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A TREASURE OF HEALTH.

BY Caſtor Durante Da Gualdo, Phyſician and Citizen of ROME.

WHEREIN Is ſhewn how to preſerve Health, and prolong Life.

ALSO The Nature of all ſorts of Meats and Drinks, with the way to prevent all Hurt that attends the Uſe of either of them.

Tranſlated out of Italian into Engliſh, By John Chamberlayne, Gent.

Imprimatur,

April 5. 1686.
Rob. Midgley.

London, Printed for William Crook, at the Green Dragon without Temple-Bar. 1686.

To the Worſhipful, THOMAS CHAMBERLAYNE, of Oddington, in the County of Glouceſter, Eſq; is Hum­bly Dedicated this little Book, Entituled, The Treaſure of Health.

SIR,

HAving received much dun-e ſerved Kindneſs from you, I cannot let ſlip the firſt occaſion to publiſh my Gratitude and Reſpect to you, who not only by your Wiſdom and Prudence in difficillimis tempori­bus, in the worſt of Times, preſerved unſpotted and untainted your Reli­gion and Loyalty, but alſo by your Temperance, Moderation, and Sobriety, preſerved your Health, and have prolonged your Life almoſt twenty Years beyond the uſual Age of Man; and had happily practiſed the beſt Rules and Precepts in this ſmall Treatiſe, long before it was extant in any Language. Now, that God would pleaſe to continue your Health, and as you were Born before the beginning of this Cen­tury, ſo to lengthen your Life at leaſt to the beginning of the next, to the Comfort of your numerous Iſſue and Relations, the Benefit of your Neighbours, and Relief of the Poor, ſhall be the conſtant cor­dial Prayer of,

Dear Ʋncle,
Your moſt Affectionate and Humble Servant, John Chamberlayne.

TO THE READER.

HAving accidentally met with a ſmall Treatiſe written in Italian, wherein is briefly diſcovered the Quality, Choice, Benefit, Hurt, and Remedy of all ſorts of Edible Fleſh, Fiſh, Fruits, Herbs, Grains, and Roots; of ſeveral ſorts of Drinks, Sawces, &c. Moreover, of Air, Exerciſe, Reſt, Sleep, Watching, Repletion and Ina­nition, Bathing, Rubbing, Venery, Paſſions, Affections, and Perturbations of the Mind, I judged that it might be acceptable and uſeful to my Compatriots or Country-men, to make the ſaid Treatiſe ſpeak Engliſh, to the end, that every one might know what Rule and Meaſure he ought to obſerve in his Diet, and manner of Living: For although Health is at our Births propoſed to us from Heaven, yet there is alſo need of our con­ſtant Care and Diligence both tprocure and preſerve it by our Diet, as well as to recover it by Phyſick when it is loſt, whereof our Author hath largely treated in another Book, which perhaps hereafter may likewiſe be made Engliſh. I know well that there have been divers Books of this kind hereto­fore publiſh'd, but the Method hereof being different from all thoſe, and ſome remark­able things here, not found elſe-where; alſo this Book being of a ſmall price, the Reader will take in good part the honeſt Intentions of the Publiſher hereof.

1

A TREASURE OF HEALTH.

CHAP. I. Of Air.

THE Air above all things is neceſſary for the preſervation of Health, and for the prolonging of our Life; for all Animals live, and ſtand in need of a continual refreſhment of theeart, the which is performed by the perpetualrawing in the Air, whereby the Lungs are in aontinual motion, from the hour of our Birth, toe hour of Death: All things elſe may be avoidedr ſome time except the Air, which no man can2 want one hour. Now Air compa••es us about on every ſide, and changes our Bodies more than any thing beſides, becauſe we dwell continually in it, and feed upon this diſh every moment: And it may juſtly be affirmed, that the Air may be more beneficial and more hurtful, than eating and drink­ing. The chiefeſt way of preſerving the Health, conſiſting therefore in the election of a good Air we ought to chooſe that which is moſt clear anſerene towards the Eaſt, not ſubject to darClouds, nor corrupted with the ſtinking Vapour of Lakes, ſtanding Pools, Marſhes, Dunghils, Privies, Caverns, Quagmires, or where much Duſt is for by reaſon of the duſty Air about the Garaman­tes, (now called Guanguara, a Countrey in Africa the Men can ſcarce arrive to the Age of forty yearAnd where the Air is naught, it conſequently hap­pens that the Water is not good, the which nexto the Air helps to corrupt our Bodies, togethewith the Food, which in a thick and groſs Aought to be thin and ſubtil, as in a thin Air ought to be groſs. That Air therefore is requiſitin the conſervation of Health, which renders thDays light and ſerene, pure and temperatewhereas on the contrary, the groſs, thick, turb­lent, and infected, does deſtroy the Health. Thnaughty and unwholſom Air, is the cold and Nor­thern; as alſo the Southern; likewiſe the noctu­nal Air, eſpecially under the Rays of the Mooand in the open Air: And no leſs pernicious is thwindy, and tempeſtuous, corrupted with unwho­ſom Vapours, ſuch as is the ſtinking Putrefactioof dead Animals, and other naſty Smells; f••ſuch Air hurts the Head, and offends the vital Sp­rits, and with its overmuch moiſture and humidty3 it looſens the Joynts, and diſpoſes them very much to receive all ſort of Superfluities, as does the Air, which fetches a Vapour out of the Duſt, and is infectious: Againſt which there is great need that we carefully defend our ſelves; for that en­tring into the Body, and obſtructing the Paſſages, hinders the circulating of the animal Spirits. Chooſe therefore the temperate Air, which is the lucid, clear, and pureſt; for that does not only cauſe Health, but which is more, preſerves it a long while, by purifying all the Spirits, and the Blood, chearing the Heart, and the Mind, ſtrength­ens all the Actions, eaſeth Digeſtion, preſerveshe Temperament, prolongs Life, retarding andeeping off old Age. And on the contrary, theark and thick Air clouds the Heart, troubles the Mind, renders the Body heavy and unactive, hin­ers the Concoction, and haſtens old Age. Theemperate Air is eaſily known, if preſently afterun-ſet it grows cool, and if at Sun-riſing it ſoonrows hot: This Air agrees with all Ages, all Com­lexions, with all times, and all ſeaſons; and notnly the turbulent and windy Air is unwholſom,ut that likewiſe which is always ſtill and quiet. herefore when the Air exceeds in any quality, itught to be allayed and corrected with its contra­y: And if that cannot be done by natural ways,ought to be prepared artificially; ſo that if their ſhould be too hot and ſultry, as it is in Sum­er, you ſhould ſprinkle the Houſe with freſhater, or Vinegar; for the Vinegar with its cold­eſs and dryneſs, qualifies the unwholſom Vapours〈◊〉the Air, and hinders Putrefaction: And if theyrow the Floor with Flowers and odoriferouserbs, which have a moiſt and humid quality, as4 Violets, Roſes, tops of young Oas, leaves of thVine, of Lettices, or Willows, Nenufars, or Wa­ter-Lillies, boughs of the Maſtick tree, and othecool Leaves; and in the mean time you ſhoultake care that none come into the Chambers thſtrewed, for if there be a great many, with theBreath they re-heat the Room: Beſides this, lthe Chamber be full of odoriferous Fruits, as ſwe••ſmelling Apples, Pears, Quinces, Citrons and Li­mons. But if the Air ſhould be too cold, yomuſt avoid the Wind, chiefly the Northern, anot go out of the Houſe before Sun-riſing; aſtrew your Chamber with hot Herbs, as Mint, Pe­niroyal, Sage, Hyſop, Laurel, Roſemary, Marjora••or elſe make a decoction of theſe Herbs with CloveCinamon, Mace, and ſuch like, and ſprinkle tChamber therewith; and perfume it alſo wi••ſome aromatical Smells, as Incenſe, Maſtick,••­namon, Ladanum, (a Gum made of the fat D••that is gathered from the Leaves of Lada) N••­megs, rine of Citrons, Myrrh, Amber, Lignum­loes, Musk, and the ſweet ſmelling Gum call'd St­rax; putting theſe things on lighted Charcoal;〈◊〉elſe mix theſe Perfumes with liquid Storax, ſetti••it a little while over the Coals. Theſe aromati••Odours have the vertue to open the Pores, wh••they are ſtopt, attenuate the groſs Humours, a••is good againſt the cold and moiſt Vapours of t••Body. This Perfume may be made another w••if you take of all theſe things; to wit, Half ounce, or ſix drams of Roſes, one dram of A­ber, of Musk half a ſcruple, of Behen Album, Sparling Poppy, or red Behen, ana two ſcruplof the Flowers of Nymphea, or River-Lillies, thrdrams of Ladanum, one dram of Maſtick, Incen••5ana two Drams; pound theſe, not too ſmall, and ſet them over t••Coals. Beſides this, to correct the bad quality of the Air, and to attenuate and diſſolve the groſs and ſlimy Humours of the Body, let there be always burning in the Chamber a good Fire of ſome Odoriferous Wood, as Lawrel, Roſe­mary, Cypreſs, Juniper, Oak, Pine, Firr, the Latrix or Larch-Tree, Turpentine, and Tamarisk. Moreover, Night and Day ſmell to a Ball of Po­mander, compoſed of theſe following ſeveral In­gredients. Take of Saffron one Dram and a half, of the Oriental Amber half a Scruple, of Musk half a Dram, of Storax Calamita, (the Gum which proceeds from a ſweet Cane in the Indies) and of Lawrel, ana one Scruple; theſe are alto­gether diſſolved in Malmſey, and thereof is made a round Ball. One thing is worthy your Obſerva­tion and Remembrance, that is, that the Air in hot and moiſt Countries (as for Example, in Rome, &c.) is very deſtructive to the Health; the Air of the Vineyards is alſo little wholeſom, unleſs when the Northern or Weſtern Wind blows. Of Seaſons, thoſe are the beſt, which keeping their proper temperature, are equally either cold or hot; but the changeable and incertain Wea­ther is the worſt of all. I muſt not likewiſe omit to tell you, that in the Summer, when the South Wind blows, as in thoſe places which ſtand to­wards the North, are the leaſt wholſome; as in the Winter, the Northern Wind blowing, thoſe which look towards the South. If you deſire to know the quality of the Air, and diſpoſition of the Weather, at Night in the open Air put a dry Sponge, and if in the Morning you find it dry, you may aſſure your ſelf the Air is dry; if wet,6 then conclude the Air is moiſt and damp. The like Experiment may be tryedith new Bread which being expoſed to the Nocturnal Air as the former, if in the Morning you find it mouldy the Air is corrupted and putrefied; but if the Air be hot and dry, the Bread will remain withouany change. The malignity of the Cold may bcorrected, by artificially cauſing a good and ſweeBreath, viz. by keeping in your Mouth Treacle Mithridate, alſo the Confection called Alcarmes, (a term of the Arabian Phyſicians, whereby they meant a Cordial made of certain little ScarleWorms, of which alſo is Crimſon made) rubbing the Teeth with this Antidote, which yet be­comes better by the addition of Zedoary, (a Roolike Ginger growing in the Eaſt-Indies) anchewing therewith Angelica; and this Dentifrice or Medicine to cleanſe the Teeth, may be made if you take of Roſemary one Dram, of Myrrh Maſtick, Bole-armoniack, Dragons-Blood, Burnt-Allom, ana half a Dram; of Cinnamon one Dram and a half, Roſe Vinegar, Maſtick-water, ana three Ounces, half a pound of Rain-water, of Honey three Ounces; boyl theſe together over a gentle fire, to the end that they may be well ſcummed; afterwards add thereto Bezoar (a kind of Pre­cious Stone very Cordial, being an excellent An­tidote to expel Poyſon; by the Arabick Doctors it is called Badzahar, i. e. Alexipharmacon, a Re­medy for Poiſon) and as aUnguent keep it in a glaſs Bottle. Of this take a ſpoonful every Morning faſting, holding it in your Mouth, and rubbing your Gums therewith, the which muſt bafterwards wll waſhed and cleanſed with Wa­•••diſtilled in a hot Bath, of white Salt, and Roch-Allom,7 ana three Ounces, and thereto may be added a little••ſtick-water: With this waſh the Teeth, for theſe things cleanſe the Mouth, cauſe good Breath, fſten looſe Teeth, fleſh the Gums, heal the putrefied Fleſh, and make the Teeth white. Beſides all this, there is great heed to be taken in the choice of a Houſe; ſee whether the Place and the Air be good or bad, wholeſom or unwholſom to dwell in. The Houſe therefore which you take, let it be ſeated in the higheſt place of the City; therein chuſe your Apartment at leaſt one pair of ſtairs high, and let it be very light, and ſo placed that it may always receive the Wind in the Summer, and the Sun in the Winter; and have Windows on all ſides; that is, Eaſt, Weſt, North, and South, if it may be, to the end, that no one Air may remain there long, which otherwiſe would putrefie and corrupt; and furthermore you ought to avoid not only lying in a Ground-Chamber, but alſo tarrying there long, for the higheſt are the moſt wholſom, where you breath the thinneſt and pureſt Air; then you re­ceive this benefit, that dwelling in the higheſt and moſt open place of the Houſe, preſerves, and re­pairs the radical Moiſture of the Body, and hin­ders Old Age; but to be in a dark, lower Room, or under the Ground, is very naught; for Life is maintained by the open Air and by Light, but in the ſhade a Man grows mouldy and corrupted. I muſt furthermore advertiſe you, that of Animals, Herbs, Fruit, Corn, and Wine, thoſe are to be choſen that grow in high Ground, free from ill ſmells, putrefied by the Wind, and receive a tem­perate and ſufficient warmh of the Sun, where there be no ſtinking Lakes and Dung-hills to mo­leſt8 them, for there the Fruits remain a long while uncorrupted; and this ishe only place whereon a man may ſecurely fix to dwell in. 'Tis alſo commodious to have a Country Houſe, where­to you may ſometimes repair; for as the Country provides Food and Victuals for the City, and the City conſumes it, ſo humane Life, by ſometimes dwelling in the Country is prolonged, but by the Idleneſs of the City it is ſhortned: Likewiſe change of Air is ſometimes very requiſite and ne­ceſſary, though that change ſhould not be made ſuddenly, but deliberately, and by little and little. And becauſe to the rectifying the Air, the Clothes do in ſome meaſure contribute, defending the Body from it; for this purpoſe wear thoſe Clothes that be warm and dry; in the Winter get a Suit of Lamb-skin, Fox-skin, of a Marten, or Ermin; and for a good warm pair of Shoes, take the skin of an Hare, which is very good againſt the weak­neſs and infirmneſs of the Hams; or elſe that of a Fox, which ſtrengthens all the Members: Some make their Clothes of Wool, Cotton, or Silk, for thoſe that are made of Linnen are leaſt of all warm. Cover well the Body by Night, eſpeci­ally the Head, which is the Cell or Domicile of the rational Soul, from which are derived many indiſpoſitions, wherefore one muſt take great care, that the Head be neither too hot, nor too cold; and there be many that in the Night-time cover their Head cloſe with warm Clothes; for whileſt a Man ſleeps, the natural heat retires to the in­ward parts, and the outward parts are deprived of their heat, whence they are eaſily offended by the external Cold; ad likewiſe whileſt a Man is awake, much heat, and many Spirits by the Ope­ration9 of the interiour and exteriour Faculties aſ­cend into thHead, and by that means render it more hot: Therefore there is moſt need in the Day to keep it cool, but in the Night warm. One muſt alſo beware of being too much in the Sun, or near the Fire, and not to waſh the Head too often, for theſe hot things open, dilate, and rarifie the parts of the Head, and more readily diſpoſe it to receive a ſuperfluous humidity. In the Winter 'twill not be unuſeful to ſprinkle your Clothes with this ſort of Water: Take of Iris Florentina, or Flower-de-luce, Zedoary, Spikenard, ana one Ounce, Storax, Maſtick, Cinnamon, Nutmegs, Cloves, ana half an Ounce, Juniper-berries three Drams, Behen, Amber, Musk, ana one Scruple: Diſtill all theſe things with Wine. In the Summer take of Roſe-water four pounds, of the beſt Vi­negar one pound, of Red Roſes one handful and a half, Camphire half a Dram, Musk ſeven Grains, Spice of Diambra, Flower-de-luce, ana one Ounce; pound all theſe, except the Spice, the Musk, and the Camphire, and diſſolve them all in Roſe-water, which being put into a Limbeck, cover it nine days under Horſe-dung. You may alſo make uſe of this Powder to ſprinkle on your Clothes, adding Roſe-water. Take Red Roſes, Violets, ana one Ounce, Peel or Rind of Citron, Solanum, or Night-ſhade, of Myrtle, Lignum-Aloes, ana one Ounce, Camphire, Amber, ana half a Scruple, Musk, Behen, ana five Grains, and make of this a thin Powder. 'Tis alſo good to carry Odori­ferous things in your Hand, in the Summer-time, a Sponge dipt in Roſe-water, or Roſe-vinegar, and ſmell to it often; or carry with you this Odo­riferous Ball: Take of Roſes one Dram, Red Co­ral10 four Scruples, Water-Lillies one Dram and a half, Bole-armoniack one Dram,••orax Calamita one Dram and a half, Lignum-Aloes two Scruples, Maſtick one Dram, Ldanum two Drams, Amber, Musk, ana two Grains; theſe are pounded, and ſo made into a Ball. In the Winter carry a Sponge infuſd into Vinegar, wherin ſteep Cloves and Ze­doary: Or elſe carry in your Hand this Ball of Amber. Take of Ladanum half an Ounce, Sto­rax Calamita two Drams, Bezoar, Maſtick, ana one Dram, Cloves, Nutmegs, Crocus, Dyers-Grains, white Wax, Lignum-Aloes, ana one Scru­ple, Amber half a Scruple, Musk diſſolved in Malmſey five Grains; make it into a Ball. Be­ſides this, there is need of defending the Breaſt and Stom••k with Lamb-skin, or Hares, or with a Pillow of Feathers, ſeeing that the Stomack indiſ­poſed, is the Mother of the Diſtemper: Beſides the Clothes which are uſed for the Head and Stomack make an Odour of Saffron, Lignum-Aloes, anAmber, for theſe things ſtrengthen the Brain; buthe Musk is to be left out, by reaſon of its togreat Evaporation, the hands are to be often covered with Gloves, in the Winter made of Fox-skin, in the Summer of Hares-skin, Kids, oLambs. The laſt thing, though not the leaſt to bobſerved, is, That with the greateſt diligence ancare you avoid coldneſs of Hands or Feet, ſince that infinite Diſtempers are wont to proceed and flow from thence.

