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THE STATE OF FRANCE, As it ſtood in the IXth yeer of this preſent Monarch, LEWIS XIIII.

Written to a Friend By J. E.

LONDON, Printed by T.M. for M.M. G Bedell & T Collins. at the middle Temple gate, Fleetſtreet. 1652.

The State of FRANCE, as it ſtood in the Ninth yeer of this preſent Monarch LEWIS the XIIII, Written to a Friend.

SInce I had firſt the honour to bee one of thoſe whoſe Converſation you have che­riſhed with ſo many ſignall obligations, and, as it were, currents of civility; I can hard­ly think, that (when by ſo ma­ny literal expreſſes and perſo­nal commands, you enjoin me to deliver ſomething in writing, touching the late ſubject of our diſcourſe) you have either cauſe to delight in my triviall con­ceptions, or deſigne my diſcre­dit: For however your inſtan­ces have at laſt prevailed, yet your Honor is no leſſe concer­ned to be tender how you publiſh my defects, whileſt in them onely (though the faults be mine) men will ſo perem­ptorily conclude your want of judgment, and condemn your Election. But you have pro­miſed to be diſcreet, and I ſhall then make a ſaving adventure of my Reputation with you, who have candor and charity not from the Multitude, but the ſtock of your own worth and ingenuous Education; of which this Eſſay will be rather an Hiſtory, then any thing o­therwiſe capable to informe you, who know already ſo much more, and better, then I can poſſibly either write or relate.

But to begin once, ſince it is my fate to obey you; I ſhall nothing alter the Scene, which was then Preſented you, when you were pleaſed (as it ſince appears) to take notice of thoſe caſuall Diſcourſes of mine, wherein I poſted over the beſt Remarks, and moſt mate­riall Obſervations which my weak Judgment had been able to recollect, during my ſo ma­ny Pererrations, and unprofi­table Sojourn abroad, and eſpe­cially in this Kingdome of France.

Nor wil I vex your patience with any Topographicall Deſcri­ptions, as being the daily ſub­ject of your Contemplations, when at any time you pleaſe to refreſh your ſelf amongſt thoſe exquiſite Cards of the lateſt and moſt accurate Editi­ons: But repreſent, in as ſuc­cinct a Method as I am able, what in order to Affairs (as in the Government of this moſt active and Illuſtrious Monar­chie they now ſtand) I conceive to be chiefly proper and requi­ſite for a Gentleman of our Nation (under the notion of a Traveller) to be able to render an accompt of at his Return: And therefore, before I proceed further, I will complie with your deſire, and ſpeak a word or two (by way of Introducti­on, or Digreſſion rather) of my ſentiment and opinion tou­ching Forraign Travel in Gene­ral, wherein I ſhall alſo deal very impartially with all the world concerning mine own particular, as being (I hope) taking my long farewel there­of.

That which firſt rendred me of this Apodemick humour, (I ſhall not diſcourſe here of Mercuriall complexions, whom Phyſiognomiſts affirm to be Indi­vidua vaga's, like my ſelf) pro­ceeded from a certain vaine Emulation which I had to ſee the beſt of Education, which every body ſo decrying at Home, made me conceive, was a commodity onely to be brought from a far Countrie; and I cannot ſay, without a little ambition too of knowing, or at leaſt of having the pri­viledg to talk ſomething more then others could reaſonably pretend to, that had never bin out of ſight of their owne chimnies ſmoke: All which was a Ridiculous affectation, contracted firſt from the ordi­nary Radomontadas of ſuch as have ſeen ſtrange places, and great want of diſcretion, and ſo fondly tranſported with the pleaſure onely, and temptation of Novelties, the very inſtru­mental cauſes of this unſetled extravagancy.

True it is, Non omnis fert om­nia Tellus: for the great and good God hath diſcreetly, and very wiſely diſpoſed, in the furniſhing and adorning (as I may ſay) of this Terreſtrial Ca­binet, having left no one part or corner thereof without ſome thing ſpecially different, and admirably remarkable, ei­ther in the compoſition, qua­lity or uſe; all of them, ac­cording to their poſition, ſitu­ation, and effects, admirably commodious, and dependant; of which divine Oeconomy there may be infinitely more ſpo­ken, then will be ſutable to this deſign, after I have infer­red that for theſe reſpects only, a Traveller has ſome excuſe, as well as encouragement to go abroad and ſee the world.

