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MORAL INSTRUCTIONS OF A FATHER TO His Son, UPON HIS Departure for a long VOYAGE: OR, An Eaſie way to guide a Young Man towards all ſorts of VIRTUES.

With an hundred MAXIMES, Chri­ſtian and Moral.

LONDON, Printed for W. Crook, at the Green Dra­gon without Temple-Bar, near Deve­reux Court, 1683.

〈1 page duplicate〉

TO THE RIGHT WORSHIPFUL Sir Thomas Grantham, Knt.


HAving accidentally met with a ſmall French Ma­nual, newly printed in France; I found it fraught with ſuch excellent Advice and uncommon In­ſtructions, not only for all Young Men in general, but more eſpeci­ally for a Young Perſon upon his going a great Voyage by Sea, that I eſteem'd it well worthy (for the Benefit of our young Noblemen and Gentlemen eve­ry Day vying who ſhall go firſt to Sea,) to be render'd into our Tongue; and that it may have the more Credit and Reputation with thoſe hopeful young Sea­men (or with any other that ſhall happen to peruſe it,) I have been bold, Sir, to offer it up to you, to be protected by your Name, under whoſe Patro­nage and Protection my Father hath now put me, during your preſent Expedition to viſit all the conſiderable Ports and Ha­vens in the East Indies; humbly begging you to take in good part this ſmall Token of my great Reſpect towards you, You who have deſerv'd the Reſpect of all Loyal Engliſh Men, and whom his Majesty hath ſo far reſpect­ed, as lately, Sir, to name you Commander of the best Merchant Ship that ever was built in England; and to con­fer the Honour of Knighthood upon you at the ſame time, as part of your Reward for the Signal Service you did his Ma­jeſty and this Nation, not only in the Year 1676 at Virginia, by reducing to their Allegiance that rebellious Colony, who had ravaged all the Country, burnt the City of James-Town, and driven away the Governour, whom you re-ſettled in his Government; for which his Majeſty (always bountiful to his faithful Servants) gratified you with a conſiderable Sum of Money; but alſo in 1678, for your in­comparable Valour, and admira­ble Succeſs, againſt that po­tent Pirate Canary Admiral of Algier in the New Roſe, who attack'd your ſole Merchant Ship of but twenty two Guns, and for­ty Sea-men; with his Man of War of forty eight Guns, and ſix hundred Men; whom, after ſe­ven Hours Fight, you forced to ſtand away, with the loſs of two hundred Men, there being kill'd of yours not above ſeven or eight; for which Service his Majeſty was pleas'd to give you the best Medal and Chain that he ever yet beſtow'd upon any Man: ſo that his Majeſty accounts it a part of his Hap­pineſs that he hath ſuch a Wiſe, Valiant, and Able Sea-man. And you cannot, Sir, but eſteem your ſelf exceedingly happy in the Favour and Service of ſuch a Prince, who knows better than any other Prince in Eu­rope, and conſequently in the World, how to value and re­ward the Merits of all brave Sea Commanders and Officers; who knows better than all his Royal Predeceſſors, that the chief Intereſt of England is to main­tain the Empire and Soveraignty of the Britiſh Seas, and for that Reaſon, hath made it his con­ſtant Buſineſs and Delight in Maritime Affairs, in Building, Rigging, Victualling, and Sailing of Ships; in underſtanding all our Ports, Harbours, Roads, Coasts, Seas, Flats, Sands, and above all, the best way of Naval Battels; in cheriſhing and en­couraging all ingenious and expert Men for building of Ships, for casting the best Guns, for making the best Tackle, &c. in favouring and encouraging all Young Noblemen and Gentle­men, who have any Deſire to ſerve their King and Country at Sea; in providing for the Edu­cation of Youth in Navigation, and other Mathematical Scien­ces; in taking Care for poor maim'd Sea Souldiers and Ma­riners; and laſtly, (to the great advantage of this Nation) in making choice of Captains for His Majeſties Ships, who for Wiſdom, Conduct, Courage, and other Abilities, excell all others in the World; ſuch as the Right Honourable Lord, the Baron of Dartmouth, the Vice-Admiral Herbert, Sir Richard Haddock, Sir John Norborough, Sir John Berry, Sir John Wet­wang, Sir John Wybourn, and many more ſtout, able, experi­enc'd Commanders. Sir, it is but juſt that all the World ſhould be ſenſible of the Benefits and Advantages which his Majeſty hath brought with him into England, and that the Sea as well as the Land ſhould rejoyce thereat. This Kingdom was never ſo rich, ſo potent, ſo glorious, nor every way ſo flouriſhing, nor ſo happy (maugre all the wicked Deſigns and Helliſh Conſpiracies of thoſe ambitious, revengeful, muti­nous Spirits amongſt us,) as in this Kings Reign, for above theſe twenty three Years; nor was there ever owing ſo much to any of our Princes as to this: the Conſideration whereof is, I believe, the chief Motive which induceth you to quit a Country quiet Life and plentiful Eſtate, and at his Majeſty's Deſire, to under­take this long and long-laſting Voyage, which, Sir, I pray God to proſper, and encline you to continue your Favour to him who is both by Inclination and Obligation,

Your moſt Humble, moſt Devoted, and moſt Obedient Servant, Peregrin Clifford Chamberlayne.

Moral Inſtructions of a Fa­ther to his Son, upon his departure for a long Voy­age.

YOU earneſtly intreated me, my Son, to agree to your deſire of taking a Voyage into the Eaſt-Indies, and to be abſent for ſome Years. I did ſo little expect ſuch a Pro­poſal from you, that it wholly ſurprized me, and I had ſeveral Reaſons perſuading me you could not be capable of making a Reſolution of this nature. So many things ought to concur thereto, that at firſt Thoughts I imagined, that either the Youthful and Ardent Deſires (inhe­rent in thoſe of your Age) of travelling into Foreign Countries, had made you take up this Reſolution; or that it was perhaps only to try that Paternal Affe­ction2 which has ever been towards you moſt indulgent. Whatever it be, it is convenient that I put you in mind how I have acted all along in this Affair, and you ought to approve of my Proceedings. You know that while I endeavoured to diſſuade you from this Deſign, I did not onely make you recall to mind all thoſe ſweet and pleaſant hours you have ſpent hitherto under the Roof of a loving Fa­ther, and rendred you ſenſible of the Cares and Toils you were to undergo during your whole Voyage, inſtead of that Tranquility which lay in your pow­er to enjoy: But I alſo demonſtrated to you, how many ſeveral Reaſons did ob­lige you not to abandon me; yet ſeeing you eſteemed theſe Reaſons of too little force to make you change your Reſo­lution, I oppos'd it by the conſideration of the great Hazards in your Paſſage: In order thereunto I laid before you the danger of Shipwrack, Pirats, and Incon­veniencies both infinite and unavoidable in ſuch a long Voyage, principally to a Young Man bred ſo tenderly, and edu­cated with that Care as you have bin. All this was not ſufficient to diſſuade3 you, ſo that I was forced at length to yield to your requeſt, whereto the aſſu­rance you gave me did not a little con­tribute, that the impatience of becom­ing more worthy of my ſingular Care in your Education, did prompt you to this, beſides your mentioning what Joy you ſhould conceive to ſhare the Pains I take to increaſe your Fortune. The Proteſta­tions of this truth made to me in private, and reiterated in the preſence of our Re­lations, who I was willing ſhould be wit­neſſes of my Carriage towards you in an Affair of this importance, prevented my making uſe of an abſolute Authority, (given to me as a Father) to force you to comply with my Will; and that for three Reaſons, which I ſhall the more gladly impart to you, becauſe I am preſua­ded the knowledg of them will excite you to acknowledge my Kindneſs.

The firſt is, That altho many Fathers will admit of no Limits in Filial Obedi­ence, and their claim thereto being of Divine Right, yet I can ſay I never took ſuch advantage over you by this Right, as to uſe it in it's utmoſt Rigour: Of this I have given you more than one4 Proof, and you may remember, that as often as your Conduct brought upon you my Correction, in the greateſt and moſt lawful Cauſes I had of being incen­ſed, I always allayed the heat of thoſe Provocations, cauſed through your In­diſcretion, with the Fondneſs of a tender Father. You know I have Contracted the Bounds of your obedience, and ex­tended thoſe of my Kindneſs to whatſoe­ver you could pretend; and in putting you in mind of your Duty, by theſe words of St. Paul; Children, obey your Parents in all things, for this is well-pleaſing unto the Lord; I was exhorted to mine, by the words following: Fathers, provoke not your Children to Anger, leaſt they be diſcouraged.

The ſecond Reaſon, which obliged me not to withſtand abſolutely your Inten­tions, was to avoid the Reproaches which you might reflect upon me hereafter, that my refuſal had bin an Obſtacle to your Fortune.

And the laſt was, the Fear I had leſt you ſhould have made uſe of that very refuſal for a Pretext to juſtifie ever after all defects in your Proceedings.


Theſe Reaſons, my Son, were the Cauſe of my complying ſo eaſily with your re­queſt. I could have wiſhed you would have altered your Intentions, to pleaſe me; but ſeeing that you could not con­form to my Sentiments, and that you ſtill perſiſt in your deſign, after having implored the Almighty to grant you his Grace, and to Shower down the moſt precious of his Bleſſings upon your Soul, your Perſon, and your Actions, I think it is abſolutely neceſſary, (for to ſatisfie my Inclination and Duty) not to let you go without ſome peculiar Inſtructions, which may be as a Guide to your Manners, and which moſt certainly will be con­vincing Proofs of my Kindneſs, as alſo inexhauſtible Springs of future happineſs, in your Converſation both Spiritual and Civil, if you will apply your ſelf to them, which I exhort and command you to do. However let what will happen, theſe Inſtructions will remain as ſo many irre­fragable Witneſſes, how zealouſly I en­deavoured to do my Duty, if unhapily you ſhould be wanting in yours.

By telling you, my dear Son, that theſe Inſtructions which I am about to give6 you, are the Effects of my Inclination and Duty, I have inverted that order which Reaſon requires: I ſhould rather have ſaid, theſe Effects proceeded from my Duty and Inclination, and ſo have preferred Duty before Inclination, becauſe the firſt is governed by Reaſon, whereas the latter is but an Incitement of Nature, who is not ſeldom blinded by thoſe ten­der Impulſes which Proximity of Blood inſpires. But I was overcome by a Weak­neſs, common to moſt Fathers, which I do not ſtick to confeſs, to the intent you may be perſwaded, that in this following Diſcourſe I rather fell into a great Indul­gence, than that I maintained a Severity too Auſtere.

'Tis alſo not without ſome Myſtery, my Son, that in wiſhing you the Bleſſings of God, I would have them applied to your Soul, your Perſon, and your Actions. The order of theſe Words is one of the Duties whereon I ſhall give you ſome In­ſtructions, which I enjoyn you to obſerve and practice. I divide it into three parts, Spiritual, Perſonal, and Civil Duties: the firſt ſhall teach you your Duty to God; the ſecond, your Duty to your ſelf; and the7 laſt ſhall inſtruct you in your Duty to your Neighbour. If I ſhould go about to treat of this Matter to an extent as great as it's Importance, I ought, inſtead of a few Pages I intend for you, to write ſeveral Volumes: but this being wide of my Deſign, as alſo far above my Abilities, I ſhall reſt ſatisfied in being as conciſe as this matter can poſſibly allow. God grant through his Grace, that I may be inſpi­red with Arguments, both ſo clear and ſtrong, as to equalize the greatneſs of my Enterprize; and that through his Good­neſs, he may encline you to put them in Practice for his Glory, for your Salvati­on, for my Satisfaction, and for your Profit and Advancement.

Of Spiritual Duties.

YOU learned in your Childhood, my Son, that God created you to know him, and to ſerve him. Theſe two Obligations which bind you from your Birth, have Relation to the two chief Fa­culties of the Soul. The Knowledge of God belongs to the Ʋnderſtanding, and the Service of him to the Will; but the Light8 of our Underſtanding has too narrow li­mits ever to arrive to the perfect Know­ledge of his Divinity, and the Will of Man is too perverſe to be capable of ſer­ving him as we ought. Theſe Impedi­ments which grow out of the abundance of our Corruption, muſt nevertheleſs not diſcourage us; A bruiſed Reed God ſhall not break, and ſmoaking Flax ſhall he not quench: He fulfils his Power in our Weakneſſes; he ſupplies our Wants; he helps our Infirmities; and he, knowing that of our ſelves we cannot aſcend to him, out of his Divine Goodneſs is plea­ſed to come down to us. He not only makes uſe of his Word and his Works to imprint in our Minds ſome kind of Idea of his Greatneſs, which we may not wholly conceive; but alſo, through the Communication of his Holy Spirit he corrects our Inclinations; and when he has made them to will what naturally they would not, he alſo forces them to act it by a ſweet ſort of Violence which we cannot reſiſt.

