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MARAN-ATHA: THE SECOND ADVENT, OR, Chriſt's Coming to Judgment.

A SERMON PREACHED Before the Honorable JUDGES of Aſſize, at Warwick: July 25. 1651.

BY WILLIAM DURHAM, B. D. Late Preacher at the Rolls, Now Paſtor of the Church at Tredington in Worceſter ſhire.

1 COR. 4.4. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.
Greg. Nazianz. Orat. 53. in fine. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉,

LONDON, Printed by T. Maxey, for M. M. G. Bedell, and T. Collins: and are to be ſold at their Shop, at the Middle Temple Gate, Fleetſtreet. 1652.

To the Right Honourable WILLIAM LENTHALL ESQUIRE SPEAKER of the PARLIAMENT, AND Maſter of the Rolls.

SIR,

WHen importunity had prevail'd with me to this ſervice, who was never fond of ſuch publick imployments, 'twas not intended that this Sermon ſhould be made more publick, by the ſhew­ing it to the world: But that candid and charitable account which ſome perſons of worth (then Audi­tors) gave thereof unto your Honour, made you in­quiſitive after it, and ſolemnly invite the Publicati­on. I was never yet ſo far in love with any thing of mine own, as to fancy it worth the publick view: but ſince 'tis ſo ſutable to your deſires, which muſt ever have with me the force of a command, I ſhall not decline this advantage of leaving ſome teſtimo­ny to the world of thoſe many favours, which I have received from your hand.

The Argument of this Diſcourſe is a plaine, but a fundamentall and a ſaving truth; concerning which, I may take up the language of that Pious and labo­rious ſervant of Chriſt in a buſineſſe of the like na­ture;Mr. Carryll in Job. 7.6. 'Tis a point eaſie to be known, but hardly to be beleeved; every man aſſents to it, but few live it; we ſlight the hearing of common Principles, but common truths neglected, cauſe the neglect of every truth; had we more ſerious thoughts of Heaven and Hell, that theſe are, and what theſe are; that there is a God, and who he is; that there ſhall be ſuch a judge­ment, and what it ſhall be, we ſhould more profitably improve and trade our times and talents. Under whoſe grave and ſober judgement, I ſhall ſecure my ſelf from the cenſure and contempt of them who are taken onely with new-Doctrines: It being the much unhappineſſe of this preſent age, that ſo many are willing to exchange old Truths for new Notions; Solid and ſober truths, for ſtrained Allegories; Pra­cticall Truths, for frothy ſpeculations.

For its dreſſe and harneſſe, that's plaine too; and ſuch as is ſutable to the Country, where it was born; indeed, ſuch is the native beauty of Divine truths, that they ſuffer by that paint, which humane wit would put upon them; they ever look beſt in their own colours; the beſt Character of a Sermon is, that it be honeſt, and tend to edification.

That this ſo inconſiderable a piece, ſhould flie un­der your wings for ſhelter (beſides that you have pleaſed to invite it) can bee no wonder to them who know with what exceeding tenderneſs, for ma­ny yeers, you have there cheriſhed its unworthy Author. The children of our Brains, as wel as thoſe of our loyns ſhould learn that leſſon of the Wiſeman, Not to forget their fathers friends; 'Tis the too uſuall con­ſequent (I wil not ſay effect) of great places, to ſwel men with thoughts of impunity; becauſe men cannot call them to an account, they are too apt to flatter themſelves, that God will not; and when once that piece of Atheiſme hath ſiezed on their heart, they eaſily give the reins to pride and oppreſſion, and what not! which fault, though in the ſtricteſt ſcru­tiny, you could never be found tainted with, who in the height and continuance of your great Imployments, retain your naturall and Chriſtian Clemency, meekneſſe, and humility: yet 'tis not amiſs to fortifie your heart with all poſſible ſtrength a­gainſt ſuch encroaching thoughts, where Place and Imployment is ſo apt to become a ſnare.

To this purpoſe, I take the Confidence to re­commend this enſuing diſcourſe unto your ſer­vice: which may be (like Philip of Macedon's Page,) your daily remembrancer of that which I know, is your frequent and ſerious meditation.

I am not ſo much a ſtranger to your affairs, to conceive you at leiſure to read large Epiſtles; I have only one word to you, and one for you, and I have done; that to you is,

That as God hath been pleaſed to ſet and conti­tinue you ſo long in ſo eminent a place, inabled you to ſuch inceſſant labour, and preſerved you under ſuch great Revolutions of State, you would make it your buſineſſe more and more to advance him in the Goſpel of his dear Son. And wherein (at preſent) can you better improve your power and intereſt for him, then in cheriſhing and pre­ſerving his Great Ordinance of the Miniſtry. The tender compaſſion which I bear to thoſe poor ſouls, which ſit in darkneſſe, and the ſhadow of death, makes me continue to beg the utmoſt improve­ment of your power for the ſetling of a learned and a pious Miniſtry in every Congregation of the Land! That the Excellency of that calling may be preſerved from thoſe virulent and bitter tongues, which are ſet on fire of hell! that their Office may not be publickly invaded by thoſe, who are not called to that, but to other imployments! that oile may be preſerved, and provided for burning lamps! 1 Cor. 9.7.14.That they who preach the Goſpel may live up­on the Goſpel, (which in the Apoſtles judgment is the higheſt equity,) until they that go a warfare go on their own charges! That there may be a conſtant ſupply of perſons fit for that weighty imployment, by preſer­ving & cheriſhing thoſe Seminaries of learning, the Univerſities, ſo famous through the Chriſtian world; without which, ignorance, error, and atheiſm wil ſud­denly and unavoidably overſpread the Land! In a word, that they be not juſtled out of their Function & maintenance, to gratifie a people, who are no better friends to Magiſtracy, then to Miniſtry. And to ſpeak what mine own experience aſſures to be truth, (you have vouchſafed to make me ſo much privy to your thoughts) I know theſe things you deſire and endea­vor; wherein, if after all your labour, you fail in the ſucceſs, yet you have freed your own ſoul, and your reward is with your God.

That for you, is; that that gracious God, who hath inabled you to ſo continued a ſervice, would multiply all the gifts and graces of his ſpirit upon you and yours! that your days may be prolonged, your health & ſtrength continued and increaſed, your Honors faſtned on you, that your Family may flouriſh, & you rewarded a thouſand fold for all thoſe incoragements, and tender indeerments, whereby you have for ever obliged

Sir,
Your Honours moſt faith­full and humble Servant, WIL. DURHAM.

I have peruſed this Sermon of Maſter Durham's on James 5.9. and do approve of it, as very fit to be printed.

OBADIAH SEDGVVICK.
May 5. 1652.

P. 9. l. 27. for Teutoniſh, r. Teutonick. p. 10. l. 13. adde theſe words, the God of Nature; and lin. 27. for whence read when, p. 12. l. 13. blot out and, 14. l. 21. for deſpute, r. diſpute, 17. l. 3. for teach r. reach. 17. l. 19. for bave r. have, 19. l. 18. for then r. them. 22. in the margin for Origenis r. Originis. 23. l. 6. wants it, 26. margin for〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉r. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. 28. m. for torquate r. Torquate. 30.15. wants ſhall. 30. l. 33. for impudent r. imprudent. 32. for enite, r. inite.

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MARAN-ATHA: The ſecond Advent: Or, Chriſt's coming to JUDGMENT.

JAMES 5.9.

Behold, the Judg ſtandeth before the door.

The whole Verſe runs thus:

Grudg not one againſt another, Brethren, leſt ye be condemned, Behold, the Judg ſtandeth before the door.

SInce that unhappy breach betweenaaGen. 3. Man and God, there have been perpetuall dif­ferences between Man and Man; The ſeeds of injuſtice and oppreſſion ſown then in the hearts, ſpring forth ſo naturally and ſo plentifully in the lives of men, that they are be­come likebbHab. 1.14. the fiſhes of the ſea, the great ones devouring the leſſe. AsccGen. 4.8. this appears true in that horrid act of Cain againſt Abel, ſo is it viſible in all thoſe ſucceeding acts of injuſtice, ſo much complained of byddIſa. 5.7. Jer. 6.6. Ezek. 22.7, 29. the Pro­phets. As this hath been too true in all ages, ſo eſpeci­ally in ours, on whom theee1 Chr. 10.11 ends of the world are come. Theſe areffHeb. 1.2. the laſt dayes; and as our laſt dayes are ful­leſt of diſeaſes and miſeries, ſo the worlds laſt dayes are moſtgg2 Tim. 3.1 perillous, and moſt abounding with iniquity. The lower Time runs upon the lees and dregs, the worſe ever: as Time grows older, oppreſſion grows greater;2 and as oppreſſions increaſe, ſo will complaints increaſe. Sowas it here; The great and rich men trampled upon the poor, as if there were no God to puniſh them: they who were injured, did repine and grumble, as if there were no God to relieve them. The rich oppreſſe the poor, the poor grumble againſt the rich. The Apoſtle being to finde out a remedy againſt both theſe evils, pitches upon this Text, as the likelieſt plaſter to cure both ſores; to prevent the outragious inſolencies of the one, and remove the diſcontented grudgings of the o­ther; no likelier means, then by minding both of the Day of Judgment: As if he had ſaid, You who abuſe the power and greatneſſe which God hath beſtowed upon you, to the oppreſſing of the needy, who live in plea­ſure, and are wanton; whohhIſa. 3.15. grinde the faces of the poor, and ſell theiiAmo. 2.6. needy for a pair of ſhoos; who kill the juſt, and detaine the labourers hire; weep and howle, for the Judge ſtandeth before the door to take vengeance of your injuſtice. And you whoſe miſeries are written in letters of bloud, upon whoſekkPſ. 129.3. backs the plowers have made long furrows, grudge not, complain not, murmur not; for the Lord cometh, yea he ſtands before the door, to plead the cauſe of the oppreſſed, and to help them to right who ſuffer wrong; And indeed, nothing hath, (I am ſure nothing ſhould have) a greater influence up­on the ſpirits of men, to keep them within the compaſs of their duty, then the remembrance of their laſt ac­count; be their conditions, their profeſſions, what it will.

In which words the Apoſtle is quieting and cooling the minds and ſpirits of thoſe whom the injuries and op­preſſions of others have exaſperated; and in them we have, 1. A Prohibition [Grudge not.] 2. The inforce­ment of that prohibition; from the danger of the fact, [leſt ye be condemned.] 3. The Anticipation of an ob­jection, which they were about to make; What, may not loſers have leave to ſpeak? Shall they wrong us,3 and we not ſo much as complaine? this will but harden them in their evill ways, and expoſe us to more and greater injuries; he that quietly and tamely bears one affront, invites a ſecond: Oh! ſays he, but be patient a while, leave revenge to him to whom it appertaines, com­mit your cauſe to him who judgeth all things righteouſly, and is coming to do it; Behold, he ſtandeth before the door.

1. The Prohibition; Do not ye repine,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Tyrinus in loc. or murmur or groane, either out of grief, that you cannot be re­venged; or impatiency at your preſent ſufferings; do not murmur nor grudge one againſt another,Miſerorum eſt ut malevolentes ſint. Plautus. as poore men uſe to do, (who are querulous and complaning;) do not grudge againſt the rich, by calumniating and cur­ſing them; much leſſe againſt God, as if he were un­juſt, in ſuffering you to be afflicted; Take heed of mur­muring groanes, diſtruſtfull groanes, revengfull groans, and envyous groans;Manton in loc. murmur not againſt Gods provi­dence, diſtruct not his protection, thirſt not after the revenge of thine own injuries, envy not thoſe who are exerciſed with fewer troubles then thy ſelf; this is the pro­hibition, Grudge not.

2. The inforcement; leaſt ye be condemned; as if he had ſaid, Impatiency, diſcontent, diſtruſt, envy, wil ex­poſe you to greater miſeries then you complaine of; Your ſufferings here are but for your probation, but your grudging and repining will be your condemnation: be not out of patience, your deliverance is at hand, Be­hold, &c.

3. The Anticipation, (or foreſtalling) of the objection: where are three things. 1. A Judge, 2. His poſture, he ſtandeth; 3. The place, before the door: and all theſe uſhered in with (an Ecce) Behold. Behold the Judge; Behold, he ſtandeth; Behold, he ſtandeth before the door.