Now then, for as much as the end of all our Appetites, wiſely inquired into, ought to be the principal Mira, and terme to all our actions, he that would travell rationally, and like a Philoſopher, muſt induſtri­ouſly apply himſelf to the pur­ſuit of ſuch things, as (through­out all his Peregrinations) may reſult moſt to the profit, and Emolument of his own Coun­try at his Return; whether in the accompliſhing of his per­ſon or affairs, there being no­thing more veritable, then that ſaying of Homer,

〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.
Turpe quidem manſiſſe diu, vacuúmque redire.

And therefore Peregrinatio ani­mi imperio, & corporis miniſterio debet perfici: For ſo it was that Ptolomies young Noblemen, of whoſe rich fraight and return wee read of; travelled, and brought home with them wares of more value, then if they had tranſported Gold and Pearles. For the ſame cauſe PYTHAGORAS took leave of his Friends and native Coun­try, to which hee afterwards returned with the Learning of the Aegyptians, as Strabo in his ſeventh Book and fourteenth Chapt. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. And not as Plinie affirmeth, Exiliis verius quam peregrinatio­nibus ſuſceptis: Nay, his paſ­ſion and thirſt after this excel­lent Commerce was ſo admi­rable, that the ſame Authour in Syren. tells us, he made no­thing of Circumciſing himſelf, that ſo hee might with the more freedom, and leſſe ſuſpi­cion pry into their profound­eſt Myſteries: For therefore were the Egyptian Prieſts cal­led〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, incommunicable, and〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, imparticipable. Clem. Alex.

Such a deſigne led THA­LES, EUDOXUS, APOL­LONIUS, nay PLATO him­ſelf, and divers other renown­ed Perſonages,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. To comprehend (ſaith Plutarch) the Myſteries of Philoſophy and Divinitie: As it ſeems, eſtee­ming the Aegyptians to be the moſt Ancient and Noble peo­ple of the whole World, both for the wiſdom of their Conſti­tutions, and exceeding Reverence which they bare to Learning: Theſe being indeed the fruits & moſt noble acquiſitions, which a Gentleman (who is a quali­fied Traveller) ſhould ſtudy and endeavour to furniſh himſelfe with whilſt he is abroad.

But theſe, ſome may object, are Heathen examples, Chriſti­ans are content to be leſſe curious, and ſtay at home: Saint Hierom ſhall be mine Inſtance on this occaſion: and truely, it is worth the reading what he hath delivered in one of his Epiſt. ad Paulinum, you ſhall find it praefixed (amongſt ſeverall other) to Sixtus his Edition of the Bible, when (after thoſe words, Legimus in veteribus hiſtoriis quoſdam luſtraſſe provincias, novos adiſſe Populos, maria tranſiſſe: ut eos quos ex libris noverant, coram quoque viderent, &c.) making a very ample repetition of what I have before ſpoken in the perſons of other men, and eſpecially of the incomparable Pythagoras, and thoſe noble youths who went out of France and Spaine, only to hear the eloquence of Livie, when quos ad contemplati­onem ſui ipſa Roma non traxerat, unius hominis fama perduxit, re­ferring us to the eight volums which Philoſtratus hath pur­poſely written on this ſubject; thus he expoſtulates, Quid lo­quar de ſaeculi hominibus, &c. what do I troubling you with old ſtories? when the Apoſtle Paul himſelfe, that veſſell of E­lection, and Doctour of the Gentiles diſperſed the Chriſtian Religion through ſo great a part of the world; by his al­moſt perpetuall Peregrination, after his miraculous converſi­on; the like may be affirmed of the reſt of the Apoſtles, and even our Bleſſed Saviour him­ſelf: but I recommend you to the Authour. On the other ſide, as we have juſtly cenſured thoſe who meerly run abroad out of that vanity of ſpirit, and ſuch trivial conſiderations as I have already reproached in my ſelf, ſo are we likewiſe to diſ­band another ſort of travellers, whoſe Cynical reſervedneſſe, de­clares to the world that they have only minded the ſenſua­lity and ſatisfaction of a pri­vate Guſto: communicating uſually at their return but what may juſtly merit that re­priment which Socrates once gave to a young man who would render him no accompt of all his long abſence, quod ſe­cum peregrinatus fuerit: in the mean time, as much to be ab­horred is all maner ſtrangneſs, diſdain, Affectation and loqua­city, by which ſo many travel­lers now a days (for the moſt part) diſtinguiſh themſelves from the Vulgar, to that over acted degree of mimi­call folly, as one would eaſi­ly imagine they had all this while lived in Penſion rather amongſt Apes, and Parrats, than ever either ſeen, or con­verſed with perſons of Inge­nuity or Honour.