My Son, read this Word, and that as often as poſſibly you may; but read it with great Reſpect and Attention: 'Tis the9 Voice of God: This Reaſon muſt oblige you to the Respect; and 'tis for your In­ſtruction you read it: this ſhould force you to the Attention I demand of you. Set apart ſome hours for this ſacred Stu­dy, which on Sunday ought to be two at leaſt, and one upon each other Day. Be careful that upon no account you ne­glect this Duty. The greateſt of all Con­ſiderations is that of your Salvation: quit all others that you may not fail in this; and let not any intereſt or pleaſure here upon Earth make you forget thoſe Joys of Heaven. The World, and all worldly Deſires paſs away, but he whoſe Deſire is the Will of God ſhall live eter­nally. This Will you may learn in his holy Word. Yet what will ſignifie the Knowledge of it, but to render your ſelf more guilty, unleſs you uſe your utmoſt Endeavours to be conformable thereto? That Servant who knoweth the Will of his Maſter, and doth it not, ſhall be beaten with more Stripes than he who never knew it. Remember this with Fear and Trembling. However, all your Care would be in vain if God himſelf did not help you to bring to paſs what he requires;10 therefore always beg that Grace of him. 'Tis a very great benefit that he permits us to ſpeak to him; yet it is a benefit much greater, that not only he vouchſafes to let us ſpeak to him in our Prayers, but alſo promiſeth through his Mercy to hear us; Call upon me, ſaith he, in the Day of Trouble, and I will deliver thee. Implore him then, my Son, but let your Prayers aſcend upon the Wings of Faith and Fer­vency; for God can no more love thoſe who want Zeal, than thoſe that miſtruſt his Goodneſs. Ask earneſtly of him that he accompliſh in you, by his Vertue om­nipotent, whatſoever he commands; and be not weary of performing ſo holy an Exerciſe. Beſeech him earneſtly to direct your ways, that you may follow after him. Implore him inceſſantly, that he would raiſe you from that Sepulchre of Sins wherein you lye buried. Theſe are they, who by their Prayers ſtorm the Kingdom of Heaven, and take it by force. Follow the Example of Jacob, who by a holy Importunity gained a Bleſſing from God. Without ſuch a Bleſſing, all your Labour, Care, and Diligence, will be em­ployed in vain. Except the Lord build the11 Houſe they labour in vain that build it. Be­gin and end the Day with Prayer, and be conſtant in your Morning and Evening Sacrifice. If you hope to obtain what you ask of God, let your Heart pray rather than your Lips; with a devout Zeal, and not for Faſhion-ſake. Begin your Pray­ers with Joy and Gladneſs, go through with them cheerfully, and do not end them without a ſorrowful Reluctancy that you muſt leave off. But above all, let this Beginning, this Continuance, and this End, be without any wandering of your Mind. Frighten away thoſe Birds which come to trouble your Sacrifice; that is, put far from you thoſe Thoughts which may be the leaſt hinderance to your De­votion. To pray to God without Atten­tion, inſtead of pleaſing doth offend him; it is a Sacriledge rather than an Offering. Our being ſeldom diſpoſed for heavenly things renders this Attention difficult. Yet it is moſt certain, that from thence we have moſt reaſon to derive the Succeſs of our Prayers; for God cannot grant our Requeſts unleſs he hear us, and how ſhould we expect to have thoſe Prayers heard which we our ſelves do not hear? 12Upon this very Account, God may apply to us what he ſaid in time paſt to the Jews; This People draw near me with their Mouth, and with their Lips do honour me, but have removed their Hearts far from me. Judge therefore, my Son, if we have not great reaſon to ſearch diligently after the Means which will bring us to this Attention.

I have here ſet down ſome few Rules or Means, the Practice whereof I take to be very advantageous, and conſequently not to be neglected.

We may pray to God in all Places, but all Places are not equally proper for this Duty. When thou prayeſt, ſaith our Saviour, enter into thy Cloſet, and when thou haſt ſhut thy Door, pray to thy Father which is in ſecret. This Advice which the Saviour of the World gives concerning Prayer, teacheth us that we muſt retire our ſelves when we Pray, and muſt be ſo far from making our Prayers the Subject of Humane Applauſe, that we muſt pray ſecretly; which not only our Divine Maſter did confirm by his own Example, but alſo before he gave his Apoſtles that Counſel of withdrawing in private, he told them: When ye pray, be not as the13 Hypocrites are: For they love to pray ſtand­ing in the Synagogues, and in the corners of the Streets, that they may be ſeen of Men. Obſerve theſe Maxims, and when you would offer up your Prayers, let it be in Private; for going to an Exerciſe which obligeth you to fly the World, let not any thing that is worldly accom­pany you at that time. Do not imitate the Example of Rachel, who leaving her Fathers Houſe carried with her thoſe Images, which were the Object of his Idolatry. Follow rather that of Elijah, who, when he drew near to God, in the Chariot wherein he was carried from this World, let fall his Mantle, that he might have no Earthly thing with him. Draw not nigh hither. Put off thy Shooes from off thy Feet, for the place whereon thou ſtan­deſt is holy Ground, ſaid the Eternal to Moſes, when he ſpake to him out of the burning Buſh. This Voice is alſo direct­ed to you. When at any time you have a mind to pray, the place you chooſe out for that purpoſe you muſt ſuppoſe to be ſanctified with the preſence of God. Put off then your Shooes, that it may not be defiled; that is, relinquiſh all your14 Thoughts which ſavour of the World or the Fleſh. Depart from Sodom, with­out looking behind you; and having diſpoſed things in this order, fall down upon your Knees before you begin your Devotion, ſpare ſome ſmall time to think upon the infinite Greatneſs of him you are about to implore, and to conſider your own extream Meanneſs. If ſuch a Meditati­on as this is ſerious, it muſt of Neceſſity redouble your Zeal, and render you more fit to approach the Divine Majeſty. One great Reaſon why our Mind is too often alienated at Prayer is, the Diverſity of Objects which our Eyes meet with, there­fore to prevent this great inconvenience, I think it Neceſſary to keep them ſhut. This Advice, my Son, is not of the leaſt Moment, fail not to try it, and then make uſe of it according as you find it ſucceed.

I do not preſcribe you the uſe of any particular Prayers; your Diſcretion ought to make choice of ſuch as are ſuitable to the Subject which occaſions your Prayers. However I think it will not be amiſs, that all the Requeſts you make to God be com­priſed in this one, that of his Love. This is the way to have all; for he who has15 God with him can want nothing. Solomon asked of him only Wiſdom, and God ſaid to him, Becauſe that thou haſt asked this thing, and that thou haſt not asked for thy ſelf long Life; neither haſt asked Riches; nor the Life of thine Enemies; but haſt asked for thy ſelf Ʋnderſtanding: It ſhall be given thee; and I will give thee that which thou haſt not asked, both Riches and Ho­nour. Plato, although a Pagan, may be an Example to many Chriſtians to teach them for what things they ought to pray. It was his cuſtom in his Prayers to ſay thus: O God grant me thoſe things that are good, when I ask them not, and deny me, when I ask for thoſe things that are evil. God often favours us by not hearing our Prayers, and ſometimes puniſheth us by granting our requeſts, when we pray for that which is pernicious to our welfare; as we common­ly do, for as our Lord JESUS CHRIST ſaid, we often know not what we ask.

Phyſicians order thoſe who have a weak Stomach, to eat little and often. If it be hard for you to keep up your Attention, (which is the Soul of Prayer,) do you after the ſame manner, and following the Coun­ſel of our Bleſſed Saviour, when you pray,16 uſe not vain repetitions as the Heathen do; for they think they ſhall be heard for their much ſpeaking. If therefore your Prayers muſt be ſhort, let them be the more fre­quent, but chiefly, I ſhall once again ex­hort you to this; Let neither your Zeal nor your Faith be wanting.

My Son, if you remember, I ſaid we might pray to God in all Places, though all places were not equally Proper for this Exerciſe; Yet if we conſider Prayer to be (as we muſt not doubt) a darting forth of our Soul towards God, to unite it with his Holy Spirit; why cannot we do this every Hour, if not every Moment in the Day, whereſoever we are, at home or abroad? And why cannot we often turn our Hearts to God, though in the midſt of our moſt important Affairs, and in walking, whe­ther it be in the City, or in the Country? To do thus, is to pray to him. The Heart of Man is a moving Cloſet, a Place of Retirement; a holy Solitude, where we may enter every Moment, and from thence ſend ſuch fervent (though ſhort) Ejaculations as ſhall penetrate Heaven, and be more acceptable to God, than thoſe long Prayers which too often want At­tention. 17Theſe Ejaculations are without doubt what the Evangeliſt means, when he exhorts us to pray always. And why, my Son, ſhould you not obſerve this good Cuſtom, of praying to God, and praiſing him in your Bed, whenſoever you happen to awake, ſince Prayer is ſo much the principal part of Divine Worſhip, that the Scripture comprehends thereby all Religi­ous Duties.

This, my Son, is the chiefeſt of what I had to ſay to you concerning Prayer in particular: But take notice you cannot pray to God without putting your Truſt in him, neither can you put your truſt in God without loving him. Love him then if you expect his Love. Fear him if you deſire to be wiſe; for the Fear of the Lord is the beginning of Wiſdom. This fear, as Solomon ſaid, is to hate and avoid all evil, and conſequently to do good. If you fear God, you will love him, and if you love him, you will keep his Com­mandements: my Son, you know all thoſe Commandements; let nothing then be an Obſtacle to your Practice of them.

God is a Spirit, and the Truth, and he will be worſhipped in Spirit and Truth. This18 Religion, wherein (through his goodneſs) you was born, for the full and perfect Knowledge whereof, I have throughly cultivated your Underſtanding; This, I ſay, is the only natural Worſhip which he requires. Adhere to this Worſhip, and you will find it more advantageous to you, than the Star was to thoſe Shepherds whom it guided to Bethlehem; for that only led them to JESUS CHRIST in his loweſt E­ſtate, whereas this Worſhip ſhall conduct you to him in his Glory. This Divine Savi­our of the World, ſpeaking of himſelf to St. Thomas, ſaid, I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life. And 'tis the only way through which we muſt go to the Father. Stray not from it, my Son, whatſoever may be­fall you: For inſtead of Springs which you will find in this Way, flowing with living Water, every where out of it you ſhall meet with puddles of Water both impure and loathſome. You cannot go out of this Path wherein you have entred with­out departing from God, and conſequent­ly from all thoſe Joys whereof he is the Center. Let neither Wealth, Honour, nor Pleaſure lead you aſide; and though you ſuffer the moſt rigorous Perſecutions, yet19 be not diſheartned. Eſteem it as a great Honour to bear the Croſs after your Sa­viour; it would be an honourable Re­proach to you, to have your Body mark­ed and bruiſed for the ſake of Chriſt. This is the way, through which all the Martyrs have paſſed, to enter into thoſe heavenly Joys. If God ſhould call you to ſuch Proofs, turn not away, for the leaſt Thron falling from our Saviour's Crown upon your Head, will affix thereto a Crown of Glory: If therefore you happen to ſuffer for Chriſts ſake, be not aſhamed, but ra­ther praiſe and glorifie God for it.

