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Geographia Ʋniverſalis: THE Preſent State Of the Whole WORLD: GIVING

  • An ACCOUNT of the ſeveral Religions, Cuſtoms, and Riches of each People;
  • The Strength and Government of each Polity and State;
  • The Curious and moſt Remarkable Things in every Region;
  • With other Particulars neceſſary to the under­ſtanding Hiſtory, and the Intereſt of Princes.

Written Originally by the SIEƲR DƲVAL, Geographer in Ordinary to the French King; And made Engliſh, and Enlarged By FERRAND SPENCE.

Venient annis
Soecula ſeris, quibus Oceanus
Vincula rerum laxet, & ingens
Pateat Tellus, Tiphyſque novos
Detegat Orbes; nec ſit terris
Ʋltima Thule.
Senec. Tragaed. Med. v. 374.

London: Printed by H. Clark, for F. Pearſe, at the Blew Anchor at the Weſt-end of St. Pauls, 1685.

[John Ward of Capeſthorne in the County of Cheshire Eſq. and of the Inner Temple 1704: bookplate

To the Honourable Edward Coke, Eſq

SIR,

ONE of the Principal De­ſigns of moſt Dedications inſcrib'd to Men of Eminence and Condition, is the imploring their Patronage and Protection. This the Authors ever pretend, and add, that their Books, being to travel in a wide and cenſorious World, do want a Paſs­port from ſome Grea Name, which may defend them from the arrogance and obloquy of Cri­ticks, a ſort of Men, that are born to be the Scourges of Mankind in all Ages, and therefore ought ei­ther to be tied up by the Publick Magiſtrate, or awed down by Perſons of Celſitude and Honour; ſo that if Hobbs his State of Na­ture awakens and kicks-up in 'em, they may vent all their Malig­nity on the Dust, without any Noiſe of their own, or the Hear­ing of others. They pretend, that the leaſt Trifles and Dwarflings of Wit, are moſt mightily ſafe and ſecure, provided they have but kindly and favourable Patrons: And, to hear at what rate they talk, a Man would ſay, that thoſe glorious and adorable Per­ſonages, whom they with ſo much Religion invoke, and to whom they ſo devoutly conſe­crate their Labours, have either the Will or the Power to give Eſtimation to ſuch things, as by no means deſerve it; as if, like Deities, they cou'd Create ſome­thing out of nothing, and the Merits of one Man cou'd be transferr'd upon another.

This Cuſtom, SIR, I ſhall not follow, tho' I have ſo much good Company, it being bottom'd upon a very Chimerical Founda­tion; but ſhall leave the Book and its Author to ſhift for them­ſelves, as well as they can. Yet even this Amuſement is ſu­perſeded by their having done ſo already: For, Both of 'em have, for ſome Years, ſtood the Test of France; and as it has been the Happineſs of the Author to be applaudedand preferr'd by that Great-Prince, for his profound Skill and Know­ledge in theſe no leſs pleaſu­rable than uſeful Studies of Geo­graphy, ſo hath his Book been Univerſally receiv'd and Una­nimouſly approv'd by the learned part of that King's Subjects, as it appears by the repeated Edi­tions of this Work in the Ori­ginal.

As to my ſhare in it, that am only the Engliſher, I can pretend to nothing of Merit, but only that of Tranſlating it Faithfully. It is a Subject made more for Ʋſe than Oſtentation, and ſerves rather to the Infor­mation than Divertiſement of Hu­mane Life. Here are none of the Heroick Flights of Eloquence, nor the more Delicate Curioſi­ties of Wit: But the Words both are and ought to be as plain and un-metaphorical as thoſe in the last Confeſſion of a Dying Man. Wou'd it not be an horrid, ab­ſurd and amaſing Spectre, Sir, to ſee a Fellow, when he is rea - to Expire, uſe either a ſtarch'd Eloquence or Nice Witticiſms, when he was to draw all the Linea­ments of his Soul, to ſhew the ſeveral riſings and tumours of his Paſſions, and conſequently his Vices depending thereon, to di­ſcover all the Deformities, and let the By-ſtanders gueſs at the Landskip of his Vertues, and (in one word) when he was to write or dictate the whole Geography of his Mind? The ſame thing holds good in this kind of Knowledges: They muſt be drawn as Naked, as Truth or Nature; Otherwiſe, Poetry wou'd Commence Geography, and this Globe of Earth wou'd be like a Caſtle in the Air, not only in its local Hanging, but its real Exiſtence.

But tho' the Argument does not admit of much Verbal Or­nament, yet it carries a great deal of Delight along with it, which ariſing from the things themſelves, moſt undoubted­ly, is much more real, ſteady, and ſubſtantial, than what de­rives its Origine from Words. Here we are only tickl'd, but there a ſolid Joy runs through the whole Circle of Blood, which keeps it warm a good while afterwards. By the former we are put, peradventure, into a ſmall ſort of Ecſtacy, but we are fluſh'd and transfix'd by the later. The First ſlackens and relaxes the Mind, but the Se­cond enlarges it and fills it up. And (to inſtance in the Studies under my hands) when we take a Proſpect of the ſeveral Scenes of this Globe, of its dif­ferent Soils and Climates, of its various Kingdoms and Nations, of their reſpective Arts and Policies, of their divers Religions and De­votions; tho' all this be deſcrib'd without any Rhetorical Paint and Fucus, it muſt needs both ex­tremely divert and ſate the wi­deſt Capacities of our Souls, not only upon account of the Nature of the Things them­ſelves, but likewiſe of their admirable Variety: And, for my part, I am unable to ex­preſs the mighty Satisfaction I took two Years ago, when I ran this thing over with my Pen, only to ſettle theſe Notices in my Mind.

It is my Opinion, SIR, that our Minds ſtand in need of as much Nutriment as our Bodies: As we are perpetually recruit­ing the latter, ſo we muſt be al­ways refreſhing the former, and not let it, by continual Expi­ration either grow Empty or be harraſs'd by Famine. Men are not to imitate their Methods in fur­niſhing their Houſes, while they lay out ſo much in adorning all their lower Rooms, but the Garret is either Empty or fill'd with Rubbiſh. Yet it is gene­rally ſeen, that when Men have got ſome ſmall ſtock and ſmattering of Learning, there they ſtick and proceed no further; they have already enough for common Converſation, and talk the reſt by hints and gueſſes; not conſidering, that ſo frail is the Mind and Memory of Man, that even that knowledge runs through it, as through a perfo­rated Veſſel, and they muſt imitate the Danaides in their Labour, tho' they do not in the vanity of their Labour: for in the ſifting of Letters, as in other things, tho' the greater part paſſes through, yet what's fine remains, and the more it's ſifted the finer and richer it is: But thoſe,Queis arte Benigna Et meliore luto finxit praecordia Titan,tho' they have leſs Neceſſity, yet take more Care about this Reple­tive Faculty, (as I may call it;) and as what Aliment enters the Stomach, turns gradually into Chyle, and Blood, and Animal Spirits; ſo they refine more and more the Notices that come into the Brain; and Converſation [the true Touchſtone] turns what they Read into good and current Coin, as Midas turn'd all he touch'd into Gold.

Another Reaſon, for a Conſtant Infuſion of Knowledge into the Mind, ariſes by immediate De­duction from the former; ſince the Soul ought no more to be in the ſame temper and frame than the Body, if we intend either to live happily or in health. As a con­tinual renovation of the Blood con­duces to the health of the Body, ſo a conſtant Redintegration of thoughts makes up the welfare and good eſtate of the Mind. Variety is the great Miſtreſs of the World, and what wou'd become of Love it ſelf, and all other Miſtreſſes, if ſhe was not ador'd? What Man in the World wou'd be always in the ſame Garb, or be always chewing the ſame Meat? Great­neſs it ſelf is tyrannical and tireſom without Learning on a Day of Phyſick or Rain: and Men ought to value 'emſelves as much upon their Minds as their Bodies.

Now, to apply, Sir, that which I have ſaid to the preſent Caſe; what can be more charmingly va­rious and diverſifi'd, than the know­ledge of the ſeveral Circumſtances of this ſublunary Globe? What can be more ſerviceable and con­ducive toward our Attainment of a Vitae Modus, (as Terence calls it) than our reading the greater World, and ſo learning how to form our own Microcoſm? What better way, Sir, can there be taken to underſtand the Conſtitution of our own Government, and be able to ſhake St. Stephen's Chappel by a Logical Eloquence, than by weigh­ing the Frames of all other Poli­ties and Regiments on this ſide the Sun? What other Conſiderati­ons can better incite you to a bra­ver Mettle and more ſudden Skill and Experience in the Arts of Gallantry and the Sword, than the Fancy of a Fame Equal to the extent of the whole World? Theſe ſublime and lofty Meditations have precipitated me into the undoubted Foreſight of future things: And ev'n now I ſee a Life, that will be the Labour and Embelliſhment of our Chronicles, not only the Illuſtrious Greatneſs and Divine Wiſdom of your now Grandfather, with the Excellencies of that your other ſo celebrated Ance­ſtor of your own Name, but all the Perſonal Perfections of your glorious Mother center'd and conſpicuous in you; inſomuch that as you will be the Orna­ment and Support of the Maſcu­line, ſo I muſt neceſſarily Infer you the triumphant Delight of the Fair Sex; and in paſſionate Expectation of that time, I lay the whole World, and my Self, at your feet; Who am, SIR,

Your most Obedient, And most Humble Servant, F. SPENCE.

THE Engliſher's PREFACE TO THE READER.

THo' the Multitude of Books of this Nature is already very great in our own, as well as other Lan­guages, yet I queſtion not, but what incited our Author, (the French King's Geographer in Ordinary) to the firſt Writing this Tract, will alſo ſuffici­ently excuſe, if not juſtifie me in Copying from his Original. For beſides, that com­monly this ſubject, among Us, is expanded into vaſt Volumes gathered out of Antient Authors, which ſome People, very deſirous of this kind of pleaſant and neceſſary Know­ledg, have not the leiſure to read, you will find herein a ſhort, and yet (I think) no unpleaſant view of the Great World, Colle­cted from the neweſt Relations, that the lateſt Travellers have made, of all parts of the Habitable Earth: Inſomuch, that our Author is not afraid to call his Book, The Preſent State of the Whole World.

Otherwiſe, this is a Title I durſt not have ventured upon, in Down-right-honeſt-Eng­liſh, with reference to Aſia, Africa and America, in regard there have been ſome Mutations in thoſe Parts ſince this Verſion of mine; and 'tis impoſſible to give a Per­fect, or ſo much as an Indirect Account of the preſent Circumſtances, under which all thoſe parts of the World now lie: And ac­cordingly, the Conſideration of 'em is Brief, tho' interlined with many Curious and No­table Obſervations, which make up about half the Book. The other half is wholly de­ſtin'd to Europe, and gives a ready Proſpect of Affairs and Things, as they now ſtand, and have ſtood ſince the laſt publick Treaty of Peace, and ſince the Mighty Growth of the French Monarchy, excepting ſome Abatements of very late Tranſactions.

Nevertheleſs, our Author is not wholly to be Condemn'd for his wide Title, ſince, in ſome meaſure, he may lay Claim to have given very Neceſſary and Preſent Notices of the fartheſt Parts of the Earth; where he ſhews the ſettlements the Europeans have made in the Weſt and Eaſt-Indies, and the Paſſages, Tracts and Courſes they now take, or of old took in Navigation, with other particulars, of the like ſtamp, peculi­ar to our Times.

