot ſay but that we live well, and that the conſiſting of men, not of walls, is happily go­verned and guided. An oath is of force ſo long as it is thought lawfull; when that opinion is ceaſed, it doth more hurt than good.An Oath is but a weake band to hold him, that will for pretended con­ſcience ſake, hold no faith with Heretiques, or by abſolution of a Prieſt, thinkes himſelfe at li­berty to flie from any promiſe, or proteſtation19 whatſoever, therefore when I remember that Watſon the Prieſt, notwithſtanding his inve­ctive againſt the Jeſuits, gained liberty to forge his trecherous inventions, and had others of his ſociety in the complot; I judge it ſafer to make recluſes of them, then to ſuffer ſuch to dally with us by bookes, and ſome other idle intelli­gences caſt abroad, only as a miſt to blinde our eyes. But how ſhall we finde the meanes to ap­prehend thoſe diſguiſed Romaniſts, that borrow the ſhape of Captaines, Merchants, Gentle­men, Citizens, and all ſorts of people, and by equivocation may deny themſelves? In anſwer to this queſtion, I will firſt ſhew the reaſon why they are not purſued and taken, and after make an overture how theſe may be bolted out of their hutches. The nature of man,One man in another beholdeth the image of himſelf, and there­by groweth compaſ­ſionate, and ſenſible of that which may fall to himſelfe. howſoever in hot blood, is to be thirſty of revenge in a cholle­rick temper, it hath a kinde of Nauſea, as I may call it, a diſtaſte of taking away the lives, even of the nocent. Inſomuch that in all Aſſiſes and Seſſions, and offender can hardly be condemned, whom the fooliſh pitty of many after a ſort, will not excuſe with laying ſome imputation on the Judges part, on the Jury, and much on the accuſer, and ſurely by their blinde affections, praiſe the priſoner, who perhaps was never commended for handſomneſſe, yet is eſteemed of them for one of the propereſt men in the company. For hence it comes to paſſe that the name of Sergeant, or Purſevant is odious, and the executioner, though the hand of juſtice, is20 eſteemed no better than an enemy to mankinde, and one that loſt honeſty in the Cradle. Reve­rend Maſter Foxe was wont to ſay, that ſpies and accuſers were neceſſary members in a com­mon-Weale,What men doe un­willingly, they doe not effectually. and deſerved to be cheriſht; but for his owne part, he would not be one of that number, nor wiſh his friends to affect ſuch em­ployments. And albeit the Law commands every man to apprehend a fellon, doe we not commonly ſee every man content to ſtand by, and look on whileſt others performe that office? Likewiſe it is evident, that if ſuch as are tender of their reputation, be very ſcrupulous per­ſonally to arreſt men for actions of debt, they will be more unwilling in drawing their bodies to the Rack or Gallows, eſpecially when there is any colour of Religion to be pretended in the caſe. The diverſity of mens faces is great, but that univerſity of their minds and their caſes are more variable, wherein the meaneſt have thoughts aſwell as the higheſt. Beſides, there are too many of the blinde Commonalty altoge­ther Popiſh, though not reconciled Papiſts, who in their fooliſh ignorance will ſay, it is pit­ty any ſhould die for their conſcience, though indeed thereby they make but honourable a­mends for their treaſon. Verily I doe not know what miſgiving of the minde it is that makes men forecaſt the poſſibility of alteration in the matters of Religion, and for that reſpect they are exceeding backward in diſcovery, and lay­ing hands on Seminaries, yea, and over-time­rous21 in enacting ſharp Lawes againſt them, as they that ſilently ſay amongſt themſelves, Sors hodierna mihi, cras erit illa tibi.

Some alſo revive a Text in Queene Maries time, alleaged by the Proteſtants, that the tares ſhould not be plucked up before harveſt. Nay,Vertue neither prai­ſed or commended, waxeth cold. ſhall I ſpeak a bugbeare word? there is no ſmall number that ſtand doubtfull whether it be a gratefull worke to croſſe Popery, or that it may be done without a foule aſperſion of Purita­niſme, or a ſhrewd turne for their labour one time or other. By which unhappy ambiguity it comes to paſſe that theſe animalia,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the Prieſts I meane, that prey on the ſoules or bo­dies of either ſexe unattached, revell where they liſt, though they are no more ſeene than a man dancing in a net. How much fitter were it for us couragiouſly to invite them to our party by preaching, or confuting them by writing; and to the State wherein we ſtand, wiſely to apply the exhortation of the Aſſyrian King to his ſol­diers. You are fooles quoth he, if there be any hope in your hearts, to redreſſe ſorrow by flight, make them flie which are the cauſes of your griefe, aſſuring your ſelves, that more periſh in flight then in battell, even as many ſeeking to meet the Papiſts but halfe way, diſcomfit our owne party.