Sickneſs, Loſs of Perſons dear to us, Loſs of Goods, Wealth, and an infinite number more of unwelcome Accidents, compoſe generally the Series of our Life. My Son, do not think you can avoid them. The Afflictions of this World are moſt certain Characters of the Children of God, wherewith he corrects thoſe he loves, as a Father uſeth a rod to chaſtiſe the Child whom he tenderly cheriſheth. 'Tis true the Fleſh takes no delight in being chaſtiſed, neither are we to hearken to Fleſhly Sentiments when we would put in practice what is neceſſary to our Salvati­on. 20If it is God's good Pleaſure you ſhould undergo Afflictions, of what nature, or how ſharp ſoever, murmur not. Take heed when you ſuffer, it be not deſerved­ly: And remember in your ſufferings, though exceeding great, that they can­not be equal to the Glory, which will be your reward hereafter. Theſe afflictions (which if the right uſe be made of them immediately paſs away) will produce in your Mind the Brightneſs of that tranſ­cendent Glory. Moral Philoſophy teach­eth us, that Vices of all ſorts ſpring from Paſſions diſorder'd, whereas from regu­lated Paſſions do proceed all Vertues; And Chriſtian Divinity doth verifie by experience, that afflictions, which in Reprobates occaſion nothing but Deſpair, are to the Faithful ſo many inexhauſtible Fountains of Joy.

The Rods which God makes uſe of to puniſh the Wicked, are like that of Mo­ſes, which turned into a Serpent; and thoſe wherewith he chaſtiſeth his Chil­dren, have a reſemblance to that of Aaron, which brought forth Flowers and Fruit. Make good uſe of them, My Son; Kiſs thoſe Rods wherewith he corrects you;21 adore the ſecret Vertue in them, and, e­ven in the moſt Severe Chaſtiſements, ac­knowledge his Divine Goodneſs in rai­ſing you out of that heavy Sleep wherein Sin may have caſt you. If they are more ſharp than Fleſh could wiſh for, believe that it is for your good to be thus afflicted for a little time, that the trial of your Faith being much more precious than of Gold that periſheth, tho it be tried with Fire, might be found unto Praiſe, and Honour, and Glo­ry, at the appearing of JESUS CHRIST.

My Son, you ought to have obſerved, that I have reduced under four Heads all the Duties of a Spiritual Life; viz: Reading the Word of God with Attention; frequent and ardent Prayers; a conſtant Perſeverence in the Faith; and a perfect and entire Reſignation to the Will of God, tho he expoſe you to be tried by the moſt bitter Calamities. If you had ſtill remained with me, I ſhould have given you theſe very Inſtructions, the two firſt whereof I have bin very careful in ma­king you practice as ſoon as your Age would permit it: Therefore I could not but think them more neceſſary to you when you are from me, and chiefly in22 a Country, where, far from having the Comfort of a publick Exerciſe of your Religion, you will ſcarce ever ſee an Example of the leaſt Piety; which ought the rather to oblige you to practiſe moſt exactly the Advice I have now given you. I do exhort you to it by the Bowels of Mercy of our Lord and Saviour; I require it of you by the Care you ought to have of your Salvation; and I do en­treat you to do it by that Complaiſance which I have reaſon to expect from your Gratitude. If you follow this Counſel, you will render to God what is due to him, you will accompliſh the demands of your Father; and thereby you may diſcharge that Duty you owe to your ſelf; wherein I ſhall inſtruct you in the ſecond Diſcourſe, which, according to the me­thod I preſcribed, muſt treat of Perſonal Duties.

Of Perſonal Duties.

I Have been more conciſe in the firſt Part, which treats of your Duty to­wards God, than I ſhall be in this, which concerns your Duty to your ſelf, or in the23 next following, which comprehends your Duty to your Neighbour: and 'tis no hard matter to juſtifie my Proceedings in this Point: I have followed the Example of God himſelf; for, of the Ten Command­ments, whereof his Law is compoſed, there are but four which have immediate Re­gard to his Service, whereas there are ſix to guide us in our Duty towards our Neigh­bour. There is no Nation ſo ignorant or brutiſh but believeth in ſome God, and at the ſame time prepares a form of Worſhip whereby to ſhew their Obedience; ſo true it is that the Belief of a God doth imply a Duty of ſerving him not to be diſpenſed with: and this is ſo abſolutely neceſſary, that altho ſome Men might be ſo irre­ligious as not to acknowledge it, they muſt nevertheleſs be convinced of it in their Conſcience. Your Mind, my Son, is repleniſhed with this Knowledge, let it then paſs from thence into your Will; and with thoſe Lights, wherewith it hath pleaſed God to enlighten your Under­ſtanding, rectifie whatſoever is amiſs in your Affections. Diſcharge your ſelf of the Duties that are inſeparably joyned to your Knowledge of God; that is, to fear,24 to love, and to ſerve him. I do not que­ſtion but you would have done this tho I had not exhorted you to it; which will be a matter of great Comfort in my Sor­row for your Abſence. Ʋpon this Belief I abridg'd my Thoughts, and ſuppreſſed much of what I could have ſaid upon this Subject, which being ſo abundant, would have render'd this Diſcourſe at leaſt as long as both thoſe which are to follow.

To being with our ſecond Subject, which is, concerning your Duty to your ſelf, I think it very convenient to put you in mind of that moral Dialogue which in your tender Years I made for your Inſtru­ctions; wherein you may have remem­ber'd that I treated of Chriſtian Vertues, which are, Faith, Charity, and Hope; which three, guide us in our Duty to God: Faith makes us ſubmit to him in all Things, Charity makes us cleave to him at all Times, and Hope carrieth us to him to all Eternity. You ought alſo to re­member that there are Moral Vertues; viz: Prudence, Fortiude, Temperance, and Justice: Theſe are to teach us our Duty to our ſelves, as alſo our Duty to our Neigh­bours. The firſt of theſe four Vertues is25 like a Salt to ſeaſon the other three: For­titude and Temperance have a relation to each individual Perſon; and Juſtice is the Bonds of Humane Society, without which Men muſt live together like Wolves, not being capable of any Con­verſe for the Publick Good, which, next to the glorifying of God, ought to be our chief Aim: So that in this ſecond Arti­cle of Inſtructions which, my Son, I do now lay down before you, I muſt ſpeak but of the three firſt Vertues; Prudence, Temperance, and Fortitude. Prudence ought to be the Rule of your Actions and Con­duct. Temperance will inſtruct you how to govern your ſelf in Proſperity, that you may not be poiſoned with it's delicious Pleaſures: And Fortitude will ſo guide you, that you ſhall not be overcome with the Bitterneſs of Adverſity. I will reduce all I have to ſay to you to as few words as I can (altho the Subject be very copious) that you may only receive the Pith and Juyce of it, whereby you may be nou­riſhed without being overcharged.

Man was born for Society, and I may ſay, without that Society Vertue would26 have no Followers, Man's Life would be unpleaſant, and in this World there would be no Content. God, after he had created Man, ſaid it was not good that he ſhould be alone: Therefore through his extraordinary Goodneſs, he made him a Help meet for him, and formed a Perſon with whom he might live in Society. Now this Society is nothing elſe but a reciprocal Communication made be­tween divers Perſons, who by mutual Services to one another endeavour to ren­der their Lives as pleaſant as they can, and to avoid vexatious Cares and Sor­row. According to the Humor of the Perſons which make up this Society, it will be good or evil; for, as Solomon ſaith, He that walketh with wiſe men ſhall be wiſe; but a Companion of Fools ſhall be deſtroyed. Evil Communication corrupts good Manners; therefore, my Son, you ought diligently to take heed in the choice of thoſe Perſons with whom you deſign to be acquainted. Hearken not to Nature herein, who (following her In­clination to what is evil) might lead you into bad Company; be rather attentive to true Piety, which will tell you, Enter27 not into the Path of the Wicked, and go not in the way of evil Men. Conſult Prudence, and ſhe will teach you to chooſe your Friends, which is a thing of the higheſt conſequence; becauſe we acquire gene­rally the Habits and Paſſions of thoſe whom we frequent: This was ſo well known to our Fore-fathers, that they did not ſcruple to paſs their Judgment upon any Man when they were once acquaint­ed with the Temper of his Companions; according to this old Saying of theirs, Tell me what Company you keep and I will tell you what you are. Frequent then, my Son, as much as you are able, Perſons of Honour and Integrity, or at leaſt thoſe who are eſteemed ſuch; and out of this Company chooſe one of the moſt vertu­ous whom you muſt endeavour to make your particular Friend. Let not this ſin­gle Expreſſion of one Friend ſurpriſe you, for it is not an eaſie matter to obtain ma­ny true Friends; nay, I take a true Friend to be a thing almoſt as rare in Humane Society, as the Philoſophers Stone is in Chymiſtry. Several People have made it their buſineſs all their Life-time to find a true Friend, and yet at laſt have miſſed28 their Aim. Uſe your utmoſt Endeavours to procure one; you will be happy if you can bring it to paſs: Do not ſpare Com­plaiſance, Reſpect, or any Service, pro­vided you do not deſcend to what is low and infamous; which cannot be, if you chooſe a vertuous Perſon, as I have pre­ſcribed you, to bind your ſelf with, in a tender, ſincere, and ſtrict Friendſhip. Kindneſs muſt be repayed with Kindneſs: If you would be beloved, love. It is moſt certain, that a Correſpondence of Humours contributs extremely to our being beloved; therefore if you deſire the Friendſhip of a Man of Honour and Vertue, imitate his Vertue and that will facilitate your Deſire. When you have acquired this Friendſhip, be careful to avoid whatſoever may occaſion the loſs of it. Be before hand with him if you can, in Services, and in kind Reſpects towards him: If you have convincing Proofs that he hath given you his Heart, and if you have likewiſe yielded yours up to him, with-hold not your Purſe from him in his Neceſſity. If unhappily your Friendſhip upon any occaſion ſhould wax cold, and that out of Prudence you29 muſt part with him, let it not be a ſud­den Rupture, but retire by degrees. There is ſcarce any thing ſo juſt and fre­quent an Obſtacle to the procuring or preſerving of Friendſhip, as Pride: This Sin was the cauſe that the firſt Angels were transferred from Heaven to Hell, and became the first Devils. Take great care not to be tainted with it; and if you ex­pect the Love of thoſe with whom you keep Company, be humble towards all. When Pride cometh then cometh Shame: but with the Lowly is Wiſdom, ſaith the Wiſe Man: God ſcorneth the Scorners; but he giveth Grace unto the Lowly. Every one that is proud in Heart is an Abomination to the Lord. The Proud have this misfortune to diſpleaſe every Body but themſelves. 'Tis impoſſible that a vain Man ſhould love to be blamed, and 'tis almoſt as impoſſible for a Man to be a Reaſonable Creature while he hateth Reproof. So­lomon aſſures us of it, in ſaying, Whoſo lo­veth Inſtruction loveth Knowledge: but he that hateth Reproof is brutiſh. Poverty and Shame ſhall be to him that refuſeth Inſtru­ction; but he that regardeth Reproof ſhall be honoured. If you deſire to be reſpected30 make your ſelf worthy of Reſpect; this muſt be done not only by ſhunning Pride; avoid alſo Covetouſneſs, Gluttony, Sloth, Ʋncleanneſs, Anger, and Envy; theſe are the Vices againſt which all the World cries out, and which nevertheleſs reign in all Parts of the World. In the ſame Order as they are mentioned I will lay down their reſpective Reaſons which ſhould provoke your Hatred of them.

Covetouſneſs is the Root of all Evil, and as St. Paul ſaid to Timothy, it cauſeth Men to err from the Faith. It makes them fall into Temptation, into the Snares of the Devil, and into ſeveral inordinate and unſatiable Deſires, which at length plunge them into the Abyſs of Damnation. Our bleſſed Apoſtle did not reſt ſatisfied with this dreadful Deſcription, but in his Epi­ſtle to the Coloſſians calleth it Idolatry; becauſe it cannot poſſeſs any Heart with­out firſt expelling from thence all Fear of God, and ſetting up in the Room the Love of the World and of Riches. Take heed, and beware of Covetouſneſs, ſaid our Saviour Christ, in St. Luke; for a Man's Life conſiſteth not in the abundance of the things which he poſſeſſeth. Covetouſneſs31 takes all opportunities to heap up Riches; and tho the means are moſt unlawful, yet to her they always ſeem commendable enough: I ſay, her Deſign is to lay up Riches; for the covetous Man takes good heed not to make any uſe of them. He lives all his Life-time Poor, to have the Satisfaction of dying Rich; and inſtead of making them a Cauſe of his Salvation, through his prudent management of them and Contribution, they become through an ill uſe the Occaſion of his Dam­nation.