And here, one thing I muſt not be ſilent in, that ſince our Author was very ſhort and Careleſs in the Deſcription of our Co­lonies and Plantations abroad (and who could expect any other from him; I have preſumed, and, I hope, innocently enough, to add ſeveral things, to him, in ſeveral places, and would have added many more, had not the Sheets been committed to the Preſs without my re-touching them, and the greater part of them Printed off with­out my Privity: And this true Excuſe I have for the ſparing and ſtingy Deſcrip­tion of France, and for the want of our own Routs to the Eaſt-Indies, and other Places, which I had deſign'd to have en­larg'd and added. For, though no one, in ſtrict Juſtice, has ſuch a Right over ano­ther Man's Work, as may Authorize and Priviledg him to change and alter what he pleaſe, yet having ſo much good Compa­ny, I muſt confeſs, in the Additional way among my Brother-Tranſlators [though we did not learn it from our Great Coun­try-Maſter, Philemon Holland] I hope I may have the Engliſh Reader's pardon, eſpecially ſince 'tis for the Glory of our Com­mon Mother, whoſe Reputation and Ho­nour we ought not only to defend with our Swords and Pens, but to propagate to the utmost borders of the Univerſe. And the Author, I ſuppoſe, will think no injury done him; for if he had been an Engliſhman, he wou'd have Writ ſo: But if he thinks him­ſelf concern'd, I must give him ſatisfaction from his own Countrymen, who, when they tranſlate our Books, are notoriouſly known to corrupt them in much more material Points, witneſs ſome of my Lord Bacon's Works, which, while they are taught to ſpeak French, are inſtructed alſo, by the highest Injuſtice, to ſpeak him a Roman-Catho­lick.

You must not expect here any Praecognita to this Geography, nor the treating of that part of it, which is called Spherical, it being no part of his Deſign, and the World being cloy'd with Books enough of ſuch a Concern already. Our Author does not diſpute the roundneſs of this Body of Earth and Wa­ter from the Celeſtial and Terreſtrial Phae­nomena, nor where this Globe is ſituated. Here are no Lectures upon Zeniths or Na­dirs, Azimuths or Almicanters: Neither does our Author divide the Winds into 64 Parts, as ſome very nicely have done. He has not determin'd, whether the first Diſcoverer of America's right Name was Columbus, or Colonus; Nor whether the Quadripartite Diviſion of the World is rational, or any Equality to be found in it. The Reader is ſuppos'd to have ſome acquain­tance with theſe things, and to know what is the meaning of the Meridian, Aequator, Zodiack, Tropicks, Polar Circles, and Zones; or at least, without theſe Know­ledges, may reap benefit enough from this Book. But tho' this Treatiſe doth not pre­tend to ſhew, how the Latitude (in the Abſtract) may be found either in the day­time by the Sun, or in the night by the Stars, though it doth not brag of having invented any new, more certain and ready, way than hitherto has been uſed for the find­ing out the Longitudes of Places, yet in the Deſcriptions of the moſt conſiderable Regions, the Longitudes and Latitudes of them are not paſt over, but are very careful­ly ſet down.

There is one Exception more, which I am to take notice of: That whereas our Author having divided the World into Upper and Nether Hemiſphere, has con­ſidered the firſt with Relation to France, which will not do exactly in England, yet, ſince that England, for the moſt part, is under the ſame Meridian with France, I have made bold to venture all Coun­tries, ſo conſidered in Engliſh, without any Change or Alteration, becauſe there will be no great Squares broken: For the like reaſon, and by a Pardonable figure of Speech, I call Europe, Aſia and Africa, our Continent, though we live in an Iſland, which yet, as ſome have ſaid and proved (how truly I ſhall not here queſtion) to have been once joyned to the Terra Firma. I ſaid, I had but one Exception more to wipe off; for I am ſorry I have not forgot that nice one, which ſome Criticks may make, that, I ſay, of different Places, ſuch a thing, in ſuch a Place, is the beſt in the World: But beſides, that ſome things may be beſt in different Proſpects and Relations, theſe ſort of Expreſſions follow the French, and are vulgarly us'd in our own Tongue, and are of a very ancient Date, as ap­pearing frequently in the Lively Oracles of God, when both Hezekiah and Joſhua are commended, To have had none like unto them, neither before nor after them.

1

THE PRESENT STATE Of the Four Parts of the WORLD.

The Terreſtrial World.

WE mean, by the Terreſtrial World, this round Maſs, which Comprehends the Earth and Water. The Earth, whoſe Deſcription, is here intend­ed, conſiſts principally of two great Conti­nents, and ſome Lands towards both Poles. The firſt of theſe Continents has three great Parts; to wit, Africa, Aſia, and Europe: Africa lyes toward the South and the Weſt; Aſia on the Eaſt; Europe North-Weſt. Theſe three great Parts are in our Hemiſphere, which we call Superiour and Oriental, with regard had to that of the Americans, which ſeems to be below us, and is Weſt of us. America poſſeſ­ſes the other great Continent in the Inferiour and Occidental Hemiſphere. The Lands near the Poles are of two ſorts, Artick and Antartick; neither have they long been, nor is there much of them diſcover'd, than what's along the2 Sea-Coaſts. The Antartick Lands are ſeparated from the other great Continents by the Ocean; the Turn that Merchants and Travellers take in circling the World, from Eaſt to Weſt thro' the South Seas, having left no ſubject of doubt. We cannot with certainty ſay the ſame thing of the Artick Coaſts, tho' ſome affirm the Nor­thern Sea communicates with the Oriental, to­wards the North-Eaſt of our Continent, and with the South-Sea toward the North-Weſt of Northern America.

The Artick Region.

THeſe Parts have been call'd by the name of Artick, becauſe they are near the Artick Pole: they are called Northern, becauſe of the North, in which they are ſci­tuated;**〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 Boreales, from a Greek Word which ſignifies the North-Wind: they conſiſt of Iſlands and Peninſula's, where there are Bears, Foxes, and Rain-Deer, in abundance, the Inhabitants living commonly on Hunting or Fiſhing.

The Seas of theſe Regions make a part of the the great Ocean, which is here known under the name of Northern and Frozen.

The Ice there laſts a long time, becauſe to theſe Parts the Sun during ſeveral Months diſco­vers not himſelf, and when he appears, he doth not heat or thaw it.

The Bays and Streights of Hudſon, Davis, and Forbiſher, are in the Inferiour Hemiſphere;3 that of Weygats, otherwiſe of Naſſaw, in the Superiour Hemiſphere, on the North of our Continent: Cabot, Willoughby, Forbiſher, Davis, Hudſon, and other Engliſh men, have ſought a Paſſage to the East-Indies through the three former Streights; Barenſon, Heemskirk, and other Hollanders, have done the ſame, thro' that of Weygats; but all to no purpoſe, by reaſon of the Ice, which is almoſt continually there, and ſtops Ships in their Navigation; and this it is, that has hindred 'em from going beyond the 80. Degree of North Latitude.

Three Courſes have been commonly ſteer'd in theſe Northern Seas, to Archangelo into Moſ­covy, for Furs; to Spigelberg, and Greenland, for Whales; and into Norway, for Herrings and Timber.

The Artick Lands are Eſtotiland, Greenland, Iſland, Spigelberg, Nova Zembla, to which may be added, the Land of Jeſſo, tho' it be in the Northern temperate Zone.

Eſtotiland is towards the North of the great Continent of America.

Greenland is of a vaſt extent to the North of Eſtotiland. Chriſtian the Fourth, King of Den­mark, call'd it His Philoſophers Stone, becauſe the Ships he ſent thither could hardly find it out. His Succeſſours keep a Governour there, at Bearford. The Greenlanders Cloaths are made of the Skins of Wild Beaſts, and their Waſt­coats of Birds Skins, garniſh'd with their Fea­thers: the Flour of the Bread they eat, is made of Fiſhes Bones: they drink Sea Water, without receiving any inconvenience by ſo doing.

4

Iſeland.

ISeland, the Thule of the Ancients, one of the greateſt Iſlands in the World, lyes towards the North in both Hemiſpheres, where it is part of the Dominions of the Crown of Den­mark. This advantage it has of not having ſo many Rocks upon its Coaſts, as have the other Northern Countreys.

There are two Principal Villages, Hola and Schalholt: As for Cities, it has none; the Houſes in other places are commonly of Wood; cover'd with the Bark of Trees and with Turfs. The Inhabitants are of the Confeſſion of Augſ­bourg; have no Phyſicians, feed their Oxen and their Horſes with dry Fiſh, when they are in want of Hay. They receive often great floats of Ice, which are looſen'd from the Northern Shores, whereon is Wood and ſeveral ſorts of Creatures, which they accommodate themſelves withal. Therefore they inhabit more willingly the Sea-Coaſts, than the inner part of the Iſland. There are ſeveral Mountains, whereof Mount Hecla is the moſt conſiderable; It caſts forth Fire, and is not to be approached within ſix Miles diſtance. Daniſh, Hambourger, and Lubecker Ships, frequently refort thither with diverſe Commodities of Europe, which the Iſlanders ſtand in need of. The Danes fetch from thence dryed Fiſh, Whale-Oyl, Butter, Suet, Sulphur, Ox-Hides, and thoſe Teeth of Valruſhes, which ſome eſteem as much as Ivory.

Spigelberg, or Spitsbergen, is a Countrey in our Hemiſphere, the moſt advanc'd toward the5 Artick Pole. It produces only green Moſs: thoſe that have been left there to make a full diſcovery of it, periſh'd through cold, after having fought with White Bears, who pre­tended a right to eat them. Upon its Coaſts Whales are taken of a prodigious bulk, ſince from one alone has ſometimes been drawn a a Hundred and twenty Tun of Oyl. The Eng­liſh and Hollanders lay claim to the Dominion of it.

Nova Zembla is the Iſland Carambice of the Ancients, very near our great Continent, from whence one may paſs to it upon the Ice, and one way ſtretches as far as Spitsbergen, nay, and much farther; ſo as it may probably be ſaid, that this is the place, where thoſe paſs'd who firſt of all inhabited America: the ſtreight which parts it from the Terra firma, has in its Eaſtern part high Mountains of Ice, which are call'd Pater-noſters. This Name of Nova Zembla, is by reaſon of the Way that has been ſo long ſought after along thoſe Coaſts, to go to the East-Indies, through the Tartarian-Sea. In the year 1676. Capt. Wood, that Ingenious and In­duſtrious Seaman, was again ſent out by His Ma­jeſty, King Charles the Second, to make a more perfect Diſcovery of that North-Eaſt Paſſage; perſwaded unto it by diverſe Relations of our own and Dutch Mariners; who reported many things concerning it, which Capt. Wood upon his own experience conceives to be falſe; as that they were either under or near the Pole; that it was there all thaw'd Water, and the Weather as warm as at Amſterdam, &c. He ſaith further, That he himſelf cou'd paſs no further than 76 Deg. where he found the Sea6 as far as he cou'd diſcern, entirely frozen with­out intermiſſion. That it is moſt likely, that Nova Zembla and Greenland are the ſame Conti­nent, at leaſt that there is no paſſage betwixt them; for that he found ſcarce any Current: And that little, which was, ran E.S.E. along the Ice; and ſeem'd only to be a ſmall Tide, riſing not above Eight Foot. And whil'ſt he was in that Degree, there were nothing but Frogs, Froſt and Snow, and all imaginable ill Weather, tho' at the ſame time the heat ſeem'd to be as great as at any time in England.

The Land of Jeſſo lyes between Aſia and Ame­rica, being ſeparated from each of thoſe Con­tinents by great Arms of the Sea. Its Inhabi­tants exchange in thoſe Cities of Japan that are neareſt 'em, their Fiſh, their Skins, the Tongues and the Fat of their Whales, for other Merchan­dize which they fancy moſt. The Planks of their Veſſels are not nail'd; they are ſewed very dexterouſly with Ropes made of the Rind or Bark of Cocoes, and they do not rot in the Water. The Hollanders have been there ſeve­ral times. Their Relations affirm, That part of this Territory acknowledges the King of Japan for its Soveraign; That the Comman­der in Chief of this Country, who has his Re­ſidence at Matzimai, carries that Monarch every year, Silver, Birds Feathers of ſeveral Colours, with very fine Furs.

7

The Antartick Lands.

THe Antartick Land is often called Auſtralis Magellanica Incognita. We might with juſt title name them the Southern Indies, and the third World. Thoſe who would engage Sove­raign Princes, to promote the diſcovery of theſe Lands, ſay, that they are of as great an extent as all America, nor leſs Peopled, or leſs Fertile, than Europe: They may have above Six thouſand Miles of Coaſt in three ſeveral Zones of the Southern part of the World, the Hot, Tem­perate, and Cold: Perhaps Countreys might there be found of all manner of temperament, tho' none have yet been beyond the 68 Degree of Southern Latitude. Amongſt the Streights that are there, that of Magellan, firſt afforded a way in the year 1523. to voyage it round the World through the South Sea: this Streight is Two hundred Leagues in length: in breadth, in ſome places, two, three, in others, five, ſix, or ten. Thoſe who paſs through it, receive great incon­veniencies, by reaſon of the ſinuoſities and wind­ings, and the frequent ſtorms that are there. The Streights of Maire, which were diſcovered in the year 1615. are much more commodious; 'tis but ten or twelve Leagues in length, and as many in breadth. That of Brouvers, which was paſs'd in the year 1643. is on the South-Eaſt, and has the ſame advantages with that of Le Maire. The Engliſh and Hollanders ſometimes ſteer this Courſe to go to the East Indies.