In each of which there is ſomewhat remarka­ble.

41. Behold,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. the Judge; ſome eminent perſon ſure, who is uſhered in with ſuch ſolemnity! 'Tis The Judge: Em­phatically; not only A Judge, but the Judge, the ſupreme and univerſall Judge, who ſhall judge the quick and the dead. In the precedent verſe he is ſtiled the Lord; 'tis the Lord Jeſus Chriſt, who hath on his veſture and on his thigh a name written,Rev. 19.16. His firſt co­ming was in humilitate. His ſecond in majeſtate. In his firſt, judicandus; In his ſecond, judicaturus. Solomons pe­tition. 1 King. 3.9. Tiberius wiſht ut ipſi intelli­gentem bumani divinique juris mentem dii da­rent. Tacit. ann. l. 4. c. 7. King of Kings, and Lord of Lords; whoſe firſt appearance was in humility, his ſecond ſhall be in power and great glory; who was then Judged by his Creatures, but now in his ſecond co­ming, ſhall judge his Judges And indeed, who could be fitter for the work then he who was every way qualified for a Judge?

To make a Judge, two ſorts of qualifications be re­requiſite

  • 1 Intrinſicall.
  • 2 Extrinſicall.

1 Intrinſical, and thoſe (amongſt others of leſſe mo­ment) are two. 1. Wiſdom and judgment in the Laws, ability to find out the truth of an evidence [a knowing head.] 2. Integrity and uprightneſſe, not to decline from the path of Juſtice; for fear, nor favour, [an honeſt heart.]

2. Extrinſicall, and they are likewiſe twofold: 1. Com­miſſion; every man that is able to diſcipline ſouldiers, may not beat up Drummes,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, au­thoritatem. raiſe, lead, fight ſouldiers without Commiſſion; Every one that can ſpeak well, may not take upon him the office of a preacher, unleſſe he bexxRom. 15. ſent; Every perſon who underſtands the Laws, may not arraigne and condemn men without commiſſion; he muſt be able to anſwer that queſtion, Quis te conſtituit judicem? who made thee a judg?

2. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, porten­tiam.Power of Execution; elſe all the reſt is to little pur­poſe: To ſit in ſtate, and to condemn priſoners, and to have no power to execute the ſentence, is but to expoſe the Law to contempt and ſcorne. Dan. hiſtor. in the life of Ed. 3d.It was ſaid of Ed­ward the Third, that he was a Prince who knew his work, and did it: and his love to Juſtice is obſerved in this, that5 he made ſo many Laws for the Execution of Juſtice; Execution is the life of the Law; a knowing Head, an honest Heart, and an active vigorous Hand, make a Judge.

But all theſe qualifications ſhine moſt gloriouſly in the Lord Jeſus Chriſt, who is the wiſdome of his Father, and underſtands the Lawes which himſelf hath made: who is a righteous Judg, no fear, no favour, no bribes,Joh. 5.22. no hopes can turn him aſide from the path of Juſtice: he is Commiſſioned to this work; The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgement to the Sonne. And to conclude, that he hath power of Execution,Mat. 25.41. is manifeſt by the very form of the ſentence, Depart ye curſed; thoſe words are, as other of Gods words, effe­ctive, which work the thing they command; they ſend ſinners to hell without reſiſtance: The word Caſt or turned into hel,Pſa. 9.17. imports ſuch an over-ruling power which the creature is no way able to reſiſt. Behold, this is the Judge.

2. Behold! he ſtandeth;Pſa. 82.1. which is Gods poſture when he comes to execute judgment; God ſtandeth in the congregation of Princes, he is Judg among the Gods. Iſa. 3.13. Act. 7.55. Non quaſi cau­ſam dicentem, ſed quaſi ſenten­tiam cito latu­rum. Morall. homil 29. Gataker, ap­peal to Prinn. in initio. The Lord ſtandeth up to plead, and he ſtandeth to Judg the people; Stephen ſees Chriſt ſtanding at Gods right hand, whom other ſcriptures uſually repreſent ſitting, not as an Advocate (ſaith Gregory,) to plead his cauſe, but as a Judge to take ſpeedy vengeance on them for this bloody act: alluding (ſaith one of our own) to the cu­ſtomes of Judges, who ſit to hear the cauſe, (which they do deliberately;) but ſtand up to paſſe ſentence, (which they do reſolvedly.) The Church when ſhe would ha­ſten God to judgment, prays. Ariſe O Lord and come, lift up thy ſelf; he that ſtands is ready to come: which yet is clearer in that he ſays,

3 Behold! he ſtands at the door; as 'tis Gen. 4.7. if thou doſt evill,aaPoena peccati. ſin lyes at the door; puniſhment is hard at hand; ſo, the feet of them which have buried thy hus­band,6 are at the door,Act. 5 9. Senibus mors in Januis: de con­ver ſi. cap. 14. 1 Pet. 4.5. they be hard by: and Bernard when he would ſhew the neerneſſe of the death of old men, phraſes it thus, Death is at old mens door: ſo here, The Judge ſtandeth at the door, he is at hand, he hath put on his Robes, he is aſcending his Tribunall; he is (in Saint Peter's language) ready to judge.

The words are capable of a double conſideration; 1. As a poſitive doctrine holding out the certainty and vicinity of the laſt judgment: Behold, the Judge ſtand­eth, &c. 2. Relatively, in reference to thoſe things which the Apoſtle had treated of before; Take heed, ye rich men, of violence and oppreſſion; Why? what's the danger? Behold, the Judge ſtandeth at the door. Take heed ye poor oppreſſed people, of grumbling and repi­ning; why? who ſhall releeve us? Behold, the Judge ſtandeth, &c. I ſhall not ingulph my ſelf into that vaſt Ocean of matter, which the former propoſition, concer­ning Chriſts ſecond coming to judgment, will afford; only I ſhall point at the certainty of it, ſo farr as may make it ſerviceable to the ſecond conſideration of the word, which I chiefly intend. Nor will I trouble you with meaner witneſſes then God and Nature to prove it; and when theſe vouchſafe to bear witneſs, 'tis vain curi­oſity to expect others, and ſtrange infidelity to ſuſpend our aſſent.

Nor ſhall I multiply texts in ſo cleer a caſe; one or two arrows from Jonathans bow, may certifie David of the Kings pleaſure, as well as a quiver full; two or three ſtones out of Davids Budget, may fell Goliah, as well as a whole quarry; In quotations of Scripture, I would ob­ſerve the weight, rather then the number. Should I cite all, I ſhould be infinite: I ſhal ſelect ſome few, and thoſe ſuch as perhaps labour with ſome other doubts; the firſt text is Rom. 14.10. Wee ſhall all ſtand before the judgement ſeat of Chriſt. How doth that appear? why from another Scripture;Iſa. 45.23. for it is written, as I live, ſaith the Lord, every knee ſhall bow to me, and every tongue7 ſhall confeſſe to God. But ſtay,Dub. thou learned Doctor of the Gentiles, ſtrive not to confirme our faith by falſe allega­tion of Scripture; that's the practice of the wily ſerpent the Divel, and of his factors at Rome, the ſubtil Jeſuits; and ſuits not with the Candor and Religion of an Apo­ſtle; but the words in Iſaiah, are read otherwiſe, I have ſworne by my ſelfe, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteouſneſſe, and ſhall not returne,Solut. that unto me every knee ſhall bow, and every tongue ſhall confeſſe. Magis expreſſus ſenſus, quàm expenſa verba. Hierom. Regula videa­tur. Ribera in Hoſ. 2. Num. 14. Apoſtolorum ac Evangeliſtarū mos eſt, ut teſti­moniis Vet. Te­ſtam, referen­dis, crebrò non verborum ordi­nem ſequuntur, ſed ſenſum. Vivo ego, in for­ma jurandi, Deo propria. 'Tis true indeed, they are ſo; but though here are not all the ſame words, yet here is the ſame ſenſe. The Evan­geliſts, the Apoſtles, and Chriſt himſelfe, in citing the Old Teſtament, look not ſo much at the word as at the ſenſe; in which theſe two places agree. That that is the ſenſe of the Old Teſtament which is given of it in the New, is without controverſie, the pen-men only differing, but the Spirit which dictates, being in both the ſame; to whom if we allow, what we deny not men, to be the beſt interpreter of his own meaning, we cannot but yeeld that he intended by Iſaiah, what he expreſt by Paul, and ſo the words make ſtrongly for the laſt judgement. As I live, ſaith the Lord 'tis an oath peculiar to God himſelf; Have I purpoſed, and ſhall not I bring it to paſſe! have I ſworne, and ſhall it not ſtand! Shall not I who puniſh perjury in others, fulfill mine own oath! doubtleſſe I will; Every knee ſhall bow: Thoſe knees which bowed to him in mockage, ſhall now do him homage; and thoſe feeble ſinnews ſhall trem­ble before him on the throne, whom in a contu­melious manner they ſcraped to on the Croſſe, E­very tongue ſhall confeſſe. Every reviling tongue ſhal confeſſe him to be God, whom once they thought the worſt of men; and upon conſtraint acknowledge him their Judge, whom they lately executed as a guil­ty Malefactor.

The Apoſtle Jude in the 14 and 15 verſes of his Epi­ſtle, hath another Teſtimony to the ſame purpoſe:8 And Enoch alſo, the ſeventh from Adam, propheſied of theſe, ſaying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thouſand of Saints, to execute judgement upon all; &c.

'Tis hard to ſay,Ʋtrumque vi­tium eſt, omni­bus credere, & nulli: tutiùs hoc crimen eſt, il­lud honeſtiùs. Sen. Raw­liegh. hiſtor. lib. 1o. part 1. cap. 5. §. 6. Vid. Bez. which is worſt, to believe every one, or no body; they are both faults, only with this diffe­rence, the former is more ingenuous, the later is more ſecure: That this teſtimony is true, there will be more will averre: And who this Enoch was, is not ſo hard to gheſſe, as what was his propheſie; That it was an un­written propheſie, calculated onely for that Nation, and delivered over from hand to hand, is not improbable; we find that he propheſied, that he ſpake it, but that it was written, we do not read. Enoch, no queſtion, was a faithfull Preacher in his time, and ſtrove by a floud of divine Rhetorick, to beat down thoſe ſins, which no­thing could ſtop but a floud of water; and amongſt other of his divine ſayings, this might be one, by the care of the faithfull, continuing to ſucceeding ages.

Secondly, It might be written either by himſelfe, or ſome other, yet not by divine inſpiration, nor never reduced into the Canon: and ſuch (it may be) was the Book of Jaſher the upright: (if a very learned man miſtake not,)Junius in loc. for the word rendred Book, ſignifies ei­ther a Catalogue of books, or elſe it ſignifies publick records, containing acts and proceedings in a Court of Judicature; or Eccleſiaſticall, concerning Church-go­vernment; or hiſtoricall, concerning events and occurren­ces in the State; of all which ſorts there were ſeverall lod­ged up in the Ark, which never came to light, which might be loſt without any detriment to the Canon: and of this ſort, might be this of Enoch.

Thirdly, We are not to reckon all thoſe books loſt, whoſe names we find mentioned in Scripture, but not the books that bear thoſe names; as thoſe of Nathan the Seer, and Gad the Seer, with thoſe which Samuel himſelfe wrote,Manent libri, tacentur nomi­na. Junius. make up the two Books of Samuel; the books remaine, though their names be ſuppreſt or chan­ged;9 ſo have I often ſeen ſmaller ſtreams emptying themſelves into the vaſter Channel, loſe their own, and aſſume the name of the greater current; and ſo this of Enoch (as others) may remaine in holy Writ, though being annexed with greater works, it hath loſt its name; And it moves not much, though we find not the very words, if we find that which is equivalent; which is ſufficient to prove the citations out of the Old Teſta­ment true, as you ſaw made clear in the former quo­tation. Thus having proved Enoch to be (bonum & legalem hominem) a man of credit and repute in his coun­try; let us hear his evidence, Behold, the Lord cometh, &c. where we have two things. 1 the Judge, and then 2 the Judgement it ſelfe: The Judge, ſet forth by his title, and his train. 1 His title, 'tis the Lord; and for his traine, ther's the quality or nature of them, (Saints) and the number of them, ten thouſand of Saints: and for the judgement, 'tis to convince all the ungodly, of all their hard ſpeeches, and evill works; and all this with (an ecce) Behold, ut de preſenti loquitur; as if it were within his kenn; Enoch the ſeventh from Adam, through the perſpective of faith, ſaw the day of judge­ment even at his heels: we are ſome thouſands of years nearer then he; and can that be far from us,Verſtegan in his tract of the ancient Engliſh tongue. p. 192. which ſo nearly bordered upon him? Had Enoch been ſilent, his very name had proclaimed a judgment to come: In the old Teutoni••language (the ancient ſpeech of this Nation) E ſignifies Law or Equity, and Noch ſignifies, yet once again, or to come; ſo that his very name imports a time to come; where ſhall be the adminiſtration of juſtice according to right. 2 Tim. 4.8.