Before I proceed to ſpeak of the other Vices, (whoſe Deformities I purpoſe to diſcover to you to ſtir up your diſlike of them) I muſt put you in mind, that how great ſoever is Mans Inclination to Evil, yet he endeavours to hide that Vice to which he is inclined, under the Mask of ſome Vertue that has a reſemblance with it. This Example ſhall ſerve for all the reſt. The Covetous, tho he be deeply en­gaged in that ſordid Paſſion, cannot but acknowledge the Vileneſs of it, yet in himſelf he makes it paſs for an honest Thriftineſs; this he firſt perſuades himſelf to believe, and then his Neighbours. All32 that are much tainted with any Vice, fol­low the ſame Rule for their Juſtification: Of this, my Son, I have given you no­tice, that you may avoid the falling in­to ſo unreaſonable a Conduct; and that ſo you may not be reduced to cover a vici­ous Inclination with the Veil of what is tru­ly Vertuous.

After having given you this Advice, (which I thought expedient to be done) I ſhall ſpeak of Gluttony, as it follows next in courſe after Covetouſneſs. Theſe two in their Means are ſomething contrary, but their Effects do reſemble much. The Covetous picks up all things to increaſe Riches that are pernicious to him; and the Glutton lets all fly to procure thoſe Pleaſures which muſt be prejudicial to his Happineſs. The firſt, to content his raking Deſire, will abſtain from what is neceſſary; and the other, to ſatisfie his Senſual Appetite, will not abſtain from what is ſuperfluous. One locks up his Reaſon in his Cheſt with his Gold and Silver; and t'other drowns it in Wine and Dainties. What can be hoped from ſuch a Man? God ordained us to eat that we might live, and the Glutton ima­gines33 that he lives only to eat; whereof he is ſo fully perſuaded, that it is impoſ­ſible for him to apply himſelf with plea­ſure to any Duty which is requiſite in a civil Society; nay, how can he do it with Pleaſure, he that knoweth no other Pleaſure than that of the Taſte, whoſe Kitchen is his Church, and who of his Belly makes his God. Avoid then this Sin, whoſe Effects are ſo pernicious; and in following my Counſel you will obey the Command of the Holy Scripture, viz. Be not amongſt Wine-bibbers, amongſt rio­tous eaters of Fleſh: For the Drunkard and the Glutton ſhall come to Poverty; and drowſi­neſs ſhall clothe a Man with Rags. The Spirit of God joyns Sleep with Gluttony, to ſhew us, that it is impoſſible to be a Glutton without being ſlothful. The hea­vineſs of Meats communicates it ſelf to the Stomach, and the heavineſs of the Stomach reacheth the very Brain: No wonder then that by theſe ſeveral hea­vineſſes the Soul becomes heavy, and leſs apt to perform the Functions to which ſhe is deſigned. The Slothful Perſon has but juſt the Senſe and Motion of a Man; and of that he hath ſo little, that there34 is not much difference between him and a Statue. This never ſtirs but when he is carried; and he never acts without being ſpurred forwards. The ſlowneſs of all his Actions both Spiritual and Cor­poreal, is a ſort of Lethargy both of Soul and Body, whereof he would not be cu­red tho it might be done, becauſe his delight is in a ſlothful Eaſe; and the thoughts of a moderate Labour, which is a pleaſure to others, to him is a tor­ment. St. Paul may cry out long enough to him, that he who will not work muſt not eat: there muſt be ſomething more ri­gorous than the bare Exhortation of the Apoſtle; for Neceſſity it ſelf (tho a thing ſo prevailing) can ſcarce rouſe him out of that Idleneſs, whoſe ſweets are more ſenſible to him than all the Advantages that might accrue from an honeſt Employment. He doth not act with more Zeal for his Intereſt in Hea­ven than for that upon Earth; whereby you may judge, that if he is not a good Citizen, he is as ill a Chriſtian; and you may believe that as the Glutton has not made Temperance a guide to his Actions, ſo neither has the Sluggard conſulted35 Fortitude to govern his. One of the chief Motives of your Voyage (as you pro­teſted to me) was, that you might in­creaſe your Fortune through your own means; but you ſee Sloth cannot con­tribute to a Deſign ſo honeſt and rea­ſonable. He becometh poor that dealeth with a ſlack Hand; but the hand of the Diligent maketh rich. If you would have me believe your Intentions to be ſin­cere, be diligent; and therefore in the firſt place, do your utmoſt endeavours to maſter that great ſweetneſs and plea­ſure which you find in Sleep. Never ſtay to be importuned to follow your Em­ployment; yet if you muſt be called up­on, let it be done by your own Honour, which leading you every Morning to your Buſineſs, may alſo keep you to it the greateſt part of the Day, with an aſ­ſiduity worthy of Praiſe. You need not wonder, my Son, that I do encounter ſo obſtinately this Sin of Sloth with all the Arms that the Kindneſs I bear to you can lend me: I am incited thereto not only by that Reaſon I have already told you, but alſo becauſe it is the Path to another deadly Sin, whereto we are naturally ve­ry36 much enclined; to wit, Ʋncleanneſs, the moſt foul of any Sin, which changeth our Bodies that ought to be the Temples of the Holy Ghost into ſtinking Jakes. I will deſcribe it to you in few Words, not to keep you long upon the conſideration of what is ſo loathſom, the Name whereof St. Paul would not have to be pronoun­ced among Chriſtians, and which he terms the blackeſt of Sins, becauſe, ſaith he, every Sin which a Man doth is without the Body; but he that committeth Fornica­tion ſinneth against his own Body.

I would have you obſerve, my Son, that from theſe two laſt Vices Ʋnclean­neſs proceeds, as I intimated to you above: 'Tis begot by Gluttony, and hatched by Idleneſs. It will not ſeem ſtrange to you that ſuch evil Parents engender ſo wicked a Child. It has it's Inclination from the Authors of its Birth, and even improves their noxious Qualities; for this Vice alone procures us more miſchief than both the others together. In Gluttony and Sloth, our Bodies ſuffer before our Minds; but Ʋncleanneſs ſeiſes and prevails upon our Minds before it ſubdues our Bodies; and having made it ſelf Maſter of that which37 was given for our Guide, it hurrieth us along to diſhoneſt, and ſhameful Deſires, by a Tyranny both abſolute and inevita­ble, altho in the fulfilling of thoſe Deſires we meet our utter Deſtruction. This Ene­my is ſo much the more dangerous, ſee­ing that the means wherewith it uſeth to deſtroy us are Pleaſure and Delight, which lead us aſide from Vertue, and ſtrangle us in their Embraces. By their Cunning they ſeduce us; they charm us with their Complaiſance; and ſo ſtraight­ly engage us to them, that of our ſelves 'tis impoſſible we ſhould break the Chains wherewith they faſten us. They are ſo many Dalila's who lull us aſleep, that they may firſt deprive us of our Strength, and then tumble us into the bottomleſs Pit of all Vices. They draw us and en­tice us to our everlaſting Ruin, if we do not prevent them by a ſerious Repen­tance, which if too late, might be in vain. Shun then ſuch Guides under whoſe Conduct the Event will be ſo un­happy. Fly from them with more ſpeed than you would from Robbers on the High-way; for theſe will be contented with your Money and Clothes, but the38 others aim directly at your Soul and Bo­dy. My Son, you may obſerve theſe Di­rections with much more eaſe, if you do but conſider, that all Pleaſures taking advantage of our weakneſs, faſten us to them with a promiſe of the ſweeteſt Satis­factions, which at laſt prove to be but bitter Sorrows. In this they are like La­ban, who perceiving Jacob's Affection, engaged him to ſerve ſeven Years for beautiful Rachel, and when that term was expired gave him only ill-favoured Leah. Theſe Directions, I ſay, you may more eaſily follow, if you will diligently obſerve how filthy, baſe, and infamous are theſe very Pleaſures which our Ʋn­cleanneſs makes uſe of to ſeduce us; how ſoon they paſs away; what Miſchiefs at­tend them; and laſtly, the Pains we muſt undergo to all Eternity, for thoſe Plea­ſures that laſted but one Hour, or perhaps but one Moment. Temperance will make you avoid theſe Dangers, if you take its Advice, and after that it has demonſtra­ted to you that whilſt they command you they are full of danger; it will make you alſo confeſs that they are innocent and harmleſs when you can command them, and39 purge them from the Venom they con­tracted with the Impurity of their Birth; for having taken away all the Means whereby they might be hurtful to us, we may make them to be ſerviceable againſt their own Nature, to our honeſt and lawful Recreations.

There remains yet behind, my Son, the two Sins of Anger and Envy. The firſt of theſe caſts a man into the greateſt exceſs of Diſorder. It drives from our Minds all manner of Reaſon; and as ſoon as ever it ſeizeth the Heart, it filleth it with Motions ſo violent and tempe­ſtuous, that it is very fitly termed a ſhort Madneſs. Fury and Brutiſhneſs are the two chief Branches that ſpring from it: And I think you need but behold the Actions of a Man enflamed with Anger to acknowledge this Truth; they are ſo many irrefragable Proofs of it; for if his Words did not ſpeak him a Man, there's no Body but would take him for ſome fierce Wild Beaſt. His Soul which is toſ­ſed to and fro with thoſe violent and un­ruly Motions, doth expreſs her Agitation ſo plain in the Features and Lineaments40 of his Countenance, that it is no hard matter to know by theſe outward Chara­cters what vexatious Diſorders he under­goes within. By ſuch innocent Means as theſe, a Learned Man in our time found what he had vainly ſearched after in all the Secrets of Philoſophy; the way to di­miniſh the Inclination which one of his Diſciples had towards this Vice, in whoſe vertuous Education he was very much concerned. He ſhewed him in the Coun­tenance of a Man agitated with this Paſ­ſion ſo great a change, and ſo vaſtly dif­ferent from what it was wont to be, that from the Effects running up to the Cauſe, it was not difficult for him to make him underſtand that a Stream ſo infected muſt needs proceed from a poiſon'd Spring; whereby he brought him to be ſo averſe from this Vice, that it even diminiſhed extremely the Inclination he had towards it. The Lacedaemonians did heretofore uſe the like device to make Drunken­neſs odious to their Children: They made their Slaves drink to Exceſs, and then they were brought before them in that Condition, who ſeeing them reel and ſtagger, and act like Men depriv'd41 of their Senſes, conceived ſo great a ha­tred for this loathſom Vice, that they would never after be reconciled to it. Do you, my Son, take the ſame Method to oppoſe and conquer that Paſſion of Anger, which is a ſort of Drunkenneſs that aſſaults our Underſtanding and clouds our Reaſon with Fumes more dan­gerous than thoſe of Wine, becauſe they are of a longer continuance, and they produce more direful Effects. In a word, to give you an eaſie and infallible Re­medy againſt Anger, tho you have ne­ver ſo great Provocations thereto; pra­ctiſe the Advice of a great Perſon of this latter Age, who exhorts us to yield betimes to Reaſon, that which in a little while we cannot but yield to Time. To this wholſom Advice add Fortitude, that Heroick Vertue, and the ſupport of the reſt, whereof Prudence is the Guide, and it will not be difficult for you to ſucced.