Beſides, under the name of Antartick Lands, are reckoned Countries which indeed are very8 far diſtant from the Southern Pole, but which cannot be attributed to the other great parts of the World, ſince they are ſeparated from it by Seas of a vaſt extent; New Guiney, the Iſles of Solomon, New Zealand, the Land of Fire, the Land of Parrots, New Holland. There's hardly any thing known of the other Southern Parts befides the Names of thoſe who diſcovered them.

New Guiney, towards the South of the Equi­noxial Line, and in the Inferiour Hemiſphere, is a very great Iſle, and bears this Name, becauſe it ſeems to be Diametrically oppoſite to the Guiney of Africa.

The Iſles of Solomon are in the South Sea, at ten or twelve Degrees of the Southern Lati­tude. The Spaniards, who have them in poſ­ſeſſion, give them the name of Solomon, to per­ſuade the World, that that wiſe King ſent for his Gold from thence.

New Zealand is the Country where the Hol­landers have met with ſcurvy uſage, when they would have ſetled themſelves there. There it is, they ſay, are great Men, and of a huge ſta­ture; whether they really be ſo, or fear made them appear ſuch, at leaſt each of their two Com­panies to the Indies avouched the ſame thing. In all probability it was diſcovered by Fernandez de Quir, who tells a thouſand advantageous par­ticulars of it; He ſpent Fourteen Years in his Travels, Fourteen Months at Court, and pre­ſented, in vain, Eight Petitions, to the King of Spain, to perſuade him to ſend Colonies thi­ther. Between New Zealand, and the Streights of Magellan, ſome have placed ſeveral ſmall Iſlands, which are ſaid to have been diſcover'd in9 the Name of the King of Spain, by Hernando Gal­lego, in the year 1576.

The Land of Fire, on the South of America, conſiſts of ſeveral Iſlands that are called Ma­gellanic, and the Fires that were ſeen there, the firſt time the Europeans went on ſhoar, have given occaſion to this Name.

The Land of Parrots is probably that which we call Terra Auſtralis. In the year 1504. a French-man, called Gonneville, went on ſhoar there, and was kindly receiv'd by a petty King, called Aroſca: After ſeveral Months abode, he brought away with him ſome of the Inhabi­tants, and amongſt others, one called Eſſomeriq, a King's Son, who has left of his Poſterity in Normandy.

New Holland ſeems to be that Land, or rather thoſe two great Iſlands of Petan, and the leſſer Java; which Mark Paul ſaith, lies South Eaſt of the Iſle of Java. The Hollanders ſet ſo great a value upon theſe New Lands, that they have cauſed the Map of them to be cut in inlaid or Moſaick Works upon the Pavement of their Stadt-Houſe in Amſterdam.

10

America.

IS a part of the World, bearing the Name of Americus Veſputius, a Florentine, tho' Chriſtopher Columbus, a Genoeſe, diſcover'd it before him. It has been alſo call'd, the New World, becauſe it was not well known until the laſt Age, and its bigneſs has made it paſs for the greateſt Continent of the Earth. Sometimes it is called the West Indies, and the Little Indies, to diſtinguiſh it from the East In­dies, which are great and part of Aſia. Some give it the Name of the Spaniſh Indies, becauſe the King of Spain has the greateſt and better part of it in his poſſeſſion. Thus the Name of Indies is common to two great Regions; the one in our Continent, the other in the other Hemiſphere; whether they were diſcover'd at the ſame time; or that in both the Inhabitants go commonly naked; or that from the one and the other are brought rich and precious Mer­chandize and Commodities; or laſtly, whe­ther the Pilot Alonze Zanches d' Andalouſia, be­ing the ſame that ſaw America, before Colum­bus, and left him his Memoirs, did think that it was joyn'd to the Indies of Aſia. In all pro­bability, America is the Atlantick Iſland of the Ancients: ſome ſay that it is the real Tarſis; which Monarchs, to take from their People the knowledge of its great Riches, and the deſire11 of trading thither, had given it very ſtrange Names, calling it Hell, the Elyſian Fields, and the Fortunate Iſlands: and that for the con­founding the Name of Tarſis, they had called by the ſame Name ſeveral Places of our Conti­nent, where the Merchants had their Banks and their Correſpondencies. Several are perſuaded, that the City and Iſland of Cadiz are now what was formerly Tarſis. Thoſe Soveraigns pretend­ed there were Dragons, Infernal Rivers, ſome­times a Cherubim with a flaming Sword; which were probably nothing elſe than thoſe ſtorms which are frequent in the Torrid Zone, and the Inſults of Corſairs and Pyrates, who watcht the the coming of the Gallies and Fleet from Terra firma, to get Booty. Several do aſſure us, that it was to the Atlantick Iſle, Hanno the Cartha­ginian went, when he conducted towards the South Weſt, a Fleet of Sixty Sail, with Thir­ty Thouſand Men. They alſo ſay, That five years afterwards, the ſame Hanno, being re­turn'd into his own Countrey, prohibited all ſuch Voyages to his Citizens, that their City might not be depopulated, by their going to dwell there, charmed with the great Riches that were to be found in thoſe-Countries, for fear the Rebels might make it an Aſile, to the ruin of their State. Thoſe Authors find but little credit, who undertake to prove by a feigned Medal of Auguſtus, which was pretended to be found in thoſe parts, or by a ſuppoſed Marble, taken out of the ground in Portu­gal, under King Emanuel, with Latin Verſes of a forged Sybile, touching the diſcovery of this New World. If it be then true, that Ame­rica was known by the Ancients, we may ſay,12 that the perils People muſt expoſe themſelves to in traverſing the Seas that are between the two great Continents before they arrive there, and the little experience the Ancients had in Navigation, did make 'em abandon the perſuit of their Commerce into theſe Regions; and that had it not been for the favourable re­ception that was made by Ferdinand, King of Arragon and Caſtile, to Columbus, whoſe pro­poſal had been rejected by the Government of Genoa, the Kings of Portugal, and England, we ſhould perhaps be ſtill to learn, if there was any other Continent than ours.

America is divided into two great parts or Peninſula's, the one Northern, called Mexicana; the other Southern, called Peruana. This Di­viſion is according to the Iſthmus or neck of Land which lyes near Panama, and not accord­ing to the Equinoctial Line. The Spaniards had once a deſign in their heads to cut through that Iſthmus, for the ſparing the Charges, which are far greater to them in that Tract of Land, by the tranſportation of their Merchandizes, when they go to Peru, or return from thence, than in all the way by Sea they make between Spain and America, tho' this way be above two thouſand Leagues; But were not able to bring this Enter­prize of theirs about. The Countries of Nor­thern America, are as you go from the North to the South, Canada or New France, Virginia, Flo­rida, New Mexico, Mexico or New Spain, and the Iſlands of the Antilles. You find in Southern America, all along the Seas, the Terra firma, where is Caſtella del Oro, and Guyana, Peru, Chili, Magellanica, Paraguay, where is Tucuman, and la Plata, and laſtly Braſile.

13

America is environned with the Sea, if it be true, that towards the North West it is ſepa­rated from the Land of Jeſſo by the Streights of Anien. Thoſe who make it as big as Aſia and Africa together, compare its Northern part to Aſia, and its Southern to Africa. It has the advantage of being fertil and temperate, by reaſon of its great and goodly Rivers, and of the cool Winds that ariſe there, even in the Torrid Zone, where the Inhabitants have not the blackneſs which is natural in moſt of the Africans, and in ſome Aſiaticks of our Conti­nent, who inhabit under the ſame Zone. This makes us ſee, that the moſt or the leaſt heat is not always cauſed by the proximity or remoteneſs of the Sun, and that which contributes thereto often is the ſituation of Places, the diſpoſi­tion of the Mountains and Valleys, the quality of the Soil, and the diverſity of the Winds which blow in thoſe reſpective Regions.

The Riches of America are ſo great, that Spain has drawn out from thence, and does ſtill draw every year a prodigious quantity of Gold and Silver, of which many private perſons of Europe, both in Peace and War, under diverſe borrowed Names, receive a good ſhare. The Mines of Potoſi have always furniſhed an immenſe number of Millions. Never were any Riches comparable to thoſe of Atabalipa, and of Guai­nacapa, Kings of Peru, and to the precious Furnitures of the City of Cuſco, It was no ex­traordinary thing, during the Reign of thoſe Kings, to ſee in ſome Cities of thoſe Coun­treys, Temples Wainſcoted with Silver, and Houſes Cover'd with Sheets of Gold. The Spaniards do affirm, their King draws from14 thence every year, above Twelve Millions of Livres, by means of the Impoſitions he lays upon Commodities that are tranſported from thoſe Parts; As Gold, Silver, Pearls, Eme­raulds, Skins, Sugar, Tobacco, Cutchenelle, Sarzepareilla, Ginger, and ſeveral other things. Yet it is made out, that the firſt Expence, for the diſcovery of America, came but to Fifteen Thouſand Ducats, which were advanced to Columbus, by a Secretary of the King of Spain.

The Mexican and Peruvian, were the only Nations amongſt the Americans, who had Cities. Theſe Cities, tho' built by People we ſtile Sal­vage and Barbarous, yielded in nothing to thoſe of Europe, or for bigneſs or magnificence. No Horſes were in America. An Indian of good ſence, reckoned a Horſe in the number of the three things he moſt eſteemed; the two others were, a new laid Egg, and Light. Horſes gave ſo much terrour to the Americans, that for above a hundred years they could not be prevailed with, to mount 'em. The Inhabi­tants are of four ſorts, Europeans, Metis, Ne­groes, and Salvages. Moſt of the Nations of Europe have Colonies in this Portion of the World, which for the moſt part bear the Names of their reſpective Provinces and Cities. The Spaniards ſtand poſſeſs'd of the greateſt, the richeſt, and the fertileſt Countreys of Ame­rica; Among others of Mexico and Peru, for­merly two famous Kingdoms; the latter Here­ditary, the other Elective: their King pretends a Right to All, by vertue of the Donative of Pope Alexander the Sixth, in the year 1493. But this other Nations do not allow of. The15 Portugneezes have the Coaſts of Braſile The French have Colonies in Canada, in ſeveral Iſlands, and upon the firm Land: The Engliſh have fair and great Eſtabliſhments all along the Coaſts of Northern America, and in the Iſlands: The Metis are thoſe who are born of the Euro­peans and Indians. In the Territories, conque­red by the Spaniards, they call Crioles, thoſe who are born of a Spaniſh Man and Woman, and theſe are they whom the Spaniards of Europe have a mortal averſion to, and whom they put by all great Offices, for fear of a Revolt. The Negroes are tranſported into America, from Angola and other parts of Africa, to labour in the Mines, which drudgery the Americans are not able to ſupport. The Salvages here live commonly on Hunting, Maiz, Caſſave, which is their Corn. They have amongſt 'em almoſt as many Tongues, as Villages; He who has the uſe of thoſe of Mexico and Caſco, may make himſelf underſtood through all America. This diverſity of Tongues, is the cauſe that we have little knowledge of their Origine. They are all naturally dexterous and active, good Run­ners and excellent Swimmers. Several amongſt 'em live like Beaſts, without King, Policy, or Law. The Sun, Moon, nay, and the Devil too, are conſider'd by them, as ſo many Divinities: The Sooth-ſayers, who are very numerous in theſe parts, keep 'em in theſe Errours. The Kings of Spain have cauſed five Arch-Biſhop­ricks to be erected there, and about thirty Epiſcopal Sees. The French have one Biſhop in Canada. The Portugueezes have at this preſent three in Braſile, under the Arch-Biſhop of S. Sal­vador. The other Nations, who have Settle­ments16 in theſe Countreys, have likewiſe eſta­bliſh'd there the Religion they profeſs.