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CHAP. II. Of Motion.

BEcauſe Motion is not only requiſite to the pre­ſervation of the Health, but alſo very need­ful, towards a good habit of the Body; therefore after the Air, it remains to treat of Exerciſe, the which is a moſt powerful and prevalent thing to keep us in health, being that which purges and drives away the ſuperfluous Humours of the Body, which are in ſuch ſort diſſipated and diſſolved, that there is no longer need of Phyſick, where this is not wanting. There be many ſorts of Moti­on, and that is the beſt which is not violent, as Walking, but is a regular motion of the Body, as being moſt kindly, and moſt agreeable to the Members; but that Motion which is cauſed in a Coach, in a Ship, on Horſe-back, or the like, is the leaſt wholſom. Some Exerciſes are ſtrong and weariſom, and others moderate, light and weak: The temperate Exerciſe is that which contributes much to the Health; for it corroborates the natu­ral Health, waſts the Superfluities, enlivens Youth, chears old Age, and hinders Fulneſs, fortifies the Senſes, renders the Body light and agile, ſtrength­ens the Nerves, and all the Joynts, for the exerci­ſed Parts become more robuſt. This alſo conſoli­dates the Members, aids Digeſtion, keeps the Paſ­ſages of the Body clear and open, ſo that the ſmoa­ky Vapours of the Spirits may find a better and more free iſſue, the which are the chiefeſt inſtru­ments12 in the conſervation of humne Life, being the reaſon that the Food finds an ea•••concoction, digeſtion, and aſſimulation of Parts, and finally a cauſe of the evacuation and expurgation of all the Superfluities. The light Exerciſes are Fiſhing, Fowling, and ſuch like Divertiſements, which chear the Mind; and as moderate and temperate Exerciſe does wonderfully contribute to the Health, ſo overmuch Idleneſs is very pernicious. Rubbings are alſo exceeding uſeful, for they hin­der the Humours from falling into the Joynts; and doing it in the right time, that is, when the Super­fluities ſhall be evaporated from the inward Parts, it helps Digeſtion, recreates the Body, and opens the Pores, whereby the moiſt Humours, and Va­pours of the Body, obtain an eaſier paſſage: It al­ſo ſwiftly draws the Blood to the outward Parts; it thickens the ſubtil Bodies, and attenuates the groſs, hardens the ſoft, and mollifies the hard, and fially confirms the natural heat. The quan­tity of the Exerciſe reaches ſo far, as the Body can bear without growing too weary, that is, till you wax hot, having a freſh colour, and begin to ſweat; which ſo ſoon as you perceive, change your Cloaths, and dry well all the Members, and put on other Cloaths, and if there be any need, lye a little in Bed, and reſt your ſelf, till you ſhall be refreſhed, and recover new ſtrength.

Now the time for Exerciſe is before Meals, ha­ving firſt evacuated the Excrements of the Belly, and of the Bladder; for it is uſually very bad, and deſtructive to thoſe who being but juſt riſen from Table, with their Stomach charged, venture on any Exerciſe. And as Motion and Exerciſe per­formed before Meals, is a great preſerver of13 Health, ſo if preſently after Meals, 'tis the ſource and original〈◊〉divers Infirmities: Therefore let all Exerciſe be afore Meat, to which there ought at leaſt for ſome ſmall time to ſucceed a profound and quiet reſt, and remiſneſs of the Body; though from this Rule are excepted the Ruſticks and Huſ­bandmen, who by a continual cuſtom go to their Exerciſe, (and that without any hurt) as ſoon as the meat is out of their mouths; and herein is ve­rified the ſaying, That it is better to exerciſe the Body full than empty. After a violent Exerciſe, one ought to beware of catching cold; for the Mo­tion and Exerciſe having opened the Pores of the Body, the cold eaſily enters therein, bringing along with it Catarrhs, and divers other Infirmi­ties. Then in the morning having firſt gone to ſtool, the Friction or Rubbing is to follow, which muſt be performed on the extreameſt or fartheſt Parts of the Body, beginning at the Knees, and proceed down to the ends of the Feet; then from the Thighs, bending at the Knees; then from the upper Ribs to the lower; then from the Shoulders down the Back; and laſtly, from the Arms to the Hands: And this to be done with a Napkin or Towel, lightly rubbing your Body, till the skin wax ſomething red. In old Men the motion of their ſuperiour Members, as the Arms and the Shoulders, is moſt neceſſary, becauſe it diverts and prohibits the Humours from falling into the lower Parts. And on the contrary, the rubbing Exerciſe of the Feet, or the waſhing them with Water alone, does accelerate and haſten the Gout in old Men: When it being requiſite that they ſhould ſometimes waſh their Feet, let them take weak Lye, wherein let there be boyled red Roſes14 and a little Salt; in this let them waſh their Feet, at ſuch time as the Fits of the G••t be not upon them. Likewiſe it would be good for them to pull off their Shoos and Stockings themſelves, with­out the help of their Servants, which things mo­derately exerciſe the Body, and ſtir up the Heat and Spirits. And by the way, I cannot but diſ­approve of the binding the Stockings with the Garters; 'tis rather far more commodious and wholſom, to wear Drawers and Stockings of one entire piece; for binding the Legs hard, cauſes ſeveral pains, and hinders the Heat, Blood and Spirits, from circulating and deſcending into the Joynts, whence they are weakned, and apt to re­ceive divers Diſtempers. Furthermore, it is very profitable in Coughing, to ſpit, and caſt out the Excrements of the Body: Beſides this, before any Exerciſe, in the Morning as ſoon as you are up, rub well your Head, and comb it with an ivory Comb, from the Forehead upwards to the Crown, giving it at leaſt forty Combs; then with a rough Cloath, or a Sponge, rubbing your Head, it diſ­pels all the Superfluities which are there lodged; for thereby the Spirits are rarified, and the paſſages of the Head opened, and the ſmoaky Vapours are more freely evacuated: Which thing corroborates all the interior Faculties, that is, the thinking, the imaginative Vertues, and the Memory; and the uſe of a Comb does wonderfully reſtore the Sight, eſpecially in the mean time looking in a Glaſs, the which excites all the animal Vertues, chiefly the Sight; and the combing the Head oftentimes a day, draws the Vapours to the upper Parts, and eaſily removes them from the Eyes; but in comb­ing, do not keep the Head too open. Then with15 another Comb, comb the Beard, the which cut often, becauſe〈◊〉chears, and cauſes a readineſs of Mind. It is expedient likewiſe to ſneeze, after this univerſal Evacuation, ſnuffing up into the Noſe a little powder of Pepper, or other Snuff. Laſtly, 'tis a neceſſary thing to waſh the Face and Hands, according to this rhiming or Leonine Verſe,Si fore vis ſanus, ablue ſaepe manus.

