PRIMS Full-text transcription (HTML)

DAVIDS PRAYER FOR SOLOMON, CONTAINING The proper Endowments and duty Royall of a King, with the conſequent Bleſſings upon a Kingdome.

Delivered in a SERMON at Chriſt-Church London, Before the Right Honourable the Lord Major, the Right Worſhipfull the Al­dermen his Bretheren, Together with the Worſhipfull Companies of the ſaid City, Upon the 27th. of March, 1643. Being the Commemoration of his Ma­jeſties Inauguration.

BY JOSEPH CARYL, Preacher to the Honourable Society of Lincolnes Inne.

IT is this Preſent Eight day of APRILL, Anno Domini, 1643. Ordered by the Committee of the Houſe of Commons in Parliament concerning Printing, That this Sermon Intituled (D••ids Prayer for Solomon, Con­taining, The proper Endowments and Duty Royalof a King, &c) be Printed and publiſhed. JOHN WHITE.

LONDON, Printed by G. M. for Giles Calvert, and are to be ſould by Chriſtopher Meredith at the Crane in Pauls Church-yard, 1643.

TO THE RIGHT HONOVRABLE ISAAC PENNINGTON, Lord Major of the Famous City of LONDON, Together with the Right Worſhip­full the Aldermen his Bretheren.

Right Honourable and Right Worſhipfull,

THis Sermon being preach't by your joynt-motion (and Printed by more then a ſingle one) hath em­bolden'd me to make this joynt Dedication. Theſe words were not ſpoken in a corner, neither be­ing ſpoken doe they ſeeke corners, unleſſe it be the cor­ners of mens hearts, any other (Verits non quaerit) Truth ſeeks not. While I put this, but into your hands, t' other is the lodging I deſire for it. In theſe Endow­ments of a King, ſee what your ſelves (in your ſpheare) aught to have: In the Duty of a King here preſented, reade what your ſelves (in your ſpheare) aught to doe. Every Magistrate is a King in a ſmall Letter. You Act (on the Stage of this Ancient City) the part of a Great King; Therefore you need the Parts of a King. And though now (while you act for King and Parlia­ment) a Cloud of miſconſtruction dwels upon ſome of your Loyallties: yet trust God (God who gathers the wind in his fiſts, and ſends it out when he plea­ſeth) truſt him for the ſcattering of that Cloud; and the cauſing of your Innocency to breake forth as the light, and your juſt dealing as the Noone-day. Sow to your ſelves, Governe others in righteouſneſſe: And feare not, but your City ſhall bring forth Peace to the people, Good-will to your ſelves, or (which is farre better, then both, though alone) Glory to God on High. To the care of this High God I commit this City, your Per­ſons, and your Imployments, and am

Your Honours and Worſhips To ſerve you in the Goſpell of Chriſt JOSEPH CARYL

DAVIDS PRAYER FOR SOLOMON, CONTAINING The proper Endowments and duty Royall of a King, with the conſequent Bleſſings upon a Kingdome.

PSALM. 72. VERS. 1, 2, 3.

Give the King thy judgements O God, and thy righ­teouſneſſe unto the Kings Sonne.

He ſhall judge thy people with righteouſneſſe, and thy poore with judgement.

The Mountaines ſhall bring peace to the people, and the little hills by righteouſneſse.

THIS Pſalme was pen'd by a King, it is de­dicated to a King, and it is chiefely inten­ded concerning him who is King of Kings; A Pſalme for Solomon, that is the Title: A Pſalme containing the laſt breathings of David Heaven-ward, that's the concluſion, ſo the Pſalme ends, The prayers of David the Sonne of Jeſſe2 are ended; David being about to commend his ſoule to God, firſt commends his Sonne to God, and having himſelfe like a carefull Father, tutour'd, and inſtructed him, while he lived, he now commits him to the tu­turage and inſtruction of a Father who could not dye. A Sonnis put into ſafe hands indeed, when God himſelfe is entreated to be the Guardian.

This whole Pſalme ſpends it ſelfe in prayer and in propheſie; here is a prayer for King Solomon, and a pro­pheſie both of Solomons Kingdom and of Chriſts; Pro­pheſie fills up the body of the Pſalme; it begins with prayer in petitioning, and it concludes with prayer in thankeſgiving; Verſe 18. Bleſſed be the Lord God, the God of Iſraell, who only doth wondrous things, and bleſſed be his glorious Name for ever, and let the whole earth be filled with his praiſe, Amen, Amen.

The words which I have read, hold forth unto us 4 Points, moſt obſerveable. We have firſt, The En­dowments or guifts of a King; Secondly, We have here, the duty of a King; And thirdly, We have the Bleſſings which from the diſcharge of that duty, by thoſe endow­ments, flow out to and upon a whole Kindom; Fourth­ly, We have the meanes, by which thoſe Endowments may be obtained for Kings, through which, they diſchar­ging their duties, make both themſelves and their peo­ple bleſſed.

The Endowments or gifts are perfect and divine, con­tained in V. 1. Thy judgements and thy righteouſneſſe; The duty, is purely Regall, contained in V. 2. He ſhall judge thy people with righteouſneſſe, and thy poore with judgement; The bleſſing is a bleſſing eminently deſi­rable, even the bleſſing of peace, contained in the third3 Verſe, The Mountaines ſhall bring peace to the people, and the little Hils by righteouſneſſe; The meanes by which thoſe Endowments are obtain'd for Kings, is heavenly and ſpirituall, ſet downe in the beginning of the firſt Verſe, Prayer to the God of Heaven, Give the King thy judgements O God; This is firſt in the order of the words, and ought to be firſt in the order of all our actions, but I ſhall handle it laſt in the order of the Ser­mon; beginning with the Endowments of a King, contained in the firſt Verſe, The judgements of God and the righteouſneſſe of God; Give the King thy judgements O God, and thy righteouſneſſe unto the Kings Sonne;

Judgement and righteouſneſſe, are often in Scripture put as Synonomaes, ſignifying the ſame thing, yet here we may diſtinguiſh them; Judgement as it reſpects the buſineſſe of a King, (for it hath many other references) is taken either for an ability to governe, or for the rule of Governement. So Samuel, in his firſt Booke, 10. Chap. 25. Verſe, did ſpeake and write (Miſhpat) the judgement, or the manner of the Kingdome, we have the ſame word here, only in this Text it is plurall, Iudgements; and becauſe the word is here in the plu­rall, give the King thy judgements; we may take Iudge­ments for all the Statutes, and Laws, and Ordinances which were made by God, as the bottome and founda­tion upon which governement was then eſtabliſhed.

If it be ſaid, that theſe were given long before: MoſesOb. delivered the Judiciall Law from the mouth of God to the people, and therefore David needed not to pray in this reference, give the King thy Iudgements.

Lawes may be ſaid, to be given, not only when inAn. the letter or body of them they are at firſt publiſhed un­to4 all, but alſo when they are in a ſpeciall manner revea­led unto any one in the Spirit or native interpretation of thē; For as the word of God in generall, though it were penn'd for and given to the Church many ages ago, yet may be truely ſaid to be given to every ſoul, in the day of their converſion, becauſe the true underſtanding of it ſo far as is abſoutely neceſſary, is then given to every ſoule; We have a famous inſtance in Paul, Rom. 7. 9. Who though as a Phariſee he was a great ſtudent in the Law, and exactly verſed in it, yet when he was converted, then the Commandement came to him, namely in the ſpiri­tuall meaning of it: and (ſaith he) I was without the Law till that time: though he had the body and the letter of the Law, yet he had not the ſpirit, and the mind of the Law till then; ſo take that ſpeciall part of the word which concernes governement, and is properly called Judgements or Statutes, theſe may be ſaid to be given to Solomon, when God gave him a cleare light to under­ſtand his will and intent in them. So then, it is as if Da­vid had prayed, that God would make the comment upon his own Laws, that his Sonne might never wreſt them by his owne gloſſes or expoſitions. Give thy judge­ments, that is, ability, ſtrength and cleareneſſe of under­ſtanding to apprehend what thy mind is in thy judge­ments, how to diſcerne betweene good and evill, how to diſtinguiſh betweene right and wrong, true and falfe; This is to give judgements; Solomons prayer for him­ſelfe (which is as it were the counterpane of this) doth thus expound Davids prayer for Solomon, 1 King. 3. When God in Gibeon ſends Solomon a blanke from Hea­ven and bids him aske what be would, verſ. 5. he ſaith verſ. 9. Give thy ſervant an understanding heart to judge5 thy people, that I may diſcerne betweene good and bad.