America is not peopled comparatively with the parts of our Continent; perhaps by reaſon of the continual Wars which the Inhabitants wage there againſt one another, or elſe becauſe of the cruel treatments the Indians have received from the Spaniards: ſome Authors do atteſt, they have put to Death there ſeveral Millions of Perſons, whether for Religion, or for other Pretexts; and that the Blood of thoſe who have periſhed in the, Mines where they have been forc'd to labour, would weigh more than the Gold and Silver they have thence extracted.

The Spaniards met with no ſtrong reſiſtance in their Conqueſts, where they found none to make head againſt 'em, but naked People, whoſe Armies were eaſily broken by the Noiſe only of a Canon-ſhot, or at the ſight of a Horſe-man. The poor Indians ſtedfaſtly be­lieved, that the Spaniards were the Maſters of Thunder; they thought 'em half Men and half Horſes, or ſome Sea-Monſters, when they ſaw 'em on Horſe-back; And when they ſaw them on board their Ships, eating Bisket, and drinking Claret, they ſaid they were deſcended from Heaven upon a great Bird; that they eat Stones, and drank Blood.

If we confider the ſituation of the Iſlands of that part of the World, we ſhall find that Cali­fornia is in the West of Northern America; the New Lands, the Bermudas, and the Antilles, to­wards the East.

The Mountains of the Andes Croſs all Southern America from the North to the South. That of Potoſi in Peru, is eſteem'd the richeſt of all, by17 reaſon of its Silver Mines. The Spaniards would perſuade us, that there are others in the Neighbourhood at leaſt as rich.

The North Sea is ſo call'd, becauſe it is on the North of the firm Land, which makes part of the Southern America, and was ſooner diſcovered than the Northern America; in regard of which it cannot bear the Name of the North Sea. 'Tis called the Green Sea towards the Tropick of Can­cer, by reaſon of the Herbs found there upon the Surface of the Waters. The South Sea is really Southern, in regard of that North Sea; but if we conſider all America, both Northern and Southern, we ſhall find that it is Weſtern. It's often called Pacific, by reaſon of its pertina­cious Calms, or elſe becauſe very few Acts of Hoſtility are perform'd there. Between Mexico and the Iſland of California, 'tis call'd the Ver­million Sea: It hardly receives any conſiderable Rivers. The Sweet Sea, which is in Canada, and the Parime Sea, in Southern America, bear the names of Lakes, becauſe they are in the midſt of Lands. Many are of opinion, that by this Sweet Sea, the Northorn Sea communicates with with the Southern.

Among the Rivers of America, that of Cana­da, or St. Lawrence, is vulgarly call'd the Great River, perhaps for that it receives above two thouſand others, great and ſmall, and that above five hundred Leagues above Quebeck; its ſource has not yet been found out: It makes ſome Lakes grow narrow; ſometimes it caſts it ſelf among the Rocks with ſuch impetuoſity, that 'tis impoſſible to paſs there, by reaſon of the number of Water-falls, which they call Saults, and Carria­ges, becauſe thoſe who mean to go over, muſt18 carry their little Boats upon their ſhoulders, which they term Canoes. Its ordinary breadth is full twelve or thirteen Leagues; its depth does often exceed two hundred fathom: it keeps its Waters clear as far as below Quebeck. The River of Chayre, upon the Confines of the two America's, affords means for the Tranſpor­tation of Merchandizes from one Sea to the other. L'Orenoyu is the largeſt of all thoſe of America. The Amanzon is eſteemed the great­eſt, ſtrongeſt, and deepeſt of all thoſe of theſe Countreys, and one of the fierceſt in the World. In the Year 1638. the Portugueſe, who were then under the Crown of Spain, remounted it up as far as Quito in Peru, and came down again the following Year. It has its Inundations as well as the Nile, whereby the neighbouring Coun­trey is not incommoded with Inſects: Above a hundred and fifty ſeveral Nations have been obſerv'd to dwell in the Neighbourhood of this great River, and thoſe which fall into it. La Plata has its Name from the Mines of Silver which are near it. Towards its beginning it bears the Name of Paraguay, after having joyned that of Parana; it rowls its Waters for above ſixty Leagues, without any mixture: 'tis not deep, tho' towards its mouth it is ſixty or eighty Leagues broad, and ten for the moſt part of its Courſe, where after having form'd ſeveral Iſlands, and the greateſt Cataract in the World, it keeps its ſwiftneſs for above forty Leagues diſtance in the Sea. It might contri­bute much towards the carrying on the Com­merce from one Sea to the other; but the Spa­niards do not think fit to put this Adviſo in pra­ctice, for fear other Nations might thereby19 become acquainted with it, who would make better advantage than they do of ſuch Diſco­veries.

Canada.

THe Name of Canada is that which the Cana­dians gave their Countrey, thro which paſſes the greateſt River of Northern America, which they call the River of Canada.

This Countrey is full of Woods, and the Climate colder than that of France, tho' both be in an equal diſtance from the Equinoctial. Canada furniſhes [Us] with Beavers, Stock-fiſh, Mouſe-skins and Whale-oyl. According to the late Relation, you cannot go for half a League together along the great River, without meet­ing with either another River or a Lake. Wood coſts nothing more than the trouble of cutting it. All theſe Conveniencies would be conſide­rable, if there happen'd not from time to time horrible Tempeſts, which they call Hurricanes. In the Year 1663. an Earthquake laſted there for above ſix Months.

The Savages are diſtributed into ſeveral Na­tions under the Government of their Sagamos's, who are the eldeſt of their Families. They wear Veſtments of Skins, almoſt like to thoſe which our Painters very generouſly beſtow upon Hercules, or John Baptist. They make uſe of Bows and Arrows, the points whereof they garniſh with Iron and Fiſh-bones, and make War by Courſes and Surpriſes. They are al­moſt20 moſt all alike in manners, but are different in tongues; ſome are wandring and Vagabonds, others have Villages and ſetled Abodes; that is to ſay, Hamocks, which conſiſt in ſome Cottages. They live almoſt all of them without any care of Futurity, and are very fond of Tobacco. And therefore they call their Feſtivals and their Feaſts, Tabagies. They can bring but very few men into the Field, for which reaſon the Euro­peans found it no difficult matter to ſettle them­ſelves there, tho' they brought along with them for that purpoſe, but very inconſiderable Forces. The French have Forts here for the ſecurity of Commerce, and to put a ſtop to the Courſes of the Savages, who are their Enemies. The Jeſuits, Capuchins and other Religions have their Convents.

Canada contains the following Countries, New France, New Denmark, New Wales, New Britain, otherwiſe the Land of Labrador, and Terra Coterialis; Accadia, New England, and New York, formerly called New Holland. Be­ſides theſe Countries, there is that of Sague­nay, which receives its name from a River, whoſe mouth is not above a quarter of a League broad, but which enlarges it ſelf when you go up it, and is above two hundred fathoms deep in ſeveral places. This Circumſtance hath gi­ven occaſion to ſome Adventurers to ſeek a paſ­ſage there for the going to China thro' the Northern Ocean. Quesbeck the Principal Colo­ny of the Country, Founded in 1608. is the Capital of all Canada, the Reſidence of a Vice-Roy and Biſhop. The City is divided into High and Low, with a Fortreſs upon the Rock, which commands the great River, that carries21 the flowing of the Sea above the City. Tadou­ſac, the three Rivers and Montreal upon the ſame River, are three very conſiderable Colo­nies of the French. The two beſt Sea Ports are Miscou, and the Port Royal of Accadia. As con­cerning the people, the Hurons and the Algon­quins towards the beginning of the great River, have ever been friends of the French, the Iro­quois are cruel and great Buccaniers, that is to ſay, they ſuck the fleſh of their Enemies, they fortifie their abodes with Paliſadoes: They have been ſturdy Enemies to the French, and have done them great damage by means of the fire Arms they had from the Engliſh and the Hollan­ders of their Neighbourhood. Yet the French boaſt that they have prevailed over them; and that tho' theſe Savages have been able to bring ſeveral Troops into the Field without diſ­garriſoning or emptying their Retreats, which are inacceſſible; they have nevertheleſs been conſtrained to yield to the Arms of France. Their Country is pretty fruitful, ſee­ing it produces Muſcadine Grapes, Lemmons, vence and Melons, even as good as thoſe of Pro - in France.

The principal Iſle of New-Found-Land, is one of the greateſt in the World, with a great number of Ports, whereof that of Plaiſance poſ­ſeſſed by the French, is the beſt. Heretofore they burnt one part of the Foreſts of this Iſland, to render it the more habitable; But the Ro­ſin and other Gums which ran into the Sea, were the occaſion of the Fiſhery being ſpoiled in the Neighbourhood for above ſeven years. Almoſt the like thing happened in the Iſle of St. Christophers, when ſeveral Ships loaded with22 Tobacco, periſhed there; the ſtrength and bit­terneſs of that Herb poyſoning the Fiſh. France ſends every year a great number of Ships to this Iſland, which it calls for that reaſon Terra Neu­viers. The Engliſh have likewiſe fetled them­ſelves here. The Iſle of Cape Breton, has the Port of Chibou in its Eaſtern parts, which Na­ture has formed with all poſſible advantages for the ſecurity of a Fleet.

There is a Shoal and Ridge of Sand on the Eaſt of New-Found-Land, notorious for the taking of Stockfiſh, and its extent of two hundred and ſixty Leagues, which has given it the name of the Great Bank. 'Tis not a Rock as ſeveral do imagine; they call it Bank by reaſon of the ſhallowneſs all along by its ſide, in reſpect of the Depth which is very great in the other parts of that Sea. The fiſhing there is of two ſorts, The one for Cod, and the other for dry Stock-Fiſh. The Seamen who Fiſh there, have at the ſame time the pleaſure of taking with the Line great Birds, or Fowl, which they call Fauquets and Happefoyes, which they effect by baiting their Hooks with the Livers of Cods.

Virginia.

VIrginia bears this Name in honour of the moſt Illuſtrious and Renowned Elizabeth, the Maiden-Queen of England. Firſt ſome French neſted themſelves in this Countrey, but the Engliſh were too hard and powerful for them, took abſolute poſſeſſion of it, in the Year 1584, and have continued in their ſettle­ment23 there, notwithſtanding the loſs of five or ſix Colonies. They have a Governour, an Ad­miral, and ſeveral particular Officers. This Eſtabliſhment facilitates to them the communi­cation of what they have in New England and Florida. The Air of Virginia which is extream­ly healthful, produces ſeveral ſorts of excellent Fruits. It is ſomewhat cold, and yet the Inha­bitants go naked: the Oyl and the Colours with which they rub themſelves, defending them againſt the injuries of the Weather. From thence is Exported Tobacco and Silk, which is drawn from an Herb wholly peculiar to Virgi­nia. They would make us believe that there is a flying Squirrel, which makes uſe of its paws as if they were wings.

The Inhabitants of Virginia love to make good Cheer, are Idolaters, and have divers Lords, whom they call Werouns. Their Towns which they ſurround with Palliſadoes, have on­ly 18 or 20 Houſes. Pomeiock and James-Town, are the Principal places of this Region. The Bay of Cheſapeack is very conſiderable, be­ing ſeventy five Leagues in length, for the moſt part ſix or ſeven broad, and ten or twelve to­wards its entrance. The Ships ſail up above ſixty Leagues, for it is often fifteen or ſixteen fathom deep, and ſix or ſeven where it is moſt ſhallow.

The Iſlands of Barmudas, or Summer Iſles, are under the ſame Crown, and almoſt in the ſame Parallel with Virginia, diſtant above three hundred Leagues from the Continent of Ame­rica. They are ſeveral in number around the principal one, and almoſt all invironed with Rocks, and ſufficiently known for the Ship­wracks24 that happen there. The Merchants bring thence Cocheneal, Tobacco, Pearls, and Amber; there are found Tortoiſes of an exceſſive bigneſs, and Spiders without venom, extraordinary large, of a ſtreak'd colour, which ſpin Webs capable of holding little Birds. In the Year 1516. five men being imbarked at the Barmudas in a little Pinnace, traverſed above twelve hundred Leagues at Sea, and by a ſingular happineſs ar­rived in Ireland. In the Year 1525. a Portu­guez who was in the East Indies, being deſirous to do a notable piece of ſervice to his Prince, undertook a Voyage which was no leſs perilous; for with a ſmall Gally, but ſixteen foot long, and ſix-broad, he departed from Cochim, and ha­ving traverſed the Occan, and all its particular Seas, at laſt he arrived at Lisbon, where he brought the King of Portugal the news of the building a Cittadel at Diu; a piece of news which was agreeably received in that Court.