Paul when he came downe from the third heaven, brought with him the certaine newes of a Judge that ſhould come to crown him at that great day; and not him onely, but all thoſe that ſhall love his appea­ring;**Cauſab. in annal. Ba­ron. exer. 2. c. 11. 1 Tim. 3. ult. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Now there is a double appearance of Chriſt; the firſt called by the Ancients〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the unridling10 of that great myſtery, God manifeſted in the fleſh: the ſecond that is here mentioned by the Apoſtle,2 Theſ. 1.6, 7. When the Son of man ſhall come in the clouds, and every eye ſhal ſee him: or to uſe his own words in that moſt accurate and dreadfull expreſſion; When the Lord Jeſus Chriſt ſhall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and obey not the Goſpel of Jeſus Chriſt, &c. Not to be injurious to your patience, in a buſineſſe ſo obvi­ous; our Saviour, the beſt of preachers, hath laid down this truth in the parable of tares, and in plain terms, Matth. 25.31.

2 Thus have you heard the teſtimony of Nature;Naturae natu­rantis. Naturae natu­ratae. now lend an ear to nature her ſelfe. Nor is this word far from thee, that thou ſhouldeſt ask, Who will bring it unto me? only unrivet the ſecret Cabine of thy breſt, and thou ſhalt find this doctrine legible; Whence elſe ariſe thoſe ſecret twinges & girds of thy conſcience, which like an under-officer, bind thee over to the great Aſſize? whence elſe that horror in thy dejected ſoule for ſin committed? which anticipates thy finall doom, and exe­cutes thee before thou art condemned? whence elſe thoſe renting ſpaſmes, and tearing convulſions in his breſt, whoſe ſin is ſo ſecret that none can know it; whoſe perſon is ſo eminent that none can puniſh him? Every mans ſecret thoughts bode and fore-ſpeak a judge­ment to come, when••conſcience tels him that ſinne went before. Culpam paena premit comes. Hor. Carm. lib. 4. Od. 4.Sin and judgement, as they are in them­ſelves, ſo they are in our apprehenſion too, twins; yet ſo prodigiouſly are they coupled, that when we have brought forth one, we have ſmall hopes of being delive­red from the other.

The Heathens, who had but one eye, that of nature, and that film'd over with ſuperſtitious and carnall thoughts,Quaeſitor Mi­nos Ʋrnam mo­vet. ſaw diſtinctly this truth; That there was a Judge below, the Poet knew; and that the Heathen ge­nerally did he like, wee have cleer evidence, in that11 the Apoſtle makes that the ground of his Argument to reſtrain the people from ſin, BecauſeaaActs 17.31. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉diphil. comicus. Vide hic de re Euſeb de Pre­par. Evangelic. l. 11o. c. 35.36. Idem l. 12. c. 6. & 52. cap. in fine. God had appointed a day wherein he will judge the world in Righteouſneſſe; which had not nature ſuggeſted the truth of it, might have been as eaſily rejected, as urged. Balthaſars ſinews refuſe to bear the luggage of his carcaſſe, when the wall turned Preacher, and reproved his vanity; Felix himſelfe, when Paul diſcourſ'd of Judgement, though in the pre­ſence of his ſweeteſt Druſilla, could not ſecure his limbs from the ſhiverings of an Ague; It was much that a pri­ſoner ſhould ſo ſoon tremble his Judge, and that hee ſhould quake at the mention of Judgment from his mouth, on whoſe head he was ready to paſſe preſent ſentence. Look back to Adam the Firſt Man, the Second Sinner, who had no ſooner ſinn'd, but trembles, and flies from the preſence of that God, with whom but now he talk'd face to face; Look on Cain, who when he began to bee a Fratricide, left off (in this point) to be an Heretick: and by the baſeneſſe of his manners, rectified his Judge­ment;Glaſſius Philo. ſacra. pag. 60. Gen. 4.8. if that be true which is cited out of the Jeruſalem Targum, which runs thus; Caine and Abel went out into the field to talk, and Cain ſaid, There is no Judge, nor Judgement, nor life to come; no reward for the good, nor puniſhment for the wicked; for (if there were) why, I pray thee, ſhould thy offering be accepted, mine rejected? But Abel anſwered, There is a Judge, and judgement, and life to come, a reward for the good and puniſhment for the wicked; becauſe my works were done in integrity, they were accepted; thine in hypocriſie, and therefore rejected: And whilſt they were thus wran­gling about the point, Caine ſmote his brother Abel, and kill'd him:Flagitium & flagellum, ſicut acus & filues. But no ſooner had he made a paſſage for his Brothers Soul, but he made a Scourge for His owne; he is now forced to recant his error, and with anguiſh and ſorrow pine under that Judgement, which even now hee denyed; whilſt the earth greedily drinks in his brothers blood, he ſees Hell wide open, gaping for his owne;12 whilſt his Butcherly hands are hiding his brothers car­caſſe, his diſtracted looks manifeſt his own guilt.

Thus you ſee, that God hath implanted in the hearts of all men,Haret lateri lathalis arundo. an expectation of a future Judgement, which, thought oft-times by ryot and exceſs they deſire to obli­terate, yet it ſticks deeper impreſt in the ſoule, then let­ters ingraven in pillars of Marble. A ſinner may (I deny not) in his jovialitie,Prov. 14.13. ſeem to ſmother all thoughts of future account; yet in the midſt of laughter his heart is heavy; and whilſt his face ſmiles, his heart bleeds; for do but track the guilty perſon to his chamber, where while he ruminates upon his acted villany; ſee how hee ſtarts and and ſhunts at the wagging of every feather. Each friend that viſits him is ſuſpected for a Sergeant: and hee fears to be betrayed by his own members: his rowling eye, his ſhaking hand, and bloodleſſe cheek, whiſpers his guilt; and if others were as ſuſpicious, as hee is conſcious of his ſin, his ſtammering, broken, diſtra­cted language would ſoon diſcover him.

See him in his bed: The ſilent night, which befriends o­thers with reſt and ſleep, affects him with nothing but horror and amazement: the gloomy darkneſſe, that in­vites others to a ſweet ſlumber, preſents him onely with the blackneſſe and foulneſſe of his fault. How oft hee ſhifts his weary ſides without reſt, or eaſe! and if he be be­friended with a ſmall parcell of ſleep (good God!) what tongue can expreſs the ſtrange imaginations of his mind, the horror and aſtoniſhment into which a dreame caſts him! 'Tis futuri judi­cii pra judicium Tert.This is the diſtreſſed eſtate of a ſinner; what ſaid I? is this his eſtate? alas! this doth but point at it: Sinfull man while he makes God his enemy is afraid of e­very thing;Sadeel. in 32. Pſal. their hearts are like the troubled ſea, now at preſent they ſeem to enjoy a pleaſant calme, not a wrinkle of ſorrow ſits upon their brow, and they goe on in their ſinfull pleaſures with full ſailes; yet by and by, the wind begins to blow, a ſtorm ariſeth, the waters rage, themſelves are overwhelmed in the gulph of de­ſpair;13 they reel to and fro, and ſtaggar like a drunken man, and are even at their wits end It was ſo with Cali­gula,**Qui Deos tan­topere contem­neres, ad mini­ma tonitrua co­nivere, & caput advolvere, ad majora proripe­re ſe electo, ſub lectumqueconde­re ſolebat! Sueton. Calig. §. 51. who though in the height of his pride he durſt con­teſt with God, yet durſt he by no means behold the lightning; but muſt ſtand beholding to the courteſie of a cave or an oven to ſecure him from the meſſengers of Heaven, who but now durſt defie God himſelfe: he that thought to ſpeak as loud as the Almighty, is ſtruck dumb, trem­bling and quaking at a clap of thunder. What are all theſe diſtractions of thoughts, and tortures of our ſpirits, but infallible ſymptomes of an innate principle carrying over our aſſent to this concluſion, That there is a judgement to come.

That there ſhall be ſuch a day of account, 'tis, I hope, made cleer; that there ſhould be ſuch a day, let a few words ſhew you the equity: That Gods juſtice may be without blemiſh, in puniſhing the wicked who frolick it here, and rewarding the godly, who drink deep of di­ſtreſſe; If the righteous had onely hope in this life,1 Cor. 15.19. they were of all men the moſt miſerable: As it is with the Church, ſo it is with her members; ſhe is a Lilly, but yet among the thorns; theſe are Jewels, but trampled under foot. If you look for a Saint, ſmall hopes of finding him couch'd in a bed of down: no; the Stockes, the Den,Pſal. 105.18. Dan. 3.21. Dan. 6.16. the Oven, is a more likely place to find a Joſeph, a Daniel, or a neſt of ſtiff kneed Jews that will not bow to an Idoll; the man of this world you may find ('tis likely) with Da­vids Image, at eaſe upon his pillow;1 Sam. 19.13 1 Sam. 24.1. Act. 7.59. but David himſelfe in ſome cave at Engedi. If you look for a Stephen, you'l hardly ſee him through the ſhowre of ſtones, which in a horrid and deteſtable charity, the Jews threw to make his tomb and to bury him before dead. Act. 12.4. Mat. 14.3.Look you for a Peter, a Baptiſt? examine the priſon, the not unlikely place to find an honeſt downright preacher: Look you for a Paul? you may know him by the wales of his back, imprinted by the ſturdy hand of ſome cruell Bedle. 2 Cor. 11.23, 24. Mat. 27.31,To conclude: Look you for a Jeſus, a Saviour? no ſo14 likely place to find him as between two theeves, num­bred amongſt the tranſgreſſors, groaning under the hea­vy preſſures, and bloody agonies of the Croſs. And if this be all the reward that is in Gods ſervice,Exod. 5.2. Job 21.15. Mat. 13.30. Mat. 25.32, 33 Luk. 16.25. Numb. 23.10. Heb. 4.9. Jer. 5.28, 29. Jer. 12.1, 3. men would be ready to ask with Pharaoh, Who is this Lord that I ſhould ſerve him? and with thoſe contemptuous ones in Job, What profit is there in ſerving the Almighty? On the o­ther ſide; ſhould the tares overlook the wheat here, and hereafter be ſheafed up into the barn; ſhould the Goats enjoy their pleaſure here, and hereafter feed with the Lamb; ſhould Dives injoy his luſts here, and reſt here­after in Abrahams boſom, men would readily invert Ba­laams wiſh, O that my life might he like the wickeds, and my latter end like his. But God hath prepared a reſt for the Godly, and fitted the wicked for the day of ſlaugh­ter; Dives may be their witneſſe, they cannot have their pleaſure here, and hereafter both. That God ſuf­fers wicked men to ride on the backs of the righteous, and makes them groan under their burdens, is an act of that wiſdome and providence which we muſt admire, but not diſpute: But that he diſpoſes his kingdome to the poor in ſpirit, when the wicked ſhall be ſhut out with dogs and ſwine; complies with, and ſalves that Juſtice of his, where at Good men rejoyce, and bad tremble.

But I leave this point to be applyed together with the next, and deſcend to the conſideration of the words in their Relative ſenſe: The Lord is ready to come to judg­ment: therefore O ye rich men, do not ye oppreſſe the poor; O ye poor men, do not ye repine and grumble at the rich: Whence this:

The conſideration of Chriſts neer approach to judgement,Propoſition. ſhould awe the hearts of men;Demonſtrated by teſtimony of 1. Heathen. and mould their converſati­ons into a dutifull obedience to all Gods Commandments.