To proeeed therfore, preſup­poſe Travell ut ſuſcipiatur propter unum aliquem finem, as we have already conſtituted it: we are yet to give our young ſubject leave to be ſo far practical, as that he do not ſlip any opportunity by which he may inform him­ſelf as well in things even Me­chanically curious and uſefull, as altogether in the Myſteries of Government and Polity, which indeed are more appo­ſitely termed Philoſophicall. Thoſe who have impoſed on themſelves, and others, ſo ma­ny different ſpecies of travell, as it may be ſaid to contein Theoreticall parts in it, that is to ſay, the Metaphyſicall, Phyſicall, and Mathematicall, are, in my ap­prehenſion, more exact and tedious in their Analyſing, then perhaps they needed to have been; of them therefore I ſay no more: it ſhall be ſufficient for him whom I ſend abroad, that he conform himſelf to ſuch precepts as are onely neceſſary, not cumberſome; which Rule he ſhall likewiſe do well to obſerve even in his very neceſſary accoutrements and port-manteau.

Firſt then, ſuppoſing him to be a Young Gentleman apt for all Impreſsions, but from his primary education inclined to the moſt worthy: having ſet his Foot upon the Continent, his firſt ſtudy ſhall be to maſter the tongue of the Country wherein hee reſolves to Re­ſide; which ought to be un­derſtood perfectly, written congruouſly, and ſpoken intel­ligently: after which he may do well to accompliſh him­ſelf in ſuch exerciſes, as are moſt commendable at home, and beſt attayned abroad; which will be a means of rendring him very fit, and apt for the generall ſociety of that Nation amongſt whom hee converſes, and conſequent­ly the better qualifie him to frequent, without bluſh, ſuch particular places, and perſons by whom he may beſt profit himſelfe in the Myſteries of their Polity, or what other perfection they are renowned for, according as his par­ticular Genius and inclinations import him. But this hee ſhall never attain unto, till he begin to be ſomwhat ripe­ned and ſeaſoned in a place; for it is not every man that croſſes the Seas, hath been of an Academy, learned a Corran­to, and ſpeaks the Language, whom I eſteem a Traveller (of which piece moſt of our Engliſh are in theſe countryes at preſent) but he that (in ſtead of making the Tour, as they call it) or, as a late Em­baſſador of ours facetiouſly, but ſharply reproached, (like a Gooſe ſwimms down the Ri­ver) having maſtered the Tongue, frequented the Court, looked into their cuſtomes, been preſent at their pleadings, ob­ſerved their Military Diſcipline, contracted acquaintance with their Learned men, ſtudied their Arts, and is famili­ar with their diſpoſitions, makes this accompt of his time. The principal advantages which a Gentleman thus made, may obſerve, and apply, are Truth, Taciturnitie, facetiouſneſſe with­out moroſity, courage, modeſty, hardineſſe, patience, frugality, and an excellent temper in the Regiment of his health and Affections, eſpecially in point of Drink and Tobacco, which is our Northerne, Nationall, and moſt ſordid of Vices. It is (I confeſſe) a thing extreamly difficult to be at all times, and in all places thus reſerved, and as it were obliged to a Temper ſo Statick and exact among all converſations; nor for mine own part, do I eſteem it in all caſes neceſſary, provided a man be furniſhed with ſuch a ſtock of prudence, as he know how, and when to make uſe even of his companions ex­travagancies, (as then frequent­ly betraying more freely their inclinations, then at times of their more ſerious recolle­ction, and firſt addreſſes.) Seeing I find it generally im­poſſible for a Traveller to evade ſome occaſions & encounters, which (if he be at all practi­cal) he will nolens volens, per­ceive himſelf ingaged into at ſome one time or other. But to recover this deviation, and return to our purpoſe; the vertues which our Traveller is to bring home when he doth Repatriare (as Solinus terms it) are either publick, ſuch name­ly as concern the ſervice of his Country; or Private, and altogether perſonall, in order to his particular advantage and ſatisfaction: and, be­leeve it Sir, if he reap ſome contentment extraordinary, from what he hath obſerved abroad, The pains, ſollici­tations, watchings, Perills, journeys, ill enterteinment, abſence from Friends, and innumerable like inconveni­ences, joyned to his vaſt expen­ces, do very dearly, and by a ſtrange kind of extortion, pur­chaſe that ſmal experience and reputation which he can vaunt to have acquired from abroad.