Florida.

THe Spaniards and French, the Diſcoverers of this Province, have but very ſmall know­ledge of it, as not having been very far in the Country: the Spaniards under divers Leaders, and principally under Soto, made ſome Expeditions into it, but both he and moſt of his men, dyed in the proſecution of their deſign. The Name of Florida was given it, either upon the account25 of its Flowers which it produces in great abun­dance, or by reaſon of the firſt Diſcovery of ſome of its parts, which was on a Palm Sunday. The French that ſetled themſelves in that part which lies towards the North-East, had left there the names of the Scine, Lonaloire, Garrone, Gironde, Chorcute, to the Rivers they met with­al in thoſe parts. But the Spaniards jealous of the French Names, having given them others, and the Engliſh, who have lately ſetled ſeveral Co­lonies here, do ſtill at this day Chriſten them anew. In the Year 1562. John Ribaud caus'd to be built upon the River of Port-Royal, the Fortreſs of Charles's Fort, which he called by that Name, in conſideration of King Charles the Ninth of France. Two years after, one Laudonier built the Fort of Carolina, upon the River of May, (Now, by the way, it is to be ob­ſerv'd, that ſeveral Geographers do not give to theſe two Places their true Poſition.) Since which, the French were conſtrained to abandon 'em, both upon the account of the Civil Wars which aroſe in France, and of the jealouſie of the Spaniards, who could not well bear with the Frenchmen having footing in Florida. The Spa­niards made Florida much greater than it really is, for they attribute to it Virginia, and New France, perhaps not to prejudice the Pretentions of their Soveraign, who attributes to himſelf all America, tho' his Subjects have only appear'd in ſome of its Provinces: Others give only this Name of Florida to the Peninſula of Tegeſta, which advances to the South, and contributes to form the great and famous Gulph of Mexico, and the Channel of Bahama. The Air of Florida is ſo temperate, that there has been26 often ſeen old Men at the Age of Two hundred and fifty years, whilſt the Children of five Ge­nerations are all alive at the ſame time. The Land is fertile, full of Fruit-trees, and its Towns the beſt peopled of all America, having in ſeveral places rich Furs, and an immenſe quantity of Pearls. Its Mountain Apalatei, produces abundance of Copper: Its principal River is that of Spirito Sancto, or Chucagua, which falls into the Mexican Gulph. The Coaſt is not over convenient for great Ships, becauſe the Sea is but very ſhallow. The Inland parts are poſſeſs'd by the Savages, under the Govern­ment and Juriſdiction of divers Parouſtis or Ca­ciques, who are their Lords. Relations ac­quaint us with the Brave Reſiſtance they made againſt the Spaniards. Theſe Savages adore the Sun and Moon. Upon the Coaſt the Spaniard holds St. Auſtin, and St. Matthews, two Colo­nies of ſmall conſideration, tho' in each there be a Caſtle. St. Auſtin is of the greateſt im­portance, by reaſon of its Haven, and its nearneſs to the Channel of Bahama, where the Spaniſh-Fleets commonly paſs, when with their Cargoes, they return from Havana into Eu­rope.

27

New Mexico.

THis Mexico is call'd New, becauſe it was one of the laſt Conqueſts of the Spaniards in Northern America, not being ſubdued till after the Year 1583. 'Tis the Ancient Mexico, ac­cording to ſome Authors, who ſay, its Inhabi­tants people part of New Spain. The ſcarcity of Victuals, and other inconveniencies of this Countrey, have not hindred the Spaniards from going to ſearch for Mines in its Entrals. The Natives are Idolaters, and call their Chiefs, Caciques. New Mexico, California, Anien, Quivira, and Cibola, are its principal parts, and Santafe the moſt conſiderable Town. Cali­fornia, on whoſe Coaſts ſome Pearls are found, is one of the greateſt Iſlands in the World. Anian gives its Name to a famous Streight, be­yond which is the Land of Jeſſo. The Wealth of Quivira conſiſts in certain Bulls or Oxen, which are very benificial to the Inhabitants; their Fleſh is their Food: of their Skins they make Cloaths and Coverings for their Houſes; Thread of their Hair; Bow-ſtrings of their Nerves; Awls and Bodkins of their Bones; Trumpets and Bugles of their Horns; they preſerve Water in their Bladders, and make Fewel of their Dung dryed. This Creature has ſomething of the Lyon, the Camel, the Goat, and the Sheep. There is in Cibola, Grandeda, Acoma, and ſome other Fortreſſes upon the Mountains, with Paliſado's and Ditches, which ſhew that the Americans were28 not ignorant of the Art of Fortifying ſuch places as they meant (or ſtood in need) to de­fend. Other Enumerations are made of the Countreys of New Mexico, but very uncertain are they: the Inhabitants commonly have no ſetled abode; give the Names of their Chiefs to their Villages, and thoſe Names only ſub­ſiſts during the Life of each of thoſe Lea­ders.

New Spain.

THe Indians name this Countrey Mexico, and the Spaniards, New Spain; ſo that hereby they call their King, the King of Spains. The Spaniards here eſtabliſh'd in this Countrey ſeve­ral rare Colonies, as in the moſt conſiderable of their Conqueſts, notwithſtanding the miſ­underſtanding that aroſe between Cortez and Narvaez their principal Commanders. This Re­gion, tho' under the Torrid Zone, ſeems to enjoy a perpetual Spring, by reaſon of the purity of its Air, and the goodneſs of its Soyl. 'Tis the fineſt, the moſt agreeable, and the moſt populous of all America: All Northern America is called Mexicana. It has Mines of Gold and Silver, wherein they work with more eaſe than in thoſe of Peru: the Silver that is drawn from thence, is unqueſtionably the beſt in the World. It produces that admirable Plant of Magucaz, which produces ſmall Wine, Vinegar, Honey, Needles, Thread, Stuffs, and29 Timber proper for building. It has Cotton, Hides, Silk, Wool, Balm, Sugar, Salt that is made in its Lakes, and ſeveral ſorts of good Fruits. It has all the Commodities of Europe, unleſs Wine and Oyl. Formerly 'twas an Ele­ctive Kingdom, full of great Cities, governed with great Policy, and its Inhabitants very civil. Its Kings could bring into the Field, Armies of three or four hundred thouſand tall fighting Men. The Kings of Spain, who have a Vice-Roy there, whoſe Reſidence is in the Caſtle of Mexico, have taken care to erect ſeveral Biſhop­ricks. The Mexicans are well made, dexterous in melting their Metals, and in making Pictures of their Feathers, which they have off their Cincons, ſmall Birds of their Countrey, which live only upon Dew. They keep their Balls in the open Field, where it is pleaſant to ſee 'em Dance, or rather, make Gamboles, and perform the Double Sommerſet, ſometimes two or three thouſand together.

Formerly the Mexicans divided their Coun­treys into hot and cold. At preſent the Spa­niards reckon their ſeveral ſmall Provinces; as New Galicia, Guadalaira, New Biſcay, Mexico, Mechoachan, Panuco, Jucatan, Guatimala, Hon­duras, Nicaregua, Coſtarica, Veragua, and others. They have eſtabliſh'd Royal Audiences, I mean Parliaments, at Mexico, Guadalaira, and Guatimala. There is a ſort of Ravenous Birds in Guadalaira, which are not much greater than our Sparrows, and nevertheleſs make a horrible diſtruction of their Corn: they have Bees too without ſtings. The Province of Mexico, properly taken, is that which lies near the City of Mexico, the greateſt, richeſt and30 beſt peopled of all America. This City ſuffer'd a great loſs in the Year 1629. all its Digues, and moſt of its Houſes, having been carried away by the violence of the Waters, its ſcitua­tion being neer a Salt-water-Lake, of about twenty five or thirty Leagues in circuit, where there enters another Lake of ſweet Water. Since that, it has been rebuilt, and has full a hundred thouſand Houſes, great and ſmall. Be­fore the coming of the Spaniard into this Coun­trey, there were ſeveral places very conſide­rable neer Mexico. Chulula contain'd above twenty thouſand Houſes, with as many Temples as there are days in the year; and its Inhabi­tants did annually put to death five or ſix thou­ſand of their Children, in ſacrificing them to their Idols. Tezeuco was twice as big as Seville in Spain. Queretaro had a Fountain which wou'd furniſh Water for four years together, and ceaſe running four years after. Los Angelos, upon the way from Vera Cruz to Mexico, is a City of ten thouſand Inhabitants, where is a Biſhoprick of great Revenue; there's alſo a Mint for the coining of Money: Cloth, Hats and excellent Glaſſes, are made there too. Acapulco upon the South Sea, with a Fort of five Baſtions, is a Bay of good ſecurity, tho' at the entrance it be but a League in breadth. Ju­catum is a Peninſula between the two Gulphs, where the City of Merida is ſo call'd, upon the account of its ancient Structures and Buildings, which were found equal to thoſe of Merida in Europe. Tabaſco, the firſt City that made any defence againſt the Spaniards, is a Province, where the Inhabitants have great Priviledges, becauſe they contributed much to the Conqueſt31 of Mexico. Near Tabaſco, Cortez gain'd a great Victory in the Year 1518. over Monte­zuma, the Ninth and laſt King of Mexico; We killed there upon the ſpot above three hundred thouſand Indians. This Land is ſo fertile, that a Peaſant having cauſed two Sheep to come thi­ther from Caſtile, thoſe two Sheep multiplied in ſuch a manner that there were above forty thouſand of 'em in a few years: The Iſle of Co­zumel, near the Coaſt, is famous upon the ac­count of its ancient Idol. Guatimala produces Balm, Sulphur, Wood, and Cacao, which is a Fruit like to little Almonds, whereof the Inha­bitants make a very delicious Drink. Near Guatimala, is a Vulcan, that is, a Mountain which caſts forth Fire; where a private perſon ſeeking after Treaſures, which he fancied there, found the End both of his Wealth and his Life. The Henduras furniſhes Honey, Cotten, Cloaths, and Wool. Niceregua was firſt of all named the Paradice of Mahomet, by reaſon of its fertility, and the quantity of its Gold. Its Lake of a hundred and thirty Leagues in length, ebbs and flows and diſgorges it ſelf into the North Sea. There was once a deſign of com­municating it with the South Sea, but they imagin'd this would cauſe a great deal of diſor­der, this Sea being much higher than the North Sea, becauſe of ſeveral Rivers, which have their ſource in its Neighbourhood, and nevertheleſs fall into the North Sea. One of the laſt Kings of Niceregua, ſeems to have had ſome knowledge of the Myſteries of our Faith; He ask'd the Spaniards, What they knew of the Deluge? If any was to happen? If the Sun and Moon won'd one day loſe their light? What was32 the Cauſe of their Motion? Whither the Souls went after the ſeparation from their Bodies? If the Pope and Emperour were immortal? And for what rea­ſon they ſought after Gold and Silver with ſo much Eagerneſs and ſo many Perils?

The Caribby Iſles, or the Antilles.

UNder the Name of Antilles are generally known, all the Iſlands of the North Sea which are between Florida, New Spain, and the Firm-Land of Southern America.

The Luccayes, ſeem to be ſo called from that of Lucayonequo. Bahama gives its name there to a Channel wondrouſly rapid from the South to the North, and famous at preſent for the paſ­ſage of the Spaniſh Fleets in their return from Mexico, and from the Terra Firma of America in Europe. Bimini which is a place of no eaſie acceſs, by reaſon of the Flats and Rocks there­abouts, has had the renown of having a Foun­tain which made people young again, becauſe the Women there were extraordinary Beauti­ful, and that for their ſakes ſeveral Men went to dwell there. Guanahani is that which was firſt ſpyed out by Columbus, who called it San. Salvador, by reaſon it was the cauſe of ſaving him from the Conſpiracy of his Men, who a lit­tle before would have caſt him into the Sea, as33 not in their mind meeting ſoon enough with thoſe Lands, whereof he had given them ſuch hopes.