The other Endowment, is righteouſneſſe, which as diſtinct from the former, is an evenneſſe and uprightneſſe of conſcience in paſsing every thing according unto received light; The defect of ſome Princes is in their head-peece, judgements are not given to them, but the defect of many is in their heart-peece, righteouſneſſe, or recti­tude of ſpirit is not given them; Judgement is an abi­lity to know what we ought to doe, and righteouſneſſe is a willingneſſe to doe what we know; So the Imperiall Law-giver defines juſtice, or righteouſneſſe, Iustitia est constans & perpetua voluntas ſuum cuiquetribuendi; It is a conſtant and a perpetuall bent of the will to give every one his right, that is righteouſneſſe; and we may define judgement thus, Iudicium est clara & perfecta ſcientia quid cuiqueſit tribuendum. Judgement is a cleere and a right knowledge what ought to be given or done unto every man; Put both together, and the Prayer may be thus rendered, Give O Lord unto Solomon, who is ap­pointed King, and is alſo the Sonne of a King, or give unto Solomon the preſent King, and unto his Sonnes, thoſe that ſhall ſucceed him in the Throne, pure light of underſtanding to enterpret thy Laws, that is judge­ment, and integrity of conſcience to act and reſolve ac­cording to that light, there is righteouſneſſe. Theſe are the endowments, this the portion which I begge for the King my Sonne, or for the King and his Sonne, and this is a Kingly portion indeed.

It is here further to be noted, that the Endowments of a King, are not called barely, judgements, and righ­teouſneſſe, but the ſtampe of God is ſet upon them, Thy judgements and thy righteouſneſſe (ſaith David:)6 Kings have judgements of their owne, and a righteouſ­neſſe too of their owne, which are not the Judgements nor the righteouſneſſe of God.

And as it is in the great point of Juſtification, there is a righteouſneſſe of God, which ſome neglecting, take in and truſt to a righteouſneſſe of their owne: The Apoſtle ſhewes us ſuch, Rom. 10. 3. Who goe about to establiſh their owne righteouſneſſe, not know­ing, or being ignorant of the righteouſneſſe of God; So likewiſe it is in point of governement, there are ſome that have a righteouſneſſe, but it is a righteouſneſſe of their owne, and a judgement, but it is their owne judgement, not Gods; and then what the Apoſtle doth inferre, reſpecting that great point, is appliable to this, in the place before cited. They being ignorant of Gods righteouſneſſe, and going about to eſtabliſh their owne righteouſneſſe, have not ſubmitted themſelves unto (nor ruled their people by) the righteouſneſſe of God; yea, which is farre worſe, as much as in their pow­er is, they have overthrowne the judgements and eva­cuated the righteouſneſſe of God, they have (as it were) repealed Gods judgements, and enacted their owne; Now then as there is no righteouſneſſe that is fit to ju­ſtifie the perſon of a man, but the righteouſneſſe of God; ſo there is no righteouſneſſe fit to judge the per­ſon or cauſe of any man by, but that which is the righ­teouſneſſe of God; Mans judgement, and mans righ­teouſneſſe not ſubordinate to and regulated by the judgement and righteouſneſſe of God, is nothing elſe but unrighteouſneſſe and injuſtice.

Theſe are the ſpeciall Endowments of a King; As reaſon diſtinguiſheth a man from a beaſt, ſo judgement7 and righteouſneſſe diſtinguiſh a King, or Magiſtrate from other men; not but that other men have there, but a King muſt; a Magiſtrate without judgement and righteouſneſſe is like a man without reaſon,e is not able to doe any thing in that capacity without theſe; as a man can doe nothing in the capacity of a man without reaſon; he may doe acts, which are acts of a man, but he cannot doe a humane act, no act is ſtrictly ſo but an act of reaſon; ſo a King may doe acts with­out judgement and righteouſneſſe, but Kingly acts he cannot doe without them.

As God hath made diſtinct callings, ſo he hath gi­ven diſtinct abilities. There are particular guifts pro­per to the managing of every calling, as in the firſt of Cor. 12. 8. To one is given the word of knowledge, to ano­ther is given the word of wiſedome; here are diſtinct guifts, or diſtinct qualifications; and in Rom. 12. 6. Having guifts differing according to the grace that is given us, that is, (as ſome interpret, and I think rightly) ha­ving guifts according to the offices and employments, wherein we are ſet (for theſe are graces, theſe are fa­vours, unto which God doth call any perſon; And ſo the Apoſtle calls his office grace, Grace and Apoſtle­ſhip, Rom. 1. 5. That is, the Grace of Apoſtle-ſhip. And Epheſ. 3. 8. Unto me who am leſſe then the leaſt of all Saints is this Grace given, that I ſhould preach among the Gentiles the unſearcheable riches of Chriſt. ) therefore (ſaith he) having guifts according to thoſe graces, or offices, or employments, let us act in every one of them according to the proportion of faith.

This will be yet clearer, if we deſcend to the ſecond Point; and therein conſider the duty and imployment,8 the work and buſineſſe of Kings, the Text ſaith, Their duty is to judge; To judge is the trade of Kings; and ther­fore when the firſt King was cried for by the people, in 1 Sam. 8. 5. they preſently ſpeake of this worke, make us a King to judge us, that is the buſineſſe that we have to doe for Kings; make us a King to judge us, that is his Art; as he ſaid concerning the Romans, let others paint, let othersarve, tu regere Imperio populos Romane memento, hae tibi ſint artes. Doe thou governe people and Nations, this is thy Art, this is thy craft; So the people of Iſrael ſaid, at the firſt cry for a King, let us have a King to judge us. Before they had a King they had Judges, and now they would have a King, it is but to judge them. Here was a new Title, but the worke was ſtill the ſame. Only before, God was their King and man judged them: Now man was both their King and their Judge.

In that one word (Iudge) by a Synecdoche, all the duty and buſineſſe of a King is comprehended; As the generall duty of a Man reſpecting the Law, is fulfill'd in this one word, Thou ſhalt love thy Neighbour, as thy ſelfe; So the generall duty of a Prince, is fulfil'd in this one word, Thou ſhalt judge the people of God with judgement and with righteouſneſse. Barely to love is not the fulfilling of the Law: But you muſt looke to the object, thy Neighbour, and to the meaſure, thy ſelfe. So barely to judge is not the whole duty of a King; The object, Thy people, thy poore, And the meaſure, with judgement and with righteouſneſſe are to be taken in.

If it be ſo, how is it poſſible they ſhould ever drive that Royall trade, without judgement and righteouſneſſe The commodity in which Kings deale, and which9 they put off to their people, is judgement and righteouſ­neſſe; Then they muſt have judgement and righteouſneſſe in ſtock, how elſe ſhall they diſpenſe them unto others. Can any one judge, that hath not judgement? or doe right, that hath not righteouſneſſe? Iudgement and righteouſneſſe, are (as it were) the right hand of a Ma­giſtrate; yea, they are both his hands; he can doe nothing at all, (quatenus talis) as a Magiſtrate with­out theſe; and therefore when God himſelfe is ſpoken of, under the notion of a King, preſently it is added, Iudgement and righteouſneſſe are the habitation of his Throne; Pſal. 97. 2. His Throne inhabits or dwells in theſe; God muſt worke in the ſpheare of judgement and righteouſneſſe, or elſe He can doe nothing as a King; And when the Kingdome of Chriſt is ſpoken of in the glory of it, you ſhall ſee that Chriſt doth all his worke by theſe; Iſa. 9. Of the encreaſe of his govern­ment and peace there ſhall be no end, upon the Throne of David, and upon his Kingdome to order it, and to establiſh it with judgement and with righteouſneſſe, from henceforth even for ever. Chriſt orders and diſpoſeth every thing in his Kingdome, by judgement, and by righteouſneſſe.

The reigne of David is thus deſcribed, 2 Sam. 8. 15. And David executed judgement and justjce to all his peo­ple. That which the fire is to the Chymiſts, the ſame is righteouſneſſe and judgement unto Princes; the Chymiſts can doe nothing without fire, if they have not fire, all their worke muſt ſtand ſtill; So unleſſe Princes have righteouſneſſe and judgement, they can­not worke; the whole frame of true governement, and all the wheeles of a right Common-wealth ſtand ſtill, till judgement and righteouſneſſe give them motion.


And foraſmuch as to judge and to judge with righ­teouſneſſe is the duty of Kings. It is neceſſary to ſet downe more diſtinctly what it is to judge with righ­teouſneſſe: Neither is it improper for this authority to heare ſuch leſſons. Though I ſpeake not this day be­fore the Perſon of a King, yet I ſpeake before many who are repreſentative Kings. Every ſubordinate Ma­giſtrate hath in his compaſſe the work of a King put in­to his hand, yea ſubordinate Magiſtrates are the Kings Hands, and Tongue, and eyes, by which he ſees, and ſpeakes, and executes. In ſuch a correct ſence as this, I may ſay of the Senate of London, as he of the Senate of Rome, It is an aſſembly of Kings. Seeing you are truſted with the Kings worke, which is, To judge the people. Heare what it is to doe it by the Kings Rule, with judge­ment and with righteouſneſſe, with the judgement and righteouſneſſe of God, for ſo it becometh Kings. I ſhall give 4 Rules to cleare it.