It followeth now in order according to the method preſcribed, that an overture be made how to get the Jeſuits and their ſhadowes, the Prieſts, into our profeſſion. It hath been hereto­fore22 recited, that the unwelcome name of a blood-ſucker, a buſie body, or a Puritane, hath been ſhrewd ſcare-crowes unto many honeſt mindes; by abrogating therefore of thoſe or ſuch like imputations,An ill name given to a good thing, diſcou­rageth a man from medling with it. many will be ſtirred up to the apprehending of the adverſaries unto the truth, eſpecially when for their paines and time imployed, they ſhall deſerve to have the ti­tles of dutifull ſubjects, and zealous Chriſtians. Yet how ready is every common perſon to carry every malefactor rather to the ſtocks, then to the Gaole,Wiſe men forecaſt how to doe moſt with leaſt voice. or execution? And doubtleſſe they will be no leſſe forward to attach a Prieſt when they are aſſured that the worſt of his puniſhment ſhall be a ſimple reſtraint within the walls of ſome old Caſtle. A certaine kinde of people there is, with whom mony plays a more forcible Orators part, then any perſwaſion of their duti­full ſervice which they owe to the Common­wealth; theſe men will not be negligent to give intelligence, and alſo to procure it faithfully, provided that the reward may help to releeve their thredbare purſe, and exempt them from need to ſell liberty to Seminaries; and where aſſured hope of gaine is propounded for diſco­very, what Maſter or Houſe-keeper will truſt his ſervant with keeping of his ſecrets herein, whileſt he is thereby engaged to the danger of a mercenary? I remember that in Italy it was told me the bountifull hand of Sir Francis Walſing­ham made his intelligencers ſo active, that a Se­minary could ſcarce ſtirre out of the gates of23 Rome without his privity; which ſucceſſe may be as eaſily obtained by the mediation of gold from Sivill, Valledolid, Doway, Lovaine,Particular offices muſt bee appointed; what is left for all, is commonly perform­ed by none. and Paris, and by forewarning of their approach, they may be waited for at the Port, and from thence be conveyed to ſafe lodging. But where ſhall the ſtreame flow that ſhall feed this boun­ty? no doubt it may eaſily be ſatisfied, if ſome thouſands of pounds out of the Recuſants pe­nalties be reſerved in ſtock, and be committed by his Majeſty to the diſpoſing of zealous diſtri­buters, who will not be afraid to conclude, Per­dat fiſcus ut capiat Chriſtus. Neither need we ſeek any further ſuccour to repaire decayed Caſtles, and therein to defray the charge of the Prieſts, with a ſure guard to keep them, then the fore­named forfeitures, that by the juſtice of the Law may be collected: which courſe, if ever it come happily to be entertained, and that Recuſants ceaſe to be an ignominious prey to the ſubject, the proceeding for Religion ſhall be leſſe bla­med, and perhaps altogether unjuſtly accuſed by any Gretſerus, or Cacodemon Johannes, their pens being tincted in Gall or Vineger. For beſide occaſion of calumniation given by ſuites of that nature,Service done for the Kings proper uſe, hath his warrant and coūtenance; but whē a private man hath the gaine, neither re­ward, nor bearing out can be expected, and by conſequence Recuſants are free. it is evident that many are Recuſants that would be indited for the King, and for the effecting the project aforeſaid ſhall eſcape without puniſhment, and be borne out againſt the power of a private perſon, begging then to no other purpoſe then hath before been uſed. And albeit the penalty be raiſed and rated24 at twenty pounds a moneth, yet was it never the Law-makers intent, that ſuch as were not able to pay ſo great a ſumme, ſhould goe ſcot-free, but rather according to the proportion of their ability, they ſhould doe the penance of their parts for their diſobedience. A poore man, ſaith one, is to be pittied, if he offend through neceſſity, but if he doe amiſſe voluntarily, he is to be puniſhed ſeverely; becauſe wanting friends and means he ſhews his fault comes from pre­ſumption. Let us now ſuppoſe that the whole regiment of Jeſuits and Seminaries were lodged in ſafe cuſtody, may we then perſwade our ſelves that Popery will vaniſh like a dumbe ſhew? I am fully reſolved,Medicines that work in the ſpirits of men, are of greater force, and cure more ſurely than plaiſters. that though it receive a great eclipſe, notwithſtanding without the helpes, the kingdome of Antichriſt will only be hidden as a weed that ſeemes withered in other winter, and is ready to ſprout out again with the ſpring. Temporall armes are remedies for a time, but the ſpirituall ſword is permanent in operation, and by an inviſible blow works more than mor­tall man can imagine. The word of God caries the two-edged weapon in its mouth, which is to be uſed by faithfull Miniſters in the Church, whom pure zeale, without reſpect to worldly promotions or perſons, ought to encourage. Of Judges the Scripture ſaith, Eſtote fortes; and daily we ſee, that ſitting in their judiciall ſeats, God inſpireth them with greater courage then when as private men they are to give their opi­nions.