Thoſe who boaſt of Philolo­gicall Peregrinations (falſly ſo called) which they undertake meerly for the flouriſh and Tongue of a Place, poſſeſſe onely a Paret-vertue; It is one of the Shels of Travel (though I confeſſe, the kernel is not to be procured without it: And Topical; in which I finde the Dutch〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, generally moſt accurate and induſtrious; both of them ſerve well for the en­tertainment of Women and Children, who are common­ly more imported with won­der and Romance, then that ſolid and reall Emolument, which is (through theſe In­ſtruments) to be conveyed us from abroad.

It is written of Ulyſſes, that hee ſaw many Cities indeed, but withall his Remarks of mens Manners and Cuſtoms, was ever preferred to his coun­ting Steeples, and making Tours: It is this Ethicall and Morall part of Travel, which embelliſheth a Gentleman, in the firſt place, having a due reſpect to the Religion, which accompliſheth a Chriſtian: In ſhort, they are all ſeverally very commendable, accom­modated to Perſons and Pro­feſsions; nor ſhould a Ca­valier neglect to be ſeen in all of them: But for that my in­tention is here to make an Introduction onely into mine own OBSERVATIONS, I ſhall forbear to enter ſo large and ample a Field, as the through handling of this Argument would inſenſibly oblige mee to do, it having likewiſe been ſo abundantly treated of al­moſt by every Pen which hath prevaricated on this Subject; though, in my ſlender judg­ment, and under favour, I muſt confeſſe, without any real and ingenuous ſatisfation either to Truth, or Curioſity.

To conclude (Sir) and con­tract this tedious tranſgreſſion, I conjure you to beleeve, that I offer nothing to you in this diſcourſe, out of any the leaſt ſelf opinion, cenſure of other men, vanity, or oſtentation. No, I am aſſured you will find me far enough from that IdiopathiaE, and common di­ſtemper of Travellers; all I ſhall pretend being but to commu­nicate unto you, how I have loſt part of thoſe ſeven yeares, and more; which, not be­ing (as in truth they ought to have been) wholly exerci­ſed in the Benefit I might have reaped from your ſo­ciety at home, I am obliged in Honour, and for Juſtifi­cation of my ſelf, to render you an Accompt how they have been diſpenſed abroad. I am very conſcious to my ſelf, how much mine owne little intereſt hath ſuffered, during mine abſence, in the judge­ment of your ſtayed and more Thriving Geniuſes, and ſuch as might juſtly indeed derive Characters, and Prognoſticks from a raw and unſettled ſpi­rit, ſuch as was mine: but conſidering that all thoſe tran­ſirory Accidents of Fo tune and the world, can no way farther extend themſelves, then to a very imperfect ſatisfaction of our regular and honeſt Ap­petites, (beſides that which they ought yeeld unto o­thers,) neither he who ſtayes at home, nor he that goes a­broad, is (in mine opinion) to be altogether cenſured and bla­med; and truely, he that can accommodate himſelf to ſo re­tired and contemplative a life, as certainly that of a pure Country Gentlemans is, frees himſelf of an innumerable Hoſt of troubles, and impor­tunities which a Traveller runs through, and is in a manner compelled to entertain. Con­formable to that of the moſt incomparable