Firſt, To judge with the righteouſneſſe of GOD, is to judge by a Law; Such is the judgement of God. Though he be abſolute in himſelfe, and may make his will his Law, and no man muſt queſtion it, yet he jud­ges by a Law. That of the Apoſtle ſeemes to croſſe this in ſome caſes, Rom. 2. 12. As many as have ſinned without Law ſhall alſo periſh without Law.

I anſwer, you muſt underſtand that onely in regard of the formale, the formality of a Law, not in regard of the materiale or matter of it; for there is no ſinning without the matter of a Law. So the Apoſtle con­cludes, Rom. 4. 15. Where there is no Law, there is no ſin; there may be a ſinning without the formality of a Law, and ſo the Text carries it; they that ſinne without the11 Law, that is, not having the Law formally publiſhed to their ears, or written to their eyes (as wee know many had not) they ſhall periſh by the ſentence of the Law, as written in their hearts, and ſpoken to their con­ſciences.

The foundation of every judgement is in the Law. And ſo ſtrict is the Allyance of theſe two, Law and Ju­ſtice, that among the Latines, the word Iuſtice derives it's pedigree from the word, Law. Iustitia nomen habet a jure & jus a jubendo, ſay the Criticks. Hence the learned, both Divines and States-men, make a three­fold reſemblance of the Law. Firſt (ſay they) it is like a Glaſſe to diſcover. Secondly, like a Bridle to reſtraine. Thirdly, like a Sword to puniſh offences. Theſe are the weapons of a Magiſtrate. As the Impe­riall Law-giver admoniſheth in the firſt proemiall ſen­tence to his Inſtitutions, Imperatoriam Majestatem, non ſolum armis decoratam, ſed etiam legibus oportet eſſe armatam. A King muſt be adorn'd with armes, and arm'd with Laws. A King armed with righteous Lawes is, That Higher Power ſpoken of, Roman. 13. 1. To which every ſoule muſt be ſubject, which they that reſiſt ſhall receive to themſelves Damnation. Where that word of a King is, there is Power, and ſuch a power, as who may ſay unto him, what doeſt thou? Eccleſ. 8. 4. This is the higher power indeed; whereas a Magi­ſtrate and his will, eſpecially a Magiſtrate and his luſt, is not properly the higher Power, but the higher weakneſſe; the ſtrength, as well as the rule of Princes lies in the law; That's the locke of theſe Sampſons; and as Lawes are the Kings ſtrength, ſo the peoples ſecurity. That people is moſt happy, whoſe Prince is a breathing Law. 10〈1 page duplicate〉11〈1 page duplicate〉12They cannot but be unhappy whoſe Law is nothing elſe, but the breath of a Prince.

This is the firſt part of Gods righteouſneſſe, to judge by Law; and to make this rule fuller it is to judge by a Law knowne, by a knowne rule, therefore God did publiſh his Law to the eare of his owne people, and he publiſhed it to the hearts of all the people in the world; There is an Edition of the law in the heart of every man, and God will judge none, but by a law at leaſt thus knowne. The Gentiles ſhewed the workes of the Law written in their hearts, Their conſciences alſo bearing wit­neſſe, Roman. 2. 15. For to make Lawes and then to conceale them, is rather to ſet traps and ſnares to catch men, then to give rules to direct them. Hence the an­cient Greekes uſed to engrave their Lawes upon pillars of braſſe (to which uſage it is well conceived the Apo­ſtle doth allude, when he cals the Church the pillar of Truth, a pillar for Declaration. Hence alſo the Romans fixed Tables of their Lawes in the moſt frequented places of the City. God tooke ſuch a care to have his Law knowne unto the Iewes, that hee commands them to write it on the Posts of their houſes, and on their Gates, to lace their Garments with ſchedules of it, (ſuch were Phylacteries) they went about cloathed with the Law, Deut. 6. 8, 9.

One ſtep further to judge with the righteouſneſſe of God, is to judge by a Law in it's proper native ſence, and genuine interpretation, not by a purchaſed or a forc'd one; for ſometimes a Law, and a knowne Law may be urged, and yet as the Apoſtle Peter ſpeakes of Hereticks, who urge Scripture, that they doe wreſt the Scriptures; ſo there is a wreſting of Laws. The Law that13 is ſet for the guiding or puniſhing of others may be puniſhed it ſelfe, as the Apoſtle notes in that word,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, they ſet Scripture upon the racke, to make it confeſſe a ſence God never gave it; ſo Lawes may be ſet upon the racke too, and made to confeſſe a ſence the Law-maker never gave them. Such bring not their judgements to the Law, but the Law unto their judge­ments, dealing with it, as the Tyrant dealt with his gueſts, if they were too long for his bed, hee cut them ſhorter, and if they were too ſhort, hee ſtretched them longer; This is not the righteouſneſſe of God; the righ­teouſneſſe of God is to judge by a Law, a Law knowne, a Law fairely, and naturally interpre­ted.

If any ſhall object, True, Kings are bound to rule by the Law of God: by the letter of the morall Law, and by the equity of the judiciall Law. But are they obliged by humane Laws, or by the judgements of men?

I anſwer, Though no Nation under Heaven have judgements and Lawes as the Iewes had immedi­ately from God: yet all the wiſe and juſt Lawes of eve­ry Nation, may ſtill be called the judgements of God. Both becauſe God is ſpecially called upon to aſſiſt and direct in the making of them. He ſtands in the Congre­gation of Law-making gods; as alſo becauſe all righte­ous Lawes are but extracts and ſtreames iſſuing from thatountaine of righteouſneſſe the law of God. And indeed that Law which is purely humane, cannot be fit to governe any man by, much leſſe to be obligatory upon Kings.

The ſecond rule is this, to judge by the righteouſ­neſſe of God, is a judgement upon evidence; as there14 muſt be an evidence of the Law, ſo there muſt be an evidence of the fact, or elſe it is not the righteouſneſſe of God; the Lord never proceeds in judgement, till he have the fact cleare, as well as the Law cleare; though he had a cry come up to him concerning the bloud of Abell, and the wickedneſſe of Sodom, yet hee commeth downe to examine the matter, and he will enquire whe­ther it be according to the report.

And thus he directs in the 13. of Deutronomie 12. If thou ſhalt heare ſay in one of thy Cities, which the Lord thy God hath given thee to dwell there, Certaine men the children of Beliall are gone out from among you, &c. then thou ſhalt ſearch and enquire, and aske diligently, and behold if it be a truth and the thing certaine, that ſuch abomination is wrought among you, then thou ſhalt ſmite the Inhabitants of the Citie &c. Reports and probabilities will not beare up a righ­teous Judgement, there muſt be proofe, and proof from men approved; for Iezabel got witneſſes.

The third Rule, Judgement which is by the Righ­teouſneſſe of God, doth alwayes ſtand betweene theſe two extreames, Rigour and Remiſſeneſſe. The Mora­liſts embleme this Rule by the place of that ſigne in the Zodiacke, which they call the Virgin, ſtanding (accor­ding to the Doctrine of the Astronomers) betweene the Lon and the Ballance; the Lion bids the Virgin Juſtice be ſtout & feareles, the Ballance minds her to weigh all with moderation, and be cautious. Judgment is remiſſe when it ſpares, where it ought to puniſh; ſuch ſparing is cruell. Judgment is rigorous, when it puniſheth where it ought to ſpare, ſuch puniſhing is blood: Judgement is rigorous if at any time it be more then the Law requires, and if at all times it be ſo much. Extreame right often15 proves extreame wrong; And he who alwayes doth as much as the Law allowes, ſhall often doe more then the Law requires. For what is odious in making pro­miſes, is commendable in making penalties; namely to expreſſe more then we intend ſhall be ever ſtrictly executed. The enraged Iewes whipt Paul thrice unjuſt­ly, but they never whipt him to the height of Juſtice, they bared one ſtroake, he had 40. ſtripes ſave one, whereas the Law admitted forty, Deut. 25. 3.

The righteouſneſſe of God calls not for an Arithme­ticall proportion; at all times, and on all occaſions, to give the ſame award upon the ſame Law: but leaves to a Geometricall proportion, that the conſideration of circumſtances may either encreaſe or allay the cenſure; God is not extreame to marke what is done amiſſe, if he were who could abide it. In this the gods on earth muſt imi­tate the God of Heaven.