The waſhing the Face refreſhes a Man, and makes the Heat to retire by Antipariſtaſin, and then uniting it ſelf, it becomes more ſtrong. In the Winter waſh with the decoction of Sage, or Roſemary, ſometime ſteeped in Wine; in the Summer freſh Water is moſt agreeable, whereto add a little Roſe water, with a little Soap, or ra­ther a perfumed Waſh-ball. The Hands ought to be often waſhed, for they are the Inſtruments which keep clean the Organs, whereby the Super­fluities of the Brain iſſue forth, as are the Ears, the Eyes, and the Noſtrils; and therefore is ſaid,

Lotio poſt menſam tibi confert munera bina,
Mundificat palmas, & lumina reddit acuta.

But after Meals you ſhould not waſh the Hands with hot Water, for it breeds Worms in the Bel­ly; and the reaſon is this, becauſe the hot Water does extract and draw forth the natural Heat, whence it happens, that digeſtion and concoction of the Food becomes imperfect, the which is a powerful occaſion of the Worms. The Eyes alſo are to be waſhed with freſh Water, which cleanſes them from all Gum and Filth; and putting the16 Eyes into cool freſh Water open, does wonder­fully clear and purifie the Eye -•••ht, afterwards drying them with a very clean and perfum'd Tow­el. Take care alſo that your Teeth be very clean, which for want of well rubbing and cleanſing, cauſe a naughty and ſtinking Breath, and the ſu­perfluities of the Teeth being mixed with the Food, does breed corruption, and renders it putri­fied: Beſides which, the rotten Teeth do ſend to the Brain an infectious Vapour; and nothing is better to keep the Teeth white and clean, than to waſh them twice a Month with Wine, wherein let there be boyled a Root of Tithymalus, or Spurge. And now to waſh the Head ſometimes, we ought not to take that old Italian Proverb or Sentence for our Guide, viz. Si lavano ſpeſſo le mani, raro i pie­di, et non mai il capo: That is, we muſt often waſh our Hands, ſeldom our Feet, and never our Head. But that Maxim is not good; for waſhing the Head ſometimes does greatly ſtrengthen the Brain, eſpecially if in the Winter-time you waſh it with ſweet Lye, wherein let there be boyled ſome Sage, Bettony, Staechas, or French-Lavender, Camomil, Myrrh, and a little odoriferous Wine; and uſe al­ſo Waſh-balls made of the Soap of Venice, or Da­maſcus, about two ounces of the Larch-tree, or Agaricon, (a kind of Muſhroom growing upon high Teees of a white colour, very good for the Head) one ounce; of Ladanum, three drams, of Cloves and Spikenard, ana two ſcruples, with oyl of Myrtles, and with theſe Ingredients make a little Ball for your uſe. In the Summer boyl with your Lye dry Roſes, and inſtead of the Soap, take the yelk of an Egg freſh and lukewarm. Having waſhed the Head, your next care muſt be to dry17 it as ſoon as you can with warm Cloaths, ſo that there remain〈◊〉wetneſs or moiſture, for the Brain is naturally moſt humid, and therefore Nature has given it ſo many vents and paſſages, whereby it may evacuate all the moiſt ſuperfluities. More­over, when you have waſhed your Head, you ſhould beware of expoſing it too ſoon to the open Air, and therefore 'tis better to waſh it in the Evening before Supper; but firſt of all you ought to ſeek God's aſſiſtance by Prayer, who is the moſt skilful Phyſician both of Body and Soul, and with­out his gracious and benign influence all Medi­cines are vain and uſeleſs. Then going abroad, begin ſome eaſie, pleaſant Exerciſe, till you per­ceive a moderate ſweat ſpread it ſelf over all your Body; the moſt robuſt Exerciſe is rather to be performed in the Morning, than After-noon: And here it is worth your Obſervation, that as a temperate uſe of Exerciſe does mightily aid and contribute to the preſervation of the Health, ſo over-much is very deſtructive to the Health; and ſo as Motion before Meals is very neceſſary and wholſom, ſo if done immediately after Meals, draws the Humours through all the parts of the Body, and the juice which remains as yet raw in the Stomack; whence proceed divers and ſun­dry Infirmities.

After Dinner therefore no Exerciſe is conve­nient, but a quiet compoſure and ſtilneſs of the Body is moſt requiſite, eſpecially for one hour after Dinner, after which a little walking is not amiſs, for the better digeſting and jogging down the Victuals to the bottom of the Stomack. Laſtly, thoſe Exerciſes are beſt which are performed in the open Air, rather than in Houſes; in the Sun,18 than in the Shade; and in the ſhade, either of a Wall, or of ſweet ſmelling Arb••rs, are more beneficial, than under any roofed place. Thoſe that by ſome Accident or other cannot walk, let them ride in a Horſe-Litter, in a Coach, or Sedan, ſo that they may in ſome manner have exerciſed themſelves before Meals; for by Idleneſs the Sto­mack is dulled and blunted, but by Motion it is enlivened, and receives a better Appetite to its Victuals. Therefore the Body being ſufficiently exerciſed, repoſe your ſelf, to the end that the perturbation ceaſing, the Heat and the Blood are recreated (then you may venture to eat) which whileſt they are in revolution, draw the crude Humours to the Bowels, which do thereby remain very much obſtructed. Beſides this, we ought not to neglect the Exerciſe of the Mind; for athe Body with Exerciſe is rendred ſtrong and ro­buſt, ſo the Mind is nouriſhed by Studies, and ac­quires freſh vigour, and many by a continual Ex­erciſe of the Mind, have freed their Bodies from the greateſt Diſtempers. The Exerciſes of the Mind are Speculation, Singing with Muſical Inſtru­ments, applying your ſelf to ſome Study, as Hi­ſtory, Theology, &c. for theſe things delighting the Mind, feed it in ſuch ſort, that all the Virtues become more ſtrong, and better enabled to reſiſt and overcome Infirmities: And theſe Exerciſes performed at due times, that is, after a perfecConcoction of your Victuals, both nouriſh and corroborate the Mind, and render the Memory quick and laſting; and hence proceeds that the Learned Men are moſt fit and apt to Govern in the Common-wealth. But if out of Seaſon, it hinderDigeſtion, heaping up and contracting many Su­perfluities,19 occaſioning various Opilations, and oftentimes beg••ting putrid Fevers. And further­more, if OlMen ſhould be continually-idle, with­out any Exerciſe, Old Age being it ſelf a putre­faction, by adding putrefaction thereto, they be­come ſo much the more putrefied, withered, and dry; but by Exerciſe they may live a long time, whence it happens that we hear this grave Sentence in every ones mouth, That the ſtudy of Health con­ſiſts in theſe things chiefly, viz. in not ſatiating or cloying ones ſelf with Food, and in not being averſe from Labour, and that Exerciſe, Food, Drink, Sleep, &c. ought all to be moderate.

CHAP. III. Of Reſt.

AS an immoderate Exetciſe does very much endamage the Health, ſo on the other ſide does Idleneſs and over-much Reſt, which does not only offend the Body, but alſo weakens the Underſtanding; for whileſt the Body is in Idleneſs and without Action, it collects many ſuperfluities, whence afterwards infinite Diſtempers ariſe by Crudities, Obſtructions, &c. Idleneſs conſumes and corrupts the Strength, extinguiſhes the Na­tural Heat, and increaſes the Flegm in the Veins, fattens the Body, and weakens it. Alſo as by Exerciſe the Natural heat is increaſed, and the Concoction of the Food is facilitated, ſo by Idle­neſs 'tis hindred and extinguiſhed; and for this20 reaſon Idleneſs is numbred amongſt the chief cauſes of cold Diſeaſes; and the Poet knowing how hurtful to the Health is Idleneſs, ſays,

Cernis ut ignavum corrumpunt otia corpus.
Ʋt capiunt vitium, ni moveantur aquae.

And Idleneſs not only corrupts the Body, but is alſo a great cauſe of pernicious Thoughts, as the ſame Poet ſays:

Queritur Aegeſtus, quare ſit factus adulter,
In promptu cauſa eſt, deſidioſus erat.

However by moderate ſeaſonable Repoſe the Body and Mind are recreated and refreſhed; for,

Quod caret alterna requie durabile non eſt,
Haec reparat vires feſſaque membra levat.

And Reſt not only to the Body, but alſo to the Mind, is ſometimes abſolutely neceſſary, when they are tyred with Studies, Thoughts, or Actions; according to another Poet,Otia Corpus alunt animus quoque paſcitur illis.In brief, without Reſt, the ſtrength and vigour of the Mind, cannot long endure; whereas on the contrary, Reſt and Repoſe does in a great mea­ſure aid and contribute to the Speculation, and the profound Invention of Occult things. Reſt is good after Meals, becauſe the Victuals reſide in the bottom of the Stomack well united and21 coagulated,••ich always happens after a good Digeſtion. And as to the Flegmatick, and thoſe of a cold and moiſt Complexion, Motion is pro­fitable; ſo to the hot and cholerick, Reſt is moſt neceſſary. Though it is true, that too much Reſt, called Idleneſs, as is ſaid before, is exceedingly deſtructive, both to the Body and Mind, but eſpecially to the Mind; for it makes Men negli­gent, ſlothful, ignorant, oblivious, and forgetful, and renders them unfit for any Counſel, Office, or Charge in the Republick. Then the Idleneſs alſo of the Body makes Men fat, lazy, ſluggards, weak, and of a pale Complexion, cools and ex­tinguiſhes their Natural Heat, increaſes Phlegm, and fills the Body with ſuperfluities, begetting cold Infirmities, as the Gout both in the Hands and Feet, Catarrhs, Obſtructions of the Bowels, Epilepſie, or Falling-Sickneſs, and pains of the Arteries; therefore when at any time you are neceſſitated to be in Idleneſs, and by ſome buſi­neſs or incumbrance you are forced to abſtain from all manner of Exerciſe, you muſt inſtead thereof obſerve a ſlender Diet, and that Food which is moſt eaſie of Digeſtion, and Broths, which without any trouble or difficulty are di­geſted, and diſtributed through all the Body, and cauſe a lubricity, or ſlipperineſs in the Belly: And thoſe that make uſe of this Method, are to be ad­viſed, that they do not lye along, or lean on one ſide, but for the moſt part to ſit upright, where­by their Victuls may better deſcend, and more eaſily be concocted: And to the end that they may the better preſerve their Health, let them regu­late and conform their Diet to theſe Rules.

22
Parce mero, Coenato parum, nec ſit tibi vanum,
Surgere poſt epulas ſomnum fuge meridianum.

Now, the ſuperfluous Reſt is no ſmall hurt to the Body, therefore I adviſe you, that this Reſt be temperate, and not degenerate into a baſe ſloath and lazineſs, to which in a ſmall time ſome grie­vous Infirmity will ſucceed; whence we ſee thoſe that are in Priſon, loaded with Chains and Irons, ſo that they cannot move, always incur ſome Di­ſtemper; for their Body grows cold, whileſt by the ſuperfluous moiſture the heat is ſuppreſſed, not being able freely to diſperſe it ſelf through the Body, the paſſages not only for the heat being ſtopped and hindred, but alſo for the Victuals; whence proceeds the diminution of the ſtrength, and the Members become leſſened, and almoſt dryed up. And on the contrary, a temperate and moderate Exerciſe diſſolves all the ſuper­fluities, and opens the ways and paſſages, where­by the Natural heat may without intterruption diffuſe and ſpread abroad it ſelf. And therefore Hippocrates affirms, that a moderate Exerciſe is above all things moſt neceſſary to Phlegmaticks, and to thoſe whoſe Conſtitution or Temper is cold and moiſt; but to hot and cholerick Per­ſons, Reſt (though not Idleneſs) is very fit and commodious: But beſides this, all Learned Phy­ſicians agree, that both Exerciſe and Reſt, if mo­derate, is a ſpecial means to preſerve the Health, and prolong the Life.

23

CHAP. IV. Of Sleep.

ALL Creatures by long fatigues and watch­ing do waſte and conſume themſelves, and therefore ſtand in need of an alternate radical moiſtneſs, to ſupply the place of that which is ſpent, and to renew the weakned Spirits: Now, this is brought to paſs by moderate ſleeping, the commodity and good whereof is, that it re-heats and corroborates the Members, concocts the Hu­mours, augments the Natural Heat, fattens the Body, heals the Infirmities of the Mind, and mi­tigates and allays the troubles and ſorrows of the Heart; for whileſt we ſleep, the faculties of the Mind reſt and repoſe themſelves, and Nature ope­rates more ſtrongly. Sleep alſo facilitates the di­geſtion of the Food, which lies in the Stomack, and not only concocts it there, but alſo diſtributes it through the parts of the Body; for the Natural heat concenters in the inward parts, whereby the Food is the better concocted. Laſtly, ſleep re­moves all laſſitude and wearineſs, cauſed by over-much Watching, and therefore 'tis called a Reſt from all Labour, and the peace of the Mind, as is manifeſted in theſe Verſes:

Somne es tu rerum placidiſſime, ſomne Deorum
Pax animi, quem cura fugit, tu pectora lenis,
Curas paſſa graves, & multo victa labore.