No leſſe is the power of the holy Ghoſt in his ſervants, that out of the Pulpit are to deli­ver his Embaſſage. Let them not therefore be diſmaid to ſpeake out plainly, and tell the truth without running the middle courſe,Such is the interpre­ter of the minde ther­fore who uſeth in di­vine matters to ſpeak reſervedly and in a double ſence, he will be ſuſpected to have a double heart and unfit to teach them that truſt him not. betwixt heat and cold, unprofitably deſcanting upon the Scriptures with an old poſtell, or for want of better matter, waſte the ſhort time ſhut up in an houre glaſſe, with skirmiſhing againſt the worthy Pillars of our owne profeſſion. Rumor which is over-ready to take hold of evill, hath〈◊〉a ſecret thought, (I hope a cauſleſſe ſuſpi­••••) that there ſhould be ſome combination underſ•••d, by changing the States of queſti­ons, to put us in our olde dayes to learne a new Catechiſme〈◊〉and when they have brought us out of conceit with the reverent awfulneſſe of the word, to uſe us then, as the Wolves menti­oned in Dmoſthenes Apology handled the ſhep­heards when they had delivered up their dogs. Moſt ſacred was the ſpeech of our late gracious King, concerning Vorſtius, He that will ſpeake of Canaan, let him ſpeake the language of Ca­naan. How can we draw others to our Church, if we cannot agree where, or how to lay our foundation, or how to cleanſe the leprous diſ­eaſe of diſſention, which the Papiſts, moſt doubtfull of their ſalvation, are not aſhamed to aſcribe to many of us. I would not have Mini­ſters undiſcreet, like dogs, to bark at all, whether they know, or know them not: I like better the opinion of Ariſtotle, who adviſed thoſe that26 ſtood in guard of a place, to be curſt only to ſuch as are about to endamage the City. A good paſtor is the phyſitian of the ſoule and ought to ap­ply his doctrine ac­cording to the ten­derneſſe of the con­ſcience, for want of which diſcretion ſome mens zeale hath done hurt.If Purſevants and other civill Officers would learne to keep this rule, they might goe about their buſineſſe with much more credit. The imagined feare of inviting the Romiſh factions by force to deliver their ghoſtly Fathers out of priſon moves not me a whit. For I cannot be­leeve that they eſteeme them at ſo great a price, that they would runne the hazzard of freeing o­thers out of hold, to put themſelves into their places. Some will ſay that a man of ſtraw is a head good enough for a diſcontented multitude. That the Papiſts are cholerick,Falſe miracles and ly­ing news are the food of ſuperſtition which by credulity deludeth ignorant people. appeares by their writings, yet it hath pleaſed God to ſend thoſe curſt Cowes ſhort hornes, that when they could not finde a man of miſchiefe to ſerve their turnes, they were faine to doe homage to Garnets ſtraw, forgetfull as they were, that ſuch ſtubble cannot indure the triall of the fire. But to us that ought to be doers as well as profeſſors of the Goſpell, let this remaine as a memorable Theoreme, That religion is the mother of good order; good order is the cauſe of proſperate fortune and happy ſucceſſe in all counſels, and enterpriſes. Wherefore in what ſtate ſoever there wants good order, it is evident that reli­gion goeth backwards. I have ever held it for a kinde of injuſtice to omit the execution of meane Lawes made to pervert the effect of idle­neſſe, and then to apply many extremities of the ſword, when the habit of that vice comes to27 height. No leſſe is the courſe uncharitable, with pardon of preſumption be it ſpoken, when we ſpare them that have no religion at all, and cenſure thoſe that give account of ſomewhat tending to the purpoſe: He that is in miſery muſt be borne withall, if he ſpeake miſerably: and when the childe from the mothers breaſts have ſuckt nothing but Popery, a man had need to be angry with diſcretion, if he heare him ſpeake with the voice of a Prieſt; God calls ſome by miracles, but the ordinary means is the word; if that meanes in any place of this Land be wanting, of what religion will the peo­ple likelieſt be? I ſuppoſe that few men will de­ny my aſſertion, That outward ſenſe will direct them to Popery, which is fuller of Pageants, than ſpirituall doctrine. And whats the cauſe, that after ſo many yeares preaching of the Goſ­pell, the common people ſtill retaine a ſenſe of the Romane perfume? The cauſe is, that the formall obedience of comming to Church hath been more expected than the inſtructions of private families. A man is ſaid to know ſo much as he remem­breth, and no more, and wee remember what we learne in our youth: therefore if we would be wiſe when we are old, we muſt be taught yong.Publike Catechiſme is of great uſe, but the firſt elements thereof are to be learned at home, and thoſe which we learne of our Parents ſtick more ſurely in our mindes. What was the cauſe that the Spartans continu­ed their government ſo many revolutions of time without mutation? Hiſtories record, that learning their country cuſtomes from their in­fancy, they could not be induced to alter them; and in this our native ſoile we perceive that28 common Lawes which relie on ancient cuſtome are better obſerved than late Statutes of what worth ſoever they be. So doth it fare with the olde people, who being ſeaſoned with the olde dregs of Papiſme, will hardly be drawne from it, till the learning of the true faith be growne to a cuſtome. I will preſcribe no orders, or of­ficers to effect this. Such