Laſtly, To judge with the righteouſneſſe of God, is to judge impartially; the Text directs, He ſhall judge thy people and thy poore; When judgement runnes an even courſe unto all, As it is noted of David, He did juſtice to all his people, 1 Sam. 13. 15. when neither, 1. Feare of greatneſſe, Nor 2. Hope of gaine, Nor 3. Neereneſſe of affection, doth interrupt or clogge the paſſage of juſtice, that is to judge by the righteouſ­neſſe of God.

For firſt, The day of God is againſt the Oakes of Baſan, and the Cedars of Lebanon, upon the high Moun­taines, and the high Towers, Iſa. 2. 13, 14.

But what? doth God threaten Trees, and Hills, and Towers, things inſenſible either of his anger or of his favour; doth he like that Perſian Zerxes, menace Moun­taines,16 caſt ſhackles on the Waves, or whip the Ocean? Or (as the Prophet Habbacuk queſtions,c. 3. v. 8. Was the Lord diſpleaſed against the Rivers? was thine anger against the Rivers? was thy wrath against the Sea? So here, was the Lord angry with Trees, or wrath with Towers? The 12. verſ. reſolves this. For the day of the Lord ſhall be upon every one that is proud and lofty, and up­on every one that is lifted up. So Iunius gloſſeth, his ju­ſtice ſhall reach them, quamvis valentiſsimos, quamvis munitiſsimos. His Artillery will bat-ter downe men as ſtrong as Mountaines, his Axe will hew downe men as tall as Cedars.

Some men there have alwayes bin, ſo fortified with greatneſſe, and as it were ſo entrenched about with Titles and priviledges, that the judgement of man dares ſcarce­ly touch them; to meddle with ſuch, it is as it were to play with the paw of the Lyon, or to ſport upon the hole of the Cockatrice; but juſtice when it is according to the righteouſneſſe of God, will venture upon the high ones, upon the Cedars and the Oakes, as well as upon the loweſt ſhrubs, and weakeſt buſhes.

Secondly, The righteouſneſſe of God is never bias'd or ſtai'd by hope of gaine; Their ſilver and their gold ſhall not deliver them in the day of Gods wrath, Ezek. 7. 19. And when offendors cannot ſoare beyond the reach of mans juſtice, (though they have got wings like that Dove, in Pſalm. 68. whoſe wings were covered with ſil­ver, and her feathers with gold;) Then juſtice works on earth as it doth in Heaven. It is well when juſtice is blind, but it is as ill as can be, when juſtice is blinded: when a gift hath put out her eyes. The hopes of ſome are ſtronger then their feares, and though they cannot17 be terrified from doing juſtice, yet they may be perſwa­ded. By what language thinke you! One wittily calls it dialectum doricam, the dorick dialect, or the language of gifts. Hoſea obſerved and reprooved ſuch in the Common-wealth of Iſrael; Her Rulers, (or as the Ori­ginall hath it, her Shields; noting, that Rulers ſhould be Shields to protect the innocent) with ſhame Love, give ye. Chap. 4. 18. This love corrupts man from the righ­teouſneſſe of God.

Laſtly, neereneſſe whether in regard of alliance or of acquaintance, hinders not the courſe of judgement, when it is ordered by the righteouſneſſe of God; Though Coniah were the ſignet upon my right hand (ſaith God) yet I would pluck him thence, Ier. 22. 24. The juſtice of God knowes no relations: He that made them will not have mercy on them, and he that formed them will ſhew them no favour, Iſa. 27. 11.

This was the honour of the Tribe of Levi, of whom it is ſaid, Deut. 33. 9. (when they had received warrant from Moſes, Exod. 32. 27. Put every man his Sword by his ſide, and ſlay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his Neighbour:) Who ſaid unto his Father, and to his Mother, I have not knowne him, neither did he acknowledge his owne bretheren, nor knew his owne children. It was a noble reſolution, if it had been upon a right ground, when Saul, in 1 Sam. 14. thus pro­teſts, Though the fault be found in Jonatan my Sonne, he ſhall ſurely dye: And that was a more noble execution (for it was well grounded) of Aſa who remooved his owne Mother from being Queene, becauſe ſhe made an Idoll in a Grove, 2 Chro. 15. 16.

Affection is uſually a ſtrong impediment in the way18 of juſtice. It is no eaſie thing to ſee a fault, It is very hard to cenſure it in thoſe we love. Which gave the oc­caſion of that ſpeech, Exuit perſonam judicis, quiſquis amici induit; When there is either a naturall or civill tye upon a Magiſtrate, he is quickly overcome, to take every probability for a proofe, every preſumption for a demonſtration, both of the innocency of his friends per­ſon, and of the equity of his cauſe.

But that which the faith of God doth to relations when they would hinder from Chriſt, Luk. 14. 26. The ſame doth the righteouſneſſe of God to relations when they would hinder from judgement. It makes us (as Chriſt there warnes) hate Father, and Mother, and Wife, and Children, and Brethren, and Siſters: That is, it breakes all tyes, whether naturall or civill, when they ſtand in the way, and would ſtop it from running impartially un­to all.

So ſaith the Text, He ſhall judge thy people with righ­teouſneſſe, the indefinite is univerſall, all thy people.

But if juſtice incline to any ſide with favour, it is to­wards the poore, that ſort of men are nam'd in the Text, He ſhall defend thy poore. The poore are inſtanc'd in ſpe­ciall, for 3. Reaſons. Firſt, becauſe the poore are uſu­ally moſt oppreſſed. And Secondly, moſt flighted. And Thirdly, the poore are leaſt able to helpe themſelves: therefore they are commended by name to the care of Magiſtrates; God cares moſt for his poore, and men ought.

There is one thing very emphaticall in the Text, which may be as a Naile to faſten home, the thought of judgement by the righteouſneſſe of God, upon all that are in the place of God; it is ſaid, they are Gods people,19 and Gods poore; Thy people, and thy poore; Gods people and Gods poore muſt be judged with Gods Judgment, and with Gods righteouſneſſe; God is their portion for ever, and his righteouſneſſe ought to be their portion here. God will be very angry if they have it not; If Ma­giſtrates had a people of their owne, they might judge them with their owne righteouſneſſe. What Chriſt ſpeakes in the Goſpell, holds in this caſe, May not I doe what I pleaſe with my owne; Indeed Princes might doe what they would with people, if they were their own: but this particle Thy, ſhewes that God is eſtated in them, they are his people, and the lot of his inheritance. This made Solomon pray ſo hard for wiſedome to governe, becauſe he knew they were not his owne whom he govern'd: Give thy ſervant an underſtanding heart to judge Thy people, for who is able to judge this Thy ſo great a people, 1 King. 3. 9.

It is a truth indeed, that the people of Iſrael were Gods people, in a more peculiar manner, then any whole Nation upon the earth is at this time; there is no whole Nation hath ſuch a priviledge, and are the people of God in ſo ſtrict a ſence, as they were; for they were all as a Church, and Chriſt had as many ſubjects among the Iewes, as the King had; becauſe they were all at once taken into covenant with God; It is not ſo in any Na­tion now upon the earth. But yet God hath his ſpeciall Covenant people, his peculiar ones in every Nation, who are the ſpeciall charge of Princes; and though all others are Gods people, as men, and the Princes charge too, yet for the ſake of theſe chiefely, Governours are ſet up, and Princes ſit upon the Throne; If Chriſt had done his worke concerning theſe, he would quickly put downe all rule, and all authority, and all power; yea then20 Christ would lay downe his governement alſo, then ſhall the Sonne alſo himſelfe be ſubject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all: So the Apoſtle, 1 Cor. 15. 24, 29.

Wherefore, what the Holy Ghoſt ſpeakes in refe­rence unto every particular mans governement of him­ſelfe: that no man ought to abuſe himſelfe, or make his body an inſtrument in ſinne; Why not? You have your bodyes from God, ſaith he, and you are not your owne; Ye are bought with a price, you are not your owne, therefore glorifie God in your body, and in your ſpirit which are Gods, 1 Cor. 6. 19, 20. This I ſay is true concerning all Princes and Magiſtrates who governe others, they have their people given them by God, and they are not their owne, and therefore they ought to glorifie God by their people, and in their people, for they are Gods. Kings are truſted by God with the keeping of his people, who are his inheritance and his jewels. Their charge and duty in this is as great as their priviledge. Hence the account which the Holy Ghoſt gives concerning the raigne of David, is, That after he by the will of God had ſerved his generation, he fell on ſleepe; Acts 13. 36. David a King, a glorious King, and he that made this prayer in the Text, hath the whole Story of his raigne ſumm'd up thus; After he had ſerved his generation by the will of God, he fell aſleepe; His honour was to ſerve his generation: And as if he never waked an houre for himſelfe, as ſoone as that worke was done which the will of God ſet him, he fell a ſleep. Be ye thus wiſe (like David) O ye Kings, be instructed ye Iudges of the earth, Pſ. 2. 10.