Envy is the laſt Vice I have to mention, whoſe Picture I am going to draw. Of all Vices 'tis the moſt rampant. It inci­ted Man to a Crime which being direct­ed immediately againſt God and Nature,42 made him fail in his Duty to one and t'other; and in one Act made him com­mit Sacrilege and Murder, by ſtirring up Cain to deface the Image of God in the Perſon of his Brother whom he killed. 'Tis a Paſſion which after having poiſon'd the Mind, ſpreads alſo it's Poiſon all over the Body; which corrupts the whole Maſs of Blood, and caſteth its Venome through all the Veins; which renders the Countenance meager, ghaſtly, hideous, and which notwithſtanding all Endeavours to lye hid, doth manifeſtly expoſe it ſelf by disfiguring that Perſon whom it poſſeſs­eth: And we may very juſtly ſay, that if Anger is a Fire which enflames us, En­vy is one that dries us up, and carrieth along with it the Puniſhment of the En­vious, ſeeing that neither Night nor Day doth it ſuffer him to take any Reſt. 'Tis like a Hecktick Fever which conſumes a Mans Body by degrees, and which is dif­ficult to drive away, when through Neg­ligence one has ſuffer'd it to take Root. The Envious Man ſtrikes directly at God. He derives his greateſt Miſery from the juſt diſtribution God makes of his Bene­fits to other men. Another's Calamity is43 his Joy. The good Health of his Neigh­bour diminiſheth his own, and his Neigh­bour falling ſick makes him well again. His Draughts are then ſweetest when mingled with the bitter Tears of his Neighbour. His private Sorrows ariſe from the Satisfaction and Content of the Publick. He looks upon that Gain or Profit that doth not help fill up his Bags, to be a great loſs to himſelf; and he is never happy but in the miſery of thoſe of his Acquaintance. The moderate Har­veſt of another makes his own unaccepta­ble, tho it be abundant; and the greateſt Proſperity in this World would be un­welcome to him, if he were forced to ſhare ſome part of it with his Neighbours. You may eaſily perceive, my Son, that a Man of this Temper can have Peace with no body, and that generally he muſt be at War with God: judge thereby of the Tranquility of his Body and Soul. Others comprehend their Unhappineſs within their own Calamities; but the Envious, beſides their own peculiar Mis­fortunes, procure to themſelves an infinite number from the good Fortune of others. Shun therefore this Vice which is ſo per­nicious44 and deteſtable, that it is impoſſi­ble for any one to be guilty of it without becoming both a Puniſhment to himſelf and his own Executioner. And be aſſu­red, that after it has furiouſly tormented in this Life thoſe who are poſſeſſed with it, in the next it will lead them into that Place which Divine Juſtice has ſet apart for all thoſe who have not a ſubmiſſive regard to whatſoever is ordained by Pro­vidence.

The Deſcription I have made to you of theſe Vices has been ſomething longer than I ſhould have imagined. God grant the Style may be not only ſo clear as to excite in you that Hatred which you ought to have againſt them, but alſo ſo perſuaſive as to encourage you in the Love and Practice of their oppoſite Ver­tues. There is not any thing can be throughly known until it be compared with its contrary; if therefore you have apprehended the Reaſons which ſhould move you to hate Pride, Covetouſneſs, Gluttony, Sloth, Ʋncleanneſs, Anger, and Envy; you will eaſily be perſuaded for the Welfare of your Soul and Body, to45 love Humility, a liberal Frugality, Sobrie­ty, Diligence, Chaſtity, Moderation, and Charity; and to poſſeſs theſe Vertues you muſt take your Meaſures from the Dictates of Prudence, Fortitude, and Temperance, whoſe Counſels cannot but be advanta­geous to you, if you will thereunto ac­quieſce. Among all the Benefits that you may receive from theſe Vertues, I would to God, my Son, they would inſpire you with as much Love for Truth, as young People have Inclination for Lying. Have in Horror this Vice; and to do this eaſily, remember that JESUS CHRIST took upon him this Quality of True, on­ly to ſignifie to us that he loved thoſe who loved the Truth: And why (think you) is the Devil termed in the Scripture the Father of Lies, unleſs it be to ſhew that all Lyars are his Children? The love of this Vice is an undeniable Character upon all thoſe who practiſe it through In­clination, (and from this Inclination ac­quire a Habit) that they are the Children of the Devil. I know very well that they who are willing to excuſe it, ſay, that a ſecret Shame which they have, to ac­knowledge themſelves guilty of the Fault46 imputed to them, doth not ſeldom drive them againſt their Will into a Neceſſity of Lying. It is an ill Preſident that Adam hath left to his Poſterity: But what ſignifie all theſe Prevarications wherewith we diſ­ſemble the Truth? They are but like ſo many Fig-leaves through which the Truth will be diſcerned in ſpight of all our Endeavours to the contrary. The Hopes of a more regular Conduct hereaf­ter doth ſomewhat comfort thoſe who are concerned for their preſent Indiſcretion; but daily Experience teacheth us, that when a Man has committed a Fault, and that he endeavours to evade it with a Lye, he is leſs ſorry for being guilty than for being ſo reputed. I do not pretend, my Son, by exhorting you never to lye, to publiſh and declare whatever you know to be true; this in many Caſes would be a great Imprudence; yet Lying is a Crime in all: the beſt way to avoid it is to ſpeak little and live well. A Man needs not uſe Diſſimulation if his Conduct is good; and he is always ſincere in his Diſcourſe that conſiders firſt what he is about to ſay, and then conſults Prudence, the Definition whereof will convince you47 of it. 'Tis a Habit of the Underſtanding which preſcribes to our Deſires, means both honeſt and convenient to attain a favourable and happy End. You may eaſily perceive then, that how profitable ſoever are the Ends you propoſe to your ſelf in your Undertakings, the means cannot be honourable if you make uſe of Deceit and Lying to compaſs them. Your Hatred towards this Vice will not only cauſe you to be more reſerved in your Speech, it will render you alſo more cir­cumſpect in all your Actions, and (by grafting Sincerity in your Heart) will make you abhor Detraction and Ca­lumny, two general Plagues, whence ſpring moſt of our Troubles, they being often the Cauſe of our Quarrels. Since­rity is always attended with Probity; and one and t'other are as abſolutely neceſſa­ry in Pious Duties, as in thoſe of Society. You cannot be a good Chriſtian without being an honeſt Man, neither can you be an honeſt Man if you are deceitful. Diſſimulation is a Sacrilege in Religion, and Lying is almoſt as great a Crime in Converſation.


My Son, whatſoever Profeſſion you fol­low, let Vertue and Induſtry be your Guides, and not Pleaſure and Idleneſs. The Idle and the Voluptuous, from Men are transformed into Beaſts, and by a Metamorphoſis ſo much the more ſhameful as that they willingly conſent to it. My Son, if you would have your Affairs ſuc­ceed, never undertake what is above your Capacity, nor what you do not throughly underſtand. Moreover, let the means, whereby you intend to obtain your Ends, be moſt honeſt and juſt: yet how juſt ſoever thoſe means are, and how exact your Knowledge in what you undertake, begin nothing till you have begged God's Bleſſing upon your Enter­prizes; your Cares and Induſtry, tho ne­ver ſo great, would be needleſs, and per­haps a hinderance to your Affairs, if this Bleſſing did not intervene and render them happy. If notwithſtanding all theſe Precautions, Providence is not pleaſed that the Succeſs ſhould anſwer your De­ſires, fail not however to praiſe his Holy Name, and ſubmit to his Will with a re­ſpectful and implicite Faith; aſſuring your ſelf that it had not ſo happened, if other­wiſe,49 it might have been better for his Glory, or your Salvation.

Take hold, with a judicious eagerneſs, of all favourable Opportunities which your Good Fortune offers you: They are rare now-a-days, and much ſearched after; be careful that you let them not ſlip when you meet any, leſt when they are gone, you follow after them to no purpoſe.

Make good Uſe of your Time, for what you loſe thereof can never be re­covered. New Gains may over and above ſupply old Loſſes, but the Loſs of Time is irrecoverable.

By exhorting you to apply your ſelf to your Buſineſs, I do not mean that you ſhould give up your ſelf ſo entirely to it, as to receive no Diverſion. I am ſenſible that as the Body cannot long un­dergo Labour, ſo neither can the Mind be engaged in a moderate Study, if a rea­ſonable Relaxation of their Functions yield not to both of them the Means to repair the Strength and Spirits which they loſt. For this Reaſon I ſhall be ſo far from forbidding you Recreations, that I adviſe you to uſe them, nevertheleſs with this re­ſtraint,50 to chooſe, as near as you can gueſs, ſuch as are the moſt honeſt and inno­cent. I take thoſe Diverſions whereby the Body is moderately exerciſed to be the more proper of the two for a Chriſtian and an Honeſt Man, than Gaming, which depends upon much Hazard. But as in this Caſe, Choice depends upon Inclina­tion, you would do well to make yours (as much as you can) ſubſervient to your Duty, which will put you in mind that, let the Game be what it will, you ought to be very careful in this Occaſion, not to render Principal what ſhould be but Acceſſary. Let your Game therefore be a delightful Recreation, and not a vex­atious Trouble, ſuch as might be occaſi­oned by a great Loſs, if you hazard any conſiderable Sums. Never put it to the venture to quit that with a Grudge which you began for your Diverſion; and this cannot be, if you play but for Play-ſake, that is, if you play but for a Small matter, and with the intent only to refreſh your Spirits, which an Exceſs of Buſineſs and Study had tryed: How­ever let the Sum be never ſo inconſide­rable for which you play, take heed it51 be with ſuch as you know, that they may not firſt Cheat, and then Deride you.

Ignorance and Preſumption have poſſeſ­ſed the World almoſt from the Creation: Avoid both with Care. Seek therefore my Son, to be inſtructed, and be not aſhamed to ask the Council of thoſe who know more than your ſelf. Be al­ways miſtruſtful of your own Parts, and never take it ill from thoſe who give you their Advice, but rather receive it with all imaginable Sweetneſs and Reſpect, reſerving only to your ſelf the Freedom of following it, if you find it conſonat to Reaſon and Prudence.

Love Reading; 'tis that which ſtrength­ens the Judgment, enriches the Memory, and enlightens every Day more and more the Ʋnderſtanding. 'Tis that which will teach us to expreſs our ſelves in a Style ſublime, tho both Smooth and Charming: ſo that we may ſay, 'tis that alone procures us all the Advantages neceſſary, either in Meditation or Con­verſe. Yet do not read only to be ren­der'd more knowing, read chiefly to be­come52 better; and to that End make choice of good Books, applying your ſelf moſt commonly to ſuch as treat of Piety, in the reading whereof, ſet before you the Example of the Bee, which ga­there the ſweet Dew out of Flowers to make Honey in it's due Seaſon. Now to profit by this Example, obſerve that when you read, (whether they be Books of Devotion, Morality or Hiſtory) you do not neglect the reducing under Heads in a Common-place, the excellent Notes and Obſervations that you will collect: that will eaſe very much your Memory, and in many occaſions will ſave you the trouble (which muſt otherwiſe lie upon you) of ſearching after Expreſſions, where­of you may ſtand in Need.

Do not imploy your Time in reading Romances: They only heat the Imagina­tion, and not nouriſh the Underſtand­ing; for altho they repreſent Vertues in their higheſt Degree, nevertheleſs there lies a great deal of Venome hid under thoſe lovely Flowers, eſpecially for young People. You will do well to let alone the Reading of ſuch Books, which53 are Snares ſo much the more difficult to avoid, as being in appearence not dange­rous, tho in reality they are much.

Take ſpecial heed, my Son, that the deſire of Riches doth not force you up­on evil Means to obtain them, nor excite you to Actions Mercinary, Baſe and Unjuſt. Ʋſe not divers Weights, and divers Meaſures; both of them are alike Abomination to the Lord. Better is a little with Righteouſneſs, then great Revenues without Right. And remember, that God­lyneſs with Contentment is great Gain.

Shun Ambition, tho ſome only call it an Errour of great Minds. I always con­ſider'd it as proceeding from Minds vain and defective. 'Tis a Monſter moſt unſa­tiable, whoſe Deſigns are without Limits as well as his Hopes, and how ſucceſsful ſoever is the Ambitious in his Enter­prizes, the Succeſs doth rather puff up his Deſires than content them. His Ad­vancement to an eminent Employment which he expected, diſcovers to him ano­ther more Eminent, without which his Happineſs ſeems to be imperfect. As54 faſt as his Honour and Grandure encrea­ſes, his Hopes and Pretentions multiply: The whole World can ſcarce ſatisfie him: Like Pompey, he will have no Equal, much leſs can he endure a Superiour. His Life paſſeth in a perpetual Hurry of Body and Mind. Tranquility and Re­poſe are Terrae incognitae to him; and it often happens, that the Care he has been at to place himſelf ſo high, ſerves to ren­der his fall the more irrecoverable. Come not therefore near a Road ſo dangerous, where inſtead of repoſing your ſelf you will find nothing but dreadful Precipices.

If any one ſpread an ill Report of you, and that it comes to your knowledge, ex­amine it impartially; and if you find your ſelf guilty of that which is imputed to you, mend, and be thankful to him who did you this good Office. If you are blamed wrongfully ſhew no Anger or Diſpleaſure; for Experience makes it manifeſt to us daily, that the Contempt of Calumny makes it die, whereas nothing but a Reſentment can keep it alive.