24But however we muſt avoid a toprolix and ſu­perfluous ſleep, which is no leſs penicious, than the other good and commodious; for it chills and dries the Body, weakens the Natural heat, and breeds Phlegmatick Humours, whence afterwards proceeds much ſloath and lazineſs, and it ſends many Vapours to the Head, which are oftentimes the immediate cauſe of Rheums and Catarrhs, and is very deſtructive to groſs and fat Bodies; in brief, 'tis neither good for the Body, nor the Mind, nor for Buſineſs; he who ſleeps too much, is but half a Man, ſleep rendring him in all points like a dead Man, except his digeſtion of the Food; for he neither ſees, nor hears, nor ſpeaks, nor underſtands, and is abſolutely deprived of all Reaſon, the which for the time is a perfect death. Superfluous ſleep moreover, both in ſound and in­firm Bodies, does beget an Aſthma, or ſhortneſs of Breath, and is the conſtant fore-runner and preparative to an Apoplexy, Palſie, Numbneſs, or Lethargy, and to a Fever; and beſides thoſe other incommodities which it brings along with it, it hinders the timely evacuation of the Excre­ments, cauſing them to remain longer in the Veſ­ſels, or Guts. Sleep ought to be taken at ſuch time as the Stomack is free from all ſmoaky Food, the Vapours whereof arriving to the Brain, and finding it cold and thick, are congealed and made heavy; and then falling down, they obſtruct the ſenſitive paſſages of the Members, juſt as the Rain is formed in the middle Region of the Air, by the Vapours from the Earth. Now, on the contrary, too much watching, and want of ſleep, beget over-much heat in the Brain, and is the cauſe of the Anguiſh of the Mind, and of a bad25 Digeſtion of the Food; for by Watching the Na­tural heat, w•••h is called the firſt or chiefeſt in­ſtrument of the Soul, is weakned, and quits the concoction in the Stomack, leaving it imperfect. For the Soul ſerves the Body whileſt we ſee and move; and being divided into many parts, is not free, but diſtributes ſome part of it ſelf to all the Members and Senſes of the Body; to the Hear­ing, to the Sight, to the Feeling, to the Taſte, to the Walking, to the Working, and to every Fa­culty of the Body; whence being altogether ta­ken up, and employed by ſo many buſineſſes, it leaves the Food in the Stomack; and hence pro­ceeds the Crudities, if Nature does not ſuccour and prevent them by neceſſary ſleep, the which is the Reſt and ſweet Repoſe of the Animal Fa­culties. Sleep is good for Phlegmetick Perſons, becauſe it concocts the crude Humours, whence afterwards is begot good Blood, whereby a Man becomes more warm, the Natural heat being in­creaſed by the plenty of Blood. Sleep moreover is very uſeful in Cholerick Perſons, both as to the quiet of the Mind, and as to the correcting the Complexion of their Body. But it is moſt of all requiſite in Melancholy Men, ſeeing that it is ſleep alone can change their Diſtemper; for by ſleep they acquire a competent ſtock of heat and moi­ſture, things that are very contrary to their Com­plexion. But it is moſt of all hurtful to thoſe of Sanguine Complexion. However, ſleep in the day-time, and after Dinner, is to be avoided byll, unleſs when a Man is compelled thereto by a Cuſtom and Habit, or that in the precedent Nighte has taken but ſmall Reſt, or when he perceives〈◊〉kind of laſſitude or wearineſs through all his26 Limbs; and in ſuch caſes he may have leave, and eſpecially thoſe who have a weaStomack, and cannot digeſt their Food; and then alſo they ought not to ſleep with their Head declined, nor in a Bed, but in a Chair, with their Head lifted up, and then no longer than an hour. Now, the Diur­nal ſleep in reſpect of the Nocturnal is always per­nicious, chiefly in the Dog-days; for then con­trary Operations ariſe in our Body, that the ſleep retracts the heat to the inward parts, and the heat of the Air to the outward parts, and at ſuch time the Brain is filled with many Vapours, which af­terwards being united and condenſed into Water, deſcend to the inferiour parts, and increaſe the Rheum; and falling into divers parts of the Body they are diſtinguiſhed by ſeveral names, as is de­monſtrated by theſe Verſes:

Ad pectus ſi Rheuma fiuit, tunc dico Catarrhum,
Ad fauces Bronchos, ad nares dico Corizam.

And other evil Accidents do attend ſuch an irre­gularity; therefore the Divine Providence has ſeapart the Day for Buſineſs and Labour, and thNight for Reſt and Sleep; ſo that to ſleep in thDay-time is to invert the Order of Nature, andiſpoſes the Body to receive innumerable Infirmities; it begets Catarrhs, ill colour in the Face renders the Milt heavy, offends the Nerves cauſes Lazineſs, Impoſthumes, and Fevers: Anbeſides, who would deprive themſelves (by〈◊〉kind of a voluntary Death) of the glorious lighof the Sun, and Day, which was created for Mato enjoy, to do whatſoever is requiſite, to follohis Affairs, &c. whereas the Night being dark27 obſcure, and ſilent, is only fit for Sleep, both for the coolneſs〈◊〉the Air, and alſo for the quiet and tranquility of the Body and Soul, for then no noiſe or rumours interrupt and diſturb our Sleep; and therefore it is ſaid;

Si vis incolumem, ſi vis te reddere ſanum,
Curas tolle graves, ſomnum fuge meridianum,
Parce mero, coenato parum, nec ſit tibi vanum,
Surgere poſt epulas, iraſci crede profanum,
Nec mictum retine, nec comprime fortiter anum.

But if any neceſſity (as is ſaid) compels a man to ſleep in the day time, either by reaſon of night-watching, or to reſtore decayed ſtrength, he may venture to ſleep a little in the day-time, for the heat being withdrawn to the inward Parts, cauſes a better Concoction. But one may ſleep in the long days ſitting on a leather Chair, with the Head lifted up, but not bowed backwards or for­ward, but on one ſide, which thing cauſes leſs Evaporation to the Brain; but ft is not good to ſleep in a ſoft and delicious Bed, nor perfumed with Musk, or Amber, or Lignum Aloes, becauſe there is too much ado, eſpecially when no good but rather hurt proceeds from thence, for it of­fends the Brain, and makes the Head heavy: One ought alſo to avoid the contrary extream, and not to ſleep upon Boards, or other hard things, which will break ſome Vein in the Breaſt.

Note, That you ought not to ſleep a-nights with the Head, Arms, or Feet uncovered, for the cold­neſs of extream Parts of the Body are very hurt­ful, and deſtructive to the Brain. You muſt alſo take this Caveat along with you, that is, not to28 ſleep in a Room whereto the R••s of the Moon have a free acceſs, for there is ſc••ce any thing more pernicious to the Head, and are a greater cauſe of Catarrhs, than if you ſhould ſleep in the open Air. Beſides this, 'tis not good to ſleep pre­ſently after Food, but to tarry at leaſt two hoursfter, and the longer the better, for thereby the Victuals will be the better concocted. 'Tis yet more pernicious to ſleep immediately after Dinner than after Supper, for then a man is wakened out of his Sleep before that his Head can concoct, or diſpoſe of the Vapours which ariſe from his Food. 'Tis furthermore noxious to ſleep with an empty Stomach, becauſe it weakens the force of the Bo­dy; and in ſleeping you ſhould not make too ma­ny turns, for it cauſes the corruption of the Victu­als in the Stomach, increaſes the Superfluities, and laſtly, hinders the digeſtion of thoſe matters, and the ſending of them to their natural Places. So likewiſe ſleeping with the Face upwards is greatly to be avoided, for it offends the Back and the Reins, hinders the Breathing, and is a Prepa­rative to the noxious diſtempers of the Nerves, or Sinews; for the Superfluities go to the nape of the Neck and Back-bone, and to the back-Parts, ſo that they cannot be purged out by the Noſe, nor the Mouth, nor by the other uſual means, though it is true, that when we be troubled with any pain or infirmity of the Reins, 'tis beſt to ſleep on the Back. The manner of Sleeping, to the end that Victuals may better deſcend to the bottom of the Stomach, is to begin your Sleep on the right ſide, continuing ſo the ſpace of two hours; then to turn your ſelf on the left ſide for a longer ſpace, which mightily aids Digeſtion; for then the Liver29 embraces the Victuals, as a Hen her Chickens, and lyes directly••der the Stomach, like a Fire un­der a Cauldron, and ſo is cauſed a more ready and better Digeſtion: Afterwards in the end of your Sleep, you muſt turn on the right ſide again, to the end that the Food may more eaſily deſcend from the Stomach to the Liver, and that the ſuper­fluity of the firſt Digeſtion may find a more free paſſage to the Entrails. But when the Stomach is weak, the which you may know by the coldneſs which is perceived in its region, by all the ſharp and ſowr Humours, and by the Spittle after the Food, which is inſipid, and without taſte, then it is better to begin your Sleep lying on your Belly, for ſuch Sleep corroborates the Face, the Breaſt, and the Digeſtion; though it is naught for them who are troubled with Rheums in the Eyes, be­cauſe it adds more Matter and Humours thereto: But at ſuch time 'twill be better to apply to the Stomach a Pillow of ſoft Feathers and little, ſuch as thoſe of a Vulture; or inſtead of Feathers, you may fill the Pillow with the clippings of Scarlet. And amongſt the things, which do moſtly contri­bute to the expulſion of that coldneſs of the Sto­mach, is to hold embraced a fleſhy Child, or a little fat Dog, which heating the Stomach do greatly aid Digeſtion. The quantity of Sleep ought to be taken till the Concoction in the Sto­mach is perfected, which may be known by the Urine, which when it looks clear as Water, des demonſtrate that there remains ſome Crudity, or raw Juyce in the Veins, and therefore requires a longer Sleep; but when the Urine is of a Limmor, or bright yellow colour, it ſhews that the Juyce is fully concocted, and then that Sleep is ſufficient.

30

But this time of Sleep is varied according to the diverſity of the Complexions, of••e Age, and of the Time: For thoſe that are of a hot Complexion, digeſt their Victuals quickly, and for ſuch ſix hours Sleep is ſufficient; but thoſe of a cold Conſtitution, (the digeſtive faculty being but weak in them) ſtand in need of a longer Sleep: Whence ſix hours Sleep is enough for any young Man, but for old Men, eight or nine hours at leaſt; and it is always better that the Sleep ſhould rather be too long, than a ſuperfluous and overmuch Waking, where­by the Brain is weakned, whence many flegma­tick Superfluities ariſe. And the Signs of a ſuffici­ent Sleep is a Lightneſs and Agility, which ſpreads it ſelf over all the Body, and chiefly in the Brain, and the deſcent of the Food from the Stomach, and a deſire to eaſe Nature, both of it and of the U­rine, and a ceſſation of the wearineſs, cauſed by the fore-paſt waking; whereas the contrary Signs, that is, a heavineſs of the Body, and Belches, which ſavour of the Victuals, ſignifie that more Sleep is required, the other not being ſufficient. And you muſt know in brief, that a moderate Sleep reſtores the animal Faculties, helps the con­coction of the Victuals, and of the crude Humours, cauſes a forgetfulneſs of Labour, and all ſorrow­ful Thoughts, mitigates the grief of the Mind, moiſtens all the Members of the Body, reſtores all the waſted Faculties, augments the natural Heat, increaſes the radical Moiſture, clarifies and ſtrength­ens the Sight, takes away Wearineſs, refreſhing the tired Bodies, and keeps back Fluxes and Rheums. But if took immoderately, it makes the Head heavy, troubles the Mind, weakens the Memory, and all the animal Faculties, makes the31 Body cold, multiplies Flegm, extinguiſhes the na­tural Heat, in••ces a Nauſeating, makes the Face pale, and is hurtful to all flegmatick Diſtempers. Now when a man has taken but ſmall Reſt, and cannot ſleep, let him at leaſt take ſome repoſe with his Eyes ſhut, which may ſupply the place of Sleep, and is almoſt as effectual. 'Tis obſervable beſides, That in old Men, whoſe Stomach is cold, and Liver hot, 'tis neceſſary to begin their Sleep on the left ſide, for ſo the Stomach is heated, and the Food better concocted, the Stomach being fo­mented by the Liver, and on the contrary, the Li­ver being cooled.

CHAP. V. Of Waking.

WAking is an intenſion, or rather an exten­ſion of the Soul, and the faculties thereof, to all the Parts of the Body, which when it is mo­derate, ſtirs up and excites all the Senſes, diſpo­ſes and orders the vital Faculties to their operati­on, expelling and driving forth all the ſuperfluous Humours from the Body, but if immoderate and exceſſive, it begets Diſtempers in the Head, cor­rupts the temperature of the Brain, cauſes Mad­neſs, kindles the Humours, excites ſharp and acri­monious Infirmities, makes men look lean and hunger-ſtarved, of a pale and thin Complexion, weakens the concoctive Faculties, diſſolves the Spi­rits,32 fills the Head with Vapours, makes the Eyes hollow, increaſes Heat, and inflam••the Choler, hinders Digeſtion, and cauſes Crudities in the Sto­mach, becauſe the natural Heat betakes it ſelf to the outward Parts: And therefore let this be your Rule, that both Sleep and Waking be always mo­derate.