Now as the conſideration whoſe they are whom Kings and Magiſtrates judge, ſhould move them to ſerve21 Chriſt in it with feare: So the conſideration of that ex­cellent fruit which ſprings from it ſhould move them to ſerve Chriſt with joy.

This leads me to the third Point; Namely, the Bleſ­ſing which from the diſcharge of that duty by thoſe En­dowments flowes out upon a whole Kingdome.

This third Doctrine will be as a motive to the for­mer, it may provoke them with a holy ambition to be exceeding active and abundant in the worke of the Lord, foraſmuch as their labour is not, cannot be in vaine in the Lord. Looke upon the fruit, is it not pleaſant to the eye? is it not a fruit to be deſired to make a Prince and a people happy? So the Mountaines ſhall bring forth peace, and the little hills by righteouſneſſe; doe you thinke nothing ſhall be got by it? there is no way for a King, for a peo­ple to thrive, like, yea there is none but the way of righ­teouſneſſe; and therefore as ſoone as the worke is ſet downe, the reward followes, as ſoone as the buſineſſe is put upon their ſhoulders, the bleſſing is put into their hands; If you will thus judge, the Mountaines and the hils ſhall bring forth peace by righteouſneſſe.

Doct. 3Iudgement administred by Righteouſneſſe brings forth an univerſall bleſsing upon a Nation. I ſay an univerſall bleſ­ſing. For as Righteouſneſſe comprehends in it all the ver­tues of a King (the Philoſopher tels us, it is not〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Ariſt. quimEth. c. 1.〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, A part of vertue, but it is all of vertue) So Peace includes all the bleſſings of a people, or the con­fluence of all good things. And Hils and Mountaines reach all places, every corner of the Kingdome; there is a great Emphaſis in it, when he ſaith, The Hills and the Mountaines ſhall bring forth Peace: Some referre it unto the nature of the Country of Iudea, which was a moun­tainous22 Country, and therefore when he ſaith, The hils and the mountaines ſhould bring forth peace, he meanes the whole Country ſhould be peaceable. Or he ſpeakes it, becauſe Hills and Mountaines are uſually barren places, if then they bring forth bleſſings all places muſt needs a­bound with them. Or laſtly, The Holy Ghoſt ſpeakes thus, becauſe Hills and Mountaines are commonly the places of Robbers, and the retreat of ſpoylers. Hence in the Pſalme they are called the Mountaines of prey. Therefore, as when God promiſeth by the Prophet I­ſaiah (Chap. 60. 17. ) in the latter daies to make the officers among his people peace, and their Exactors righteouſneſſe; he meanes, that he will ſo reforme all de­grees of men, that all ſhall be peacefull and righteous; becauſe officers, eſpecially exactors are furtheſt from both; therefore when they mend, all will. So when he promiſeth that the Mountaines ſhall bring forth peace, hee meanes every place ſhall.

You may be ſure to have peace, when your moun­taines ſhall bring forth peace; when thoſe mountaines which heretofore were mountaines of prey, and hils of the Robbers ſhall be a quiet habitation; when peace ſhall not be walled up in Cities, or fenced in by Bulwarkes, but the open Fiels and high-wayes, the mountaines and the hils ſhall yeeld it aboundantly, under every hedg and under every green Tree, there ſhall you find it: When the Cottagers and the Mountaneers ſhall have their fill of it, when they ſhall eate and be ſatisfied, lye downe and none ſhall make them afraid, then the bleſſing is univer­ſall: And this is the work of righteouſnes.

As our ſpirituall peace was purchaſed and eſtabliſh­ed by Righteouſneſſe, ſo is likewiſe civill peace, and all23 civill bleſſings; there was nothing in the world but trou­ble and vexation, tribulation and anguiſh upon every ſoule, untill Righteouſneſſe came into the world; but when righteouſneſſe came, then came peace, ſpirituall peace: ſo the Prophet Iſaiah 32. 17. The worke of Righteouſneſſe ſhall be peace; and the effect of Righteouſ­neſſe, quietneſſe and aſſurance for ever. Hence Chriſt, Hebr. 7. 2. is called a Prince of Righteouſneſſe, Melchi­ſedech, he is the true Melchiſedech, and then he is alſo King of Salem, which is by interpretation, King of Peace. The very ſame method which was uſed for the obtaining and ſetling of ſpirituall peace, for the reconciling of God unto man, the very ſame method (I ſay) muſt be uſed for the ſetling of civill peace, and for the reconciling of man to man; manure and till the Land with righteouſ­neſſe, and it will bring forth peace all over.

If it be ſo then, wee ſee heere firſt, why it was, or what was the reaſon, that the Mountains and the Hills brought forth warre, and trouble; If the Mountaines bring forth peace by righteouſneſſe, then they bring forth warre by unrighteouſnes, that is a cleare Infe­rence.

While we had, and ſtill have amongſt us ſome who are enemies to all Righteouſneſſe, as the Apoſtle chara­cters Elimas the Sorcerer, Act. 13. 10. And while there are ſo many, who are enemies to all righteous perſons (for theſe are aſhamed to profeſſe themſelves enemies to Righteouſeſſe, but they are not aſhamed to be enemies to thoſe who are righteous, they pretend love to the no­tion of Righteouſneſſe, but they cannot abide the pro­feſſion of Righteouſneſſe. They like holineſſe, as it is bound up and claſp'd in the Booke, but practis'd and a­cted24 in the life, eſpecially if acted to the life they can­not endure it) While I ſay there are ſo many enemies to all righteous perſons, can we be to ſeeke why the Moun­taines brought forth warre? while there are ſome fill'd with all unrighteouſneſſe, as the Gentiles are deſcribed in Roman. 1. 29. and while there are ſo many friends to all unrighteouſneſſe, can we be ignorant why the Moun­taines brought forth warre? While errour was main­tain'd, which is unrighteouſneſſe in opinion; while I­dolatry was winked at, and ſuperſtition contended for, which are unrighteouſneſſe in worſhip; while prophane­neſſe was encouraged, which is unrighteouſneſſe in pra­ctiſe; while oppreſſion was countenanc'd, which is unrighteouſneſſe in Government; can any one be to learne, why the Mountaines and the Hills brought forth Warre? While Judgement was turn'd into Gall, and the fruit of Righteouſneſſe into Hemlocke are yee not taught, why the Mountaines brought forth warre? While many (as this Text cals them) of Gods people and of Gods poore, who are (in another Text, Iſa. 61.) called Trees of Righteouſneſſe, were ſtubbed up and roo­ted out of moſt places in the Kingdome, not only from great Townes and Cities, but from the very Mountaines and Hlls; ſo that they could not live quietly any where; are we not taught why the Mountaines and the Hills brought forth warre? Thoſe Trees of Righteouſneſſe are ſtiled in the ſame place, The plantation of the Lord; while men were buſie to root up the plantation of the Lord; Is it any wonder if the Lord by the Iron-hand of the Sword rooted up their Plantations? who ſees not clear­ly in the Glaſſe of this Truth, why and by what our Mountaines and our Hills have brought forth warre? it25 hath been by unrighteouſneſſe.

Now at this day there is a great cry for that, which is the promiſe of the Text; There is a great cry for Peace, deſire is upon the wing to over-take and recall our depar­ting if not departed peace. And it is our duty to cry af­ter it. Follow peace (is the command of God, Hebr. 12. 14.) The word ſignifies not only to proſecute, but to perſecute, Follow peace with as much love to imbrace it, as a perſecutour followes an innocent perſon, with ha­tred to deſtroy him. Follow Peace, though like a hunted beaſt it flyes from you (ſo much the Metaphor will beare) Follow this noble game (though it be upon a very cold ſent) with heat of ſpirit. Onely let the point in hand direct us in this purſit. For what though all the people of the Nation cry for Peace, and what though the King and Parliament at this day treat for Peace? yet all this cannot obtaine peace, unleſſe there be a cry after, a Treaty about, yea an entreating for Righteouſneſſe; See not my face (ſaith Ioſph) unleſſe your younger Brother come with you: So (ſaith Peace) ſee not my face, unleſſe my Elder Siſter, or rather my Mother Righteouſneſſe come along with you; if we ſhould travell for Peace without this, we ſhall but wander in a Maze, and more entangle our ſelves in trouble. It is onely the golden thred of righ­teouſneſſe that can lead us through through the Laborinth of our preſent distractions unto reſt; Who weepes not to ſee the wounds of this Nation, weeping bloud every day? and yet if wee ſhould skin over thoſe wounds, before righteouſnes hath ſearched them to the bottom; I trem­ble to thinke how quickly they will feſter, and either ſtri­king inward kill the heart, or breaking outward fill the whole body with a ſore. Who mournes not over our26 breaches, and yet if we ſhall goe about to daube them up with untempered morter, and ſuch is all that (though it have never ſo many ſublimated Ingredients of humane wiſedome and State-policies) all that I ſay is untempered morter, which is not mixt and made up with righteouſnes. If we dawbe with that, I tremble to thinke how quick­ly our wall will fall, and who can imagine how great the fall thereof will be?