A learned Man of theſe Times ſaid, that all Vertues were ſwallowed up in Intereſt, like the Rivers in the Sea. Avoid, my Son,55 this ſelfiſh Humor, which aiming ſo much at our own Advantage, makes us forget what in Juſtice is due to others. Accommodate your Intereſt to Reaſon, and to that Law of Nature, which was an ancient Maxim among Pagans; Do not to others, what you would not that they ſhould do unto you; or rather to this Chriſtian Doctrine, do as you would be done by.

Be careful not to take Exceptions; of a Trifle do not make a Buſineſs of Mo­ment, no more then of a Buſineſs of Mo­ment a Trifle. Labour to be in Peace with all Men; and rather relinquiſh ſomething of your Right, than to enter into a Conteſt with any one. What ano­ther in this Caſe would call, parting with his Poſſeſſions to ſatiate the Greedineſs of his Neighbour, do you conſider as an In­ſtrument to conſerve the Tranquility of your Mind, and the Repoſe of your Body, which you ought to eſteem be­yond all Wealth and Poſſeſſions.

Never put off to a Future Time, that which you can do at the Preſent. Do every thing in Order, avoiding all Confuſion, and let this Order be ſeen as56 well in your Clothes, as in your Books; as well in your ſmalleſt Papers, as in your moſt conſiderable Affairs.

Regulate your Expences by your E­ſtate, and if that Eſtate will permit, do not deny your ſelf any thing that is Fitting, but have a Care you delight not in what is Superfluous, leſt inſenſibly you become unable to provide for your ſelf things abſolutely Neceſſary.

Altho the Neceſſity of Clothing was one Conſequence of the firſt Sin of Adam, there are not a few Perſons that make it one of the chief Subjects of their Vani­ty, and one of the moſt painful Cares of their Life. Garments, which are only to preſerve our Bodies from the injury of Weather, and which for this Reaſon ought to be ordain'd to no other Uſe, are leaſt of all for that Uſe among thoſe ſort of People: They have them to ſatiſ­fie their immoderate Deſires, as well as to ſhelter their Bodies from the Intempe­rance of the Seaſons. This is a Weak­neſs in either Sex, and 'tis Intolerable in both; however, 'tis much more to be con­demn'd in Men then in Women, be­cauſe moſt Women making their Merit57 conſiſt in an exteriour Comelineſs, you need not wonder if they ſeek to make themſelves prized by the Magnificence of their Habits, and by the Beauty and Excellency of their Trimmings, where­as Men, who ought to be more reaſona­ble, ſhould deſpiſe (as below them) theſe vile ſordid Means to make themſelves be taken notice of; and only render themſelves conſiderable by Vertue, and their Excellent Qualifications. To this I muſt exhort you with all earneſtneſs; however, in the Order you obſerve for your Apparel, I would wiſh you to ad­viſe with your own Eſtate, to conſider what is decent, and chiefly to have re­gard to what is moſt reaſonable. If you do this your Habit will be always far­theſt from Extremes; you will be neat and not affected, well Clothed and not ex­travagant.

Be neither the firſt nor the laſt in fol­lowing the Mode; too much Compli­ance with all Faſhions is ridiculous, as on the other ſide too be always thwart­ing the Mode, is to be obſtinate and Fantaſtical. Shun alike both theſe ex­tremes, and by obſerving a Mean, let58 People rather applaud your Modeſty than condemn your Conceitedneſs. Be eſteem­ed rather for your perſonal Qualifications, than for your external Ornaments; in a Word, be more diligent in beautify­ing your Soul with good Qualities, than in adorning your Body with rich Ap­parel.

Whatſoever you ſpeak, or whatſoever you write, let it be in Words few but comprehenſive, ſo that much may be contained in a little; yet not withſtand­ing you have free, ſmooth, and graceful Expreſſions in your Diſcourſe, let it be a Pleaſure to you when you are in Com­pany to hearken attentively to their Diſ­courſe, and to anſwer them appoſitely and to the purpoſe, that you may gain their good Will and Affection: There­fore remember this, that Converſation is not like a Monarchical Government, where one has only a right to ſpeak; but rather a kind of Democracy, where each Member has a Freedom of declaring their Minds in their turn.

Secrecy is the Soul of a Deſign, and not ſeldom the ſole occaſion of it's Succeſs: The more important are your Deſigns,59 the greater ought your Care to be in concealing them from others; yet if they are never ſo inconſiderable, 'tis beſt to make no Body acquainted with them. Without this Precaution, me thinks you ſhould be afraid leſt it happen as it doth often to Mines, whoſe Effects terminate but in Smoak when once they have ta­ken Wind.

Fly from Idleneſs; 'tis a ſort of Spiri­tual Lethargy, ſo much the more dange­rous, as that the End of it is generally the Beginning of ſome Diſorder. Man was created to be always acting; and of ne­ceſſity he muſt always be employed; therefore if his Actions are not good, they infallibly tend to Evil: And Idle­neſs has this Reſemblance with Standing Waters, that if theſe breed Serpents t'other breeds Vices.

There are many People who are ex­treme eager to know what is done in their Neighbour's Houſe, and at the ſame time are ignorant of moſt things that happen in their own. This Curioſity has always ſeem'd to me to be pityful and baſe, and unworthy of an honeſt Man: Therefore to avoid it, conſider60 with your ſelf that he into whoſe affairs you are prying is ether a Friend, or elſe is indifferent to you: If he is indifferent, what ſatisfaction can you propoſe by knowing what he aims at? And if he is your Friend, why would you ſearch into a Secret, which his Silence ſignifies he has a Mind to keep from you?

It belongs only to Kings to ſay that he who cannot diſſemble knows not how to reign. Diſſimulation, tho ſometimes a Vertue in a Soverain Prince, is always a Vice in the Subject. Yet there are ſome Caſes wherein it is a part of Prudence not to publiſh and make known all we think. But upon ſuch like Occaſions as theſe, be ſo much reſerved, that by your ſpeaking you may not be taxed with Indiſcretion, nor by your Silence with Diſſimulation.

When you happen into Company where there are ſome that you don't know, be careful not to fall into that vulgar Errour of paſſing your Judgment upon the Merit of Perſons by their rich Clothes, or the fine Style of their Diſcourſe. Theſe Appearances are very doubtful, and it is often mani­feſted by Experience, that thoſe Per­ſons61 are not the moſt worthy becauſe they are the beſt clothed, nor are the moſt Vertuous always the moſt eloquent: Therefore, my Son, in ſuch a Caſe let not your Mind be anticipated; let your Judgment decide nothing without your Knowledge, and be ſure you Penetrate beyond the outward Parts of a Man be­fore you judge well or ill of him.

Flattery is the ſame to the Mind as Poiſon is to the Body, with this only diffe­rence, that all People hate Poiſon, yet they all love Flattery. The paſſionate Love that every one bears toward it, is a ſort of Leproſie which has infected all the Earth. You ſhall find it in Shepherds poor Cot­tages as well as in the Palaces of Kings. 'Tis true it reigns among Kings and Prin­ces with more Oſtentation then among the People, which produceth Events ſo much the more pernicious, according to the Power of that Perſon whom it affects. Proſperity is the Mother of Flattery as Intereſt is the ſole Object of Flatterers; and for this Reaſon alone there are more in the Courts of Princes than among pri­vate Families, who yet are not wholly exempt, the moſt miſerable of all Men62 having at leaſt one who keeps hin com­pany all his Life-time, and who becomes ſo Familiar to him, that inſenſibly he uſhers in all forreign Flaterrers. My Son, I find that you eagerly expect to know the Name of this Flatterer; I will tell it you then: 'Tis Self-love; who introduces all our Errours, who corrupts our Judg­ment, darkens our Underſtanding; and laſtly disfigures Truth ſo ſtrangely that it is impoſſible for us to know her. Let therefore this Deſcription I have given you of the Effects produced by Flattery, cauſe in you a miſtruſt as well of the Domeſtick as the Forreign Flatterrer; let this foreknowledg of them break all their Meaſures, and thereby preſerve you from being enchanted with thoſe poiſon'd ſweets which being once inſtill'd into you, will infallibly carry it's Venom to your very Heart.

I am now, my Son, come to an Article delicate, important, and difficult to han­dle, which I would not willingly omit, that it might not be ſaid I had paſſed over in Silence any thing that could con­tribute to your Inſtruction. 'Tis then concerning, how you muſt carry your63 ſelf, if in unlucky and unexpected diffe­rences you are obliger to declare your ſelf of any Party. If I went about to treat of this one Point to it's greateſt Ex­tent, it would require a Volume much larger than the whole Treatiſe I deſign for you, which is contrary to the Purpoſe I intended, of rendring you rather an Honeſt than a Learned Man. 'Tis enough for you to obſerve theſe two or three Rules which I am going to give you. The Differences of this Nature are either publick or private; of which ſort ſoever they are, 'tis beſt for you not to meddle if you can chooſe, unleſs you ſee apparently that you can be ſo happy as to contribute towards a Re-union. But if you cannot poſſibly ſtand Neuter, and that an unavoidable Neceſſity obligeth you to ſide with a Party; in that Caſe I earneſtly exhort you to take this Coun­ſel I now give you. If the Buſineſs in queſtion be publick, and that the Prince's Interest is concerned, adhere immediate­ly without any manner of Scruple to his Party. You preſerve God's Right in de­fending the lawful Authority of Kings, who are his Vicegerents; and the Holy64 Ghost has ſo interwoven the Intereſts of thoſe that reign with the Intereſts of him by whom they reign, that he ſaith, Who­ſoever reſiſteth Power reſiſteth God. It is far better to dye for your Prince, than by uſurping to reign in his Place. In this Caſe fail not to follow your Duty, without reflecting in the leaſt upon what would be moſt for your Advantage; and venture all that you have in the World, if there is any Probability that it will produce advantageous Effects for the Royal Inte­rest. But if on the other ſide it is only a private Grudge or Animoſity between ſome few; before you declare your ſelf for either Party, conſider impartially whoſe Cauſe is moſt juſt: which you may eaſily perceive; for without any doubt the Right is on their Side with whom the greateſt Number of Perſons of Ho­nour, Integrity, and Diſcretion take part. Eſpouſe therefore that Cauſe: neverthe­leſs keep within the Bounds of Moderati­on, and be not too forward in meddling with their Affairs, eſpecially when they proceed to Heat and Violence, and have no Hand in any Diſorders or injurious Attempts, which they might poſſibly65 commit: But rather labour all you can to mollifie thoſe paſſionate and turbulent Spirits, to allay their Heats, and to re­duce them to ſuch a Temper of Mind as might prevent the evil Conſequences which would infallibly follow from their Diſ-union with the oppoſite Party. I am ſenſible that neither your Birth nor Me­rit can make a Party any whit the more conſiderable, but as Accidents may oc­cur wherein we ſhall be conſtrained (of what Quality ſoever we are) to declare our Intentions tho never ſo much againſt our Will: I thought in ſuch a Rencoun­ter theſe Inſtructions would be not a lit­tle neceſſary.

One of the moſt pleaſing Satisfactions that we can have in this World is to be in good Eſteem and Reputation with thoſe of our Acquaintance. This is all we can aim at; for therein is Honour, Profit, and Pleaſure.

Be diſcreet and ſincere in all your Words, honeſt and prudent in all your Actions, obliging and affable in all your Behaviour. Never conſtrue ill what others ſay or do, unleſs they come to be publickly ſo cenſur'd.


Take great heed of being revengeful. Revenge pierceth and teareth the Heart that is filled therewith. The Grounds that make you deſire Revenge are either juſt or injuſt; if injuſt, then you are in­juſt to deſire it; and if juſt, then by en­deavouring to revenge your ſelf you be­come injuſt; for you encroach upon the Prerogative of the King of Heaven, who hath ſaid, Vengeance is mine.

To avoid Perjury or falſe Swearing, which amongſt Men is ſcandalous, and abominable in the ſight of God; I adviſe you to ſwear not at all. If you once get a Habit of ſpeaking always Truth every one will eaſily believe you, without any need of affirming it with an Oath.

Among all Vices, there is none more baſe and yet more ordinary than Ingra­titude; this is the general Opinion and Complaint of the World: and if all thoſe who thus complain were free from it, no body would uſe it; for every one complains thereof. The Ancients by a ſpecial Myſtery have limited the Graces to the number of three, to intimate, that if one of them had received a good Turn from the other, the third was to return it67 to her. Make hereof a Law to your ſelf, and an urgent Endeavour to follow this Leſſon, and never to be ungrateful for any, at leaſt conſiderable, Benefit recei­ved.