CHAP. VI. Of Fulneſs.

FRom the eating of Food are collected many Su­perfluities, of which a great part is ſpent and conſumed, (as we have ſhewed in its place) by Exerciſe; it is neceſſary therefore by ſome arti­fice to drive the remnant out of the Body. Now theſe Superfluities be divers, according to the dif­ferent Places whence they proceed, as Spittle, Snot, Sweat, Urine, dregs of the Belly, and other ſordities or filthineſs of the Body, which if not driven out, are wont to beget many Infirmities, as Obſtructions, Feavers, Pains, and Impoſtumes; for which reaſon we ought with all diligence to pro­cure their Evacuation, for all thoſe Diſtempers which proceed from Fulneſs, are cured by Evacu­ation; as on the contrary, thoſe which are deri­ved from Emptineſs, are cured by Fulneſs. How­ever ſuperfluous Evacuation is to be forbidden, for by it the natural Heat and the Spirits are diſ­ſolved, for then their vertues are not powerful33 enough in their operations; and the emptineſs of the Stomach c••ſes the Epilepſie, or Falling-ſick­neſs. We muſt therefore chiefly advertiſe you, that the Superfluities and Excrements of the Belly, and the Urine, every day morning and evening, or at leaſt once a day be evacuated, for it is very neceſſary for ones health to keep the Body looſe; and this is moſt profitable in the pains of the Gout, Stone, or Gravel in the Kidneys. This is done either by Art or Nature, with common Glyſters, or with Oyl alone, or with a Suppoſitory of Honey or Salt, of Butter, or of Soap; and you muſt not ſuffer theſe Superfluities to remain too long in the Belly, for they are very deſtructive both to the Head, and to all the Body. Every time therefore that a man ſhall perceive any hea­vineſs in his Entrails, or in the Bladder, or in any other Place where the Superfluities are gathered together; and every time that he thinks there is a neceſſity thereof, let him ſuddenly excite Nature, and ſtir up a deſire of ſending it forth; for we ſee in many, that having for ſome time retained their Urine, they could not afterwards make Water, and have cauſed the Stone, Ruptures, &c. as like­wiſe the keeping back of the Excrements, or the Wind, have occaſioned Cholick pains: And there­fore the Schola Salerni thus ſpeaks thereof;

Nec mictum retine, nec comprime fortiter anum,
Et
Quatuor ex vento veniunt in ventre retenta,
Spaſmus Hydrops, Colica, & Vertigo, hoc res probat ipſa.

We ought with all our might to avoid the ſuper­fluous repletion of Victuals and Drink, becauſe34 they beget and foment many Evils, for from the overmuch Fulneſs, the natural faculties in the Sto­mach are weakned and oppreſſed, as on the con­trary being empty, it cauſes the Falling-ſickneſs. The Veſſels when they are too full of Meats and Drinks, are in great danger either that they burſt, or at leaſt the natural heat is thereby ſuffocated; and in fat and big Bodies, a moderate abſtinence is very neceſſary; and therefore the Gluttons do not grow at all, becauſe their Meat does not digeſt it ſelf, whence the Body is not nouriſhed: And therefore the Philoſopher being asked, Why he did eat ſo little; anſwered, Ʋt vivam edo, non ut edam vivo: Or according to the Italian Proverb, which is,

Mangiar e ber per viver far miſtiere,
Ma non gia viver per mangiare e bere.

That is, We do not live to eat, but eat to live. For how many men be there, who being ſuperflu­ouſly full, are in the end choaked and killed there­by? and nothing is worſe than overmuch ſtuffing or cramming ones ſelf, in ſuch time when things are all plentiful; and it is often ſeen, that many who in a dearth or ſcarcity wanting Victuals, when things grow cheap and abound, do preſently kill themſelves, by too greedily eating. If therefore at any time by a diſordinate and irregular Appe­tite, you ſhould chance to over-eat your ſelf, and that you perceive a nauſeating and heavineſs in the Stomach, which is occaſioned either by the quali­ty or quantity of the Food, then preſently endea­vour to vomit it forth, the which cleanſes the Sto­ach, and takes away the heavineſs of the Head. o leſs ought we to avoid too much abſtinence35 from our Food; for as too much fulneſs ſuffocates the natural hea, ſo emptineſs diſſolves it, whence afterwards divers and ſundry Infirmities proceed.

CHAP. VII. Of Baths.

BAthing is one kind of Evacuation; for being made of hot Water, they heat and moiſten, take away all wearineſs, leſſen the repletion or fulneſs of the Body, eaſe and mitigate the pains, mollifie, fatten, are good for Children, and for old perſons before Meals, becauſe they draw the nouriſhment to their Members, and corroborate them, and contribute to the diſſipating their Super­fluities, and driving them forth; and the Excre­ments of old perſons being ſalt, Bathing does tem­perate them. The bathing in Wine is good for the pains in the Joynts and Nerves, the Palſie, Tremblings. Bathing in Oyl does wonderfully contribute to the healing of the Spaſmus, Cramp, (or convulſion of the Nerves) in old men; as al­ſo againſt Cholick pains, gravel in the Kidneys, and ſtoppages in the Urine. Coming out of the Bath, you muſt dry your ſelf with a hot Towel in the Winter, afterwards anoint all the Body with the oyl of ſweet Almonds, or of Aniſe, or Camo­mil, then pare the Nails, and ſhave the ſoles of your Feet. The Senſes are alſo comforted and ſtrengthned in a ſweet ſmelling Bath, wherein may36 be boyled a ſprig or two of Sage, and with this hot waſh your Hands and Eyes oncor twice a day: Old men ought alſo to be often chewing of Sage firſt waſht in Wine, which to the Teeth and the Nerves is exceeding good. We muſt take heed too of ſtaying too long in the Bath, for that weakens and diſſolves the Strength, confounds the Intellect, cauſes Nauſeating, Vomits, and the Syn­cope, or ſwooning Fits; whereas ſtaying in no longer than is neceſſary, it opens the Pores of the Skin, draws the nouriſhment to all the Members, begets an Appetite, attenuates the groſs Humours, diminiſhes the Repletion, diſſolves Windineſs, takes away Wearineſs, mitigates Pains, provokes Sleep, binds the Belly: 'Tis bad for fat men, for in them it collects the Humours, and afterwards attracting them to each part of the Body, cauſes Impoſtumes. In ſhort, going to the Bath, re­member that:

Balnea, Vina, Venus corrumpunt corpora noſtra,
Conſervant eadem Balnea, Vina, Venus.
Et
Siquis ad interitum properet, via trita patebit,
Huc iter accelerant Balnea, Vina, Venus.
37

CHAP. VIII. Of Rubbing.

FRictions or Rubbings are very uſeful for the con­ſervation of the Health, and chiefly for old men; and the operation and effects which proceed from thence are very great; for they hinder that the Humours do not fall into the Joynts, and help Digeſtion, and if performed in due time, (that is, having firſt eaſed the Body of its Excrements) chears the Body, opens the Pores, whereby the Superfluities are more eaſily evaporated, becauſe it ſwiftly draws the Blood to the exterior Parts, thickens the ſlender Bodies, and attenuates the big, mollifies the hard, and hardens the ſoft, and finally kindles and corroborates the natural Heat, and excites the vital Faculties, whence the diſtri­bution and concoction of the Food is more eaſie and ready: And the Rubbing ought to be perform­ed until it ſhall become delightful and pleaſant; and 'tis very convenient for old men in the Sum­mer and Autumn, if they firſt void the Excre­ments out of the Bladder and Belly; if old men by reaſon of their weakneſs or ſome occupation, cannot perform any Exerciſe, inſtead thereof let them uſe ſhort and moderate Rubbing, as is ſaid before.

It would be no hurt moreover, if at Spring, or in the fall of the Leaf, after the Equinox, with the counſel and advice of ſome learned and able Phy­ſician, you purge your ſelf of thoſe Superfluities,38 which remaining behind, do often give one ſome annoyance in Summer or Winter.

CHAP. IX. Of Venery.

THE chief end of venereal Pleaſures, and carnal Copulation, ought to be the procre­ation of Children, which likewiſe is to be per­formed with none but a lawful Conſort, joyn­ed by holy Matrimony; and its uſe alſo ought to be moderate, and ſo it glads the Heart of man, ſtirs up the natural Heat, makes the Bo­dy light, mitigates the paſſions of the Mind, enlivens the Spirits and Senſes: But the im­moderate Venery weakens the Stomach, the Head, all the Senſes, the Sinews, the Joynts, and haſtens Death.

Thoſe who deſire to live chaſtly without a Woman, let them have recourſe to Faſting. Let us ſeriouſly conſider, what a wonderful invention of Nature it is to conſerve the Spe­cies, by Generation, or begetting of new Ani­mals, it being very reaſonable that every one ſhould give to another, that Life which he hath received from his Progenitor, and thereby obtain or procure, that his Child ſhould render to his Father, when he is weak and old, that which the Child hath received from him, that is, nouriſhment and ſuſtentation.

39

CHAP. X. Of the Accidents of the Mind.

THE Paſſions of the Mind have great power, and do much contribute to the changing of the Body, becauſe they make a ſtirring and mo­tion in the Humours, and in the Spirits, and theſe motions immoderate and ſudden are raiſed from the Center of the Body to the Circumference; as Anger, Joy, &c. or from the Circumference to the Center, as Fear, and the like, from whence proceed great motions of the Spirits; and there­fore we ought carefully to avoid ſuch Paſſions, ſince it dries the Body, and alters it too much, troubling it, and changing it from its Natural Complexion; and therefore Plato calls theſe the Infirmities of the Mind, viz. Anger, Joy, Sor­row, Melancholy, Anxiety, or Anguiſh, Excla­mation, Fury, Violence, Brawling, Contention, Hatred, Envy, Perplexity, Fear, Shame, un­pleaſant Thoughts, unbridled Deſires, Boldneſs, Incontinence, Importunity, Iniquity, Ambition, Diſtruſt, Hope, Deſpair, &c. All which Paſſions, beſides the great hurt they do to the Body, do alſo very much offend the Mind; for Anger, and over-much Sorrow afflict the Spirits, dry the Bones, extenuate the Fleſh, inflame and burn the Body, putting it into confuſion out of its natural ſtate; whence afterwards proceed many evils; as Catarrhs, and Fluxes in the Joynts, although theſe Paſſions when they are moderate, are ſome­times40 good for Men, and does not a little contri­bute to their Health. For Example, Anger ex­cites and increaſes the Natural heat, and often­times it is good to be Angry, to repair that Na­tural heat, and to collect the Blood in the Veins; and therefore in cold Infirmities Anger is to be ſtirred up, as on the contrary, in hot it is to be avoided. Beſides this, the Paſſion of the Mind, to wit, Melancholy, weakens the Digeſtion, whereas Joy and Gladneſs fortifies it. And this is the chiefeſt and trueſt Reaſon why Men, more than all other Creatures are expoſed to Crudities, becauſe the Beaſts and irrational Animals, although they eat to ſatiety, nevertheleſs do not hinder the Natural Virtue which concocts the Food; for the concoctive virtue and the appetitive is equal in them; but Men by their divers thoughts and perturbations of their Mind, divert this Virtue from its Operation; and though they eat mode­rately, yet they fall into Crudities, whence pro­ceed many Infirmities; and therefore a Man by all poſſible means to avoid the thoughts of ſad and dolorous ſubjects, and all other things which may any wiſe diſturb the Mind, and always to hope well of every thing; for to have a chearful Mind in all Infirmities is good, whereas the con­trary is as bad; neither is it good a long while to dwell upon Thoughts, for it is ſaid, L' Imaginatione fa il caſo. You muſt keep your ſelf alſo from frequent weeping, from great fury, and from an appetite or deſire of Revenge; for theſe things weaken the Brain, and hinder the digeſtion of the Matter; ſo alſo ſuperfluous Fear weakens the Virtues: And all theſe Accidents of the Mind hin­der concoction, and alter the natural ſtate of the41 Body. For Fear withdraws the Spirits and the Blood, attracting them inwardly to the Heart, whence the Members grow cold, the Body pale, cauſing tremblings, the Voice is interrupted, and the whole force of the Body is deficient; for Fear, whileſt the Evil feared is expected, cauſes a beat­ing of the Heart, which cauſes a commotion of the Spirits, the which being moved, diſturb all the Blood; whence afterwards are occaſioned Crudities and Putrefactions. Anger is a vehement mover of Heat, which pours out it ſelf in the outward parts with great violence; and therefore with Anger the Face looks red, and the Body is more apt to all Wickedneſs: Anger furthermore moves the Heart to Revenge, the which moved, eaſily inflames the Body, and dry it, and by its fervour all the Faculties of the Soul are confounded; and therefore 'tis ſaid, Anger is an inflammation of the Blood about the Midriff, by reaſon of a deſire of Revenge; and therefore thoſe that be Angry, have a ſtrong and big pulſe, whereas the fearful have a ſmall and weak, becauſe the Heat returns inward. But in theſe caſes, the Natural heat one while retires within, another while outwards, both one and the other of theſe Mo­tions diſcover themſelves in ſhame, that firſt the heat retreats within, afterwards comes out, which not returning, cauſes fear, and not ſhame. If after thoſe things which a Man ſuddenly ſuffers, if then he grows paſſionate, by little and little 'twill cauſe ſorrow, which ſpoils and corrupts the Nature of Men, exteuating, cooling, and dry­ing his Body, darkens the Spirits, obſcures the Wit, and clouds the Judgment, weakens the Me­mory, and hinders the Reaſon; and often-times42 by theſe ſudden motions of the Mind is cauſed ſudden Death; for either the Faculties of the Mind (which conſiſt in heat) are diſſolved, or elſe are extinguiſhed by too much cold: And there are many who have periſhed by over-much feaand ſorrow, which driving all the Blood and Spiritto the Heart, ſuffocates the Heart, whereupon fol­lows immediate Death. And therefore Rutilius being denied the Conſul-ſhip, which he earneſtly ſought after, ſuddenly expired: And the ſame thing happen'd to Marcus Lepidus, by a ſuperfluous grief after the Divorce from his Wife. We read likewiſe that many by an exceſs of Joy have died, as alſo by ſudden grief or fear, though never any by too much Anger. By a great and ſudden Joy the Animal Spirits being looſned, are tranſported to the external parts, and diſſolve themſelves; and thence the Heart being forſaken and deſtitute of the Blood and Spirits, grows cold, whereby many, eſpecially thoſe that are very timerous and cowardly, have loſt their Lives. Many others moreover, have died of ſhame, as is read of Ho­mer and Diodorus; for which cauſe theſe Paſſions of the Mind ought always to be uſed with a certain Mediocrity, or Moderateneſs; and chiefly Joy ought to be accompanied with a moderate Laugh­ing, which thing excites the Natural heat, tem­perates and purifies all the Animal Spirits, corrobo­rates the other Faculties, aids Digeſtion, clears and ſubtilates the Wit, and renders a Man able for all Buſineſſes, preſerves Youth, and finally prolongs the Life; and Joy is good for all Per­ſons, except ſuch as have need to become lean, becauſe it fattens the Body, and multiplies the fleſh and moiſture. In ſhort, nothing is more43 neceſſary for the conſervation of the Heart, than to live gladly and merrily; not to trouble ones ſelf, or be angry, always to have a good hope of Health, let all theſe things be done moderately, for Mediocrity ought always to be your aim; and therefore ſays Hippocrates, let your cares and fa­tigues, your eating and drinking, ſleep, and Ve­nereal Pleaſures, let all theſe things be moderate: for,