as the Princes houſe is ſuch is the ſtate of the commons for the moſt part, ſo that a Prince by a ſur­vey of his owne houſe may have anaime how the common­weale is affected.But I ſuppoſe the ancient laudable courſe of the Biſhops Confirmation will not be ſufficient to fulfill ſo great a taske. The Miniſters ought and muſt be the principall and immediate hands to give aſſiſtance to ſo gracious a worke, and in caſe any be defective in this duty, the reverend Biſhops may take notice thereof in their viſitations. Perhaps it might be thought a hard taske to conſtraine old people to learne the A, B, C. of their Chriſtian beliefe. By the lawes we are the tithingmen which give account for ten houſholds, ſome ſuch office might do good in this caſe, for I hold the breaking of the ſaboth to be the ruine of our religion.But howſoever it be, I hold it no inci­vility to prepare people of all ages for the kingdome of heaven, by the order contained in the booke of Common Prayer, or Sundaies and Holy-daies, halfe an houre before Evenſong, the Curate of every Pariſh ought to examine Children ſent unto him in ſome points of their Catechiſme, and all Fathers, Maſters, and Mo­thers ſhould cauſe their Children and Appren­tiſes to reſort unto the Church at the time ap­pointed, there obediently to heare, and be or­dered by the Curate, untill ſuch time as they ſhall learne all that in the ſaid Booke is com­manded. And when the Biſhop ſhall appoint the Children to be brought before him for their29 Confirmation, the Curate of every pariſh ſhall ſend or bring in writing the names of thoſe children in his Pariſh which can anſwer to the queſtions of the Catechiſme. And there ought none to be admitted to the holy Communion,It were fit alſo they learned how to di­ſtinguiſh the com­mon grounds of Po­pery, whereby the Prieſts deceive your people. nor be confirmed untill ſuch time as he can ſay the Catechiſme. Many times I have ſtood ama­zed to behold the magnificence of our anceſtors buildings, which their ſucceſſors at this day are not able to keep up. But when I caſt mine eyes back upon this excellent foundation laid by the grave Fathers of the Church, and perceive their Children neglect to build upon it, with exceed­ing marvaile I reſt almoſt beſides my ſelfe. For never was there better ground-plot laid, which was ſeconded with leſſe and worſe ſucceſſe. It was not the hanging up of the Bull of Pius Quin­tus on the Biſhop of Londons doores,He that knowes not the true cauſe of an evill, cannot help it but by chance, which is a dangerous guide of a State. for the forbearing to hang up Prieſts hath wrought the A poſtacy, but the idleneſſe and inſufficiency of many Teachers, conſpiring with the peoples cold zeale, that have been the contrivers of this unhappy web. Vntill the eleventh yeare of Q. Elizabeths raigne, a Recuſants name was ſcarce­ly knowne. The reaſon was, becauſe the zeale begotten in the time of the Marian perſecuti­on, was yet freſh in memory. And the late per­ſecutors were ſo amazed with the ſudden alte­ration of Religion, that they could not chooſe but ſay, Digitus Dei eſt hic, in theſe there was an emulation betwixt the Clergy and the Laity, and the ſtrife aroſe who ſhould ſhew themſelves30 moſt affectionate to the Goſpell. Miniſters haunted the houſes of worthy men, where Jeſuits now build their Tabernacles. And Countrey Churches were frequented with the beſt of the ſhire,Where good men are afraid to call vice by the proper name, it is a ſigne the vice is common, and great perſons whom it is not ſafe to anger, are infected with it. the word of God was precious, and pray­er and preaching went hand in hand together, un­till Archbiſhop Grindals diſgrace, and Hatfields hard conceit of prophecies brought the flow­ing of theſe good graces to a ſtill water, and the name of a Papiſt ſmelt ranke even in their owne noſtrils, and for pure ſhame to be accounted ſuch, they reſorted daily to our Engliſh Chur­ches, and exerciſes. But when they ſaw their great Coripheus, Sanders, had ſlily pinned the name of Puritans upon the ſleeves of the Pro­teſtants that encountered them with moſt cou­rage, and perceiving that the word was pleaſing to ſome of our owne ſide, that tooke hearty grace to ſet little by the ſervice of God, and duty to their Soveraigne:If theſe mens zeal had been put to imploy it ſelfe otherwiſe, and a taske ſet them to do ſome good, they might have been re­formed or made harmeleſſe by di­verſion. Therewith ſtarted up amongſt us, ſome that might have been re­commended for their zeale, if it had been tem­pered with diſcretion, who for ruining the au­thority of the Magiſtrate, tooke upon them in ſundry places, and publikely to cenſure what­ſoever agreed not with their conceit, with which croſſe tumults vented in Pulpits, and Pam­phlets, moſt men grew to be frozen in zeale, and in ſuch ſort benummed, that whoſoever (as the worthy Lord Keeper Bacon obſerved) in thoſe daies pretended a little ſparke of earneſtneſſe, he ſeemed no leſſe then red fire hot in reſpect31 of others. Headſtrong paſſions are not eaſily ſubdued yet muſt they not be ſuffered to grow to a faction. Diſcretio perlegem diſtinguere quid ſit: wee muſt lay the burthen in the right place.And as ſome things fare the worſe for an ill neighbours ſake dwelling beſides them, ſo did it betide the Proteſtants, who ſeek­ing to curb the Papiſts, or reprove an idle, drone, was incontinently branded with the ig­nominious note of a Preciſian.