If you intend my Satisfaction, or your own Quiet, be careful never to become Surety for any Man, for any Cauſe what­ſoever. If your Friend hath need of you, ſerve him with your Purſe and Advice, with all your Power and Intereſt; but keep your Liberty, and engage for no Man. If you have a mind to help a Friend in neceſſity, and that you are well able to do it, do it quickly; but if you are not well able, why will you bind your ſelf to do it hereafter, when perhaps you ſhall be leſs able? Therefore be not bound for any unleſs you care not to be rid of your Money, your Quiet, and your Friend. In other things, my Son, I have been con­tented to adviſe you, to exhort and per­ſwade you; but herein I make uſe of all Authority which the Quality of Father gives me, and do abſolutely forbid this thing. Take heed of refuſing my Com­mand, as you will avoid the Puniſhment which your Diſobedience ſhall juſtly de­ſerve.


Perhaps this may ſeem ſomewhat ſtrange and hard to many Men; yet it is drawn from the Advice of a Great King, who was the wiſeſt Man in the World, 22 Chap. of Prov. Be not thou one of them that ſtrike Hands, or of them that are Sureties for Debts: If thou hast nothing to pay he may lawfully take thy Bed from under thee. My Son, by his Opinion I can juſtifie the Severity and Unkindneſs that ſome would impute to mine for ab­ſolutely forbidding you to become Sure­ty for any Man.

You depart hence, ſufficiently ground­ed in the Truth of our Religion, being able to render a Reaſon of the Hope that is in you to all that ſhall ask it; which I would have you do upon all Occaſions with Reſpect and Reverence, as St. Peter exhorts; yet following the Advice of St. Paul, avoid always all Diſputes about Religion, for that rather makes more averſe than perſwades; and the earneſt deſire of confuting, or the fear of being vanquiſhed, tranſports very moderate Men ſometimes to dangerous Extremities: Hereby Charity is almoſt always wound­ed, and Truth never cleared, which makes69 appear that it may well be ſaid at this time of Controverſies, what the Apostle ſaid heretofore of Fables and Genealogies, which are endleſs; that they beget rather vain and curious Queſtions than Godly Edi­fication, which conſiſts in the true Faith the Foundation of Chriſtian Vertues, as Charity is the Perfection, and Hope the Crown thereof: Whereof the firſt hath none but God for it's Object, the laſt aims only at our Selves, and the middlemoſt contains our Duty to God, to our Selves, and to our Neighbour; for by Charity we learn all the Duties of a Spiritual Life, as alſo of a Corporeal, which the Apoſtle St. Paul preferreth be­fore the other two Chriſtian Vertues, where he ſaith, that there abideth Faith, Hope, and Charity, theſe three; but the greateſt of theſe is Charity. God is Love, and he that dwelleth in Love, dwelleth in God, and God in him. The other Ver­tues draw us nearer unto God, but this renders us like unto him in ſome man­ner, ſeeing that he accounts it one of his chiefeſt Attributes, that of Charity; which is alſo the inexhauſtible Spring of all the Benefits he beſtows upon Man: So that,70 my Son, as often as you are charitable, you will imitate God in one of his moſt frequent Actions, who is never weary of doing good to us, tho we are ſo unwor­thy of it. Do good therefore to all, eſpecial­ly to thoſe who are of the Houſhold of Faith: Yet make not that a Pretext to with­hold your Charity from all thoſe who are not of the ſame Communion with you. All Men are your Brothers in God; which Quality alone ſhould ſuffice to en­gage you to help them in their Need, to comfort them in their Afflictions, and chiefly to let your Aſſiſtance be as ſpee­dy and effectual as their Neceſſities are urgent. This will be an infallible Means to draw the Bleſſings of Heaven upon your Soul, your Perſon, and your Actions. He that giveth to the Poor lendeth to the Lord: But whoſo ſtoppeth his Ears at the Cry of the Poor, he ſhall alſo cry himſelf, but ſhall not be heard, ſaith Solomon. You may therefore ſee what is generally the Fruits of Charity: However, let not Self-intereſt be the Motive which inclines you to be charitable; this Vertue would thereby loſe its excellent Quality; and you might expect in vain the Effects of it, if you71 pretend to make a Bargain with God Al­mighty. 'Tis in Charity that all Chriſti­an Vertues terminate, and it ſhall be with the Deſcription of this Divine Qua­lity that I will end this Chapter, which contains the Inſtructions that I was to give you about Perſonal Duties, after which there only remains, that I ſhould ſay a Word or two concerning Civil Duties.

Of Civil Duties.

HItherto, my Son, I have repreſented unto you your Duty to God; as al­ſo what you owe to your ſelf for his ſake, ſeeing that in him we live, and move, and have our Being; and that all our Thoughts, Words, and Actions ought to tend to­wards God, as to their Center. It is now time I ſhould make you conſider what you owe to Mankind, to whom you are faſten'd with the Bonds of a Civil So­ciety.

For I would not have you imagine, that you was born for your ſelf alone, there lieth an Obligation upon you of72 being a Help to your Neighbour. Soli­tarineſs is not natural to Man, nay, 'tis even contrary to the Will and Deſign of the Creator, who plac'd him in the World for Society-ſake. Reaſon was gi­ven him to no other Purpoſe but to make uſe of it. He has Vertues; he ought to put them in practice: Which he cannot do but with thoſe of his own kind, and in a civil Converſe. In this Con­verſe, I would have you uſe the ſubtlety of the Serpent, and yet act with the ſim­plicity of the Dove. Be juſt and ſincere, and have always in your Mind this ex­cellent Law of Nature which I cited once before; Do not to others, what you would not that others ſhould do to you. This Law is not onely a Dictate of Nature, and receiv'd generally throughout the Univerſe; but God himſelf makes it a part of his Law, when he commands us to love our Neighbour as our ſelf.

My Son, obſerve this, that God doth command you not onely to love your Neighbour, but to love him as your ſelf, that is to ſay, as heartily, as ſin­cerely, and with an Affection as ardent as is poſſible. This Obligation (as you73 may ſee) is of a great Extent; but the Goodneſs of God extends much farther: he relinquiſheth part of his Right for our ſakes; for tho he has required our Affe­ction entire to himſelf, yet he looſeth that Obligation, and is willing we ſhould have for one another part of that which he had demanded from us, and retain'd wholly for himſelf. Here he ceaſeth his Jealouſie, he that takes upon him ſo of­ten the Name of Jealous, and through an Exceſs of Love which he bears towards us, he is ſo far from being angry that our Neighbour has a ſhare in our Affection, that he commands it, and is well pleas'd to create himſelf Rivals upon this Account. Man is not ſenſible enough of this Good­neſs which is infinite, (as well as the Eſ­ſence from whence it proceeds,) for of the three kinds of Affections preſcribed to us by the Law of God, Man for the moſt part maintains that which has a Relation to himſelf, taking no Notice of the other two, and by an Exceſs of Self-love he fails in that which is due to God and his Neigh­bour, by which Vice he becomes in this World a Complice with the Devil, and therefore cannot but expect to ſhare with74 him his Puniſhment in the next: There­fore to avoid this, love others as much as you would have them love you. To this Duty you ought to apply your ſelf very much, as well for your Advantage as to render your Life ſweet and pleaſant. Who ſpeaks Love, ſpeaks Service, Eſteem, Honour, in a Word, ſpeaks all obliging Condeſcenſions, which Mans Heart al­ways inſpires for thoſe Perſons that are dear to him. My Son, all Men ſhould be dear to you, and he whoſe Houſe touch­eth yours is not more your Neighbour than he that dwelleth in another Country. Be officious towards all: Loſe no Opportu­nity of ſerving any one. Add to the Courteſies you beſtow, a Way altogether obliging in beſtowing them, which en­creaſeth their Merit; and though the Perſon be never ſo much unknown to you that demands any thing, if you are not in a Capacity of ſatisfying him, do not encreaſe his Diſcontent occaſion'd by your Refuſal, with harſh and unkind Lan­guage; but rather diminiſh his Trouble, by that which you ſhould expreſs in not being caable to content him. This Con­duct will not only gain Eſteem, but alſo75 a general Love and Affection whereſoever you happen to be.

Great Perſons are to us as the Flame of Candles are to Flies. We muſt have a great care of approaching them too fami­liarly, leſt we run in danger of burning our ſelves. There is nothing ſo alluring (and yet ſo full of Deceit) as their pom­pous Equipage and their ſplendid Enter­tainments. My Son, be not dazled with it; and whether they derive their Great­neſs from their Birth, or from their For­tune, let only their Vertue and Perſonal Merits guide thoſe Sentiments of Reſpect and Veneration which you think is owing them. Among ſeveral Reaſons which perſwade me to give you this Advice, I will here lay down ſome of the moſt im­portant.

Firſt of all, conſider this as a Truth, that although among Great Perſons there may be found ſome, whoſe Inclinations and Conduct anſwer exactly to their Cha­racter, the Number is infinitely the great­er that derogates from it. Remember that they are for the moſt part like the Trees in Forreſts, which ſometimes yield Shade, but very rarely any Fruit; unleſs it be76 like thoſe Trees near the Dead Sea in the Holy Land, which proffer very fair Ap­ples to Paſſengers, but within ſide are nothing but Dust and Rottenneſs. Al­moſt all the Great ones entice us after the ſame manner, oblige and gain us with large Promiſes, and by an exceſs of Civility, whereby we are too often caught; and never undeceiv'd, till an unhappy Experience in our Neceſſities convinceth us how little Reaſon we have to relye upon the Hopes or Expectations of what they promiſe. Beſides, if you ſhould be ſo fortunate as to be favour'd by ſome Great Perſon, (which will ſcarce happen unleſs his own Intereſt forceth him to it) in a ſmall time you will begin to perceive, that his Friendſhip has not only the falſe glittering of Glaſs, but alſo it's Brittleneſs; for generally the least Overſight makes them forget the greatest Service: There­fore, if you will be perſuaded by me, make no Addreſſes to Great Perſons or ſo much as come at them, unleſs you are obliged to it by a Duty not to be diſ­pens'd with.

Behave your ſelf with great Reſpect towards your Superiours, with civill77 Compliance among your equals, and always courteouſly towards your In­feriours.

Take heed how you ſpeak ill of any one, eſpecially in his Abſence? there is nothing more unworthy of a Man of Honour; and you will be ſo far from living in Peace with others, (which is the chief end of Society,) that of Ne­ceſſity you will be at odds with all. If you have privately perceiv'd the vicious Inclinations of any Perſon of your Ac­quaintance, do not Publiſh, but rather forget them, after you have done your utmoſt Endeavour to cure him of his Faults.

One of the moſt conſiderable Services that we can render to a Neighbour is, to make him perceive the Errours of his Conduct: And to do this ſucceſsfully, ſo that he may ſee 'tis the Advice of a Friend; let Prudence guide you, leaſt he diſdain your Counſel inſtead of pro­fiting thereby.

You would become ridiculous, if you ſhould be ſtain'd with the ſame Vice which you reprove in another, and you will ſooner paſs for an impertinent Cen­ſurer78 than a ſincere Friend: Take heed therefore to that, and mend that Fault in your ſelf which you intend to cure in your Neighbour.

Avoid the Baſeneſs of thoſe who delight in raiſing falſe Reports; and hearken not to thoſe who go about to ſcandalize others; If you do, you ſeek thereby an Occaſion to fall out with your Neigh­bour; and if you your ſelf create a Scan­dal upon him, it will be a ſufficient Rea­ſon for his falling out with you.

Never praiſe to an Exceſs thoſe of whom you ſpeak, eſpecially if they are preſent, for altho 'tis but what they de­ſerve, yet in their very Opinion you will be eſteem'd a Flatterer, ſuſpecting that the Intent of ſuch exceſſive Com­mendations is more to exhibit the Ele­gancy of your Wit, than to manifeſt the Greatneſs of their Merit.