Hispagniola [otherwiſe Saint Domingo] is the firſt Country in the New World, where the Spaniards built Towns and Fortreſſes. It has abun­dance of Cattle, Hides, Caſſia, Sugar, and Gin­ger, Cocheneal, Guiacum, and other Herbs for Phyſick and Dying. It has Mines, from whence came the firſt and fineſt Gold of America; Here was found that rare piece of Gold which weigh­ed full thirty ſeven pound, and was loſt in the way when it was bringing to Spain. It has little Birds called Cuyeros, which gives ſuch a light in the night time, that by it one may ſee ones way plainly, and hunt, & fiſh, & read and write; and the Prieſts make uſe of them by night inſtead of Candles to read in their Breviaries. Amongſt the fiſh that are taken upon that Coaſt, there is the Manate, which is a Sea Calf above twenty foot long: the Revers which is very ſmall, and ſerves to catch Fiſh of another ſort, by faſtening them on the thorns of its back. St. Domingo, the Metropolis of the Iſle Hispaniola, drove formerly a more conſiderable Trade than it does at preſent: The French have poſſeſſed the moſt Western part of this Iſland, where they have a great number of Buccaniers, as well as the little Iſland la Tortue, which is near it; this has made the Spaniards change the Courſe they held when they returned into Spain. Cuba is more fertil and temperate than Hispa­niola. It has Parrots, Partridges, Turtles, and Gold ſand in its Rivers; for which reaſon, ſome Authors have placed here the Country of Ophir, from whence Solomon ſent for his Gold. 34One of the Caciques or petty Kings of that Iſland, having made his eſcape out of the hands of the Spaniards, told his people that the Gold and Silver of their Country was the God of their Enemies, ſince that to poſſeſs it, they ſought for it in their very Entrails, and that ſo to enjoy their own repoſe, they muſt aband on it all to them. Another of thoſe C aciques being Condemned to be burnt, was ſollicited by a Prieſt to turn Chriſtian, that he might go into Paradice, but he openly proteſted he would not go thither, ſince Spaniards were there too. The poor Savages abhorred them to that degree, that they abſtained from their Wives, that their Children might not become ſlaves of ſuch Ma­ſters; And when they fell upon them to bou­canize them, or to eat their fleſh, it was rather out of revenge, than out of any reliſh they found therein; for they frankly ſaid, That the fleſh of a Spaniard was too hard, and that to make it fit for eating, it was firſt to be ſouz'd and mollified for two or three dayes in Vinegar. St. Jago is the Capital City with a Sea Port, and Havana the Key and Staple of all the Weſt Indies, the Magazine of the riches of America, by reaſon of the ſcituation, the bigneſs, and conveniency of its Harbour, which can ſhelter above a thouſand Ships. 'Tis the uſual Ren­devouze of the Spaniſh Fleets when they return into Europe, and is defended by three Caſtles, whoſe ſtrength is compar'd by the Spaniards to that of the Cittadels of Antwerp and Milan. Yet for all this, the Engliſh plundered the City in the Year 1662. The Port de Matanzas is the ſame where in the Year 1629. Peter Hein a Hollander, made himſelf Maſter of the Spaniſh35 Fleet, which was prodigiouſly rich. Jamaica now belonging to the Engliſh, who have ſetled themſelves there, ſince the Year 1655. has three ſmall Cities, wherof Seville is the moſt conſide­rable. It produces ſo much Yuca whereof Caſſia is made, that it paſſes for the Granary of the Antilles. The Civil Wars of the Spaniards in America began in this Iſland, where Chriſtopher Columbus to free himſelf out of danger foretold the Savages an Eclipſe of the Moon with as much prudence as ſucceſs. Theſe Savages had Letters miſſive in admiration, thinking one muſt neceſſarily partake of Divinity, to diſco­ver by a ſcrowl'd paper ones ſentiments to ano­ther a great way off. Porto-rico with the City, of St. John, has Sugar, Ginger, Caſſia and Skins; this is the Iſland where the Spaniards paſſed for immortals, till one Salſedo was drowned, at the Paſſage of the River Guarabo.

The Caribby Iſlands are twenty eight princi­pal Ones, poſſeſſed for the moſt part by Euro­peans, ſometimes they have been called by the Name of Camereanes, and becauſe they are more Eaſtern, and as in the head of the Others, they have had particularly attributed to them that of the Antilles, which ſeems ought to be com­mon to all the Neighbouring Iſlands. They enjoy ſo temperate an Air, that they feel there no exceſſive heats, nor do they ever ſee any Ice. There is indeed but three Seaſons, the Spring, Summer, and Autumn, unleſs we give the name of Winter to the rainy Seaſon. They have all manner of good Pulſe very plentifully; but their Corn does not attain to its maturity, and can only ſerve to make Green-ſawce of. There36 are Trees which produce excellent Fruits, and others which furniſh Wood for Phyſick, for Dy­ing, for the Carpenters uſe, and Wainſcot­ting. Thoſe parts of theſe Iſlands go un­der the Name of Cabiſſi-terre, which have the Cape to the Wind, which in thoſe parts blows almoſt alwayes from the Eaſt: and Buſs-terre is called what is towards the Weſt. They name the little Mountains Marnes, the Villages Car­bets, the great Winds of ſhort continuance, Rufales; and thoſe that take their Turn a­round the Horizon, Huricanes. Theſe Hurry­canes often cauſe great diſorders: They com­monly happen at the times of the Equinox up­on the Eaſtern Coaſts. The Pilots foreſeeing them, get their Ships off from the Shoar. Saint Chriſtophers has Colonies of the French, who in the Year 1627. ſhared it with the Engliſh, eſtabliſhing Cuſtoms, which have ſince been re­ceived in the Neighbouring Iſlands: No place is there out of France, where the French have a greater Eſtabliſhment; Its Governour is ſaid to be able to bring ſeven or eight thouſand Foot into the Field, beſides ſeveral Troops of Horſe; and they have four good Forts. Martinico has a­bout 1000. French, beſides Indians, and Ne­groes in great numbers. Guadaloupa, vulgarly Gardeloupa, furniſhes freſh Water to the Ships that come from Europe. It has made great ad­vantage of the ruins of the Dutch Colony of Recif in Brafil. This occaſioned its being Cul­tivated with Sugar Canes, whereby it has pro­fited more than by the Tobacco Trade, drove before.

37

Barbadoes.

BArbadoes is one of the beſt of the Antilles, and the moſt conſiderable of them, which the Engliſh poſſeſs. They have there above twenty thouſand Inhabitants beſide the Savages and Slaves, who are full as many again. It has two or three ſmall Hills which are very fruitful, and fit for Culture, to the very top. This Iſland is divided into a Eleven Precincts or Pariſhes, in which are fourteen Churches and Chappels, and is throughout beſet with Houſes, and no great diſtance from one another, ſo full of Planters is it; but the principal Towns are St. Michaels, formerly called the Bridge-Town, or Indian-Bridge, ſcituate at the bottom of Charles le Bay, in the Southern part of this Iſle. This Bay is in the form of a Creſcent, very capacious, deep, and ſecure for Ships; being big enough to ſe­cure five hundred Veſſels at once from all ſtorms. The Town is long, containing ſeveral Streets, and adorned with abundance of well built Houſes, being the place of Reſidence of the Governour, or His Deputy, where the Courts of Judicature are kept. It hath two ſtrong Forts oppoſite to each other for its de­fence, and the ſecurity of the Ships, but the Town is ill ſeated, the Ground being lower than the Banks of the Sea; Little Briſtol for­merly Sprights Bay, ſcituate about four Leagues from St. Michael, a commodious Road for Ships, well frequented, and defended by two ſtrong Forts, St. James, formerly called the Hall, ſeat­ed38 not far from Briſtol, here is a good Road for Ships alſo, and is a place of conſiderable Trade, Alſo Charles-Town, about two Leagues from St. Michael, where are kept weekly Markets, and Monthly Courts for the Precincts; there are alſo ſeveral good Bays belonging to this Iſland, as Fowle-Bay, Auſtins-Bay, Maxwel-Bay, &c. and here are divers Caves, ſome of which are very deep, and large enough to hold five hundred men, and thoſe Caves are often the Sanctuaries of ſuch Negro ſlaves as run away, and it is ſuppoſed that theſe Caves were the Ha­bitations of the Natives. The Riches and Commodities of the Iſland, conſiſt in Indico, Cotton, and Ginger in great abundance, Log­wood, Fuſtick, Lignumvitae, and Sugars, where­of there is ſo great a quantity, that they freight above a hundred Ships with it every year; the Inhabitants truck it for other Commodities at the rate of thirty ſhillings the Quintal; this Iſle is ſo very fertil that it bears Crops all the year long. The Trees, Fields and Woods, being alwayes in their Summer Livery. They have here in their Seas ſeveral ſorts of Fiſh, as Cava­los, Cong-fiſh, Green Turtles, &c. which of all other are the moſt delicious, with ſeveral other ſorts appropriate to this and the reſt of the Ca­ribby Iſles; Here are alſo almoſt all ſorts of Eng­liſh Herbs and Roots, and ſeveral ſorts of Fowls, and great variety of ſmall Birds; but no Beaſts or Cattel, but what are tame and imported as Camels, Horſes, Aſne­groes, Oxen, Bulls, Cows, Sheep, Goats, and Hoggs in great plenty; here are alſo Snakes a yard and a half long, Scorpions as big as Rats and Lizzards, but neither of them hurt­ful39 to Man or Beaſt, Musketoes, Cock-Roches and Merry-Wings, which are very troubleſom in the night in ſtinging, and here are Land Crabs in great abundance, which are found good to eat; and a ſmall Flie called Cayo, whoſe Wings in the night, as it flies, affords a mighty luſtre, and the Indians do commonly catch them, and tye them to their hands and feet, and make uſe of them inſtead of Comets which are forbidden them; here are alſo abun­dance of Fruits, as Dates, Oranges, Pomgra­nates, Citrons, Lemmons, Icacos, Cherries, Raiſins, Indian Figgs, Pine-Apples, the rareſt Fruit in the Indies, with ſeveral other ſorts; and for Trees here are great varieties fit for ſe­veral uſes, as the Locuſts, Maſtick, Red-wood, the Prickle Yellow-wood, Ironwood-tree, Cedar, Caſſia Fiſtula, Colloquintida, Tamorins, Caſſary, Poyſon-tree, Phyſick-Nut, Calabaſh, the ſhells of which Tree ſerv­eth them for Troughs, to carry liquid things in, and the Roneon, of whoſe Bark is made Ropes, and alſo Flax, Lignum-vitae, with ſeveral others: The other Antilles Iſlands which are Inhabited, have Colonies either of Engliſh, French, or Hollanders.

There are ſome other Iſles along the Coaſts of Terra-firma; which are called Sotavento, be­cauſe that in reſpect of the others which are on the North-East, and which go under the Name of Barlovento, they are below the Wind which blows commonly from the Eaſt to the Weſt. Margareta, and Cubagua, had former­ly the Fiſhing of Pearls, which prov'd very profitable to the Spaniads, having uſed all ima­ginable ſtratagems to Fiſh there for thoſe Oy­ſters,40 wherein they found the Pearls. Tobago, which has given its name to Tobacco, or elſe has received its own from that weed, has a Colony of Zelanders. Tobacco was formerly called the Ni­cotion Herb, by reaſon one Doctor Nicot was the firſt who introduced the uſe of it into Eu­rope. Thoſe who call'd it the Queens Herb, gave it that name, as having been firſt preſented to a Queen of Spain.

Castella Aurea.

CAstella Aurea, ſo called from the Gold which the Spaniards found there in ſo great abundance, that in the Year 1514. ſeveral of their Country-men would needs go thither, in the Opinion that it was there to be Fiſht for with Nets. Its Inhabitants eat Crocodiles & Ser­pents, whoſe fleſh they find very delicate Food. The Spaniards have there ſeveral Provinces, Terra-firma, Cartagena, Sancka Martha, the Rio de la Hacha, Venezuela, New Andalouſia, Popay­en, and the New Kingdom of Granada.