That which thoſe Enemies ſpake ſcoffingly, and ſpake falſly concerning the wall which Nehemiah had built, and the people of God, who helped with him, Nehem. 4. 3. If a Fox goe up, he ſhall even breake downe their ſtone wall; The ſame we may ſpeake truly and in good earneſt con­cerning any wall of Peace, that ſhould be built, and not by righteouſnes, if but a Fox go up upon it, down it will fall againe.

For this is a certaine Concluſion, That whatſoever the Fox alone, I meane ſubtilty and humane policy builds, that the Fox ſubtiltie and humane policy is able to pull downe againe; the Foxes could not pull down, no nor the Ramme batter downe the wall that Nehemiah had built, and why? Becauſe men (though as wiſe as Ser­pents yet) as innocent as Doves built it; What the wiſ­dome of Innocence doth, all the power of policy cannot un­doe.

You ſee then what courſe muſt be taken, what muſt he done, that the Mountaines and hils, that your Townes and Cities may bring forth peace; ſet righteouſneſſe a worke, or worke by righteouſneſſe, and then your peace is wrought; The pleaſant Olive branches of peace grow and flouriſh, out of the acts and adminiſtrations of juſtice; once part with the juſtice of a Nation, and you part with27 the peace of a Nation; when the Sword of juſtice gliſters, the Sword of warre ſhall ruſt; draw out the Sword of righteouſneſſe, and God will ſheath his Sword of wrath. The Pſalmiſt aſſures us this in Pſal. 106. 3. Bleſſed are they that keepe judgement, and he that doth righteouſneſſe at all times; (at all times:) Every thing (ſaith the King­preacher) is beautifull in its ſeaſon; Then righteouſneſſe is ever beautifull, for this Scripture warrants it in ſeaſon alwayes. There are ſome now who greatly deſire this bleſſing of peace, but they are greatly afraid, this is not a time to be exact in righteouſneſſe, or to ſtand ſtrictly upon judgement; Theſe would be wiſer then God: would they not? he ſaith, bleſſed are they that keepe judge­ment and doe righteouſneſſe at all times.

Ob. But affirmitive commands doe not bind (ad ſem­per) at all times to the doing of them.

An. 1. It ought to be our earneſt deſire and utmoſt en­deavour to doe them at all times.

An. 2. It is beſt if we can doe them at all times.

An. 3. The times are very rare wherein they cannot be done. God very ſeldome caſts his people into ſuch ſtreights as looſen the knot of his commands.

An. 4. Be ſure thoſe times and thoſe ſtreights be of Gods making, not of ours. If either our owne ground­leſſe feare, or heedleſſe folly caſts us into them, this Maxime is no defence.

Ob. But David himſelfe forbore to doe righteouſneſſe at ſome time. Blood was treacherouſly ſhed almoſt in his own preſence, and yet he ſpares the murderer, 2 Sam. 3. 27, 28.

An. 1. All the policies of holy David were not holy. The infirmities of good men muſt not be our rules. It28 is not ſafe for us on earth to goe by the falls of ſuch as are now in Heaven.

An. 2. If the feare of David had not bin too hard (at that boute) for his faith, he had never ſaid, v. 29. I am weake, and theſe Sons of Zerviah are too hard for me. Too hard for thee David? ſo was Goliah. Goliah was a more unequall match for David, then Ioab was; And yet he ſaith not, This mighty Giant is too hard for me. When ſaith is ſtrong, every thing is weake to us: for then we work in the Power of God. Had David beleeved as much, he might have received as much aſſiſtance in his judge­ment upon Ioab, as in his combat with Goliah.

I beleeve David by ſuch an Act of Juſtice, could not have provoked a greater party againſt him, then Heze­kiah in all probability might have done, by breaking in peeces the Braſen Serpent, once Gods owne inſtituti­on, and then the peoples Idoll, 2 King. 18. 4. But the Text anſwers enough for him, if he had done a more daring peece of Iuſtice then this. v. 5. He trusted in the Lord God of Iſrael; ſo that after him was none like him among all the Kings of Judah, nor any that were before him. Un­parale'ld Faith will bring forth unparall'd Juſtice. He did not ſtand queſtioning, Sirs, doe ye thinke This will take with the people? This I know is right, but will the Kingdome beare it? Goe enquire, how the City will like this; and how the Country? The thing is juſt, But as I heare, I ſhall doe. Either Hezekiah had none of theſe thoughts, or he conquer'd them.

And yet I urge not this as if the dangers and conſe­quences of juſt acts might not be debated. Faith bids us be wiſe as well as reſolute.

Neither doe I urge it as if I would have utmoſt ju­ſtice29 on every man, for every offence. That were indeed to write Lawes (as the Athenian Dracoes were ſaid to be) in blood; which the Rule given before (that juſtice muſt not be rigorous) utterly diſclaimes.

My aie is only this; That when juſtice ſtayes her hand, wiſedome not jealouſie, mercy to men, not feare of men ſhould ſtay it; And that as at all times the Ma­giſtrate ſhould be zealous for juſtice, ſo eſpecially at this time. For though there is no time wherein judge­ment and righteouſneſſe are not ſeaſonable; yet at ſome times they are more. When God is laying Iudgement to the line, and righteouſneſſe to the plummet, Iſa. 28. 17. then ſure­ly man ought. That's our caſe now, the righteous God is at work amongſt us in Judgement: Happy are they whom he finds ſo doing.

For when the blaſt of the terrible ones is as a ſtorme againſt the wall, Iſa. 25. 4. ſuch ſhall be houſed; Is not that the promiſe by the ſame Prophet? Iſa. 26. 2. Open ye the gates, that the righteous Nation which keepeth the truth may enter in, him wilt thou eſtabliſh in perfect peace, &c. The word is peace, peace, in a double peace, in all peace, in everlaſting peace, in that peace which the world can neither give nor take away.

If we follow righteouſneſſe, we ſhall be ſure that either our warre will quickly conclude in peace, or that our peace ſhall be a concurrent with the warre: It is true, that warre and peace, in propriety of ſpeech are inconſiſtent: Such con­traries as that, a whole Kingdome is not bigge enough to hold them. But take peace in a qualified ſence, and then not only righteouſneſſe and peace, but alſo warre and peace may kiſſe each other. A proſperous warre, is accounted peace; So David enquired, 2 Sam. 11. 7. of Vriah. con­cerning30 the peace of the Warre, (which we tranſlate) he en­quired how the warre proſpered.

I confeſſe it is very hard to ſay, what we can call the proſperity of this warre. Ours is a ſad warre. Only we muſt not be ſcandaliz'd; for Chriſt (the Prince of Peace) hath told us, that he came (not that it was intended but occaſioned by his coming) to ſet a man at variance againſt his Father, and the Daughter againſt her Mother, and the Daughter in Law againſt the Mother in Law. And a mans enemies ſhall be they (not only of his own Kingdome, but) of his owne houſhold. Be not offended if in ſome caſes where nature bids agree, the Goſpell bids devide. Yet, (if we may have it, and Chriſt no looſer peace is not only better then warre, but better then victory.

We will therefore briefely looke upon the laſt Point, which is the Meanes, by which ſuch Endowments may be obtained for Princes and Magiſtrates, by which they executing judgement and righteouſneſſe, fill their Lands, and fill their houſes, and (which is beſt of all) fill their own hearts with peace in kind, and with peace in the fruit of it, bleſsings of every kind. That is Prayer;

Give the King thy judgements O God, and thy righteouſ­neſſe unto the Kings Sonne; David hath a great requeſt to God, and it was his dying requeſt, That Solomon might be endowed with judgement and righteouſneſſe. His practiſe is our duty, let our hearts and tongues joyne in this great petition; Give the King thy judgements O God, he ſhall bring forth our peace. The Apoſtle charges us with the ſame duty, and encourageth us with the ſame hopes, 1 Tim. 2. 1. I exhort (ſaith he) that firſt of all ſupplications, prayers interceſsions and giving of thanks be made for all31 men: For Kings and all that are in authority, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godlineſſe and honeſty.