Claudian, De Sene Veronenſi, Epig.
Foelix qui propriis aevum tranſegit in arvis:
Ipſa domus puerum quem videt, ipſa ſenem:
Qui baculo nitens, in qua reptavit arena
Unius numerat ſecula longa caſae.
Illum non vario traxit fortuna tumultu,
Nec bibit ignotas mobilis boſpes aquas.
Non freta mercator timuit, non claſsica miles:
Non rauci lites pertulit ille fori.
Indocilis rerum, vicinae neſcius urbis,
Adſpectu fruiur liberiore poli.
Frugibus alternis, non Conſule, computat annum:
Autumnum pomis, ver ſibi flore notat.
Idem conditager Soles, idem que reducit,
Metiturque ſuo ruſticus orbe diem.
Ingentem meminit parvo qui germine quercum,
Aequae unumque videt conſenuiſſe nemus.
Broxima cui nigris Verona remotior Indis,
Benacumque putat litora rubra lacum.
Sed tamen indomitae vires, firmiſque lacertis
Aetas robuſtum tertia cernit avum.
Erret, & extremos alter ſcrutetur I beros,
Plus habet hic vitae, plus habet ille Viae.

The ſerious contemplation whereof, made me ſometimes (being at Naples) break forth in this youthful, but naturall Ode againſt Travell, which I wil here pro­nounce for my finall**Scal. lib 3. Poet c. 106. dict. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: being a ſpeech which was made to the Citizens by him that was returned home after his long travell. Epibate­rium.

Happie that man who lives content
With his own Home and Continent,
Thoſe chiding ſtreams his banks docurb,
Eſteems the Ocean to his Orb;
Round which, when he a walk does take,
Thinks to perform as much as Drake.
For other Tongues, he takes no thought,
Then what his Nurſe or Mother taught.
He's not diſturbd with the rude cryes
Of the*
*The guide or Meſſenger in Italy, which in the Morning calls to Horſe.
* Procaccia's [Up and Riſe.]
But charmd in down, ſleeps by the ſide
Of his chaſt Love, or Loyall Bride,
In whoſe ſmooth Arms no ſooner hurld,
But he enjoys another world;
Where his Enfranchiſ'd hand may ſtray,
O're the warm ſnow, or milkie way,
And thence as oft as it declines
Haec Comicè dicta, cave ne malè capiat.
Tow'rds thoſe more rich and hidden Mines,
Scornes us that travell Lands and Seas,
Beleeves no Kingdomes like to theſe.
If then at home ſuch joyes be had,
Oh how unwiſe are we, how mad

This I did once write, and this I ſo beleeve, (as if God bleſſe me with a ſucceſſefull Returne into my Native Country) I ſhall endeavour Vivere, non dicere huic veritati: and though the Conſcience of my perſonall inabilities, can never tempt me with the vanity to think of any publick Ad­vancement, for having ſpent the prime of my years and youth abroad; yet the content­ment, and ſatisfaction which I purpoſe and fancie to my ſelf, if I may obtaine leave but to enjoy that private condition and Fortune, which Heaven hath decided me at home, ſo that I can but rubb out of this, into a better world, without the leaſt impeachment to my Religion and Loyalty, Sublimi fe­riam ſydera vertice: I ſhall have arrived at the ſumm and very top of mine innocent wiſhes. But, if in the mean time, it be otherwiſe ordained, I have learned likewiſe to ſub­mit my ſelf unto the will of God, as being very apt to beleeve that excellent Apoph­thegme of the Wiſe man, Quod Omne ſolum ſit Forti Patria.

But now to our TRAVELLER again.