Eſt modus in rebus, ſunt certi denique fines,
Quos ultra citraque nequit conſiſtere rectum.

That Man therefore that loves his Health, let him delight in Gardens, frequent green and plea­ſant places; let him converſe with merry and jo­cond Friends, with Muſick and Songs; for by theſe things the Spirits are reſtored, and as the force and ſtrength of a Man is increaſed by good Victuals, Wine, ſweet Smells, by Tranquility and Gladneſs, by flying of Cares and troubleſome Affairs, which render a Man ſad; and by fre­quenting the Company of merry Companions; ſo likewiſe it is good to hear Stories, Tales, and pleaſant Diſcourſes, and to read ſome delightful Subject; and in reading, great care is to be taken not to read with the Head in the Boſom, but lifted up, and to read with Spectacles or a Mag­nifying-Glaſs, which ſtrengthens the ſight. Be­ſides this, it much contributes to mans delight to keep Singing-Birds. No leſs pleaſant and whol­ſom is it to enjoy a ſweet and clear Air, to walk ſometimes in the Fields, to riſe betimes in the Morning, than which there is nothing in the World that chears and glads the Heart of Man;44 and (as Aiſtotle witneſſes) does wonderfully contribute to the Health, and to the Studies. Finally, in Trouble and Adverſity let a Man de­fend himſelf from ſlackneſs and dejection of Mind; as likewiſe in Proſperity from an extream Joy, which knows no bounds; as the Lyrick Poet Ho­race does well adviſe us in theſe Verſes:

Rebus anguſtis animoſus atque
Fortis appare, ſapienter idem
Contrahes vento nimium ſecundo
Turgida vela.
Et
Aequam memento rebus in arduis
Servare vitam, non ſecus in bonis
Ab inſolenti temperatam laetitiâ.

We ought therefore with all care well to com­poſe our Mind, endeavouring with all our power to know the Truth, for this is the Ambroſia of the Gods, whereby the Mind is nouriſhed; and by the frequency of good Studies to conſolidate and eſtabliſh the affectionate motions of the Mind, to the end, that ſorrow and other ill Deſires and Paſſions may be expelled and driven forth; for we ought not to ſuffer them to have ſo great pre­domination over our wills, that they ſhall be able to byaſs our Affections, and turn them out of the right way, and to deſtroy our Bodies; ſetting be­fore our ſelves therefore Philoſophy, which is the Medicine of the Mind, to extirpate thence all Evils, let us be guided thereby, borrowing from thence ſuch Rules that may render our Life happy and bleſſed.

45

CHAP. XI. Of Meat and Drink.

FInally, towards the preſervation of the Health of Humane Bodies, Meat and Drink are the principal Inſtruments, becauſe without it neither healthy nor unhealthy, diſtempered nor indiſtempered, are able to live; therefore there is no queſtion but that the uſe of Food is abſo­lutely neceſſary; for our Bodies being in a con­tinual Flux, which every hour, and every mo­ment of time does conſume and diſſolve the Spi­rits of the Body, and likewiſe the Humours and the ſolid parts, if another like ſubſtance inſtead of that which is diſſolved, is not introduced, Death will in a ſhort while follow thereupon; to ſupply which defect, the Almighty Creator of all things, by his great Benevolence has provided for Men Meats and Drinks; and to the end, that by Food may be reſtored all that which was waſted from the more dry ſubſtance; and with Drinks, all that was diminiſhed from the Humid ſub­ſtance. In Food therefore it is conſidered the goodneſs, the quantity, the cuſtom, the choice, the order, the time, the nature, the place, and the Age.

Firſt therefore the Goodneſs; and therefore that is good Food which is light, and of ſubtil Digeſtion, eaſily concocted, and in a ſhort time deſcends from the Stomack, and is of good Juice; that Food is of good Juice which begets good46 Blood, and good Blood is that which is tempe­rate in the firſt Degree, not too thin nor too thick; not ſharp nor biting, not bitter, not ſalt, nor ſour: The good Food is that which is eaſily digeſted, and ſuch are thoſe that have a tender ſubſtance, and are eaſily diſſolved, as Eggs, fleſh of ſmall Birds, to wit, of Pheaſants, Hens, &c. but thoſe Foods are of a difficult digeſtion which have a contrary ſubſtance, ſuch as are Foods made of Paſte or Dough, unleavened or hard Bread, Coleworts, Old Cheeſe, Beans, Lupins, Garlick, Onions, and the Entrails of Birds or Beaſts, ſuch things are to be avoided. Chooſe therefore thoſe Foods which with their wholſom and laudable Juice reſtore the radical Moiſture; or elſe let them not be groſs and excrementious: For the Natural Heat, if weak, eſpecially of Old Men, cannot digeſt Meats of an heavy and groſs ſub­ſtance; and on the other ſide, let not the Meat be weak, that is, of ſmall Nouriſhment; for ſuch cauſe a ſhortneſs and diminution of our Lives.

The Quantity of Foods is corrupted by the abundance of it; for ſo much Food ought to be taken, as the ſtrength can conveniently bear; that is, whereby it may be reſtored, and not over-loaden or preſt down, and that may be eaſily digeſted; for the Natural heat being weak and in­firm, it cannot be concocted, and thereupon fol­low many Diſtempers; and therefore 'tis ſaid, thoſe that eat large Meals ought not to be merry and jocond; for though they do not find the pu­niſhment thereof at preſent, yet they can never long eſcape the danger. Let therefore the uſe of Foods be moderate; for as Gluttony is deſtructive, ſo an extraordinary abſtinence is no leſs hurtful:47 He therefore that ſtudies the preſervation of his Health, let him never eat to ſatiety, but ſo, that after Dinner he may perceive ſome relicts of an Appetite remaining; for he that does otherwiſe, ſhall ſuffer all Acids, cholerick Fluxes above and below, a loathing of your Food, a loſs of the Ap­petite, heavineſs of the Head, pain of the Sto­mach, Obſtructions of the Liver and the Milt, Diſſentery, or Bloody-flux, and finally, Malignant Fevers.

And therefore it is better always to leave ſome­thing to Nature; for thoſe which fill themſelves too much, do greatly endanger their Lives, and thereby either the Natural heat is ſuffocated, or ſome Vein is broken; for from too much Food proceed ſeveral Infirmities, and from thoſe Infir­mities Death.

Obſerve therefore in every thing, but eſpecially in your Diet, this good and laudable Proverb, viz. Nequid nimis, Too much of one thing is good for nothing; which ought to be a Maxim not only for the Sick, but alſo for thoſe that are in Health; and the former ought always to obſerve a ſtrict Rule and Meaſure of their Diet, for different In­firmities require different meaſures of Food; for in long and Chronical Diſtempers there is need of a more hearty and large Diet, whereas a more ſlender is requiſite in ſharp and acute Diſtempers, or when the Diſeaſe ſhall be in its height and prime, it is good to uſe an harmleſs and leaſt nouriſhing Food; but we ought always to obſerve how much the ſtrength can bear, and how long it is able to ſubſiſt with this ſort of Food.

The Quality of the Food, as well in Healthy as in Sick Perſons, is known by the Complexion, the48 which in the former is to be preſerved by Food of a like temperament; but in the latter, that is, in diſtempered People, Food of a contrary qua­lity is requiſite; ſo that with a moiſt Complexion dry Meats do agree, and on the contrary, moiſt Foods with a dry temperament; and therefore moiſt Foods are convenient for thoſe that are of a moiſt Conſtitution, as Children; or for thoſe that are troubled with ſome dry Diſtemper, to wit, Fevers or Agues. Such Foods therefore are to be choſen, which according to the variety of each Complexion is convenient. Let thoſe of a Sanguine Complexion avoid hot and moiſt Meats, and ſuch as beget much Blood; let Cholerick Per­ſons ſhun ſuch Food as produces Choler, and ſo likewiſe the Phlegmatick and Melancholy Men, let them defend themſelves from thoſe things which beget the like Humours; and therefore the San­guine and Cholerick Men are to abſtain from all ſweet things, as Honey, Sugar, Butter, Oyl, Nuts, and the like; and rather to make uſe of Vinegar, Verjuice, the ſour Juice of Limons, Citrons, and Pomegranats. Moreover, the Food ought not to exceed in any quality; for thoſe which exceed in heat, dry up the Blood, as Sage, Pepper, Gar­lick, Naſturtium, or Water-creſſes, and the like; and if that heat ſhall happen to be watry, as in Melons, it cauſes putrefaction; and if poiſonous, as in the Muſhromes, it often kills a Man; if moiſt, it putrefies, and opilates; and if the heat ſhall be dry, it conſumes and weakens the Body. But if the Food is too cold, it mortifies and congeals, as Lettices, Purſlain, and Cucumbers: The fat and oily Meats looſen the Belly, moiſten and in­creaſe Flegm, makes over-much ſleep, and hin­ders49 Digeſtion. Sweet Foods cauſe Obſtructions, the bitter do not nouriſh at all, but dry the Blood; the ſalt heat and dry, opilate, and are hurtful to the Stomach; the ſharp by their heat fill the Head, and diſturb the Mind, as Leeks, Garlick, and ſalted Meats: The rough and aſtringent bind and obſtruct, and beget melancholy Blood; the ſharp cauſes Melancholy, hurt ſinewy Members, and therefore do haſten Old Age.

The Uſe and Cuſtom in our Diet is of great moment, whence the Ancients affirmed, that Ʋſus eſt altera Natura, Cuſtom is a ſecond Nature: Wherefore as in the Food it is good to have reſpect to the Temper; ſo it is no leſs neceſſary to obſerve the Cuſtom, the which is one of the principal Roots and Foundations in the preſervation of the Health, and in the continuation of Infirmities: But here you ought to take notice, that if ſuch a Cuſtom be naught, you ought by little and little to change it into a good one, but a ſudden change is altogether to be avoided, as very dangerous; therefore it is good to accuſtom ones ſelf to every thing, to the end that a ſudden change may not in any wiſe be hurtful.