For the evidencing of which truth,

1. If you conſult with them who ſaw only by the dim eye of Nature, they are able to tell you; That no­thing hath a greater influence upon mens lives for their15 mendment,Nulla res ma­gis prodcrit, quam cogitatio, mortalitatis, Sen. de Ira l. 30. cap. 42. Julius Poll. & Harpoc. then the ſerious and frequent meditation of their death.

The Athenians had a law, that no man was to be que­ſtioned during the time of his office; which law they kept ſacred and inviolable: but no ſooner was his office expired, but there was (as it were) a Committee of A­counts, to whom they were to be exactly anſwerable for all their miſcarriages in the precedent year. The Romanes had the like for their Conſuls; and Darius,Polib. Hiſto. de conſ. Rom. lib. 6. Dan. 6.2. a cuſtome not much unlike for the Princes of his Provinces; an excel­lent meanes (doubtleſſe) to keep them to their duty, when they knew they were to undergo ſo ſpeedy and ſo exact a ſcrutiny.

If you look higher to thoſe who had their eyes cleer­ed with Spirituall eye-ſalve,22Fathers. Sic quotidic vi­vamus, quaſi die illa judicandi ſimus. Hierom in 24 Matth. they look upon this as the moſt effectuall means to bridle their unruly paſſions; It was this which St. Jerome found of good uſe, for the crucifying the fleſh with the affections and luſts in him­ſelfe, and therefore preſcribes it as a ſpeciall remedy to others, that whether they eat or drink,Sive editis, &c. Surgite mortui & ve­nite ad judici­num. Id. ib. or whatſoever they did, they ſhould ſtill conceive that they heard the laſt Trumpet blowing, and the Arch-Angel crying, A­riſe, ye dead, and come to Judgement.

Chryſoſtome expounding that Text, Rom. 13.11. [Now is the high time to awake out of ſleep, &c.] (.i.) ſaith he,Paraeus in loc. The Reſurrection is at hand, and the laſt Judgement is at hand, the day approaches; therefore let's awake out of ſleep, and caſt off the works of darkneſſe: How ge­nuinely the text is interpreted, let others cenſure; ſure I am, that his ſenſe is very appoſite to our preſent purpoſe; that the ſenſe of that day ſhould quicken us to our duties.

And**〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Hom. in Pſal. 7. Baſil the Great thus: in many places of the Scrip­ture there is mention made of the laſt and great Judge­ment, which is a conſideration moſt neceſſary and moſt effectuall for the preſervation of Piety in the hearts and lives of thoſe that beleeve the Goſpel of Jeſus Chriſt.

16

The Apoſtles have not a more effectuall argument to keep men to the imbracement of the faith,3 Apoſtles. and practice of holineſſe, then by minding them of Chriſt's coming to judgement;1 Theſ. 5.1.6. Let us watch, and bee ſober, for the day of the Lord cometh as a thiefe in the night:2 Pet. 3.10, 11. The day of the Lord will come as a thiefe in the night, in which the Elements ſhall melt with fervent heat, &c. therefore what manner of perſons ought you to be in all holy converſation and godlineſſe. Seeing, beloved, ye look for ſuch things, be diligent that ye may be found of him in peace,1 Pet. 4.7. without ſpot and blameleſſe. The end of all things is at hand,Phil. 4.5. be ye therefore ſober, and watch unto prayer. Let your moderation be known unto all men, the Lord is at hand; and as if there were nothing by which he could more effectually obteſt them, the Apoſtle beſeeches them by the coming of Chriſt,2 Theſ. 2.1. and by their gathering together to him. And when he is cloſing up his firſt Epiſtle to the Corinthians,Chap. 16.22. as if he were moſt firmly to clench in that great duty of our love to Chriſt, which he had been long hammering at, he concludes, If any man love not the Lord Jeſus Chriſt, let him be Anathema, accur­ſed; How accurſed! Why Maran-atha, The Lord cometh, and though we cannot now expreſſe how heavi­ly he ſhall be accurſed, yet he ſhall then feel it; It was the heavieſt kind of all their curſings and execrations,Peſſimum A­nathematis ge­nus. Vid. Bez. Piſcat. 4. Chriſt himſelfe. when the ſinner was left off, and given up as an incor­rigible perſon to the coming of Chriſt.

Nay, Our bleſſed Lord and Saviour hath at once ſan­ctified and ſtrengthened this argument by his own u­ſing it; when he forbids us to beat our fellow-ſervants, and not to eat,Matth. 24.49. and drink with the drunken, leſt the Lord of the Houſe come in an hour that we think not of and give us our portion with hypocrites, in the lake that burns with fire and brimſtone. Five things conſiderable about the laſt judgement.All which will yet appear more clear, if we conſider theſe five things, which ſet out the na­ture of this judgement ſo, as may render it more vigo­rouſly quickning men to the performance of their duties,17 and more effectually reſtraining them from the violati­on of Gods ſacred Lawes.

1 The Impartiality of it, as to perſons;Rom. 14.10. it will teach all perſons; wee muſt all ſtand, ſaith the Apoſtle, be­fore the Judgement Seat of Chriſt; the reverend age, the blooming youth, the eloquent Oratour, the blunt Pea­ſant, rich Dives, poor Lazarus; the new freſh, varniſh'd Lady, as well as ſhe that ſits grinding at the Mill. Heb. 9.27.As 'tis appointed for all men once to die, ſo for all that die to come to judgement; no prerogative can procure exemp­tion from his juriſdiction, who is to be Judge of quick and dead; and that is good Logick with Saint Peter,Acts 10.24. Becauſe that without reſpect of perſons, he judgeth every man according to his works, therefore we ſhould paſſe the time of our our ſojourning here in fear.

2 The Exactneſſe of it, as to all manner of offences:Matth. 5.25. 1 Of Omiſſion; where Chriſt gives us a pattern of the laſt judgement; the Sentence is paſt onely for negatives, for omitting the duties they ſhould have done. Thou haſt not cloathed, not viſited, not fed, therefore Go ye curſed; If he who gives not cloathes to the naked, nor food to the hungry, nor lodging to them that want, be puniſh'd with ſuch whips, what ſcorpions ſhall be pro­vided for them who ſtrip the poor of their clothes, turn them out of their own houſes, pull the bread out of their throats! if not to viſit and comfort thoſe that are impriſoned for Chriſts cauſe, be a ſin; what is it to caſt the innocent into priſon? to feed them with the bread and water of affliction? 2. Of Commiſſion;1 King. 22.27. Whether they be open and notorious, or private and ſecret; for God ſhall bring every mans work to judgement,Eccleſ. 12.14. 1 Tim. 5.24. with e­very ſecret thing. Some mens ſins are open before-hand, going before to judgement: and ſome men they follow af­ter. Open profaneneſſe runs to the Bar of Juſtice before­hand, and waits for the ſinner. Sly Hypocriſie and diſ­ſembled ſins, theſe follow after. The murders, thefts, rapes, burglaries of the priſoner at the bar, they go be­fore18 to judgment; the paſſion, injuſtice, bribery of a Judg, the partiality of a Juror, the perjury of a witneſſe, theſe follow after unto judgement. We muſt be brought to an account, not only for the outward acts and groſſer com­mitments of ſin, but for the firſt riſings of the heart, & it's ſecreter tendencies, & inclinations to ſin; for that ſin which is conceived in the heart, though never produced, nor acted by the hand. Matth. 5.22.I need not trouble you for this further, then that one Text, But I ſay unto you, whoſoever is angry with his brother without cauſe, ſhall be in danger of judgement; and whoſoever ſhall ſay unto his brother, Racha, ſhall be in danger of the Councell; and whoſoever ſhall ſay, Thou fool, ſhall bee in danger of hell fire: where we may ſee, that if we go no further then the Phariſees, we ſhall come to judgement for actuall murder and adultery; we muſt give an account of all our works; thus far the divinity of a Phariſee will lead us: But is this all? no; not onely he that kils his brother, but he who is angry with him raſhly, unadviſedly, ſhall be liable to a future account, and brought to judgement in another world for it.

Not that all anger binds over to judgement,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉ad textum pertinere ex eo comprobatū da­ri poteſt; quod iram, quae à Chriſto prohi­betur, pulchrè determinat, & limitat, ne omni, juſtâ e­tiam, irâ, ac zelo interdi­ctum ſibi eſſe Chriſtiani exi­ſtimant. Sol. Glaſ. Philo. ſac. lib. 1. tract. 2. but this raſh, unadviſed anger. Over and above the uſuall inter­pretation which the Phariſees put upon this text, our Saviour ſhews, there be three other things, (beſide actu­all murder) whereby this cōmandment is violated, to each of which he affixes a ſeverall puniſhment, proportionable to the nature and quality of the offence. The firſt way by which the ſixth commandment is broken, even by him who doth not actually kill his brother, is by raſh and unadviſed anger: which is then raſh and unadviſed, when it hath no good cauſe nor ground to warrant it, and when it exceeds its bounds either in the degrees or continuance of it; And to this raſh andunadviſed anger, though it never went further then the breſt which bred it, he aſſignes a ſutable puniſhment; it makes a man guilty of judgement. 2 But he that ſayes, Racha, (which is a ſecond way whereby this commandment19 may be broken without actuall murder,)1. Either from〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉vacuum, mente, optbus, ingenio. 2. Or from〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉conſpuere making it an interjection of diſdaining and abhorring. Linwood pro­vinciall Conſtit. and ſuffers the anger conceived in his heart to break forth at his mouth, though with ſome moderation; that ſhall give any con­tumelious language, in calling his brother a vaine and empty fellow, a fool, ideot, or beggar; or ſhall by any ſignificant geſtures or carriages expreſſe the diſdaine rancour and indignation of his heart, ſhall be in danger of the councell.

But he that ſhall ſay, Thou fool (which is the third way that is, whoſe anger breaks out by ſome ſpeciall and re­markeable kind of reproach; and vents his paſſion, not only in contumelious language, but in virulent and bitter raylings; ſhall be guilty of hell fire. You have ſeen the three ſeverall ſorts of ſin, whereby the ſixth Command­ment is broken, as well, as by the actuall ſhedding of the blood of man; now caſt your eyes upon the three ſorts of puniſhment which are here threatned to theſe three de­grees of ſin, and you wil find then riſe in degrees as the ſins do in guilt.

The firſt, to wit, raſh anger, ſhall bee in danger of judgement; where by judgement is meant that Court of Judgement which ſate almoſt in every Town,Dr Reynolds praelect. in Apoc. Practicall ca­tech. and in matters criminall of inferiour nature, had power of life and death, who puniſh'd the offender with beheading. But he that ſaith Racha, ſhall be in danger of the Coun­cell, which meanes the great Councell, the Sanhedrim, conſiſting of ſeventy one perſons, who had cognizance of the greater and more notorious crimes, and puniſht the offender with ſtoning, a death more grievous then that of bebeading. But he that ſaith, Thou fool, ſhall be in danger of Hell fire, ignis Gehennae; a Metaphor taken from the fire in the place called the valley of Gehinnom, which was a place neer Jeruſalem, where the Idolatrous in an accurſed imitation of the barbarous practice of ſome of their neighbour nations, were wont to ſacrifice their children unto Moloch, which was (ſay ſome) by ma­king them paſſe through the fire, till they were dead:20 Others, That they were put into the belly of a brazen Image, ſhaped proportionally to the limbs of a man, in which, being heated extreamely hot, they were burnt and ſcortch'd to death; which way ſoever it was, the torment was moſt exquiſite, and their lamentations moſt intolerable; wherewith leaſt their parents, the ſacrificers ſhould be moved and affected, the Trumpets did continu­ally ſound (and they made otherwiſe a piteous dinne) that the skreeks and groans of the tortured children might not be be heard; whence the place was called To­phet from a wordt hat ſignifies a Timbrell, or a Trum­pet; and the torments that theſe poor creatures ſuffered were choſen out as the fitteſt reſemblance to ſet out the pains of hell by. The ſumme of all is: that as he who actually murders a man, is ſubject here to be puniſhed by the laws of men; ſo ſhall he that ſins againſt the law of God in any of theſe forementioned ways, be ſubject to the judgement of God, at that great day; he that is an­gry with his brother unadviſedly, ſhall be, without repen­tance, caſt into hel: he that expreſſeth that rancour of his mind by ſome diſdainfull geſture, or contemptuous ſpeech,Regula peccatis quae poenas irro­get aquas. Hor. ſcr. l. 1. ſat. 3. Dr Reynolds praelect in Apoc. p. 269. ſhall bee caſt into hell, into greater torments; but he that ſhall ad any ſpeciall kind of reproach, or bit­ter rayling, ſhall be caſt into torments inexpreſſable, ſuch as were the torments of thoſe who were ſacrificed unto Moloch. All our ſins (you ſee) muſt come to judgment, thoughts and words, as well as actions; they ſhall bee all (the evil ones) rewarded with ſtripes, though the laſt with more.