The principall places of EUROPE, wherein a Gen­tleman may, uno intuitu, behold as in a Theater the chief and moſt ſignall Actions which (out of his owne Countrey) concerne this later Age and part of the World, are the Netherlands, comprehending Flanders, and the divided Pro­vinces; which is a perfect En­cycle and Synopſis of whatſoe­ver one may elſewhere ſee in all the other Countryes of Europe; And for this end, I willingly recommend them to be firſt viſited, no other­wiſe, then do thoſe who di­rect us in the ſtudy of Hiſtory to the reading firſt of ſome au­thentick Epitome, or univerſall Chronology, beſore we adventure to launch forth into that vaſt and profound Ocean of volumi­nous Authours. From thence I would adviſe him to traverſe Germany, (altogether contrary to the Vulgar Method) by rea­ſon of that ſo uſefull Tongue, which he will find very diffi­cult, and with much re­gret, and many conflicts at­tained unto, after the facill, and more ſmooth Languages are once throughly imbibed, not omitting (comparatively) even the French it ſelf. From this Region you naturally ſlide into Italy, and then Em­barquing for Spain, return by a direct courſe unto Paris; where indeed, I would have the Principall aboad of a Gen­tleman to be, not only in Re­lation to the Court, and exerci­ſes acquired in that City; but alſo in reſpect to his expenſes. This may ſeem a Paradox to ſome; but for my part, I ne­ver found any wood to a great town; and when my Traveller hath caſt it up, and made a true Audite of all Extraordinaries, he will find, what for removalls, and what for the perill of diſ­bauched and frequent colla­tionings (for in all other little towns his acquaintance will be univerſall, the Engliſh per­petually interviſiting, with a groſſe ingredient of Dutch,) a very little, or inconſiderable diſproportion in the total Ac­compt.

Thus I propoſe France in the laſt place, for many other re­ſpects which here I purpoſely omit to enumerate, that I may avoid the taedium of ſo long a diſcourſe; but eſpecially, for this, that our Traveller may have the more time and reſo­lution to conquer the Lan­guage, and go through thoſe hardy and moſt eminent ex­erciſes which are there to bee learned in their choiceſt per­fection and native luſtre; af­ter which, with a competent tincture of their beſt conver­ſation (for the over reſerved­neſſe of the Italian, and ſeveri­ty of the Spanyard, as well as the blunt garb of the Dutch, would in an Engliſhman be a little Pal­liated; for fear it become affe­cted) he may return home, and be juſtly reputed a moſt accompliſhed Cavalier.

To the other part of your Requeſt, Sir, that I ſhould give you ſome touches of the Low Countryes, and other pla­ces (beſides the wrong I ſhould do to thoſe perfect relations al­ready extant) obſerving them at a time when my judgment was not altogether ſo mature, & my ſelf ſo much a Dutch Traveller, (as I have before rendred you the Character) I had rather make an Apology for what I have already, and promiſe yet to ſay, then proceed to depoſe allegations under mine own hand, of the loſſe of ſo much precious time; and betray mine Ignorance.

Touching Italy, the States are ſo many, and their policy ſo different, that it would coſt me more leaſure then I have now to ſpend, to reduce, and diſcipline my ſcattered papers, and ſuch indigeſted collections as require a more formal Me­thod, and indeed, a better pen.

Nor could your Servant in truth, have been poſſibly indu­ced to diſcover thus far his e­gregious imperfections; did not your Arguments carry in them ſome ſpecious reproach, as well as your Perſon ſo great an authority over me, when you pleaſe to perſwade your ſelf the Advantage I muſt needs (ſay you) have had by my extraordinary Relations to Perſons of affaire, as well as what I might happly in this caſe gather lawfully out of ſuch as have the lateſt written on this Subject. So that how­ever (and as indeed the very truth is) I was leaſt of all in­quiſitive how others were go­verned, finding it ſo difficult a Province to Regulate my ſelf, yet mine endeavor to pacifie your importunity, and render you a demonſtration of mine inabi­lities to cōply with any future expectation of this Nature, hath in fine, extorted this from me, as an intire reſignation & ſa­crifice of my reputation to that obedience which I profeſſedly ow you, ever more preferring the ſatisfaction of ſo noble a Friend, to the very promulgati­on of my own ſhame and moſt viſible imbecilities.