And which winde brought plenty to the Popes Well? And there will moſt men grinde, where they ſee appearance to be well ſe­cured. If without great inconveniency the chil­dren of Papiſts could be brought up out of their company, that were a happy turne. Without reformation in this point, Po­pery will ſtill en­creaſe: but as all ver­tuous enterpriſes are difficult, ſo this moſt intricate.But I finde it to be full of difficulty: there is proviſion made to avoid Popiſh School-maſters, but there is no word againſt Popiſh School-miſtreſſes that in­fect the ſilly Infants while they carry them in their armes: which moveth me to ſuppoſe that the former propoſition to examine how chil­dren and ſervants are brought up, and truly to certifie the life of Communicants and Recu­ſants, will be the readieſt meanes to let his Ma­jeſty know the yearely increaſe of the Church in every Dioceſſe;A wiſe houſholder will caſt up his rec­koning, to ſee what loſſe or profit he hath made in a yeare. and whoſoever ſhall ſend his children, or any his Majeſties ſubjects to bee placed in Monaſteries and Seminary Colledges, or Popiſhly to be brought up in forreine parts, I wiſh that for puniſhment, both the one and the other might be defranchiſed of the privi­ledges due to naturall Subjects, ſo far forth as any good by the Lawes might deſcend to them, but not be exempted from the penalties there­of, or the Regall juriſdiction of the Crowne. 32I know that contradiction is odious, and makes a man ſeeme ambitious, to be thought more un­derſtanding than others. In which caſe the Spaniard uſes to terme him only preſumptu­ous, whom he would call foole, if civility would beare it. But my defence I hope ſhall ſerve to revive my former proteſtation, that I diſcourſe by way of propoſition rather than arrogance in defining any thing;The law which took immediate notice of an offence, gave a quick redreſſe, and corrected the poore as well as the rich. with pardon therfore may it be permitted, that the penall Law of twelve pence inflicted on him that would not give a reaſonable excuſe for his abſence from Church on Sundaies, was one of the beſt Ordinances that hath been hitherto enacted: but while we ſought to make new Statutes ſavouring of more ſeverity, we neglected the old, and were loath to execute the new. For it is a certaine rule, that whoſoever in policy will give liberty, and yet ſeeme to ſuppreſſe a crime, let him procure ſharpe Lawes to be proclaimed, which are ne­ceſſary only for the times, and cauſe occaſions to be put in execution, but not to be an ordina­ry worke for every day in the weeke;Sharpe Lawes that ſtand upon along proceſſe, after a man­ner ſeem to diſpenſe with a vice. daily uſe teacheth us likewiſe, that it is leſſer grievous to puniſh by an old Law, than a new. Foraſmuch as truth it ſelfe without it be praiſed, ſeldome gets credit, and its hard to free the people from ſuſpition, that new Lawes are not rather in­vented againſt the particular perſons and purſes of men, than againſt their manners. By force of which reaſon I am induced to conceive that the old uſe of the Church contained in good33 nurture and Eccleſiaſticall cenſure much more prevaile to nuzzle Popery, than any freſh devi­ces whatſoever. Neither doe I thinke it blame­worthy, to affirme that our cauſe hath taken harme by relying more on temporall, than ſpi­rituall forces, for while we truſted that Capi­tall puniſhments ſhould ſtrike the ſtroke, we have neglected the meanes which would for the moſt part have diſcharged the need of ſuch ſecu­rity. The oath of Allegiance is not offered ge­nerally to ſervants and meane people,The allegiance to God ought to pre­cede the temporall obedience: for if the firſt may be obtained, the ſecond will fol­low of it ſelfe. who if they had taken the oath of Abſolution of a prieſt might recoile from it, and change their opini­on at leiſure, without any ready meanes, to diſ­cover their Lieger demeanes. That oath will not be often preſt, and to them that ſhift from place to place, how can it be tendered. The principall Papiſts now cover themſelves in the crowde of the multitude, but if we can diſco­ver the affection of the multitude, they will ea­ſily be unmasked, and being ſingled from the reſt, they will be aſhamed of their nakedneſſe. Which under correction of better judgements may be effected, if every new commer to inha­bite a towne, and ſervant newly entertained, within a weeke or fourteene daies be cauſed to repaire unto the Miniſter,This courſe will diſ­cover more than the oath of Allegiance, and prevent many from falling off, by reaſon of the quicke diſcovery. there in preſence of the Churchwardens and other honeſt men, to ſubſcribe unto ſuch briefe and ſubſtantiall arti­cles confirming Faith and Allegiance, as ſhall be according to Gods Word, and Juſtice or­dained to diſtinguiſh the Sheepe from the34 Goates. In forreine Countries every Hoſt is bound to bring his gueſt before an Officer, there to certifie his name, with the occaſion of his comming, and intended time of abode in thoſe parts; and in caſe he ſtaies longer, he muſt again renew his licence: ſo curious and vigilant alſo they are to keep their Cities from infection, that without a Certificate witneſſing their com­ming from wholſome places, they may not eſcape the Lazzaretto. No leſſe watchfull ought we to bee to prevent the contagions of our ſoules,As long as houſes & lodgings in London are let to Papiſts, the Prieſts ſhall bee re­ceived, and from thence the Countrey infected. than other Nations are of their bodies; every thing is hard and ſcarcely pleaſing in the beginning, but with hope ſome ſuch courſe may be readily put in execution: I propound this rather as matter for better heads to worke on, then peremptorily to be inſiſted upon in the ſame termes. Yet leſt any man charge me with temerity, that when I deſire to know the mul­titudes inclination by the meanes aforeſaid, I ſatisfie my ſelfe with the Parrets language, pro­nouncing it knowes not what: I thinke it not impertinent to put them in minde, that I have hitherto required inſtruction, both precedent, and ſubſequent, and am ever of the minde, that though all this cannot be done at once,If we can prevent the increaſe of Papiſts, theſe that now live, muſt either bee re­formed, or in time, yeeld to nature, and then ſhall a new age of Chriſtians ſucceed and by education made religions. yet it is neceſſary alwaies to be doing our beſt, knowing, that not to goe forward in Religion, is to goe backward. It is not the outward obedience of comming to Church, that diſcovers the inward thoughts of the heart, it is the confeſſion of the tongue muſt utter theſe ſecrets, and where the35 Curate is inſufficient, or the Pariſh great, I would they had Chatechiſts to aſſiſt them, maintained by the Prieſts of the Recuſants, which penſion being collected for good cauſe, will free us from ſcandall, though it grieve them to pay the ſpeciall army wages againſt their owne Stratagems; ſurely in giving them way in petty matters, they are growne Maſter­full on their party. Plato affirmes, that the po­pular ſtate proceeds from the licence which people take to make immoderate applauſes in the Theatres;The broachers of a bad cauſe being tou­ched in conſcience, at firſt move ſlowly, but if they prevaile, they grow tyrannous be­yond meaſure. when as by arrogating that im­munity without controlment, in the preſence of their governours, and perceiving the Nobi­lity to joyne with them in the ſame paſſions, they thought their heads as worthy to governe, as any of thoſe that were made out of the ſelfe­ſame mould. In like manner, while we ſuffer ignorance to maintaine ſuch pretty glimpſes of Popery as are thought to be ſcarce worthy to be looked at, and in ſmall matters runne an in­different courſe, which neither make ſure friends, nor feeble foes; unawares they take the bridle from us, and eate our Religion as it were by an inſenſible Gangrene, Principiis obſta, &c. For by ſufferance of breaking ſmaller Lawes, people are emboldened to ſet the greater at nought. To comprehend all things in a Law that are neceſſary, I neither hold it profitable, nor expedient; yet it is diſcretion to provide for the moſt important, ſmaller matters whereof the Law ſpeakes not, they are36 to be commended to the diſcretion of Parents, Maſters, and other reverend perſons, who by example and adviſe may prepare younglings by education and cuſtome to obey the Lawes, eſpecially ſuch as are in high places,Moſt men will affect to bee ſuch as the higheſt do moſt truſt and favour. ought in this behalfe to be like Caeſars wife, Non ſolum crimine, ſed etiam criminis ſuſpitione vacare: and with circumſpection to behave themſelves, that the world may conceive in requiring obe­dience to God and their Soveraigne, that they hold the multitude rather as companions then ſlaves. A great man is an I­doll in the eyes of the people, and drawes many to imitate his actions.If great men take another way, they may ſeduce many by example, though by words they expreſſe not their conceived opini­ons. Tace & eloquere, ſaith God to Moſes, it is the ſpeech of the heart, which utters more the Letters or Syllables. And in our Court of Ju­ſtice, it is holden even dangerous, when a great perſon only by his preſence countenances a cauſe. Neither let us ſecure our ſelves with this argument; the Papiſts are pliable in ſome matters, and therefore they will yeeld in great; And becauſe they tooke no armes in 88. it were needleſſe curioſity to ſuſpect them now; for who knowes not that ſmalleſt baites are uſed to take the greateſt fiſh: Vtcum eſcâ unâ etiam & humus devoratur. Warineſſe is the ſinew of Wiſdome, and nothing is more dangerous, than to be ſecure in matters of State. There­fore concerning Lawes already made; I wiſh that the moſt effectuall of them, which leaſt concerne life, may be executed: for better it37 were not to make them,Few Laws well exe­cuted, are better then many. than by neglect to ſet them at liberty, ſeeing that many offences there bee which many would abſtaine from, if they were not forbidden; but when a ſtrict Commandement is avoided without puniſh­ment, thereout ſprings an unbridled licence to be hardly reformed by any rigour.