We are engaged to this, Firſt, while we conſider that a ſpirit of governement, is the ſpeciall gift of God; And that which God gives, prayer muſt obtaine; The right governement of a people is a thing ſo high and noble, as that God will be acknowledged the Author of it; Ad­miniſtrations of juſtice, and the ruling of men, is too ex­cellent a fruit to ſpring from the ſtock of man; and there­fore give the King thy judgements O God.

No meere man was ever borne fit to govern himſelfe, much leſſe to governe others; Many have bin borne heires to a Kingdome, but none were ever borne qualifi­ed to rule a Kingdome. The beſt of nature hath not the leaſt mixture of Gods righteouſneſſe in it.

The art of tilling the earth comes from Heaven, Iſa. 28. 24. Doth the plow-man plow all day to ſow? doth he open and breake the clods of the ground? when he hath made plaine the face thereof, doth he not caſt abroad the Fitches, and ſcat­ter the Cummin, and caſt in the principall Wheate, and the appointed Barley, and the Rie in their place? Yes that he doth. But whence hath he this skill: He is Gods Schol­ler, even he, ſo the Prophet goes on to tell us, v. 26. For his God doth inſtruct him to diſcretion and doth teach him. When his crop is in the Barne, he threſhes it with a threſh­ing inſtrument, &c. And of whom learnt he this? Learne the anſwer from the Prophet, v. 29. This alſo cometh forth from the Lord of Hoſts, who is wonderfull in councell, and ex­cellent in working.

If the Husbandman be taught of God to plow the ground and threſh his corne; works which ſeeme to lie levell with Nature; Then ſurely Kings muſt be taught of32 God, that tranſcendent miſtery, To governe Men, to ma­nure Nations. They who are borne of the moſt Noble Progenitours, yea, they who are borne of the moſt Holy Progenitours, are borne with nothing as from nature, but with cruelty in their hearts, and with violence in their hands; Therefore pray, Give the King thy judge­ments O God.

Secondly, If we conſider the condition of Kings, we had need to pray this prayer; the eſtate of Magiſtracy is an eſtate full of care; The Crowne of a King is ſet with rich ſtones, but it is lined with cares; And they who have many cares, had need of many prayers: prayers of their owne, and prayers from others; The Apoſtles counſell is, Be carefull in nothing, but in all things with prayer and ſupplication make your requeſts knowne to God; as nothing, that care would eate a man out quickly, unleſſe prayer doe preſerve him.

There is many a man conſumed, with the care of a ſingle family, yea ſome are conſumed with the care of ſingle ſelfe: what then thinke you, may the cares of a whole Kingdome, what the care of three Kingdomes doe upon one man, unleſſe prayer prop him up: there­fore pray, Give the King thy judgements O God.

Thirdly, They that are encompaſs'd with temptations, had need be encompaſs'd about with prayers, and inter­ceſſions; To be a King is a temptation; No man knowes what his heart wold be, if he had ſo much power as a King, in his hand; as he ſaid once, can you tell me what you would be, if you were a Lyon? if to be a rich man be a temptation, if to have riches be a temptation, then much more to be a King, to be the Earthly Center of Power, is a temptation; To be rich is ſo great a tempta­tion,33 that Chriſt tells us, It is a hard thing for a richman to enter into the Kingdome of Heaven, harder then for a Camell to goe through the eye of a needle; If baggs of mo­ney, if Lands and Houſes be ſuch temptations, what are Crownes and Scepters?

And as the very eſtate it ſelfe of a King is a tempta­tion, ſo there are multitudes of temptations waiting up­on, and hanging about that eſtate: A King can hardly ſet his foot out of his Chamber-doore, but he treads upon a temptation. A King can hardly heare a word, I was about to ſay a Sermon, but he heares a temptation, (ſome Ser­mons have more temptations in them, then inſtructi­ons,) he can hardly caſt an eye, but he lookes upon a temptation; Now ſeeing a King hath ſo many tempta­tions about him, let him have ſtore of prayers about him. Prayer is the beſt Antidote againſt temptation. Eſpe­cially when we pray for Him, as Chriſt teaches every one to pray for himſelfe with others. Lord, leade not the King into temptation.

Laſtly, The Kings heart is in the hand of God, Pro. 21. 1. And the hand of God is (ordinarily) in the prayers of his people. God moves Kings, and prayer moves God. A Kings heart is ſo high, that nothing can reach it but God. And God is ſo high that nothing can reach him but prayer. When a people have loſt the key of their Kings heart, prayer is a golden pick-lock to open it.

Further, prayer doth not only prevaile with God to open the lock of a Kings heart, but (when need is) to fa­ſhion it anew.

The Lord (ſaith David, Pſal. 33. 13, 14, 15.) looketh downe from Heaven, and he beholdeth all the ſonnes of men: From the place of his habitation, he beholdeth all the Inhabi­tants34 of the Earth, he faſhioneth their hearts alike (Alike) Not that the hearts of all men are caſt in the ſame mould. Indeed the hearts of all men by nature are caſt in the ſame mould, they are of the ſame Make, As face anſwe­reth face in the water, ſo doe the hearts of the children of men; That is, they are all ſinfull. But if their hearts were in all reſpects alike, their thoughts and counſels, and acti­ons would be a like too; but the truth is, there is not ſo much difference in the faces of men, as there is in the hearts of men; and therefore we cannot underſtand the Pſalme thus, that God makes all mens hearts of the ſame likeneſſe: But take the meaning thus; when God looks from Heaven, and beholds all the Inhabitants of the Earth, he can faſhion the heart of one alike, as he faſhio­neth the heart of another, that is, looke asee is able to faſhion the heart of a meane man, ſo hee is able to faſhion the heart of a mighty man; as hee is able to faſhion the heart of a Subject, ſo hee is able to faſhion the heart of a King. Thus he faſhions their hearts alike; when wee put the heart of a King into the hand of God to faſhion, wee put a curious peee into his hand. The heart of a King, is the moſt curious peece of worke in the world. Yet God can alike, namely, as ſoone, and with as much eaſe, faſhi­on and frame that curious peece, as he doth the plaineſt peece in the world; he faſhions all their hearts alike, and therefore if we would have the heart of a King faſhio­ned, we muſt put it out to God; who only can doe it, and who can eaſily doe it. Now there is nothing can carry a Kings heart to faſhioning unto God but onely Prayer; therefore you ſee the neceſſity of this duty. Then, let the King pray this Prayer for himſelfe. Kings ſhould not put all prayer-worke out to others, it is better to get a35 Bleſſing then to have it. Then, let us pray this Prayer for the King. It is a duty, which we have as much need to pay unto our King, as any people under Heaven. Then pay this Tribute of Prayer unto the King, it may be a richer revenue to him, then all that he hath in the world beſides, This may bring him in greater honour, grea­ter glory, and greater proſperity, then all that ever, our purſes, or our perſons, our councels or our indeavours can bring him in.

And me thinks we are now in a ſpeciall manner enga­ged to it at this time.

Firſt, The whole Kingdome ſhakes now; then ſure­ly the Throne (that being the Baſis of it) cannot ſtand ſo faſt as heretofore, therefore pray thus, For His Throne is eſtabliſhed in Righteouſneſse, Prov. 25. 5. Iudge­ment and Righteouſneſse are the Pillars of the State: and ſtronger Supporters of the Kings Armes then the Lyon or the Vnicorne.

Secondly, We who deſire the faſhioning of ſo many things, both in Church and Common-wealth by the hand of our King, had need pray that our Kings heart may be exactly faſhioned by the hand of God.

Thirdly, We who have complained long, That the heart of our King is ſtollen away from us, how ſhall wee reſ­cue and fetch it backe againe, but by prayer. Though any other courſe ſhould gaine his perſon to us, yet no other courſe can gain his heart to us. Holy Prayers will at laſt over-match unholy Counſels.

Againe, We complaine that Iudgement is turned back­ward, and that Righteouſneſſe cannot enter: What ſhould we doe then, but pray that God would give the King his judgements and his Righteouſneſse; And if we cannot36 yet ſay (as that Biſhop reſolved Auſtins Mother, in the caſe of him, her Sonne) That a King of ſo many prayers (as have hitherto been made) cannot poſsibly miſcarry; yet let us reſolve to adde, and to adde ſo many prayers as may (if it be poſſible put it to an impoſſibility, that He ſhould miſcarry; or that the great buſineſses now before him ſhould. That ſo His Majeſty judging with Righteouſneſse and his people obeying with cheerfullneſse, The Mountains may bring forth peace to All, and All may bring Glory to God in advancing the Kingdom of our Lord Ieſus Chriſt.

I know this uſes to be a day of annoynting the King with praiſes. I beleeve we ſhall doe a more acceptable ſervice both to God and His Majeſty: If we turne Praiſes into Prayers, and our Encomion of him, into a cry to Hea­ven for him: he hath more of the Subject in him, that commends the King to God, then he that commends him among men.