But what? muſt we then give an account for our words alſo? Mat, 12.36.Yes, for every idle word we muſt give an account. But (by the way) by idle word, we are not to underſtand e­very jeſting, pleaſant ſpeech; for al ſuch is not idle, no more then all that is ſerious, is profitable. Nor are we to think every witty jeer,1 King. 18.27 or biting ſarcaſm an idle word; Elijah jeered the prieſts of Baal, and Solomon the riotous young perſon;Eccleſ. 11.9. but thoſe are idle words, which neither ſavour of21 wiſdom or holineſſe, be they ſpoken in jeſt and earneſt. Verbum otic­ſum eſt quod infructuoſum eſt Greg. de Cur. paſtor. par. 3. adm. 15. otioſum verbum eſt quod ratione juſtae neceſſita­tis, et intentione piae utilitatis ca­ret. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Baſil. in Pſ. 7. De peccatis cogitationum nemo poenam pu­titur. Ulpian in digeſt. Biſhop of Car­lile's ſpeech in Parliament. 1 Hen. 4. Truſ­ſell. Conatus, conſi­lia, cogitationes juſtiſſimè caſti­gat vindicta divina Polib. Non decet ſo­lùm manus in­nocentes, ſed & oculos, animoſ­que puros habe­re. Thats an idle word (ſaith Tertullian) which tends neither to the inſtruction or edification of the hearer; And another, thats an idle word, which is needleſſe and unprofitable; and if we muſt give ſo ſtrict and ſolemn account for eve­ry idle word, how much more for every falſe and deceit­full word? for every ſcurrilous and rotten word? for every envious and malicious word? for every ſlandering and diſgracefull word? for every hereticall and blaſphe­mous word?

But is this all? ſhall our works and words alone bee weighed in the ſtrict ballance of divine Juſtice? Shall the Proverb bear us out that Thought is free; the Lawyer lays it down as a ruled caſe. That no man is puniſht for thinking; But the Lawyer ſaw only with his own ſpecta­cles, and lookd not beyond his own conſiſtory; in hu­manes judicatories ('tis true) we puniſh not thoughts; till backt with conſent, ſome outward expreſſion, or execu­tion: But in Gods judgment, 'tis otherwiſe; He who is the ſeacher of the hearts and tryer of the reines, may juſt­ly puniſh the inward motions and waiward Counſels of the ſame; As the Oracle anſwered Glaucus in another caſe, idem eſt tentare Deum & facere, in Gods account, it is all one to intend and act, a villany; Chriſt the beſt ex­poſitor of the Law himſelf made, mightily convinceth the Phariſees of miſ-interpreting the Law, and proves, that not only the outward Act but the inward riſings of the heart are ſinfull; not he only who kills, but he that is angry with his Brother unadviſedly; breaketh the Com­mandments; not only he that lies with a woman, but he that luſts after her, is liable to judgement: The pure and holy Law of God requireth truth and holineſſe in the inward parts, as well as a bare forbearance of the out­ward act; 'Tis not enough that our hand be cleer from bloud (unleſſe our hearts be free from malice, and our tongues from reproach.

There may be a guilty eye, a guilty hand, us well as22 unlawfull imbraces: For Chriſt in that place blames not the Law as too narrow,Non legem cul­pat, ſed interpre­tandi modum. as not reaching to forbid evill words or thoughts: but quarrells at the falſe in­terpretation of the Phariſees, who corruptly ſtraitned, and ſo marrd the text.

The Commandments of God, as they are ſincerely pure,Pſa. 19. ſo are they alſo exceeding broad, reaching to the dividing between the marrow and the bones, betwixt the intentions and ſecret thoughts of the heart; The Law is compared to the Sun, from the luſtre of whoſe rayes the moſt ſecret cloſets lie not hid, 'tis therefore call'd a ſpi­ritual Law,Lex Dei dicitur ſpiritualis, ratione1 Originis. 2 Impletionis. 3 Finis. 4 Obligationis. by the Apoſtle, and ſo 'tis in four reſpects; firſt in regard of its Originall, proceeding from a ſpirit. 2. In regard of the power of fulfilling of it; all the ſtrength of Nature cannot fulfill it, it muſt be from the renewing of the ſpirit: 3. In regard of its end, which is to bring us to God the Father of ſpirits. 4. (Which belongs hi­ther) in regard of its obliging power, becauſe it doth not only reſtrain the outward act of wickedneſſe, but the firſt motions of the heart, the firſt tendencies and inclinations of the thoughts to evil; God even in his Law ſet bounds to our thoughts, the tranſgreſſion of that law implies guilt, and guilt doth but pave the way to judgement, which Chriſt the righteous judg will execute, as wel for hard thoughts,Jude ver. 14. as for ungodly deeds. Will you heare the concluſion of the whole matter. God ſhall bring every work,Eccleſ. 12. ult. to judgment, with every ſecret thing, whether it be good or whether it be evill. What the deſign of ſome men is,Catech. Racov. in charging the morall Law with imperfections and vacuities, which were fill'd up (as they pretend) by theſe Additions of our Saviour, is ſufficiently evident; and that the conſequences of this poſition (with them) are no leſſe then the utter evacuating and nulling the meritori­ous paſſion of our bleſſed Lord. For others who ſo­lemnly profeſſe to abhorr ſuch impious concluſions, and aim at nothing, in the uſe of ſuch language, but the bringing men up to a higher degree of holineſſe and perfe­ction23 then the Phariſees preſt upon the Jews. I wiſh they would conſider, whether the ſame end might not be as well attained, by charging the Phariſees with miſ­interpretation of the Law, as by charging the Law it ſelf with imperfections, and vacuities? And if ſo, whether were not more ſutable to Chriſtian charity (to ſay no more) to forbear thoſe expreſſions,Maſter Jean's Treatiſe, of the appearance of evill, in ex­preſſions. p. 28. which ſmell ſo ſtrongly of the Polonian-infected aire, rather then to grieve, and give juſt occaſion of offence to ſuch who are, as conſcienciouſly ſolicitous to preſerve the truth, ſo exemplarily zealous,Antequam naſ­ceretur Arius, innocenter quae­dam, & minus cautè loquuti ſunt Patres: & quae non poſſunt perverſorum hominum ca­lumniam decli­nare. Hierom. Apol. 2. cont. Ruff.Ante errorum &ereſ••n originem, non­dum ſatis illu­ſtratâ & pate­factâ rei veri­tate, quaedam ſcriptis ſuis aſ­perſerint Pa­tres, quae cum orthodoxae fidei regulâ minimè conſemiant. Dion Petav. in Epiphan. Daille. trea­tiſe of the right uſe of the Fa­thers. p. 80. to carry men up to the higheſt degrees of holineſſe, in conſcience and converſation?

An honeſt and grave Matron would bluſh to be found in the dreſſe and harneſſe of an harlot; and thoſe who would be accounted orthodox, ſhould not contend for ſuch expreſſions as carry with them (but) an appearance of evill: for though they may be uſed by us perhaps in a good ſenſe, (and ſo uſed by the An­cients) yet being abuſed by wicked men to broach their hereſies under, they carry a ſhrewd ſhew of evill, and render others jealous and ſuſpicious of our ſoundneſſe; In points not controverted the Fathers ſpeak oftentimes more uncircumſpectly then they would in a buſineſſe that is under diſpute; and I am apt to believe, that if thoſe Fathers, who are pretended to have maintained this doctrine of the vacuities of Mo­ſes Law, and the additions thereunto by Chriſt, (how farre, and how fully they do it, let others judge, but) if they had but fore-ſeen thoſe ſad and diſmall concluſi­ons, which ſome deſperate wretches have deduced thence, in derogation to the ſatisfaction made by Chriſt, they themſelves would have done execution upon thoſe papers, which are pretended to have conveyed it to the Chriſtian World: But I have been too long in this point.

3. The un-appealableneſſe from this judgement: he is the ſupreme Judge; to him all appeals are made, but24 none from him;Acts 25.10. Paul made his appeale from Feſtus Court to Caeſars Throne; 'tis the priviledge of this Nation, that we have a Chancery to appeal to, by ſuch who are caſt by the Rigour of the Common-Law. The Counteſſe of Arundel made her bold appeal againſt King Richard the third,Life of Ri­chard the 3d. to the Tribunal of him that was a­bove. The woman in the ſtory who appealed from King Philip ſleeping, to King Philip waking, had ſome ground for what ſhe did; but we have none ſuch for our appeal. Non temere è triclinio abſceſ­ſit, niſi diſten­tus & madens, interdiu in jure­dicendo non­nunquam ob­dormiſceret, vixqueab advoca­tis de induſtriā vocem augenti­bus exitaretur. Sueton. in vi­ta Claud. 33.'Tis not with him as it was wont to be with Claudius the Emperour, who never uſed to riſe from dinner but with a full panch, and well whitled, and was wont to ſleep ſo ſoundly on the Bench, that the Lawyers who pleaded before him, though they purpoſely ſtrained their voices, and bawled, could hardly awake him; a poſture very much miſ-becoming a Judge; But the Judge of Iſrael neither ſlumbers nor ſleeps; he is unli­mited in power, and untainted in point of Judicature; he admits of no ſuperiour, 'tis at his Judgement Seat that that we muſt ſtand or fall.

4 The un-repealableneſſe of this judgment, it can never be revers'd; It is appointed for all men once to die, and after death to judgment;**Qualem te in­venit Deus cum vocat, talem­pariter & ju­dicat. Cypr. de mort. after death, comes judgment; and after judgment nothing but the continuation of happineſſe or miſery; as death leaves us, judgement finds us; and as judgement leaves us, we muſt remain for ever. This preſent age is the〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Greg. Nazian­zen. Oratio. 15 ſeaſon of mercy, that to come is the time of juſtice; when the Sentence is paſt, and the door is ſhut, thou mayeſt cry and call, and plead thine anci­ent acquaintance, but thou ſhalt hear nothing but that comfortleſſe language, I know you not, Go ye curſed; God's Sentence is firmer then the decrees of the Medes and Perſians, which can never be revers'd.

5. And beyond all this which ye have heard, The nearneſſe of this judgement, 'tis at hand; Behold! the Judge ſtandeth at the door; 'tis a deſperate degree of boldneſſe to be cutting of purſes, while the Judge is on the bench.25 this is to ſin in defyance of Juſtice; next to him who ſins as Ahaz did, when hee was under judgement, thoſe who ſin while judgement is at their heels, are moſt de­ſperately guilty; 'tis a ſtrange boldneſſe in a Scholer to ſet himſelfe to play when his Maſter is taking out the rod; and for a ſinner to go on in his evill ways, when God hath bent his bow, and fitted his arrows upon the ſtring, and prepared the inſtruments of death, is either blockiſh ſtu­pidity, or daring preſumption.

Oh, but ſay the ſcoffers in Peter,2 Epiſt. 3.4. where is the promiſe of his coming? This hath been long talk'd of, but 'tis not yet come, nor is there any likelihood of it, for all things remaine as they were: but what ſayes the Apoſtle to this Objection? God is not ſlack as men count ſlackneſſe; a thouſand yeers is with him but as one day; though it be much to us, yet 'tis nothing to his eternity, 'tis but a day; Behold hee'l come quickly, hee'l come ſuddenly, as a whirlewind, as lightning, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, in an hour we little dream of. What if he ſhould rend the heavens and come downe, draw the curtaines, and do execution, when thou art in the heat of thy luſt, as in Zimri and Cosbies caſe? what if that day overtake thee when thy heart is overcharged with ſurfetting and drunkenneſſe? the light ſhines from heaven, but thou haſt not an eye to ſee it; the Trumpet ſounds, but thou haſt no ears to hear it; the Angel cryes, Awake ye that ſleep and ſtand upright, but thou haſt not a foot to ſtand on; Chriſt cals for an account, but thou haſt not a tongue to anſwer. O thenſince there is ſuch a Judge, at the very door,2 Pet. 3.11.14. who is ready to paſſe ſuch an irreverſible and unchangeable ſentence upon all perſons, for all ſinnes, what manner of perſons ought we to be in all holy converſation and godlineſſe? How diligent ſhould wee be to be found of him in peace, with­out ſpot and blameleſſe!