So then (to approach our pur­poſe) ſeeing all thoſe Nations (before ſpoken of) and ſeveral governments ſeem at this inſtant Epoche of time, to conſpire as it were, and deferr to the preſent Grandezza of the French Empire, as likewiſe conſidering in what Relation we of England are con­cerned, I have eſteemed it beſt meriting my reflections and your patience, to finiſh, and dreſſe this Peece, as judging it moſt worthy the conſidera­tion.

ERRATA's committed (in abſence of the Author, almoſt the whole time this Book was in Preſſe) the inge­nuous Reader is deſired to reform, thus: Page 8 in marg. for ate read late. pag. 10 in mar. r. Character. p. 27 r. Ma­reſchal. p. 32 l. ult. a [,] betwixt Deüanes Tailles p. 34 lin. 9 a parenthelis at certain (&c. pag. 16 r. Treaſurers p. 36 r. of the Tailles p. 50 r. which is drivin of that Trade, pag. 51. lin. 1. a parentheſis at (for &c p. 52 in mar. r. Cap. p 53 r. whom we p. 56. after Legate dele [,] p 57 r. it will be &c p. 6r France. p 62. r. each Souldiers head. ibid. read in Gariſon. p. 68. r. their hands. p. 69 r. but for that p 70 after State Affairs dele [:] Ibid. r. of far greater &c. p 73 r. poverty. p 74. r. obiects p 78 r. are eſtimated. p. 81. dele or before intereſts p. 87 for of ſtrength r. a ſtrength. p. 90 r. muſt of conſequence &c. with diverso her miſ­interpunctations.



I Will begin with a ſaying of Nich. Machiavels ſaying of France,Ma­chiavel: La Corona è li Regi di Francia ſo­no hoggi più richi, & più potenti che mai. The Crown and Kings of France, are at this day more opulent and mighty then ever they were; ſo that Prince of Polititians, a great while ſince: and without contro­verſie, had he any reaſon to give it out ſo in his time, we have much more to affirm the ſame in theſe our dayes, wherein they have e­merged,2 as it were, the ſole victo­rious and Flouriſhing Nation of Europe, in whoſe boſome Na­ture hath even built this goodly Kingdome.

That where a Soveraigne Prince is able to maintain an ab­ſolute and unarbritrary juriſdi­ction over his ſubjects,Victory and greatneſſe the effect of ſoveraigne power and prudent Councell. managed with an active and prudent Councell, there, and rarely elſe­where, doth victory and great­neſſe bleſſe and favour a Nati­on with any permanent ſucceſs, is a verity moſt demonſtrable: whether we reflect on the preſent Age,From the example of the Romans, Athenians. or thoſe frequent Exam­ples of the Romanes and Atheni­ans, whoſe deſertion and aban­doning of their Royall ſuperiours fomented ſuch confuſion and di­ſtraction amongſt the Noblemen and Plebeians, as could never be afterwards compoſed even to the ultimate deſtruction and lamen­table cataſtrophe of thoſe moſt il­luſtrious Republicks.

But in vaine do wee ſeek for3 other Inſtances of this great Truth, then the preſent progreſ­ſion, and almoſt quotidian con­queſts of the now flouriſhing Ot­toman Family; which,and Otto­manians; though now a dangerous Truth. as it is the moſt invincible upon earth, ſo muſt we needs acknowledg it to be the moſt independent and ab­ſolute which theſe later times have likely produced unto us. But for that this is a Verity which may now adayes coſt a man his Teeth (to loſe nothing elſe in the purſuit) I ſhall proſecute it no further then may ſerve to illu­ſtrate what it is which hath of late rendred ſo potent and ag­grandized this preſent aſpiring, & formidable Monarchy, France; of which I ſhall next eſſay to give a brief Character.