To conclude, I ſay freely, he that endeth his dayes by a naturall death, hee ſhall bee ſubject to receive many doomes for every particular offence; but when for Religions ſake a man trampleth over the Sword, that eminent Vertue (it may be avouched) chaſeth out the memory of other errours, and placeth him that ſo dyeth, in Paradiſe of common opi­nion: which glory having many followers and admirers, maketh even dull ſpirits to affect their footſteps,A crowne of glory once attained, hath power to diſpence with former faults. and ſo ſell their lives for the maintenance of the ſame cauſe. I need not to envy the name of a Martyr to a Jeſuite; for his cauſe if it bee rightly weighed, will baniſh that title: but I deſire to have all thoſe lineaments defaced which may com­pound that counterfeit Image.

In proſecution of which purpoſe, if I have failed in mine adviſe, and by confuſed hand­ling, obſcured the Queſtion, I humbly re­queſt, that wiſe mens verdicts may mitigate the heavineſſe of the doome. It is neither good to praiſe bad counſels, becauſe of their good38 ſucceſſe,Hee counſels beſt, that prefers the cauſe of God and the com­mon-wealth, before any particular. nor to condemne good counſell, if the end prove not fortunate: leſt many be animated to adviſe raſhly, and others diſheartened to adviſe gravely.