This ſpeaks terror to all ungodly perſons, whom,Ʋſe 1no not the neer approach of ſuch a Judg can take off from their26 beloved ſins; to whom let me ſpeak in the language of Solomon,Eccleſ. 11.9. and reſume his ſacred Irony; Rejoice O young man in thy youth, and let thy heart cheer thee in the dayes of thy youth, and walk in the ways of thine heart, and in the ſight of thine eyes:〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, &c. Greg. Nazian. oratio. 53. But know thou, that for all theſe things, God will bring thee to judgement. Let the cove­tous wretch hugg himſelfe in the company of his good Angels, let him ſay to his gold, Thou art my hope, and to his fine gold, Thou art my confidence: Let the Am­bitious cheer up himſelfe with thoſe Honors, which coſt him the price of a conſcience; and the Laſcivious court his Paramour in beds of roſes; yet let them know, that for all this God will bring them to Judgment. Let the Mur­derer multiply his ſlaughters as the ſand, and ſwill his ſoul with the blood of the ſlain: Let the Thief imbrace the op­portunity of the night, and glut himſelf with the ſweetneſs of the waters he hath ſtollen: Let the Amorous idolize a piece of Damask'd fleſh, and bow down to a lump of gil­ded clay; but withall let them know, that the Judg is at the door, and for all this &c. Let the Swearer belch out as ma­ny oathes as words: Let the Profane contemn the Sabbaths of the Lord: Let the Judges hand be ſo fill'd with bribes, that he cannot handle the cauſe of the poor: Let the Councell ſell the cauſe for a double fee, and the Witneſs his conſcience for a morſell of bread; yet let them know, that the Judge is at the door, and for all theſe things, &c. Let the Tradeſman help away his brayded wares, by the ſmoothneſſe of his tongue, and the darkneſſe of his ſhop: let him inrich himſelfe by his unequall ſcales, and wrap up his conſcience in each penny worth of ware: In a word, Let every man enjoy his deareſt wiſh, and hugg his darling ſin; but withall let them know, that the Judg ſtands before the door, and that for all theſe things he will bring them to judgement: for all this; as well for thy ſecret and moſt retired ſin, as for that which was done in the ſight of the Sun; what skils it how ſecretly thou contriveſt this mans death; with what privacy27 thou defileſt another mans wife? thy midnight imbraces ſhall be as manifeſt as the day, and thy curtaine diſ­courſes proclaimed upon the houſe top: Thoſe thoughts, thoſe loathſome thoughts, adulterous thoughts, mali­cious, envious, murderous, blaſphemous, black thoughts, which thou durſt not impart to thy friend in thy bo­ſome, ſhall be writ in characters legible by every eye; and thy heart, that polluted, hypocritical, deceitful heart, made tranſparent as the Chriſtall, ſhal give way to the ſcrutiny of each prying beholder, who ſhall greedily gaze upon that ſeminary of villany, which thou wouldſt have trembled here to have been thought guilty of; when the ſecrets of thy heart ſhall be laid open, and the inſide of thy gaſtly ſoul diſcovered, and that loathſomeneſſe laid na­ked, which was varniſh'd over with guilded hypocriſie. Conceive thy ſelf conveyed into the moſt ſecret chambers of the earth, and there invellopt in the moſt gloomy darkneſſe, it were in vaine to think thy ſins would lie hid, unleſſe thou couldeſt flee from thy ſelfe, or eſcape his view, to whom the darkneſſe is as cleer as the day; There is no darkneſſe, nor the ſhadow of death,Job. 34.22. Credis hoc poſ­ſe effici, inter videntes omnia ut lateas Deos? where the workers of iniquity can hide themſelves from him; In thy ſe­creteſt ſin thou haſt a Divell to accuſe, a conſcience to bear witneſſe, and a God to condemn. Admit thy ſin to be as ſecret as the night, yet canſt thou think to cheat him that ſeeth the firſt riſings of the heart? or that a trick of leger-demain can juggle him out of ſight, whoſe eyes are ten thouſand times brighter then the Sun? No, he ſhal ſurely ſee, and as certainly condemn; for who ſhall dare to ſpeak for thee when thy Mediator muſt be thy Judge; and ſhall ſmilingly condemn, whom (hadſt not thou rejected him) he would willingly have interceded for? Who ſhall dare to ſpeak for thee, when thou haſt contemn'd thine Advocate, and counted his blood an unholy thing? who ſhall umpire thy cauſe before that Judge, who himſelfe hath ſuffered in all thy miſdoings? when thou murdereſt thy brother, thou woundeſt thy28 Judge; when thou tumbleſt out oathes, thou teareſt (as it were) thy Judge lim-meale; when thou grindeſt the poor, thou oppreſſeſt thy Judge; when thou takeſt his rayment, thou ſtarveſt thy Judge; when thou de­taineſt his wages, thou defraudeſt thy Judge; when thou with-holdeſt thy grain, thou famiſheſt thy Judg; for in as much as thou doſt it to one of thoſe little ones, in whom his ſoul delighteth,Mat. 25. thou doſt it to thy Judge. Now if one man ſin againſt another (ſaith Ely) the Judge ſhall judge him;1 Sam. 2. but if a man ſin againſt God, againſt his Judge, who ſhall plead for him? when thy poor naked ſoul ſhall be dragged forth in the midſt of ſo many Angels, men, and divels, to give up a ſtrict account before this juſt and impartiall Judge; what ſtrains of Rhetorick ſhall be able to move;〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, &c. Greg. Nazian. orat. 15. or what Mines of gold ſhall be ſufficient to bribe thy Judge? what prevalent Courtier ſhall be ſolicitous in thy cauſe? what adulterous Miſtris ſhall dare to begge thee? the ſweetneſſe of thy perſon ſhall move no pity; the great­neſſe of thy place ſhall draw no reverence; the eloquence of thy tongue ſhall captivate no heart; the nobleneſſe of thy birth, the excellency of thy parts, ſhall not draw a ſigh, a tear, a groan from any that behold thy ruine; though thou wert clothed with the treaſures of the eaſt, and thy garments beſpangled with the pearles of heaven, yet no eye ſhall pitty, nor at thy deſtruction ſay, Ah! my brother,Non, Torqua­te, genus, non te facundia, non te reſtituet pie­tas. Horat. ah! my Lord, or ah! his glory. Sinn'd thou haſt; condemn'd thou art, down thou muſt; none, none, none will, none can, none dare ſpeak for thee.

2. In particular, the text lays down wo at ſome par­ticular mens doors; for to grudg here (ſaith Henſius) is to be quarrelſome and litigious,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉is the ſame with〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉clamorem edere & con­tentionem. and denotes ſuch a con­tentious ſpirit, as wil be ever drawing others into courts, ever comencing freſh and vexatious ſuits; and theſe are either 1. Rich men, who if they cannot have their wills of their poor neighbours, moleſt them with groundleſs and vexatious ſuits; Do not rich men draw you before the judg­ment29 ſeat (ſaith our Apoſtle? 2 cap.) not that they have cauſe of juſt complaint, but upon triviall, pretended occaſion, commence ſuit after ſuit, til either they have ruin'd them, by corrupting judgment, and obtaining unrighteous de­crees; or by forcing them to yeeld to their unjuſt deſires, for the purchaſe of their peace; ſuch as Ahab, who cove­ted Naboths Vineyard, and becauſe he might not have it upon his own termes, accuſed, arraigned,1 King. 21.14. condem­ned Naboth as a Traytor, that he might gain the poſſeſ­ſion. Such as theſe in this chapter, who imploy poore men in their ſervice, and make them go to Law for their wages, and undo them ere they can recover their own; if there be any ſuch here, weep and howle, for the miſeries which ſhal come upon you; the cryes of the oppreſſed people are entred into the ears of the Lord of Sabbath. The pale cheeks, the thin fides, the naked backs, the hun­gry bellies of the wives and children, whoſe ſoul fain­teth in them, for want of what you wrongfully with­hold, cryes to heaven, (as once the ſtones did out of the wall) for vengeance againſt you; and this Judg,2 Hab. 11.12. who is at the door, is the ſevere avenger of all ſuch injuſtice and oppreſsion; you have made them mourne and weep for want of bread: and you ſhall weep and howle for a drop of water, and not obtain it.

2. Poor men; There is a ſort of poor people (pover­ty is uſually querulous) who will ever be at law; a vexati­ous ſort of men, who are enemies to peace, whoſe meat and drink 'tis to be in law; they'l fare hard, work hard, go bare, pinch themſelves and their families, and all to provide fees againſt the next Term, or againſt the next Aſſizes; who verifie that part of the proverb, which ſayes, the Jews ſpend at Eaſter, the Moors at marriages, and the Chriſtians in ſuites; theſe Salamanders, who delight to live in the fire of contention, when as in an hundred ells of contention, there is not an inch of love; whom every pety triviall buſineſſe drawes into ſuites, againſt the ad­vice of the wiſe, who tell us, We muſt not go to the Phyſi­cian30 for every griefe, nor to the pot for every thirſt, nor to the Lawyer for every quarrel: O ye perverſe people, when will ye be wiſe! ye beſotted wretches, when will ye underſtand! Gal. 15.5.Know ye not yet that while ye devour one another, ye are devoured one of another! Know you not that you raiſe others by your own ruine; for Lawyers houſes are built on the heads of fools: As theſe men ſhould be look'd upon, and diſcountenanced by the Judges here, as the Bote-feux and firebrand of a Common­wealth, ſo ſhall they be ſure to have their ſhare of judg­ment,Satia te ſan­guine quem ſi­tiſti. Juſtin. when he is come, who now ſtands at the door. As it was ſaid to Cyrus, when his head was caſt into a veſſel of bloud, Thou delightedſt in bloud, take thy fill of bloud; ſo ſhall it be done to thoſe who delight to be before the judgement-ſeat, they have their fill on't, when Chriſt comes to judgement.

Once more, it reaches ſuch whoſe ſpirits are more imbitterr'd againſt their Chriſtian Brethren, becauſe they come not quite up to their opinion in every cir­cumſtantiall thing, then they are againſt the common enemies of Religion; ſo ſome conceive the ground of their groaning and grumbling here, was ſome ſmall dif­ference between Chriſtians themſelves in the matter of Circumciſion, which was carried up by the heat of their paſſion, to a higher pitch of enmity, then they bare a­gainſt the Heathens, or the Jews; A fault it were to be wiſh'd, were not ſo riſe in our age; wherein ſome pety differences in matters of opinion, and that in points not fundamentall too, have been fanned up by the po­licy of Satan for the ſerving of civill intereſt, ſo farre, that thoſe who have been as dear to each other as bre­thren, do proſecute one another with the deadlieſt ha­tred, and by their impudent and unchriſtian dealing one againſt another, make way for the common enemy to dance in the aſhes of them all;Pendant que les chiens ſen­tregrondent, le loup devour la brebis. Pro­verb. The French-men ſay, while the dogs art ſnarling and grumbling one at ano­ther, the wolfe devours the ſheep: I am ſure the applica­tion of the proverb is too true, that the diviſions of31 thoſe who are of the ſame Religion, eſpecially of thoſe who undertake to be guides to others, is the Divels harveſt.

It is ſaid of the Civil wars of France,Herbert's Ja­cula Pruden­tum. that they made thirty thouſand witches, and a Million of Atheiſts: and of the civill wars of England, that they and the diviſion of the Princes of the Weſt, which followed thereupon,Habington hiſt. of Edw 4. pag. 228. brought the greateſt damage to the Chriſtians, and gave the greateſt advantage to the Infidels: and 'tis more ſadly true in the buſineſſe before us,Principum Chriſtianorum inanis diſcordi­a, inteſtinis o­diis aucta ſum­mum in modum latiſſimam e­vertendae reli­gionis januam laxat Barbaro. Supplement. Annal. Baron. ad annum. 1635. that the pri­vate animoſities and heart burnings (between thoſe that agree in the ſame fundamentall truths of Religion) con­cerning the Fringe and Trimming of that garment, and things of lower concernment, have reduced many pre­cious ſouls to downright Atheiſm, and given more ad­vantage to that man of ſin, to inlarge his territories, then ever he could get here ſince the time of Reformation. I would not ſpeake this in Gath, nor publiſh it in Aſca­lon, but that the daughters of the uncircumciſed re­joyce, and the daughters of the Philiſtims triumph at it already.