Civility and Complaiſance are the Spi­rits that keep up Society, whoſoever is void of theſe is a trouble to all the World; whereas he that can make uſe of them opportunely, may boldly flatter himſelf that his Company will be unacceptable79 to none. However, let Reaſon rule your Comlaiſance; let it not condeſcend to what is criminal, nor yet to what is baſe. Stubbornneſs is not only a deadly Enemy to Complaiſance, but it alſo acts for the moſt part contrary to Reaſon and Sence. A Perſon that is ſtubborn can never be ſo happy as to comply with others, where­by he falls into the Misfortune of being ſhun'd by all company, and at laſt be­comes a Burden to himſelf. Endeavour therefore to be complaiſant with Pru­dence, and firm in your Reſolutions with Juſtice.

Jeer No body, if you would not run the Hazard of being jeer'd in your turn, and rendering that Perſon whom you jeer, your Enemy: Not but that innocent jeſt­ing may be lawfully uſed in Converſa­tion; but the Abuſe of it doth not ſeldom produce Quarrels and Animoſities, which too often cool the moſt fervent Affecti­ons; and rarely do we ſee Raillery carry'd on without ſome ſharp, and ſtinging Expreſſions.

Never put off till to morrow what you can do to day. Be exact towards all Men, and in all things, but principally80 in paying your Debts. Obſerve your meaſures ſo rightly, that the Preſence of your Creditors may not be tedious to you; and be always more ready to per­ſuade every Man to take his Due, than they to ask it of you. In the mean time do not you exact with the utmoſt Seve­rity what is due to you: This would be contrary to the Religion of JESUS CHRIST, as alſo not conſiſtent with that Civility and Condeſcenſion which we ow to one another.

How deform'd ſoever any Perſon may be in his Body, be ſure that you have a great Care not to make it a Subject of Deriſion and Laughter; but rather render thanks to God, that he has bin pleas'd to favour you more then him. 'Tis out of his pure goodneſs that he has given you all thoſe Advantages of Body and Mind which you poſſeſs; Why then ſhould you boaſt of what has bin given you undeſervedly? The more you have re­ceived, the more you have to anſwer for.

Here, my Son, I bring you another ſort of Neighbour, your Domeſtick Ser­vant: I would not have you think, that81 his Quality can diſcharge you from your Duty towards him. The chiefeſt part of your Duty, is to let your Carriage to­wards him be mild and eaſie, whereby, mitigating the Diſcontent which his hard Fortune might have rais'd in him; he may be induc'd to ſerve you joyfully: which if you deſire; recede ſo far from the Right of a Maſter as to come with­in the Bounds which Chriſtianity pre­ſcribes, that is, conſider him as a Bro­ther in God; behave your ſelf towards him as ſuch, and then you need not queſtion but he will become ſenſible of your Kindneſs. St. Paul ſaith, forbear Threatning: How much more ought we to forbear Blows: Yet whenſoever he gives you a juſt Cauſe of Anger, be not too apt to liſten to thoſe Reaſons which condemn him; let him rather have cauſe to praiſe your Forbearance, than to com­plain of your Rigour. Seneca ſaith; if we intend to gain our Servants ſo far, as to make them be entirely devoted to our Service, we muſt behave our ſelves to­wards them with all Mildneſs and Fami­liarity. Make trial of this Counſel, and if (when all's done) your Servants become82 not more punctual in performing their Duty, (you having omitted no part of yours which might tend to their Satisfacti­on,) diſmiſs them quietly, without Anger and without Noiſe.

I cannot ſay, my Son, whether I have not forgot ſome conſiderable Point touch­ing your Duty to your Neighbour; how­ever, if it were ſo, I have this Comfort left, That if you do juſtly put in Pra­ctice my Inſtructions upon this Subject, your Neighbour will have no great Rea­ſon to complain of you. It would tho be a Cauſe ſufficient for you to complain of me, if I ſhould conclude theſe Inſtructi­ons deſign'd for the Conduct of your Life, without making you ſenſible that nothing in the World can ſo much faci­litate the Means to practiſe them, as fre­quent and ſerious Meditations on Death. I do confeſs, 'tis of all things the moſt terrible, eſpecially if we behold it in our Worldly Thoughts; for then it is more pro­per to precipitate us into Deſpair than to inſpire us with the Love of Vertue and Piety. But it is far from being ſo full of Terrour to thoſe who behold it with the Eyes of Faith. This Divine Vertue, which83 is a true Character of a Chriſtian, makes Death appear to us already conquer'd and diſarm'd by the Second Adam, and ſent by him himſelf, as a welcome Meſſen­ger to open our Priſons upon Earth, and introduce us into a Celeſtial and Glori­ous Liberty. 'Tis true, in a State ſo cor­rupt and imperfect wherein we now are, I believe it is a hard matter for the moſt Regenerate to ſuffer the Approaches of Death without ſome kind of Fear. But if once you can force your Weakneſs to admit of a Familiarity with Death; be­ſides the Joy and Comfort you will reap from thence, it will change that familiar Habitude into a ſecond Nature; and then inſtead of thoſe vicious and corrupt Incli­nations wherein you are born according to the Fleſh, it will inſpire ſuch as are truly vertuous, which will be the Signs as well as the Effects of your Spiritual Rege­neration. My Son, be ſure you do not procraſtinate this Meditation, under the Pretext that you are as yet very young. A Glaſs newly blown is not a Jot leſs brit­tle than one that has been made ſeveral Years. A new Ship may be ſplit againſt the Rocks as ſoon as an old one: and how84 can you tell? Perhaps that very Minute which you employ to drive out of your Mind the Thoughts of Death, ſhall be your last in this World. Since therefore this Thing is of ſuch moment, and yet ſo uncertain, be always prepar'd. Watch and pray, for ye know not at what Hour the Lord cometh. Repent the Day before you die; and as there is no Day in your Life which may not be that of your Death, let not ſo much as one ſlip with­out throughly Repenting. Live juſt as you will wiſh to have liv'd when you are at the Point of Death, that is to ſay, reli­giouſly, ſoberly, and juſtly. This will not only have ſome Reſemblance with the three Bleſſings I mentioned at the begin­ning of this Treatiſe, upon your Soul, your Perſon, and your Actions; but alſo 'twill be a Teſtimony irrefragable that you have perform'd the three Duties which I preſcrib'd to you; for you can­not live religiouſly, without doing your Duty towards God; nor ſoberly, without obſerving what is due to your ſelf; nor juſtly, without diſcharging what you owe to your Neighbour. The Father of Grace and Mercy grant that you may fulfill my85 Directions as a good Chriſtian, for the ſake of his Glory, your Salvation, and the Edification of your Neighbour.

That you may conſider and meditate upon theſe Inſtructions with more de­light, and render them more familiar and ready to your Memory, I have extra­cted the choiceſt Matter, and reduc'd it under Heads more compact; whereby it will make the deeper Impreſſion upon your Mind. You will find it in the Maxims following, in all a hundred, which as ma­ny times would I have you read over, that you may be ſenſible how important they are, and conſequently how neceſſa­ry the Practice of them. Believe this, my Son, that whatſoever you can expect from me beſides, it cannot come near the Worth of theſe Inſtructions. God preſerve you, proſper your Voyage, and bring you back in all Happineſs. To conclude, my Son, let the Fear of God be the Star to lead and guide you in all your Ways; let it be the Center whereto all your Acti­ons tend; and let it be the ſole Object of your Meditation.


Chriſtian and Moral MAXIMES.

I. BE devout without Affectation: Be­ware of ſeeming ſo if you are not, for that is Hypocriſie; which being di­rectly againſt God, is a kind of Sacri­lege.

II. He that goes about to diſguiſe him­ſelf in the ſight of God, takes Pains to cheat himſelf.

III. To pray to God without Attenti­on is to pray without Hope.

IV. He that prefers the Pleaſures of his Body before the Salvation of his Soul, ſuffers a Man to be drowned whilſt he runs to ſave his Cloak.

V. If you have not more care to adorn your Soul with vertuous Qualities than to adorn your Body with fine Cloaths, you offer to an Idol and abandon God.

VI. He that delights in his Sins makes his Pleaſures his Executioner.


VII. An habitual Sin is a Serpent nou­riſhed in their own Boſome.

VIII. He that goes ſlowly in the pra­ctice of good Works runs ſwiftly in the way to Hell.

IX. If you would have God hear your Requeſts, do you hear the Prayers of the Needy.

X. He that is afraid to think of Death will run into Deſpair when Death comes.

XI. There is no better School for a good Life than the frequent meditating upon a Holy Death.

XII. A ſerious Meditation of Eternity will cauſe you to make good uſe of your Time, and will take away the greateſt part of the bitterneſs of Death.

XIII. A Man is not fully convinced of the Importance of his own Salvation, when he knows his Sins and yet will de­fer his Repentance.

XIV. He that paſſeth his Life without Devotion ſhall not end it without De­ſpair.

XV. If in your Proſperity you will not hear the Voice of God, you may well fear, that in your Adverſity he will not hear yours.


XVI. He that hath no fear of God in this Life may well fear his Judgments in the next Life.

XVII. Be obliging towards all men, familiar with a few, but be intimate with no more than one alone.

XVIII. He that takes Pleaſure to keep Company with naughty men, is in Pain whilſt he is among the good.

XIX. He that confides without Know­ledg, will repent not without Reaſon.

XX. He that begins a Buſineſs with­out Judgment need not wonder if it ends without Succeſs.

XXI. That which you undertake a­bove your Strength muſt needs produce Effects below your Hopes.

XXII. In a glorious Undertaking, he that is diſcouraged by the bare Contem­plation of the Difficulties, neither under­ſtands the value of the Honour, nor doth he at all deſerve it.

XXIII. If Haſte in deſigning, and Slowneſs in executing, produce good Suc­ceſs, it is by more chance.

XXIV. If you make your Work a trouble to you, you will make your Du­ty a Puniſment to you.


XXV. He that in a low Fortune hath too high Deſigns, undertakes with wax­en Wings to fly up to the Sun.

XXVI. He that falls by aſpiring too high, needs not ſeek for any other Rea­ſon of his Fall than his own Extrava­gance.

XXVII. Thoſe who ſhew themſelves over-earneſt and eager in ſmall Buſineſ­ſes, declare their Unfitneſs for great ones.

XXVIII. If by Juſtice you are guided in the purſuit of Gain, Tranquillity ſhall accompany you in the enjoyment there­of.

XXIX. If with an envious Eye you look upon the Good of others, you will render your ſelf unworthy to poſſeſs your own.

XXX. If the Soul be given to Man only for Action, and thoſe who by con­tinual Sloth keep the Soul from Acting, they ſhew that the Soul in their Bodies is but like a little Salt to preſerve their Bo­dies from putrifying.

XXXI. Pride is a ſwelling of the Spirit, which doth as much corrupt all the good qualifications of the proud90 Man, as the ſwelling of the Stomack al­ters the good humors of the Body.

XXXII. Altho Anger be but a ſhort Madneſs, yet the Effects thereof many times prove long Follies.

XXXIII. Avoid great Meals if you will avoid long Sickneſſes.

XXXIV. He that ſpoyls his health by Exceſſes and Diſorder, hath no Rea­ſon to complain of the Exceſs of his Di­ſtempers.

XXXV. An able Cook is more to be feared in time of Health, than an igno­rant Phyſician in time of Sickneſs.

XXXVI. Temperance and Exerciſe are the beſt Cooks in the world.

XXXVII. The Fumes of Wine trou­bles the Brain, the Fumes of Pride trou­bles the Underſtanding, and the Fumes of one in Love troubles both.

XXXVIII. He that fills his Heart with the Love of Women, turns a Sanctuary appointed for the Holy Ghoſt into a Temple of Idols, the Worſhip whereof will lead to Hell.

XXXIX. Divine Love is a Torch to light us; but profane Love is one to blind us.


XL. Humane Love cannot have Bounds too ſtraight; but if Divine Love be at all bounded it will be deficient.

XLI. Love is painted naked; not only to repreſent Impudence, but to advertiſe us, that uſually it ſtrips naked all thoſe who follow it.

XLII. The Covetous Man ſpares things neceſſary to provide Superfluities for thoſe who will never thank him for them.

XLIII. Thoſe who in their Actings conſult only ſelf Love ſhall walk blind­fold, and have as many Falls as Steps.

XLIV. Who ſpends too much upon his Pleaſures; deprives himſelf of the Means of providing for Neceſſaries.

XLV. If you ſubmit