The Order alſo is to be obſerved in our Diet; whence Meats eaſie to digeſt, eaſie to go down, and the moſt tender, if they are taken after Meals, ſwim on top, and corrupt. The things of an eaſie Digeſtion are known by the faility of eating them; and you may conclude them ſuch which are quickly roaſted.

Such there ought always to precede Food of a contrary quality; that is, of difficult Concoction: And if you have roaſt and boyled Meat together, begin with the boyled, as being the moſt eaſie to50 be digeſted; and the ſame is to be underſtood of ſoft Eggs and Milk. The things therefore of an eaſie digeſtion, are to be taken before hard, moiſt before dry, liquid before ſolid, and Laxa­tives before Aſtringents: All this is meant of a Stomach which is in no wiſe indiſpoſed. The De­lectation likewiſe is to be conſidered; for by how much the more pleaſing the Meat is, ſo much the more eaſily 'tis digeſted, and by the Stomach more willingly is received: But you muſt take notice, that you ought not at any time yield that unwhol­ſom Meat ſhould be given to ſick perſons, but you may ſometimes permit them to have a little of ſuch Food as will hurt but little, and ſuch whereof the badneſs may eaſily be corrected.

The time and ſeaſon to take any Food, is when the Stomach is empty, having quite concocted the precedent Victual; and in the Morning, before the Air grows too hot; and in the Evening, when the Air begins to be leſs hot, but with limitation, that eight hours intervene betwixt one Meal and t'other: And in the Summer you muſt eat in cool Places, and be thinly cloathed, and free from Sweating, but in the Winter the contrary is beſt. Beſides, when you perceive a good Appetite, it is not good long to defer eating; for the abſtain­ing from Food when you are hungry, fills the Sto­mach with putrid Humours, becauſe the Stomach at ſuch time as it has an appetite, not receiving any nouriſhment wherewithal to ſuſtain it, does attract the circumjacent Superfluities, filling it ſelf with naughty Humours. The Sick in the time of their Fits ought not to eat any thing. 'Tis alſo neceſſa­ry to take notice of the time of the Year; for in the Winter, which is cold and moiſt, you ought51 to eat libera••y, and drink but little, but let the Wine be ſtrong. In the Summer, which is hot and dry, little Food is ſufficient, and very tem­perate. In the Spring you muſt eat a little leſs than in Winter, but drink a little more. So in Autumn eat a little more than in Summer, but drink leſs, and leſs Water with your Wine: And therefore to this purpoſe is ſaid;

Temporibus Veris modicè prandere juberis,
Sed calor Aeſtatis dapibus nocet immoderatis,
Autumni fructus caveas ne ſint tibi luctus,
De mensâ ſume quantumvis tempore Brumae.

In Summer the Food is to be conſidered: To young Children moiſt Victuals beſt agree; but to young men, being hot and dry, the contrary Food is moſt convenient. For old men, ſuch Food as heats is beſt, and moiſtens their ſolid Parts. More­over, Children ſhould eat often, to render their natural Heat more ſtrong; but old men ſeldom, their Heat being weak. Infants and Children re­quire more Nouriſhment; but a leſſer quantity is ſufficient for middle-aged and old Men, who can very eaſily undergo Faſting, but young Men hard­ly, and Children not at all, eſpecially if they be lively and vigorous.

The Climate likewiſe, or Place of their Growth, is to be conſidered in Foods, viz. of Herbs, Fruits, and Fleſh. For Muttons in Italy and Greece are not very good, but in France and Spain are more ſweet, and more wholſom: On the contrary, the fleſh of Veal and of Pidgeons are in Italy better than in France or Spain; and this proceeds either from a purer Air or ſweeter Soyl in thoſe Coun­treys.

52

And laſtly, the Nature of eachne, and the particular Propriety, is to be conſidered; and therefore it is neceſſary that the beſt Phyſician be a Philoſopher, for ſome have loathed and abhorred Cheeſe, others Wine, others Garlick, &c. Some that are lean, and of an hot and dry Complexion, deſire to eat two or three times a day; others that are fat and moiſt, are content with one Meal a day, for to thoſe that have a fat and big Body, two Meals a day is very hurtful.

Beſides all theſe things, it will not be amiſs to obſerve in your Diet theſe following Inſtructions.

1. Eat not to Satiety, for if you ſhould eat more Food than the Stomach is well able to bear, thence proceed infinite Crudities; and therefore it is bet­ter to abſtain a little, than to cram your ſelf too full; for as it is written, Gluttony kills more than the Sword; for the ſuperfluous abundance of Vi­ctuals ſuffocates the natural Heat, as too great a plenty of Oyl puts out the flame of a Candle; and therefore it is good to riſe from the Table with an Appetite, as it is bad to eat without an Appe­tite.

2. The great variety and diverſity of Foods is to be avoided, becauſe they beget many Diſtem­pers, eſpecially if thoſe Foods be of contrary qua­lities, for their Concoction is weakned and cor­rupted; and as the variety of Meats delights the Palate, ſo it hurts the Health; whence a wiſe man being asked, Why he contented himſelf with one only diſh of Meat at Meals; replied, Becauſe he would not make work for the Phyſician. So that one ſingle Food at one time is ſufficient and moſt wholeſom, whereas the diverſity of Taſts is hurt­ful, and the multitude of Viands moſt pernicious:53 And therefore our Anceſtors lived much longer than we, becauſe they never uſed but one ſimple ſort of Food, that is, Bread and Fleſh, whereas we uſing ſo great an abundance of all things, our Life is ſhortned, and expoſed to ſo many Infirmi­ties. Do not we ſee the Horſes, the Cows, and other irrational Creatures, how they are troubled but with few Diſeaſes, only by a conſtant uſe of one and the ſame ſort of Food? And therefore a great Philoſopher coming into Italy, wondred at two things, That the Men eat twice a day, and that they never ſlept alone.

3. That being at the Table, you ought not to diſcourſe much, to the end that the time may not be prolonged at the Table, and that the firſt Food may not diſgeſt before the laſt, and ſo the parts of the Food become unequal, whence proceeds Corruption and Putrefaction.

4. That you do remain a little while, not ad­ding Victuals to Victuals, before the firſt be digeſted.

5. That the Food be well chewed, for that is caled the firſt Concoction, and is as it were an half Digeſtion; whereas an imperfect Chewing hin­ders and retards Digeſtion: One ought not there­fore to ſwallow it down whole, as the Gluttons do, but firſt chew it ſufficiently, till it become very ſmall, and then ſwallow it down.

6. That all hot Meat is better than cold, eſpeci­ally in Winter, for the actual heat of the Food temperates and allays the coldneſs of the Drink; but you muſt not therefore eat the moſt hot. Hot Meats indeed do moſt pleaſe the Palate, for Hun­ger being a deſire of hot and dry, we always covet hot Food, whereas Thirſt being a deſire of cold and moiſt, it requires cool things.

547. That in the Winter we uſe groſs Meats, for at that time the natural Heat is more united in the inner Parts; but in the Summer the contrary hap­pens, and therefore at ſuch time a light and ſlen­der Food is moſt convenient, the natural Heat be­ing then but weak.

8. That the quantity of the Meat be double to that of the Drink, the Bread twice as much as Eggs, thrice as much as Fleſh, and four times as much as Fiſh, Herbs and Fruits.

9. That you do not uſe Broths too much at Meals, for it cauſes the Food to ſwim in the Sto­mach, looſning and taking away the Appetite, begets too much moiſture, whence afterwards proceed divers Infirmities; whereas thoſe which eat dry Meats, live much longer.

10. And laſtly, Becauſe in Meats and Drinks it is hard to perform every thing exactly, and never to miſtake. Therefore let this be your general Rule, That if at any time you eat naughty Meat, it ought to be tempered and allayed by its con­trary.

What is to be done after Meals.

AFter eating always take ſome aſtringent thing, without drinking any thing, or at leaſt but a little after it, as Pears, Medlars, Quinces, Cheeſe, or a glaſs of freſh Water; which things do as it were ſeal up the mouth of the Stomach, whereby the natural Heat becomes more ſtrong, and hin­ders the Vapours from mounting up into the Head. Many take half a ſcore Coriander-ſeeds ſugred; others a piece of Marmalade of Quinces, which55 helps Digſtion and the weakneſs of the Stomach: And after Meat it is good to walk a little, and moderately, and then to ſit down; whence is ſaid,Poſt pranſum ſtabis, aut gradu lento meabis.

Which ought to be biggeſt, Dinner or Supper?

MAny affirm, that the Supper ought to be lar­ger than the Dinner, eſpecially in Winter, ſince that the Natural heat ſtrengthens it ſelf in the Night; but the contrary ought to be practiſed in Summer, or if a Man be indiſpoſed and infirm, then the Dinner is to be the largeſt, unleſs he be troubled with fits and acceſſions of the Ague: For that a large Supper is more wholſom, the reaſon they ſay is this; becauſe the coldneſs of the Night recalls the Natural heat to the inward parts, whereby the Digeſtion and Concoction of the Food is much bettered; beſides that, ſleep does beſt of all concoct the Food, not only in the Stomach, but alſo through all the parts of the Body; but in waking we ſee the contrary hap­pen: For the Natural heat extending it ſelf to the exteriour parts, leaves the interiour quite de­ſtitute, or at leaſt, that which remains is very weak. To this Opinion our Uſe and Cuſtom is altogether contrary, chiefly in thoſe who are ex­poſed to Catarrhs, and Phlegmatick Diſtempers; for at Night the Natural heat, weary and tired by the buſineſſes of the Day, is not ſo ſtrong and ro­buſt as in the Morning; and at Night the Food of the Morning is not well concocted. The reſolution of this doubt is, that the Supper ought to be light, eſpecially for them whoſe Bodies are ſub­ject56 to Night-Diſtempers, as Rheums, Defluxions, and the like; beſides that, from a large Supper are created many evaporations in the Head, where­by it is not a little offended; and therefore if the Brain be any ways indiſpoſed, a little Supper is ſufficient, notwithſtanding that there is a longer ſpace of time betwixt Supper and Dinner, than betwixt Dinner and Supper; and therefore that at Night a greater quantity of Victuals will be con­cocted, becauſe it is not the number of hours, but the working of the Faculties which concocts; which in the Morning by reaſon of ſleep is ſtron­ger; and therefore at this time a larger propor­tion of Food is more agreeable than at Night; For,

Ex magnâ coenâ ſtomacho fit maxima poena,
Ʋt ſis nocte levis, ſit tibi coena brevis.
Coena levis vel coena brevis fit raro moleſta
Magna nocet, Medicina docet, res eſt manifeſta.

An Advertiſement concerning Corn.

COrn is called by ſeveral Names, according to the ſeveral ſorts thereof; viz. Maſlin, Rye, Barley, Wheat, and Spelt, &c. The good are known by their Colour, Weight, Order, and Age; for the new and green Corn is too moiſt, and viſ­cuous, and difficult to digeſt, and very windy. The old Corn is dry, and nouriſhes little.

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CHAP. XIII. Of Maſlin.

Name. IT is called in Latin, Far; in Engliſh, Maſlin; made of Wheat and Rye, or Wheat and Barley.

Choice. The beſt Maſlin is that which is freſh, and very clean.

Quality. It has the ſame quality as Wheat and Barley; but it is temperate in the firſt Degree.

Commodity. Maſlin is of great Nouriſhment, and therefore eaten with Meat, it nouriſhes won­derfully, and fattens thoſe that are lean, being more nouriſhing than Barley; and becauſe it is of a groſs nouriſhment, it is good againſt Fluxes and Catarrhs, as well as Rice; but boyled well in fat Broath, it ſoftens the Body. The Romans uſed it to make Bread, and it would endure many Years.

Maſlin is made of Wheat and Rye, putting it to ſteep in Water by little and little, afterwards beat it in a Mortar, and dry it in the Sun, where­by it thickly grinds, ſo that of one Grain are made four or five parts; and being dry, may be kept a long time, and is of good Nouriſhment, in ſuch manner, that it corrects the vicious and naughty Humours of the Stomach.

Hurt. Being not well boyled and prepared it begets groſs and ſlimy Humours, and is windy, and if eaten by thoſe who have a weak Stomach, it hardly digeſts it ſelf; and therefore it is not good for Old Men, and if uſed too often, it very58 much opilates and obſtructs the Liver, and cauſes the Gravel in the Kidneys.