O that the grave and ſober Counſel of old Father A­braham to his Nephew Lot,Gen. 13.8. Gen. 45.24. were written on all our hearts, Let there be no difference between us (for ſuch triviall matters) for we are brethren; and ſince we are all travelling to the ſame Canaan; let Joſeph's cantion to his brethren be for our inſtruction, See that ye fall not out by the way: I remember what was ſaid by that learned and excellent Oratour of our Nation,D Hall. Quid nobis cum infami illo Remonſtranti­um, & contra-Remonſtr. ti­tulo Chriſtiani ſumus, ſimus, &〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. who prea­ched the Sermon at the firſt ſitting of the Councel of Dort: What have we to do (ſaith he) with thoſe pro­digious and odious nick-names of Remonſtrant and Anti­remonſtrant? &c. We be all Chriſtians, all of one bo­dy; let's be all of one mind, and one way: So may I ſay of thoſe names which are caſt upon one another by way of ſcorn, and reproach amongſt us; What have we to do with ſuch odious titles, and reproachfull names, which ſerve onely to heighten our differences,32 and ſet our ſpirits at a more irreconcileable diſtance! Now,Per tremendum Dei nomen; per dulciſſima ma­tris gremium; per ſanctiſſima Chriſti Servato­ris viſcera, &c. enite pacem, &c Vid. Concil. Dodr. (by the bleſſing of God) our Armes are laid down, let not our mouthes be ſpears and arrows, and our tongues ſharp ſwords: let me beſeech you, as he did there his Auditours, by the dreadfull name of God the Father; by the teeming womb, and fruitfull breaſts of the Church our Mother; by the tender bowels of Jeſus Chriſt our elder Brother; by the ſweet and chearing influences of the Dove-like Spirit! that you will ſtudy peace, and quietneſſe, and meekneſſe, and gentleneſſe, not provoking to wrath, but forbearing one another in love.

Here's the balme of Gilead for the fainting ſoule,Ʋſe 2and abundant conſolation for him that is oppreſt;Mr. Manton, in loc. 'tis (doubtleſſe) a great aſſwagement to a Chriſtians's mi­ſery, to think that Chriſt is ready to come to judgment. Lift up your heads, O ye dejected ſpirits, for the day of your redemption draweth nigh; though thou be as diſcon­ſo late as grief can make thee, either with ſorrow, becauſe thou art, or perſecution, becauſe thou wilt not be ſinfull; yet have patience a while, and ſee the ſalvation of God; he that ſhall come, will come, and will not tarry; the Sun of Righteouſneſſe with healing in his wings to redeem thee from thine own miſery, and thine enemies cruelty. When God brought Iſrael out of Egypt, he went up before them in a fire, and a cloud: And when Chriſt ſhall come to judgment,Exod. 13.21. 2 Theſ. 1.8. Luke 21.27. Nubes refrige­rium indicat. Aquin. Iſai. 32.2: Dies refrigerii. Acts 3.19. he ſhall come in a fire, & a cloud; in a fire to the bad, in a cloud to the good; in a fire to con­ſume, but not to light; in a cloud to refreſh, in a cloud to cover: A cloud imports refreſhment, and is as the ſhadow of a rock in a weary land; the day of judge­ment, is called the day of refreſhing; Chriſt is there­fore ſaid to come in a cloud, becauſe he comes to com­fort and refreſh the drooping and the fainting ſoule; we are here in a wilderneſſe, the duſt of oppoſition, contradiction, perſecution, ever blowing in our eyes; but there's a Canaan we expect will make amends for all. We are here in a ſea, whoſe ſurging waves, and33 ſwelling billows put us every moment in danger; but behold, (ſecundam poſt naufragium tabulam,) Here's one will preſerve us from ſinking, and will bring us to the Haven where we would be.

This is the proper year of Jubile,Fuller. Miſcel. lib. 4. cap. 8. Levit. 25.9.10 Buxtorf. Lexi­con, in verb. the true day of re­joycing to a gracious ſpirit; whether we derive the word Jubile, as ſome do from (〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which ſignifies a Ram) becauſe the Jubile was proclaimed with a trum­pet made of a Rams-horn; in this ſenſe the day of judgement ſhall be a day of Jubile; For the trumpet ſhall blow, and the dead ſhall ariſe,1 Cor. 15.42. and all ſhall be chan­ged: Or whether ye derive the word Jubile from〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, in other ſignifications,Jubilaus An­nus eſt annus, 1. Reſtitutio­nis. Levit. 25.13.24.28. 2. Remiſſionis. yet the day of judgement is ſtill a day of Jubile. The year of Jubile is ſometimes ren­dred the year of Reſtitution; Had a man forfeited his eſtate, or morgaged his lands, yet he entered again upon his inheritance at the year of Jubile. 2 'Tis ſometimes rendred the year of remiſſion, or forgiveneſſe; if the man-ſlayer had fled to the cities of refuge, and there abode till the year of Jubile; he was to be acquitted. 3. 'Tis ſometimes rendred the year of freedome;33Emancipati­onis. Levit. 25.54. when thoſe, whom nature or indigence had made ſlaves, had leave to go forth free: In all theſe ſenſes, the day of judgement is a day of Jubile; then we ſhall be reſtored to the full and quiet enjoyment of that poſſeſſion, which we loſt in Adam, whereof the earthly Paradiſe was but a type;Jubilatio, is by the Greek gloſs rendred〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which is, fau­ſta ac lata ac­clamatio, quae à victoribus, ad­verſus victos excitatur. G eg. Nyſſ. orat. de ſancto feſte Paſch. in fine. then ſhall we receive a full diſcharge from all our ſins; then they who have been here unwil­lingly held under the power of the world, and the Di­vel, ſhall utterly break thoſe bonds, and caſt away thoſe cords from them, ſinging Haleluiah's to him that ſits upon the Throne: Since then there is ſuch a day at hand, when our forfeited eſtates ſhall be reſtored, our ſins blotted out of the book of remembrance, and our inveterate enemies, who have holden us captives, tram­pled under foot, we may well rejoyce, ſeeing that then we ſhall keep a true day of Jubile.

342. In particular; this is improveable to enlarge both the patience and the comfort of two ſorts of people: 1. Such as are over-matched with too too potent Adverſa­ries, who are overcome by might, and purſe, and friends, that they can get no juſtice in an honeſt cauſe; Poſſeſſe your ſoules with patience; the coming of the Lord draw­eth nigh: if we have our houſes broken, our goods ſtollen, our deareſt friends murdered, yet we expect with patience till the Aſſizes come, to have juſtice againſt our adverſaries; ſo do you, grudge not, grumble not, vex not your ſouls with impatience: Behold, the Judge ſtandeth at the door.

2 Of the Miniſters of the Goſpel; It was with this that Luther ſupports the drooping ſpirits of Melancthon, and others,Nolite timere, fortes eſtote, Dominus propè adeſt. Agant quicquid poſſunt Henri­ci, Epiſcopi, Turca, Diabo­lus, conſputum & occiſum Ser­vatorem coli­mus & expe­ctamus. under the greateſt oppoſitions and diſcourage­ments; Fear not (ſaith he) be chearfull, the Lord is at hand. Let Kings, and Biſhops, and Turks, and Divels, do their worſt, we owne and worſhip that Chriſt who was ſpit upon and crucified, whom we expect from heaven to our encouragement and reward. And with this may the Miniſters of the Goſpel ſupport their ſpi­rits againſt all the prejudices, and calumnies, and inju­ries, which the world caſts upon them, Dominus propè adeſt, the Judge ſtandeth before the door. Let the co­vetous earth-worm, the debauched ſinner, the Atheiſti­cal Politician, raiſe and foment what ſlanders their wits and malice can invent; yet here's your comfort, (Brethren) the Judge is at the door, the righteous Judg, who will clear up your innocence, and vindicate you from their aſperſions, who laid to your charge things that ye knew not. Epheſ. 4.11.The Miniſtery (which is Gods own Ordinance) never lay ſo low in the eyes of men, as at this day, yet 'tis as a candle in a Lanthorn (ſtill) on the top of a hill, all the winds blowing againſt it, with this Motto, Fruſtrà: Papiſts, Atheiſt, Libertine, and Sectarie, would all extinguiſh it, but all their endea­vours will be in vaine. 2 Cor. 5.20.The Miniſters, who are Chriſt's35 Embaſſadours, never lay under more reproach, and ſcorn, and contempt, then at this day;Micah 6.9. God give them grace to hear the rod, and who hath ſent it; to ſee for what ſins this befals them, and be humbled for them! And now we have caſually made mention of the Miniſters, give me leave for their ſakes,Luke 10.34. to make a ſhort-digreſſion; what was commendable in the Samari­tan, may at leaſt be pardonable in me, to ſtep a little out of the way to pour wine and oile into their wounds, who lie gaſping for their laſt breath.

You have probably heard in your Circuit (my Lords) complaints enough againſt Miniſters, theſe are the common Buts now, againſt which moſt men ſhoot their poyſoned arrows; and it may be, the bottome of moſt of thoſe complaints, if well looked into, will be found on­ly this, that they look for a little of that which is their own, and deſire rather to live upon their own propriety, then upon (which I woos is wondrous cold) the peo­ples charity. If they be forced to flie for ſuccour to your juſtice, which ſhould run a like to all,Deut. 16.19. let not their Cal­lings be their erime, nor they fare the worſe for their functions ſake. Homo bonus, ſed ideo malus quia Chriſtia­nus.It was once the impiety of ſome former ages, that a man in all other points without exception, was accuſed and condemned, onely becauſe he was a Chriſtian: Let it not be (by your fault) the reproach and ſcandall of this age, that a man, learned, religious, ſober, orthodox, ſhould fare the worſe, becauſe he is a Miniſter.

It is ſtoried of that wretched, that Apoſtate King John, that when the Sheriffs officers had brought a thiefe bound, who had robbed and killed a Prieſt, and deſired to know what ſhould be done with him; he replied, Looſe him, let him go, he hath killed our enemy: Indeed, Princes do moſt fear, and leaſt love,Vid. Zanch. iHoſ. 1. ver. 1. Verbum Dei factum eſt. thoſe whoſe gravity and judgement keep them moſt in awe: Let it not be the crime of any in authority amongſt us, to account Mi­niſters their enemies, becauſe they tell them the truth. The36 Magiſtracy and Miniſtry are alike God's Ordinan­ces, which like thoſe twins, ſmile and weep together; when it goes well with one, 'tis not amiſſe with either; when bad with one, 'tis well with neither: theſe are like the two Pillars againſt which Samſon leaned,Jud. 16.25, 26. Cartwright. in Prov. 29.4. they ſtand and fall together, Pietas & juſtitia, columnae rei­publicae: Piety and juſtice be thoſe two pillars, which mutually ſupport each other, and the Common-wealth: if piety be deſtroyed, in (the rule of) the ruine of the Mi­niſtery; juſtice will not long remaine in the practice of the law.