I know likewiſe that this uſes to be a day of Rejoycing in and for the King: What ſhall I ſay? May I not ſay as the Story tells us in Ezra 3. 12. When the foundation of the ſecond Temple was laid, The voyce of the ſhout could not be heard from the voyce of weeping: Have we not all cauſe to take up a Lamentation for our King this day? Ought not our Harpe this day (as Iob ſpeakes) to be tur­ned into mourning, and our Organ into the voyce of them that weep? Ought we not (with that Mourner in the Pſalm) to eat aſhes like bread, and to mingle our drinke with teares? When God makes a change in times, it becomes us to make a change alſo. The Storke in the Heavens, the Tur­tle, the Crane and the Swallow, Theſe will reprove us, if we know not the judgement of the Lord, Ier. 8. 7. At ſuch a time as this, we (as Solomon, Eccleſ. 2. 2. ) may ſay of37 Laughter it is madd, and of mirth what doth it? Times of trouble are times of Sorrow. Then, there is nothing now muſicall but ſighes, no Song in Tune, but a Lamen­tation.

Yea, I hope it will not be diſtaſtfull, I know it is ſea­ſonable at this time to ſay even unto the King and unto the Queene, as the Prophet Ieremiah directs in the 13. of his Propheſie 18. Say unto the King and unto the Queene, ſit downe, humble your ſelves: I will not adde that which fol­lowes, I have no Commiſſion for it, for your Principa­lities ſhall come downe, even the Crowne of your glory. But thus much I may ſay to the King and to the Queene, humble your ſelves, ſit downe; for the glory and beauty of your Principalities are very much darken'd and ob­ſcur'd, even the Crowne of your glory. O The darkneſse that is upon Ireland, O the darkneſſe and the death that ſits upon the face of this your Kingdome of England! Ther­fore it were ſeaſonable to ſay unto the King and to the Queene, if preſent, and I ſhall ſay it of them though ab­ſent, Sit downe and humble your ſelves, for your Principa­lities are much fallen from their former beauty; yea I would ſay thus much more unto the King and unto the Queene; humble your ſelves, ſit downe, that your prin­cipalities, may be reſtor'd to their former beauty, even the Crowne of your Glory. When Princes are humbled their Principalities cannot be long unſetled. That which the Apoſtle Iames ſpeakes concerning all, is as true con­cerning Kings, as any, Humble your ſelves under the migh­ty hand of God, Ye Mighty ones, that Ye may be exalted in due time.

Let us all humble our ſelves under the mighty hand of God, let us in ſtead of exulting and rejoycing tremble38 before God in confeſſing how We and our King, our Princes, our Nobles, our Magiſtrates, and our Prophets, have all ſin'd before our God, and have therefore given him juſt cauſe to caſt downe this whole Principalitie, even the Crowne of all our glory. If we ſhall this day throughly plow up our hearts, and going forth weeping, beare this precious Seed; we may at the next day of this Solemnity, come hither againe with joy, and bring our Sheaves of Comfort with us. Againſt that Feaſt, I hope Chriſt will worke this miracle for us (little leſſe then a miracle can do it) turne our water into wine; And give us beauty for Aſhes, the garment of praiſe for this ſpirit of Heavineſse.


Errata in ſome Copies.

Pag. 5 l 12. for Suam reade SuumPag 14 l 30. for Blood reade Bloody.

About this transcription

TextDavids prayer for Solomon, containing the proper endowments and duty royall of a king, with the consequent blessings upon a kingdome. Delivered in a sermon at Christ-Church London, before the Right Honourable the Lord Major, the right worshipfull the aldermen his bretheren, together with the worshipfull companies of the said city, upon the 27th. of March, 1643. Being the commemoration of his Majesties inauguration. By Joseph Caryl, preacher to the Honourable Society of Lincolnes Inne. It is this present eight day of Aprill, anno Domini, 1643. Ordered by the Committee of the House of Commons in Parliament concerning printing, that this sermon intituled (Davids Prayer for Solomon, containing, the proper endowments and duty royall of a King, &c.) be printed and published. John White.
AuthorCaryl, Joseph, 1602-1673..
Extent Approx. 75 KB of XML-encoded text transcribed from 23 1-bit group-IV TIFF page images.
SeriesEarly English books online text creation partnership.
Additional notes

(EEBO-TCP ; phase 2, no. A81140)

Transcribed from: (Early English Books Online ; image set 111528)

Images scanned from microfilm: (Thomason Tracts ; 17:E97[12])

About the source text

Bibliographic informationDavids prayer for Solomon, containing the proper endowments and duty royall of a king, with the consequent blessings upon a kingdome. Delivered in a sermon at Christ-Church London, before the Right Honourable the Lord Major, the right worshipfull the aldermen his bretheren, together with the worshipfull companies of the said city, upon the 27th. of March, 1643. Being the commemoration of his Majesties inauguration. By Joseph Caryl, preacher to the Honourable Society of Lincolnes Inne. It is this present eight day of Aprill, anno Domini, 1643. Ordered by the Committee of the House of Commons in Parliament concerning printing, that this sermon intituled (Davids Prayer for Solomon, containing, the proper endowments and duty royall of a King, &c.) be printed and published. John White. Caryl, Joseph, 1602-1673., England and Wales. Parliament.. [4], 38 p. Printed by G. M. for Giles Calvert, and are to be sould by Christopher Meredith at the Crane in Pauls Church-yard,London :1643.. (Annotation on Thomason copy: "Aprill 19".) (Reproduction of the original in the British Library.)
  • Bible. -- O.T. -- Psalms LXXII, 1-3 -- Sermons -- Early works to 1800.
  • Kings and rulers -- Sermons -- Early works to 1800.
  • Sermons, English -- 17th century.

Editorial statement

About the encoding

Created by converting TCP files to TEI P5 using tcp2tei.xsl, TEI @ Oxford.

Editorial principles

EEBO-TCP is a partnership between the Universities of Michigan and Oxford and the publisher ProQuest to create accurately transcribed and encoded texts based on the image sets published by ProQuest via their Early English Books Online (EEBO) database ( The general aim of EEBO-TCP is to encode one copy (usually the first edition) of every monographic English-language title published between 1473 and 1700 available in EEBO.

EEBO-TCP aimed to produce large quantities of textual data within the usual project restraints of time and funding, and therefore chose to create diplomatic transcriptions (as opposed to critical editions) with light-touch, mainly structural encoding based on the Text Encoding Initiative (

The EEBO-TCP project was divided into two phases. The 25,363 texts created during Phase 1 of the project have been released into the public domain as of 1 January 2015. Anyone can now take and use these texts for their own purposes, but we respectfully request that due credit and attribution is given to their original source.

Users should be aware of the process of creating the TCP texts, and therefore of any assumptions that can be made about the data.

Text selection was based on the New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (NCBEL). If an author (or for an anonymous work, the title) appears in NCBEL, then their works are eligible for inclusion. Selection was intended to range over a wide variety of subject areas, to reflect the true nature of the print record of the period. In general, first editions of a works in English were prioritized, although there are a number of works in other languages, notably Latin and Welsh, included and sometimes a second or later edition of a work was chosen if there was a compelling reason to do so.

Image sets were sent to external keying companies for transcription and basic encoding. Quality assurance was then carried out by editorial teams in Oxford and Michigan. 5% (or 5 pages, whichever is the greater) of each text was proofread for accuracy and those which did not meet QA standards were returned to the keyers to be redone. After proofreading, the encoding was enhanced and/or corrected and characters marked as illegible were corrected where possible up to a limit of 100 instances per text. Any remaining illegibles were encoded as <gap>s. Understanding these processes should make clear that, while the overall quality of TCP data is very good, some errors will remain and some readable characters will be marked as illegible. Users should bear in mind that in all likelihood such instances will never have been looked at by a TCP editor.

The texts were encoded and linked to page images in accordance with level 4 of the TEI in Libraries guidelines.

Copies of the texts have been issued variously as SGML (TCP schema; ASCII text with mnemonic sdata character entities); displayable XML (TCP schema; characters represented either as UTF-8 Unicode or text strings within braces); or lossless XML (TEI P5, characters represented either as UTF-8 Unicode or TEI g elements).

Keying and markup guidelines are available at the Text Creation Partnership web site.

Publication information

  • Text Creation Partnership,
ImprintAnn Arbor, MI ; Oxford (UK) : 2014-11 (EEBO-TCP Phase 2).
  • DLPS A81140
  • STC Wing C750
  • STC Thomason E97_12
  • STC ESTC R13263
  • EEBO-CITATION 99859445
  • PROQUEST 99859445
  • VID 111528

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.