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TextA treatise against recusants, in defence of the oath of alegeance. With executions of consideration, for repressing the encrease of Papists. / By Sir Robert Cotton, knight.
AuthorCotton, Robert, Sir, 1571-1631..
Extent Approx. 74 KB of XML-encoded text transcribed from 24 1-bit group-IV TIFF page images.
SeriesEarly English books online text creation partnership.
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Bibliographic informationA treatise against recusants, in defence of the oath of alegeance. With executions of consideration, for repressing the encrease of Papists. / By Sir Robert Cotton, knight. Cotton, Robert, Sir, 1571-1631.. [6], 38 p. Printed by Richard Hearn,London :Anno. Dom. 1641.. (Reproduction of the original in the British Library.)
  • Oath of allegiance, 1606 -- Early works to 1800.
  • Church and state -- England -- Early works to 1800.
  • Catholics -- England -- Early works to 1800.

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The EEBO-TCP project was divided into two phases. The 25,363 texts created during Phase 1 of the project have been released into the public domain as of 1 January 2015. Anyone can now take and use these texts for their own purposes, but we respectfully request that due credit and attribution is given to their original source.

Users should be aware of the process of creating the TCP texts, and therefore of any assumptions that can be made about the data.

Text selection was based on the New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (NCBEL). If an author (or for an anonymous work, the title) appears in NCBEL, then their works are eligible for inclusion. Selection was intended to range over a wide variety of subject areas, to reflect the true nature of the print record of the period. In general, first editions of a works in English were prioritized, although there are a number of works in other languages, notably Latin and Welsh, included and sometimes a second or later edition of a work was chosen if there was a compelling reason to do so.

Image sets were sent to external keying companies for transcription and basic encoding. Quality assurance was then carried out by editorial teams in Oxford and Michigan. 5% (or 5 pages, whichever is the greater) of each text was proofread for accuracy and those which did not meet QA standards were returned to the keyers to be redone. After proofreading, the encoding was enhanced and/or corrected and characters marked as illegible were corrected where possible up to a limit of 100 instances per text. Any remaining illegibles were encoded as <gap>s. Understanding these processes should make clear that, while the overall quality of TCP data is very good, some errors will remain and some readable characters will be marked as illegible. Users should bear in mind that in all likelihood such instances will never have been looked at by a TCP editor.

The texts were encoded and linked to page images in accordance with level 4 of the TEI in Libraries guidelines.

Copies of the texts have been issued variously as SGML (TCP schema; ASCII text with mnemonic sdata character entities); displayable XML (TCP schema; characters represented either as UTF-8 Unicode or text strings within braces); or lossless XML (TEI P5, characters represented either as UTF-8 Unicode or TEI g elements).

Keying and markup guidelines are available at the Text Creation Partnership web site.

Publication information

  • Text Creation Partnership,
ImprintAnn Arbor, MI ; Oxford (UK) : 2014-11 (EEBO-TCP Phase 2).
  • DLPS A80659
  • STC Wing C6502
  • STC Thomason E205_1
  • STC ESTC R212611
  • EEBO-CITATION 99871215
  • PROQUEST 99871215
  • VID 157697

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.