Remedy. The hurt of Maſlin is corrected if it be well baked with Vinegar and Garlick; and if it be ſeaſoned with Honey or Sugar, it loſes its clammineſs, and is eaſily digeſted; and being boyled in good Broth, it is an excellent Food for thoſe that are in Health; and for Sick alſo, provided it be moderately eaten. In many places they make Cakes of it, which, if well ſeaſoned, are pleaſant to the taſte, and of great and good Nouriſhment.

CHAP. XIV. Of Wheat.

Name. IN Latine it is called Triticum; in Engliſh, Wheat.

Kinds. There be many ſorts of Wheat, named from their Country, their Colour, their Quality, their Shape, from the quantity of their Ears, and from their largeneſs.

Choice. The beſt Wheat is that which is through-ripe, thick, and hard, ſo that you can ſcarce break it with your Teeth; and that which grows in fat Ground, free from all mixture, full, heavy, ſmooth, clear, of a Golden colour, and is ripe in leſs than three Months time: That which is gathered in the Mountains is the beſt, eſpecially in Italy, which ſurpaſſes all the reſt.

Commodity. It nouriſhes greatly, and its nou­riſhment is ſolid, and very much ſtrengthens. 59The Flower of Wheat boyled in Milk or Water, with a little Butter, cures the hoarſeneſs of the Throat, leſſens Coughs, is good for thoſe that ſpit Blood, heals the Ulcers in the Breaſt; and in Water with Honey, it mitigates internal Inflam­mations.

Hurt. It is a little hard and heavy Food to digeſt, breeds ſome groſs and viſcuous Humours; being not well baked, it begets Windineſs, and the Stone in the Kidneys and Bladder, and mul­tiplies the Worms in the Belly.

Remedy. The few ill qualities of the Wheat are corrected, if it be well baked, and ſeaſoned well with good Spices, whereby it becomes leſs windy, and is much more eaſily digeſted.

CHAP. XV. Of Barley.

Name. IN Latine it is called Hordeum; in Eng­liſh, Barley.

Kinds. There be ſeveral ſorts thereof, as may be ſeen by their Grain and Ears, different in ſhape, and largeneſs, and alſo in number of Grains.

Choice. The beſt Barley is that which is thick, weighty, ſmooth, white, betwixt old and new.

Qualities. Barley is cold and dry in the firſt degree; beſides that, it has ſomething of an aſterſive or cleanſing Nature; its flower is more drying than Bean-flower, and it nouriſhes much leſs than Wheat.

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Commodity. Barley nouriſhes, and eaſily con­verts it ſelf into fleſh, and is of great uſe in ſe­veral things of Phyſick; it opens the opilations of the Bladder by its abſterſive faculty, and with its other qualities it allays the ſharpneſs of the Humours. Barley-Cakes are of a moiſt and ab­ſterſive quality; it may fitly be given to feveriſh Perſons, for it extinguiſhes their Thirſt; it is very good for the pains and infirmities of the Breaſt, and an excellent Remedy in Hectick Fevers, be­cauſe it is of a good and large Nouriſhment; and though it be cold, 'tis nevertheleſs eaſie to be di­geſted, and qualifies the Breaſt, facilitates ſpit­ting, leſſens the Cough, and cleanſes the Lungs. But thoſe are miſtaken, who deſiring that it ſhould be abſterſive, throw away the decoction thereof, and inſtead of it mix threwith Chicken-broth; for this vertue goes away with its decoction; and when you have need of cleanſing, boyl the Barley with its husk, but without that, it dries and re­freſhes.

Hurt. Barley is windy, and Bread made there­of begets cold and groſs Humours. Barley-broth ſoon grows ſour; being windy, it does not at all agree with the Stomach.

Remedy. Barley-broth being carefully boyled together with Hyſſop, Spikenard, or Cinnamon, is leſs windy, and more acceptable to the Stomach, and nouriſhes far better, eſpecially if you add thereto a little Sugar.

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CHAP. XVI. Of Rye.

Name. IN Latine, Secale; in Engliſh, Rye.

Choice. The biggeſt, fulleſt, and moſt heavy Rye is the beſt.

Qualities. It is by Nature hot and dry; it is hotter than Barley, yet not ſo hot as Wheat.

Commodity. Rye, of which Bread is made in ſome parts of this Kingdom, by reaſon of its de­licious ſweetneſs and moiſture, is frequently mixed with What.

Hurt. The Bread which is made thereof, is of an harder concoction than that of Wheat, and windy, cauſing griping pains.

Remedy. If mixed with Wheaten Bread, the one qualifies the malignities of tother.

CHAP. XVII. Of Oats.

Name. IN Latine, Avenae; in Engliſh, Oats.

Choice. The bright, long, and large Oats are eſteemed the beſt.

Quality. They are almoſt of the ſame Nature with Rice, but cold and dry.

Commodity. They ſtop fluxes of the Belly, and looſneſs, and are very uſeful in Pottages and Broths, which may be given to ſick or well.

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Hurt. All their hurt is, they afford but little Nouriſhment.

Remedy. Ale made of Oat-meal, call'd Oat-Ale, is very good and wholeſom.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Bread.

Name. IN Latin, Panis; in Engliſh, Bread; and it is ſo called, becauſe it feeds and nou­riſhes us; or elſe from the Greek word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, be­cauſe it may be uſed with all ſorts of Food, and is not inſipid or diſagreeing with their taſte and ſa­vour.

Kinds. By the ſubſtance, and ſeveral ways of baking it, the difference and variety of Bread is diſtinguiſhed.

Choice. Bread made of good Wheat, well lea­vened, and well baked, with a little Salt, is the beſt.

Quality. 'Tis hot and dry in the firſt degree.

Commodity. Bread well made, nouriſhes ſtrong­ly. Bread has three parts, that is, the thick Cruſt, the thin, and the Pith. The thin Cruſt is the beſt, of good ſolid nouriſhment, and very wholſom.

Fine white Bread is quickly digeſted.

Hurt. Bread that is not throughly baked, ill kneaded, and without Salt, is very hurtful and unwholſom, eſpecially in ſmoaky Cities. Unlea­vened Bread and Cakes baked under the Aſhes are naughty, for they cauſe Obſtructions, and will63 not eaſily be digeſted. Bread that is made of Darnel and Cockle cauſes the Head-ach, hurts and dazles the Eye-ſight. Bread of Spelt is hard to be digeſted.

Remedy. Bread will cauſe no hurt, if it be al­ways well kneaded, and moderately ſalted, and baked in an Oven not over-heated. Theſe things take away any ill quality in the Bread.

Advertiſements concerning all ſorts of Pulſe.

ALL ſorts of Pulſe are little grateful and ſweet to the Taſte, and therefore they are not uſed by all Nations: Not of any eſteem among Perſons of Quality, nor are they much eaten in Germany and Greece, for they are hardly digeſted either raw, boyled, or parched, and being eaten, they cauſe Pains in the Joynts, and the Gout; they are both windy, and inflative, or puffing, and there­fore they are not convenient by the Rules of Health, neither at the beginning, nor end of a Meal: Not at the beginning, for it cauſes the other Food which comes after, to riſe in the Sto­mach; nor at the end, becauſe it begets Melancho­ly and bad Sleeps, cauſing Windineſs, and all that open the orifice of the Stomach, exhaling the Heat, and hinder Digeſtion: But uſing it ſometimes, it is to be taken betwixt other Victuals, for thereby its malignity and naughty qualities are corrected.

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CHAP. XIX. Of Vetches, or Peaſe.

Name. IN Latin, Cicer; in Engliſh, Chich-peaſe, or Vetches.

Kinds. Theſe are red, black and white; the red ſort is called Venereum, becauſe more than the other two it excites Venery; the black, Cicer arie­tinum, becauſe of the reſemblance to a Rams-head.

Qualities. They are hot and dry in the firſt degree; the red are hotter than the white; they digeſt, cut, cleanſe, and evacuate.

Choice. Thoſe are the beſt which are large full, not hollow, nor worm-eaten; and the white ſerve better for Meat than Phyſick, but the others are more uſual in Medicines, than as ordinary Food.

Commodity. Chich-peaſe are of a great Nouriſh­ment, apt to looſen the Belly, and provoke Urine, to beget Milk, and Seed, whence they excite Ve­nery, provoke the monthly Courſes; and the Ci­cer arietinum more ſtrongly provokes the Urine than all the reſt, cleanſes the Liver, removes the obſtructions of the Milt, breaks the Stone, cauſes good Colour, contributes to the Lights, purges the Breaſt, clears the Voice, and facilitates Child-birth.

Hurt. Chich-peaſe do indeed nouriſh greatly, but they are windy, and if eaten freſh, or ill boyl­ed, beget many Superfluities in the Body, and in the Inteſtines, or inward Parts, and are hurtful and very pernicious to the Reins and the Bladder.

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Remedy. They are leſs hurtful if they be ſteept in Water during the ſpace of one whole night, to ſoften them, and boyling with them Roſemary, Sage, Garlick, and the Roots of Petro­ſelinum, or Stone-parſley, by ſome called wild Alexander; but you muſt rather uſe their Broth, than the Peaſe themſelves, with boyled Wine mixed therewith, and Cinamon, but it muſt be eaten in a ſmall quantity.

CHAP. XX. Of Beans.

Name. IN Latin, Faba; in Engliſh, Beans.

Choice. The Bean is that which is big and clear, ſhining, without Spots, and is not Worm-eaten.

Qualities. It is cold and dry in the firſt degree, but the green are cold and moiſt, and they are but little more than temperate in cooling and dry­ing; they bind, looſen, cleanſe, fatten, and are windy: Beans are good at the cold time of the year for the Countreymen, and the freſh are good for thoſe whoſe Stomach is hot.

Commodity. Beans are very nouriſhing, purge the Breaſt, and the Lungs, and therefore are good for the Cough, and make the Voice clear: The Decoction thereof being drunk, hinders the Stone in the Kidneys and Bladder; and the Bean by a certain propriety and quality thereof hinders the Diſtillations and Defluxions from falling into the Breaſt, which would cauſe great Coughs; it pro­vokes66 Sleep, and is good againſt the Megrims.

Hurt. It breeds ſoft and ſpongy Fleſh, having the ſame effects in Fleſh, as Corn in Pyes or Pud­dings; it ſwells the Body, begets cholick Diſtem­pers, troubles all the Senſes, renders the Wit groſs and ſtupid, cauſes turbulent Sleeps, and full of trouble. The green do cauſe very much Excre­ment, and nouriſh more lightly, hurt thoſe which are troubled with Pains in the Head, beget Windi­neſs, groſs Humours and Obſtructions.

Remedy. The French-bean is the moſt ſecure, and leaſt windy. The Favetta, or Small-bean, much uſed by the Italians in Lent, fryed with Oyl, is leaſt windy. Beans boyled with Salt, Ori­gan, and Fennel, is very good; as likewiſe if you boyl them with an Onion, or eat that raw with them: If you boyl them without their Husks, with Leeks, adding thereto Saffron, Pepper, Cina­mon, or Cummin; theſe things take away their Windineſs, and do not puff up, but are more eaſi­ly digeſted. In ſhort, they ought to be corrected with hot and attenuating things.

CHAP. XXI. Of Lupins.

Name. IN Latin 'tis called Lupinus; in Engliſh, Lupins, or Kidney-beans.

Kinds. There be two ſorts of Lupins, Garden-Lupins, and wild, but theſe latter are not uſed in Food.

Choice. You muſt chooſe thoſe which are found, large, and heavy.

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Qualities. The Lupins are hot and dry in the ſecond degree.

Commodity. The Lupins that are firſt boyled, and afterwards beaten in Water, nouriſh beſt; and thus eaten, they excite the Appetite, and take away the nauſeating of the Stomach; they kill the Worms, open the obſtructions of the Liver and Milt, and make one have a good Colour. The Bread is good wherewith the flower of Lupins and Beans is mixed, ſweetning firſt the Lupins, and drying them in an Oven, afterwards pound­ing them; for this being added to the flower of Wheat, makes excellent Bread, eaſie to be digeſt­ed, and wholeſom, if it be made and preſerved well.

Hurt. They beget groſs Nouriſhment, and are of themſelves hard to be concocted, being of an hard and earthy Subſtance.

Remedy. Firſt boyled, and afterwards beat in Water, they are leſs hurtful, eſpecially eaten with Salt, or ſome Spice.

CHAP. XXII. Of Peaſe.

Name. IN Latin, Piſum; in Engliſh Peaſe.

Choice. The freſh and tender are the beſt, and not Worm eaten.

Qualities. The freſh are cold in the ſecond de­gree, and dry in the firſt, and moiſt temperately: They dry ſomething leſs than Beans, and refreſh, nor are ſo windy as Beans, and have not much of an abſterſive faculty.

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Commodity. They beget good Nouriſhment, and they are eaten as the Beans, but they are diffe­rent in this, that Peaſe are not ſo windy or abſter­ſive, and therefore are not ſo eaſily evacuated out of the Body as Beans; but boyling Beets with them,