The Terra-firma lies near the Iſthmus, which joyns the two America's. It is different from the great Terra-firma which makes part of the Northern America upon the North Sea. Its called ſo as being the firſt Land of the Con­tinent of America that was diſcovered after the Iſlands. Its City of Panama upon the South Sea, is the Store-Houſe, or Magazine of the Gold and Silver of Peru, which is afterwards carried by Land to Porto Belo, which is ſixteen or eigh­teen41 Leagues from thence, upon the North Sea, which is much augmented from the ruins of the City of Nombre de Dios, which the ill Air had cauſed the Spaniards to abandon. At Porto-Belo, this Gold and Silver is put on board of Ships, which carry it into Spain. In the way from Pa­nama to Porto-Belo, they have the conveniency of the River of Chagre, if they pleaſe to make uſe of it, and then departing from Panama, you have but five Leagues by Land; after which they Embark upon that River. By the ſame way do they bring their Merchandizes out of Spain into Peru. In the Year 1668. the Engliſh plundered Porto Belo, & exacted very conſidera­ble ſumms from the Spaniards before they would reſtore it them. The Buccaniers and other Pri­vateers have done the like. Cartagena affords Balm, Roſin, and ſeveral ſorts of Gums. Its In­habitants had formerly peculiar places, whi­ther they carried the Bodies of their Dead, with their Gold, their Necklaces, and other moſt precious Ornaments: The Spaniards to take ad­vantage of this, have ſhown thoſe Relicks the light for the ſecond time; the City which is in a Peninſula, has had its Name from the reſem­blance of its Harbour, with that of Cartagena in Europe. 'Tis one of the beſt of America, the Rendezvouze of the Fleets which come from Cadiz for the Terra-firma. Sancta Martha pro­duces almoſt all the ſorts of Fruits that are had in Spain; and there you ſee the beginning of thoſe High Mountains, which under the Names of Andes, advance towards the South. The Rio de la Hacha, no longer affords the fiſhing of Pearls in its Neighbourhood. Venezuela had this Name from a Town that was found built42 there upon Piles of Wood in the midſt of Wa­ters. When this Countrey was Diſcovered, the Germans to whom Charles the Ninth had en­gaged it, had a deſign to build a City at the mouth of the Lake Macaraybo, upon the model of that of Venice, but in a little while after they changed their deſign, and choſe rather to return into their Countrey; New Andalouſia is otherwiſe called Paria from its great River; Its Coaſt as well as that of Venezuela, goes un­der the name of Coſta de las Perlas, by reaſon of the Pearl-fiſhing that is there, ſince they have ceaſed ſo doing in the Neighbourhood of the Iſles of Margaretes and Cabagna. Some Indi­ans maintain and defend themſelves there ſtill againſt the Spaniards; and moſt of the Sea Towns have often been pillaged and plunder'd by the Engliſh. That of Comana has Salt Pits in its Neighbourhood. The Countrey and Ci­ty of Popayen have kept the Name of their laſt King.

The New Kingdom of Granada, which was diſcovered by one Ximanes a Granadian, furniſhes Silver, Copper, Iron, and Emeralds. There was formerly one brought from hence to Philip the Second, King of Spain, that the Goldſmiths could not ſufficiently eſteem the value of it: It was put into the Treaſury of the Eſcurial.

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Guayna.

THis Countrey has been named by ſome, the Savage Coast, the Countrey of the Amazons, El-Dorado, and Guayna; this laſt Name, which is Indian, has prevailed over the reſt. L'Orenoque bounds it on the Weſt, the Amazon River on the Eaſt, the North Sea on the North, and the high Mountains towards the South; and all theſe bounds leave it a figure, which approaches very much to Oval. L'Oronoque, called alſo Paria, which in the Indian Tongue, ſignifies River, does often conſtrain its Inhabitants, by its over-flowings, to make lodgings upon Trees, which reſemble the Neſts of great Birds. Amongſt other Rivers of Guayna, Surinam is the moſt Navigable: Cayenne forms the Iſland of the ſame Name.

At the Mouth of theſe Rivers, and all along the Coaſt, which is generally low, and extends above two hundred and fifty Leagues, there are ſeveral Colonies of Engliſh, French, and Hollanders.

The Territories that lie near the Lake Pa­rima, which is in the mid'ſt of Guayna, are ſaid to acknowledge for their Soveraign, a a Succeſſour of Guainacapa, of the Family of the Incas of Peru, and compoſe the true King­dom of the Golden King. The reſt drawing towards the Sea, is poſſeſſed by divers Nations, who are Idolaters, and obey the moſt ancient44 of their Families. Some Relations make men­tion of Amazons inhabiting there, or rather great Women, who make War with an admi­rable Dexterity and Valour; that thoſe of the Iſle of Arowen, which is at the Mouth of the Amazon River, go particularly under that Name, by reaſon of their long Hair: that there are ſome Nations in thoſe Parts, where they truck their Women, and where the Men com­monly ſeek after the oldeſt, becauſe they are more laborious, and fitter than the young for the management of their buſineſs.

The Inhabitants of Guayana are long liv'd, by reaſon of the good Air they breath. The Eaſt Winds are regular there; and it is never exceſſively hot or cruelly cold. There are places proper for the Cultivating of Manioc, for Cotton, for Sugar and Tobacco, and others, which furniſh Gums, Timber, Precious Stones of ſeveral ſorts, Parrots and Monkeys. Hunting and Fiſhing are here equally uſeful and plea­ſant.

Manoa, near the Lake Panima, the principal City of Guayna, is called Eldorado, by reaſon of the quantity of Gold, which is ſaid to be there ſo great, both in Coin, Plate, Armour, and other Furniture, that the Inhabitants make their Arms of it, cover their Bodies with it, after having rubbed them with Oyl or Balm: from whence it comes, that people would make this Town paſs for the Richeſt in the World.

The Iſland Cayene, the principal Colony of the French in thoſe parts, is ſixteen or ſeven­teen Leagues in circumference, whereof it preſents five to the Sea, the reſt is between the arms of the River of the ſame Name. It45 has ſeveral Hills and Meadows which are there called Savanes.

Peru.

PERƲ is ſo conſiderable a Region, that the Spaniards thought fitting to comprehend under that Name, all the other parts of Sou­thern America. It is almoſt all under the Torrid Zone, and yet it has not the Qualities of the Countreys of our Hemiſphere, that are in the ſame Zone. There are three ſorts of Countreys very different from one another, the Plain, the Mountainous, and the Andes. The Plain, which borders upon the Sea, and where it hardly ever rains, is ſandy, and ſubject to Earthquakes, and but ten or twelve Leagues in breadth. The Mountainous, which has full twenty, conſiſts in Valleys, in Hills, and Moun­tains, where it is very cold. The Andes, that are as broad as the Mountainous part, and where there be almoſt always continual Rains, are Mountains exceſſively high, and nevertheleſs fertile and well peopled: ſo as under the Name of Peru, many more Territories have been contained than thoſe that have been con­quered.

The Spaniards have a Vice Roy in this Coun­trey, where they have particularly fortified Arica, as a Sea-Port, whether are brought the Commodities of Lima, and the Riches of Po­toſi. They invaded this Kingdom under Pi­zarra,46 in the Year 1525. the Civil Wars which followed, did for ſome time retard the abſo­lute Conqueſt. The Indians not being able to defend themſelves, pay them Tribute. The King of Spain draws immenſe Sums from the Mines of Peru; the principal Towns have al­moſt all of 'em ſome, and the Fond of Earth is there often of Gold and Silver; for which rea­ſon Peru is without contradiction, the richeſt Countrey in the World. It is certain, that the Spaniards brought from thence to the value of above twenty Millions of Ducats, in the firſt Voyage they made thither. The ſecurity of the Ways is ſo great, that Commodities often to the worth of three or four hundred thouſand Ducats are frequently conducted under the Con­voy only of four Muſqueteers.

The Incas had reign'd hereditarily in Peru for above three hundred years, before the coming of the Spaniards. They had cauſed there to be made two Royal High-ways, the one in the Plain, where they were at great Charges in ſetling the Sand; and the other in the Mountains, where it was neceſſary to fill up ſeveral Valleys. Theſe Ways were each of 'em five hundred Leagues in length, and there were Houſes where Travellers were entertain'd by the Inhabitants, with all the care and civility imaginable. The ſame Incas had alſo cauſed Temples to be built to the Sun, to the Moon, and the Stars, which they called the Moons Wait­ing Gentlewomen, to Lightning, to Thunder, and the Rain-bow, which they ſaid was the Executioner of the Kings Juſtice. Some ſay, that their Policy reſembled in ſome manner that of the Greeks and Romans; that their Go­vernment47 was full of Eaſe, Franchiſes, and Liberality. They divided the World into three parts, High, Low, and Subterranean, ſignifying thereby, Heaven, Earth, and Hell. Atabalippa, one of the laſt of thoſe Incas, ſaid, The Pope was not wiſe, to give away what belonged not to him; and that he the ſaid Atabalippa, had right to prefer the Divinity of the Sun, be­fore that of a Crucified Man: He likewiſe threw down upon the ground a Breviary that was of­fered him, becauſe it ſpoke not a word, and they had made him hope it would tell him fine things. This unhappy Prince having been de­feated and taken by the Spaniards at Camamalca, offered as much Gold as a Room ſeven and twen­ty foot in length could hold, ſeventeen in breadth, and proportionably high, to the half of its height: Notwithſtanding which, he was put to death, as a Conſpiratour and a Tyrant. It is not to be wondred at the abundance of the Incas Gold and Silver, ſince they had in Gold all the Animals and Plants they had the knowledge of, and had Temples, where they plac'd a number of Statues of pure Gold, and an infi­nite company of Precious Stones: thoſe rich Fabricks have been demoliſh'd by the Spaniards, in hopes of finding Gold in the Materials and joyning of the ſtones, which were cemented with it, tho' they were of a prodigious big­neſs.

The Provinces of Peru, are Quito, los Reyes, los Charcas, la Sierra. Quito has a great deal of Gold, Cotton, and Medicinal Herbs, and a Town of the ſame Name, the ancient abode of the Inca Guainacapa. The Province de los Reyes, has the fineſt Cities of the Countrey, Lima and48 Cuſco. Lima is new, and one of the beſt of all America: Its great Trade, as well as the Reſi­dence of the Vice-Roy, and of the Arch-biſhop, have rendred it the Capital of Peru. Callao, a Sea-port Town, two Leagues from Lima, is capable of receiving and ſecuring ſeve­ral Ships. Cuſco, built four hundred years before the Spaniards took it, is very Popu­lous, becauſe the Kings kept commonly their Court there, and oblig'd the Caciques, or Lords of the Countrey, to build each a Houſe there, and make it the place of their Chil­drens Reſidence. There is in the Province de los Charcas, the Cities de la Plata, and Petoſi; this laſt, one of the beſt inhabi­ted in all the West Indies: It has all the Conveniencies and Delights of Life; and for that reaſon ſeveral perſons go to dwell there. The Silver Mines of its Mountain are really the richeſt in the World; they are in no wiſe ſubject to the Inconveniencies of the Waters, which commonly incommode o­ther Mines. The King of Spain drew thence formerly every year above a Million of Du­cuts for his Fifth; but ſince, they are much diminiſhed. The Spaniards are not ſpa­ring of proclaiming from time to time the diſcovery of other Mines in their Provinces of America.

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Chili.