The Miniſters (ſuch as are conſcientious and peace­able, and for ſuch onely I would be underſtood to plead) have generally no enemies, but ſuch whoſe de­teſtable vices, have made even God himſelfe their enemy. The covetous worldling, who meaſures the goodneſſe of his Miniſter, not by the excellence of his parts, nor his painfulneſſe in his calling, nor the unblamableneſſe of his converſation, but by the cheapneſſe of his tithes; the prophane wretch, who would enjoy his ſin uncon­trolled;Matth. 13.25. and that envious perſon, who would be ſowing the tares of errour and hereſies, but is hindred by theſe watch-men: If the Miniſters were but rooted up, theſe miſcreants might enjoy their errors and their luſts at more quiet. Monſieur Da­ille, of the right uſe of the Fa­thers. lib. 2. cap. ult. But as one propoſes the queſtion in a caſe not much different; what wonder is it if a whore, or a Bawd cry down that diſcipline which condemnes thoſe vices, to everlaſting fire? What wonder is it, that he who drownes himſelfe all the day, and at night vomits up his ſoul in wine, ſhould hate that religion which for­biddeth drunkenneſſe under the paine of damnation? What greater wonder is it that he who is reſolved to keep and cocker up his baſeſt luſts, ſhould hate that Mini­ſtery, which plows up his ſoul, and ſuffers them not to root nor grow at quiet? to take any notice of what ſuch wretched things as theſe ſay, is all one, as if you ſhould take the opinion of common ſtrumpets, to judge37 of the equity or injuſtice of thoſe lawes, which enjoyne people to live honeſt: this is the very caſe, and what­ſoever is the pretence, this is the true ground of the quar­rell. And as David ſaid to the woman in another caſe,2 Sam. 14.19, 20. Is not Joabs hand in all this? ſo may we demand, what hath ſet all theſe wheels and engines on work?Judges 14.5. who ti­ed theſe foxces together, with firebrands in their tailes? who twiſts theſe ſeverall diſagreeing conditions of men, into this united enmity againſt the Miniſters of the Goſpel? Is not the**Vid. Preface to the Anno­tations of the Bible, by di­vers learned Divines, (of the Aſſembly) Edict. the 2d. Jeſuits hand in all this? who hope thus to ruine thoſe whom they cannot confute: that when they have deſtroyed the watch-men, they may make a prey of the ſouls of the poor people at their pleaſure? When Philip of Macedon had laid ſiege a­gainſt Athens, he ſends a Trumpeter to tell them, that if they would deliver up to him ten of their Oratours, whom he ſhould chuſe, he would inſtantly raiſe his ſiege, and depart. The Athenians, by the adviſe of Demo­ſthenes, return him their anſwer in this Apologue; There had been a long quarrell between the wolves, and the Shepherds; at the laſt the wolves ſent the Shepherds this meſſage; That they, (the wolves) had no quarrel againſt the Shepherds, nor their flocks, but only againſt their dogs, who were ever barking at them, moleſtiug, and troubling them; if the Shepherds would but hang up their dogs, there would be an end of all differences, the Shepherds, and they ſhould live together like neigh­bours and friends; the credulous Shepherds incline to the propoſition, and diſpatch their dogs; which was no ſooner done, but the wolves fall upon the ſheep, worry them, and tare out their throats without reſiſtance, and without remedy. The evidence of the fable, and the ſutableneſſe of it to the caſe in hand, ſpare me the ap­plication.

The next and laſt ſhall be a word of caution,Ʋſe 3and that firſt generally, to all; Let the conſideration of this approaching day, repreſſe thy exorbitant thoughts,38 and cruſh thoſe brats, which iſſue from thy corrupted nature: if a filial fear bridle them not, this ſlaviſh, muſt, and will bee a good needle to introduce the other. When thoughts of malice and murder ſpring up in thee, as inaaGen. 4.8. Cain; of oppreſſion, as inbb1 King. 21. Ahab; of rebellion, as inccNum. 16.2.3. Corah; of idolatry, as in theddExod. 32.2. Iſraelites; of hypocriſie, as ineeActs 5.6. Ananias; when any ſpeaking eye would inſnare thy heart, any laſcivious geſture kindle thy bloud, or whenffGen. 39.7. Potiphars wife, putting off woman and mode­ſty together, ſhall in plain terms, ſay, Come, lie with me; anſwer them all, as Joſeph did that ſtrumpet;ggVerſe 9 How ſhall I doe this great wickedneſſe, and ſin againſt God? How ſhall I provoke that Majeſty, who is all eye, and muſt needs ſee? who is all hand, and muſt needs ſtrike? who ſhall intercede for me at the day of judgement, or wipe away that ſtaine which this ſin will contract? this ſin, though it be ſweet in the mouth, will prove gall in the ſtomack; For the Lord cometh in flaming fire,Ribera in 2d of Amos 3. Exoritur cla­morque virum, clangorque tu­barum. Virg. to render to every man according to his works; the Judge is at the very door, and comes uſhered with the ſound of the trumpet; & tuba ſignum belli; the trumpet ſtrikes horrour and amazement into every ear: and who ſhall free me from his anger, who comes to take vengeance of my ſin? who ſhall free me from that ſcorching fire, which hath heat to burn, but not light to diſcover a way to eſcape?

2. This may caution thoſe particular ranks of men who are to be imployed in the publick adminiſtration of juſtice; which is the proper work of this day; and firſt, to begin with the ſtars of the greateſt magnitude, that move in this Orbe.

My Lords, and Gentlemen! I ſhall not take upon me the confidence of chalking out your ſeverall duties to you, whom I preſume every way fitted for thoſe imploy­ments, which your Commiſſions impower you to exe­cute; onely let me (to uſe theaa2 Pet. 3.1. Apoſtles words) ſtir up your pure minds by way of remembrance, that you may39 be mindfull of the words ſpoken by the holy Prophets; and becauſe I would not clog your Lordſhips memories, which have ſuch variety and weight of affairs upon them, I ſhall mind you of only two texts; which I would have not written only on yourbbMatth. 23.5. Phylacteries, (as the Phari­ſees were wont to do) but in your memories, and that you would conſtantly repeat them every night when you lie down, and every morning when you riſe; the firſt is, 2 Chronicl. 19.6, 7. And he ſaid to the Judges, Take heed what ye do; for ye judge not for man, but for the Lord, who is with you in the judgement; wherefore, now let the fear of the Lord be upon you, take heed, and do it, for there is no iniquity with the Lord our God, nor taking of gifts. You are God's Judges, you muſt judge with ſutable integrity: his you are, and he is with you in the judgement; God is in a more ſpeciall manner with you on the Bench:Pſal. 82.1. he ſitteth and judgeth among the Gods: he is there to be a witneſſe of what you do, and as a Judge to reward your righteous ſervice, and to a­venge your miſ-doings. When you go to the Bench, look well into your hearts, if there be any thing of fear, or favour, or ſpleen, or prejudice, or profit, that may turn you from the path of juſtice; take heed what you do, Deus videt; That God ſees, who muſt be your Judge. And as he is there to awe you from falſe and corrupt judgment, ſo to encourage you in upright and juſt judgement; when you judge adviſedly and juſtly, you may do it boldly and ſeverely too. God is with you in the judgement, he will bear you out againſt the prou­deſt offender; An act of indemnity is already drawn up in heaven for you; and when you your ſelves ſhal be brought before this Judge in the Text, your entertainment ſhall be, Euge, bone ſerve! Well done,Matth. 25.21. thou good and faithfull ſervant, thou haſt been faithfull in a few things; enter thou into the joy of thy Lord. The next Scripture is that Micah 6.8. which though in generall terms, it reaches all, yet in a more peculiar manner belongs to you. He hath40 ſhewed thee, O man, what is good, and what the Lord requires of thee; to do juſtice, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God. Some of the Rabbins ſay, that this ver. is the abridgment of the whole Law. If I miſtake not, 'tis the ſum of your Commiſſious, wherein are contained your du­ties to man, in the works of the ſecond, and your duties to God in the works of the firſt Table: your dutie to man in two things: 1. Do juſtice. 2. Love mercy. 1. Do juſtice. Juſtice is the life bloud that quickens and a­ctuates the whole Body of the Commonwealth. There is a twofold Injuſtice, whereby this holy Command of God is broken: 1. Negative, not relieving the poor, not righting the widow, and the fatherleſſe, when they juſtly complaine;Petit diſner longuement at­tendu, n' pas donnee, mais cheremens ven­du. not to do them right, is to do them wrong; to delay juſtice, is a breach of Magna Charta, as well as to deny it. What the French-man ſayes, of a little dinner for which we waite long, that 'tis not gi­ven, but dearly bought; that we may truely ſay of ju­ſtice. He that did juſtice at the laſt, becauſe it was ſo long firſt, and then he did it meerly upon importunity, lies under the black character of an unjuſt Judge ſtill. Luke 18.2.A good work impiouſly managed, merits no more then an evill one; not to do juſtice to the oppreſſed, or to do it only for your own ſakes, credit, quiet, profit, are both ſins which you muſt anſwer for to the Judge, who ſtands before the door. Micah 7.3.2. Poſitive Injuſtice; where e­vill is done with both hands greedily; the Prince asketh, and the Judge asketh for a reward; and the great man utters his miſchievous deſires, and ſo they wrap it up; when through fear or favour of men, the poor is tur­ned from his right in the gate; when the Judges fa­vour is caſt into one ſcale, and makes it ſink too faſt. If not to do juſtice be a ſin, what a crime is it to do wrong? If not to relieve the diſtreſſed in their cauſe be injuſtice, what is it to grind their faces? if you prove not a ſhield to protect them, which is your duty, but a ſpear and ſword to wound them; if you prove41 not a buſh to ſhelter them from the ſtorm, which is your duty; but briers and thornes to tear and ſpile them; how great is ſuch injuſtice! Men account themſelves leſſe injuriouſly rifled in a wood,Dan. hiſtor. in the life of King John. then in a place where they pre­ſume of ſafety: and grieve not ſo much when they are cheated by a Shark, as when they are injured by a Judge. An unjuſt Judge is the greateſt plague a Commonwealth is capable of; he turnes juſtice into gall,Amos 6.12. and righteouſneſſe into hemlock; he makes a man's phyſick, his poiſon; and what then can cure him? Maſter of the Hoſpitall of Jeruſalem, to King John. But he that is an unjuſt Judg to others, is juſt againſt, and doth excution upon himſelf; he puts himſelfe out of commiſsion, and cancels that au­thority by which he ſits: for as he ſaid once to the King, So long as you will obſerve juſtice, you may be a King:Dan. biſt. p. 168. but when you once violate it, you ceaſe to be a King. So ſay I, ſo long as you do juſtice, you are a Judge; when you pervert judgement, you ceaſe to be a Judge.

The ſecond Branch of your duty to men, is, Love mercy: You muſt do juſtice, when neceſſity cals for it; but you muſt love mercy. Mercy is the choice attribute which God delights to exerciſe; when he comes to judgment, he comes ſlowly, but chearfully to ſhew mercy; when God is coming to pu­niſh Iſrael,Iſai. 7.20. 'tis ſaid, that he will ſhave with a razor that is hired, as if it were a work which he came ſo unwilling­ly to, that he kept no tools by him to work withall, but was faine to hire them; God ſtrikes but with his finger;Non debet diſ­penſator crude­lis eſſe, ubi pa­ter-familias miſericors eſt. but he ſaves with his arme. He gives his wrath by weight; but without weight his mercy: Be ye therefore mercifull as your heavenly Father is mercifull: you may poſſibly meet with ſome, whoſe youth, or ignorance, or hope­fulneſſe of amendment, may render them the objects of your mercy, without prejudice to the Commonwealth; in ſuch caſes, be tender of drawing bloud;Chap. 2.13. 'tis a preci­ous thing: Let mercy rejoyce againſt judgement; and re­member that of our Apoſtle, that he ſhall have judgment without mercy, who will ſhew no mercy.

2. As to God-ward;Ribera in lo­cum. your duty is to walk humbly with your God; Solicitum eſſe ad ambulandum, to make it your42 buſineſſe and your care to walk humbly with your God, in your own perſons, in your families, in your places & offices.

1 In your own perſons;Gen. 30.39. Vita Judicis eſt cenſura, ea­que perpetua, ad hanc converti­mur, ad hanc dirigimur; re­ctè facere, fa­ciendo docent. Plus exemplo, quam peccato nocent. Inferiours live more by the eye, then by the ear, and are guided by example, much rather then by command; they are like Jacob's ſheep, which pro­duce fruit like to that they look upon, ſpeckled and ring­ſtraked; The people look upon the life of the Judge, as the beſt commentary upon the Law; they will hardly believe the meaning of the Law is to puniſh ſwearing, or Sabbath-breaking, or the like ſins, whil'ſt they ſee the Judge practice that himſelfe, which he forbids in others. Every good Judge, (and 'tis true too, of every good Mi­niſter, Magiſtrate, Father, Maſter,) muſt be exemplary in goodneſſe:Judges 7.17. and be able to ſay in reference to good things, as Gideon did in another caſe, As you ſee me do, ſo do ye. They ſhould teach thoſe who are under their power to do good, by doing it themſelves