CHili derives its Name from that of one of its Valleys, or from the Cold which people ſuffer in its Mountains, that environ it to­wards the North and Eaſt. The difficulty of paſſing through theſe Mountains, obliges the Spaniards of Peru, when they go thither, to take their way by Sea: They have had it in poſſeſſion ſince the year 1554. Some parts of this Coun­trey are ſo fruitful and pleaſant, chiefly to'wards the Sea-Coaſts, that there are none of all America that better reſemble thoſe of Europe, which we eſteem the fineſt. They have Oſtridges, Copper, and the pureſt Gold in the World: there are ſo many Mines of that pre­cious Metal, that Chili is compared to a golden Sheet, which has made the King of Spain re­ſolve to keep it; tho' what he holds there, coſts him more to defend, than the reſt he has in America. The Cold is exceſſive. Almagre loſt more Men and Horſes by the Cold, than by the Sword. At the four Months end, after he had invaded this Countrey, they found ſome of his Troopers dead, in the ſame poſture, and as freſh as if they had but juſt mounted on Horſe-back. The Rivers only run in the day time, and remain frozen during the night. This does not hinder, but there are a number of Vulcano's, or Mountains belching forth fire. The Spaniards have a Governour, who depends on the Vice-Roy of Peru. The Arauques made ſuch a Reſiſtance againſt them, that in the50 year 1641, they were conſtrain'd to make Peace with them. There is not in all Ame­rica a more Warlike and Valiant People than theſe Arauques; they know how to make Swords, Muskets, and Cuiraſſes: they have the dexterity to draw up in Battel, to Attack, fight in a Retreat, to Encamp advantagiouſly, to build Forts, and they put in practice moſt of the ſtratagems of War; which they have learnt in having ſeen them but once uſed. They have often ſurpriz'd and ruin'd Cities, maſſa­cred Garriſons; they have alſo demoliſhed the Fortreſſes of Arauco, Turen, Tucapel: An Arauque makes no difficulty to attack a Spa­niard.

San Jago, the Conception, and the Impe­rial, are the principal Cities of Chili: San Jago has its Sea-Port, called Valparaiſo: the Conception is the abode of the Governour, by reaſon of the Neighbourhood of the Arauques. La Mocha, at five Leagues diſtance from the Terra firma, is a ſmall Iſle, where the Ships go often to take in freſh Water, and where ſeve­ral Inhabitants of Chili have taken refuge, to exempt themſelves from the rigour of the Spa­niſh Yoke.

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Magellanica.

MAgellanica is at the point of Southern Ame­rica, near the Streights of Magellan. 'Tis ſometimes called Chica, and the Country of the Patagons. 'Tis is a Land very poor and ſubject to cold, by reaſon of its high Moun­tains, whereon Snow is almoſt ever lying. The Natives dwell in Dens, where they adore the Devil, for fear he ſhould do them ſome miſ­chief. The Engliſh, Spaniards, and Hollanders, have given very different Names to the places to which they have reſorted. The Spaniards, in the time of their King Philip the Second, built Ciudad del Rey Filippe, and ſome other Fortreſſes at the Eaſtern entrance of the Streight of Magellan, with deſign to hinder their Ene­mies from paſſing into the South-Sea; But the Channel was found too large for the compaſſing ſuch an Enterprize, and the want of Victuals caus'd that Colony to periſh there. So that Ciudad was called Puerto del fame. The Haven of St. Julian, where Magellan wintered and puniſhed his Mutineers, and the wiſh'd-for Ha­ven, are upon the Eaſtern Coaſt. Here is Sweet Water, wherewith moſt Ships have provided themſelves, as thoſe of Magellan, Drake, Can­diſh, Olivier de Nort, le Maire, Schouten, and others, that have touch'd there. The Spaniſh Relations affirm, there are Men called Patagons, ten foot high, that will thruſt Arrows of two foot and a half long, down to the bottom of their ſtomach, and drew 'em out again, without52 receiving any harm; that eat at one Meal, a great Basket full of Bisket, and drink as much Wine, as a Horſe can drink Water; that one alone can carry a Tun of Wine; that three or four of 'em can launch a Ship into the Sea; that they run as ſwift as Staggs; and laſtly, that fifty Spaniards can hardly bind one of theſe Pa­tàgons. The Engliſh, who have ſince landed in Magellanica, relate things quite contrary to what is before ſpecified, and ſay, that the In­habitants there are not bigger than the Euro­peans.

Tucuman.

TƲcuman is a temperate Countrey, interlaced with ſeveral Rivers, which after having watered the Plains, fall into the great River de la Plata. Its Inhabitants are docible, and in­genious, being more given to Peace, than War; the Spaniſh Captain, who ſubdued them, ſtood in no need of very conſiderable Troops for that purpoſe. They obey Caciques, their Lords; their Riches conſiſt in Cattle. The Spaniards have there a Governour, and their principal Town is San-Jago d' El-Eſtero. Cordoua is the next beſt Town of Tucuman. Chaco and Trapalan­da, are two of its principal Countreys. Its People, Quirandies, towards the Southern part, have much of the Scythian humour; they have their move­able Habitations, and have always made a great reſiſtance againſt the Spaniard.

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La Plata.

THe Name of La Plata was given by the Spaniards to this Countrey, and a great Ri­ver which waters it, in conſideration of the Silver they received there, and of the Mines they found. This Countrey is pleaſant and fertil: It has a good Corn-Soil, Vineyards, fruitful Trees, and Cattle in abundance. It has a Rock, which by Antitheſis is called Poor. Several Europeans have had a paſſionate deſire to ſettle themſelves here, in hopes of finding great Treaſures. The King of Spain is acknowledg'd in moſt of the places of De la Plata: Wherefore in the year 1680, the Colonies of the Coun­trey ſent Men to hinder the ſettlement of the Portugueſe in the Iſles S. Gabriel, near Buenos­aires. The Spaniſh Governour has his Reſidence in the City of the Aſſumption, wherein there is a Garriſon. The true Paraguay is towards the beginning of the great River of the ſame Name, which in our Tongue ſignifies the River of Feathers. Parana is along the River, which has Cataracts, or falls of Water, near two hundred Yards high. Buenos-aires is one of the beſt Spaniſh Colonies, by reaſon of the Com­merce it drives in Braſile, from whence it re­ceives the Merchandizes of Europe; which has invited the Spaniards of Potoſi to go often thi­ther to furniſh themſelves with Neceſſaries, in exchange for their Ingots of Silver, notwith­ſtanding the rigorous Prohibitions of their King, whoſe Rights are loſt by theſe means. A Propo­ſal was made to his Catholick Majeſty, to have54 his Silver of Peru brought this way, which is much nearer and ſhorter than that of Pa­nama: But he thought not fitting to con­ſent to it, for fear his Subjects ſhould commu­nicate their Commerce of Silver with the Por­tugueſe of Braſile. The Inhabitants have great Trees, which they call Zaines, whereof they make Boats all of a piece. They ſhew the right wayes to ſeveral places by the felling of Trees: and as thoſe Trees are ſome green, others ei­ther black, yellow, or red, the Foreſts are agree­ably diverſifyed by them. The Orechons are there remarkable for the bigneſs of their Ears. According to the Relations of the Year 1627, there are in La Plata, People more Civiliz'd, and more ſucceptible of our Arts and Religion, than in the other parts of America; they ſay that according to a Tradition, left their Fore-Fathers by St. Thomas, whom they call St. Sume, Prieſts ſhould come into their Countrey with the Croſs to inſtruct them, and teach them their ſalvation.

Braſile.

BRaſile has its Name common with a ſort of Wood, which it furniſhes in abundance. It was called the Country of the Holy Croſs, when diſcovered in the Year 1501, in the Name of the King of Portugal. It extends a­long the North Sea towards the North. It has55 great Rocks under Water, whoſe Mouths make ſeveral good Harbours. Its Bounds towards the Weſt are unknown; thoſe it has towards the South, are placed diverſly according to the will of the Caſtilians and Portuguez, who ex­plain, their own way, the Regulation of the Year 1493, Each pretending the Poſſeſſion of the River La Plata, with that of the Molucco Iſlands, and cauſing Geographical Cards to be made for that purpoſe to their own advantage. By the Regulation above mentioned, Alexander the 6th, whom Sixtus the 5th Liſts in the Rank of the three greateſt Popes of the Church, in­veſted Ferdinand King of Arragon, and Iſabella Queen of Castile his Wife, in all the Lands, which they ſhould cauſe to be Diſcovered on the Weſt of a Line, which was imaginarily to be drawn from one Pole to the other, a hundred Leagues beyond the Iſlands Azores: What was to Diſcover on the Eaſt of that Line, was to belong to the King of Portugal. Now the diffi­culty was in the Execution: the Castilians would reckon thoſe hundred Leagues, from the moſt Weſtern of the Azores; the Por­tugueſe, from the moſt Eaſtern, with deſign of making paſs, for what they abandoned within the Deſarts of America, the rich Poſſeſſion of the Molucco's, which ſince was pawned to their King, by the Emperour Charles V. for Three hundred and fifty thouſand Ducats. In ſhort, theſe two Nations not agreeing in this affair, no more than in ſeveral others, the Portuguez reckon'd, as Braſile, all that extends, from the River Maranon, unto that of La Plata, and the Spaniards plac'd the Southern Bounds of it at the Capitania of St. Vincent. In the Year 1680. the56 Portuguezes have ſhown, by their Deſcent into the Iſlands of St. Gabriel, that they mean not to abate the leaſt of their Pretenſions.

Tho' Braſile be under the Torrid Zone, its Air is temperate, its Waters the beſt in the World; Its Inhabitants live often a hundred and fifty years and more. Beſides the Woods of Braſile, there is Amber, Balm, Tobacco, Whale-Oyl, Cattel, Confitures; Sugar in abundance, the Engines with which they prepare it, being of great value. There are ſuch Animals, Trees, Fruits, and Roots, as are not ſeen in other parts. The Serpents Adders, Water-Snakes and Toads, have no Venome, and ſerve for Food for the In­habitants. The Fields are deſtined to Sugars, the Mountains for Woods, and the Valleys for Tobacco, for Fruits and for Mandioche, which is a kind of Root, which the Inhabitants make their Bread of. In this Region is an Herb, called Viva, which if toucht, will ſhut up as a Dazy in the night, and will not open till the Party, that in­jured it be out of fight. Moſt of the Towns are not of above a hundred, or an hundred and twenty Houſes.

The Coaſt of Braſile is divided into four­teen Praefectures, or Lordſhips, which are called Capitania's, and belong at preſent all to the Portugueſe. In the Year 1654, the Hollanders loſt all they had Conquered in theſe parts, the War they had then with England not ſuffering them to ſend ſuccours thither, and the Portugueſe Colonies were there much better eſtabliſhed than theirs. In the Year 1662, the Portugueſe entred into Treaty with them, to give them ſa­tisfaction, that they might not have them their Enemies, at the ſame time they were to defend57 themſelves againſt the Spaniards. Amongſt the Capitanias, Tamuraca is the moſt ancient, tho' the ſmalleſt: Fernambuca is eſteemed a Terre­ſtrial Paradice, by reaſon of the Beauty of its Territory. Bahia de todos os Santos, to the Ci­ty of San-Salvador, at preſent an Archbiſhops See, and the Reſidence of the Governour: It was taken in the Year 1624, by the Hollanders, who got ſuch a Booty there, that each Souldier had for his ſhare above fifteen thouſand Crowns: This good fortune occaſion'd their Retreat, and their Retreat gave occaſion to the Spaniards and Portugueſes to retake it. The Ca­pitania of Rio-Janeiro, which the Savages call Ganabara, has a great reſort of Ships by means of a Navigable River, or rather of an Arm of the Sea which advances full twelve Leagues within the Land and is ſeven or eight in Breadth. In the Year 1658, a Mine of Silver was found in the Capitania. The City of Santos can receive Ships of two hundred Tun by means of its River.

As concerning the inward part of Braſile, it is not much known; but what is known, take as followeth; The Inhabitants there go naked for the moſt part, and have the dexterity of paſſing great Rivers by the help of a Panyer, and a Rope. Three Letters of our Alphabet, are of no uſe amongſt them, F, L, R; Some ſay, its becauſe they have neither Faith, nor Law, nor Ruler. The Principal nations a­mongſt them are, the Toupinambous, the Morgui­ces, the Tapuyes, and others who differ in Man­ners, and in Language, and commonly are di­ſtinguiſh'd by divers Head-Gears, and Forms of Hair they wear. Their number was much grea­ter58 before the coming of the Portugueſe among 'em; ſeveral Toupinambous, to preſerve their freedom, have traverſed great Deſarts, and are gone to dwell near the River Maranhaon. The Tapuyes are more hard to be Civiliz'd, than the Braſilians who inhabit Aldea's. Theſe Al­dea's are Villages, which have but five or ſix Houſes, but very long, and each capable of con­taining five or ſix hundred Perſons. Moſt of the Inhabitants of Braſile have made a brave Defence, notwithſtanding the Wars they make among themſelves; they have hindred the Europeans from making any progreſs in the In­lands of their Countrey,