And now, as in deſcription of Bodies naturall, Diſſections begin ever with the ſupreme and more noble Regions; ſo in anatomiſing the Kingdom of France, which conſiſts of a Body Politick, I will commence with the Head, that is,4 the King;The Kings of France abſolute ſince Lewis the 11. his ſaying. whom here I may call as Abſolute, ſince Lewis the Eleventh hath ſo long ſince (to uſe his own expreſsion) put them hors de page; that is, freed them from that grand authority, which, till his time, the Parliament indeed ex­erciſed over them; ſo that now the ſame reaſon which moved the late kings to depoſe or tranſlate Saint Denys their ancient Patron,S Denys the patron of F. depoſed, to gratifie the B. Virgin. and to put his Kingdome for­mally under the protection of the bleſſed Virgin, is eſteemed good reaſon,For with theſe words of courſe, the Secretary (it ſeems) concluded the Arreſt, whereby it was confer­red, which gave many occaſion to reproach it. and ſufficient Logick for all his preſent Commands whatſoever: Car tel eſt noſtre bon plaiſir: for ſuch is our good will and pleaſure.

Sic volo, ſic jubeo, Stat pro Rati­one Voluntas.
For ſo we will, ſo we command,
Our will do's for our Reaſon ſtand.

The Monarchy of France (from a Democratick ſtate) was founded Anno,The Monar­chy of Fr. when foun­ded. 420. and hath continued it ſelf under three ſeverall Ra­ces;5 viz. of Meroüeſe,cont nued under three Races. Charle mayn ſon of Pepin, and laſtly, Hue-ca­pet; from whom this Royal houſe of Bourbon derives its ſucceſſion, branched from Robert Earle of Clermont fourth ſon of, Saint Lewis; ſo that the King at preſent Reigning is the ſixty fifth Mo­narch of France, without that a­ny of the Feminine Sex hath or­dinarily intervened;no woman intervening. as they af­firm at leaſt,From the Sa­lick law; be­ing a meer pre­tence to in­validate the title of Eng­land: from a very invete­rate Law, which they intitle the Salique, being indeed but a meer Romance of their own feigning, a piece of legier de main, by which they have ſo long pretended with the great ſhadow of Juſtice to elude and invalidate the title of our former and ancient Kings of England, as to ſucceſsion in the right of their Mothers and Wives.

Touching that other Legend of their Sainte Ampoule,as well as their Sainte Ampoule. which in the time of Cloüis firſt Chriſtian King of France was (as they give out) brought by an Angel from6 Heaven, & reſerved at Rhemes for the Royal Chriſme, we will give it leave to paſſe as a vulgar, yet not impolitick errour, or imperti­nent tradition:The Daugh­ters of Fr. ſometimes married to private per­ſons, yet re­ſerve their Titles and Surnanes. however, by the device aforeſaid, the Daughters ſucceed not to the Crowne, ſome of them having oftentimes marti­ed themſelves unto private men, but ſtill reſerved their Titles, to­gether with the Surname of France, which it ſeems is an ho­nour permitted them during life, to ſhew from what ſtock they o­riginally derived. And the Queens ad­mitted to the Regency du­ring the mi­nority of the Kings.Notwithſtan­ding this, the Queens of France, are uſually admitted to the Re­gency during the Minority of the King, which is at the age of fourteen years, in choative; until which term, they with their coun­ſell adminiſter the publick Affairs of State, without equall or Con­troule.

Concerning the Title or ad­junct of the Kings of France,The title of the F. Kings which is moſt Chriſtian, and eldeſt ſon of the Church, they make no7 ſmal boaſts; for not having been a complement (as they name it) ſent them from Rome, as were thoſe of other Kings; but de­ſcended, time out of Mind, from their own vertue, merits, and Pi­ety.

The Eldeſt ſon of France is during the life of his Father,of his eldeſt ſon. cal­led the Dauphin, from a ſtipula­tion (as it ſeems) made with Ʋm­bert: who bequeathed that Pro­vince conditionally to Philip de Valois.

To ſpeak ſomething particu­larly of this little-great Monarch Lewis the fourteenth, born Sept. Birth and Character of the preſent King.5. 1638 after the Queen his Mo­ther had been above twenty yeers without Iſſue, as his production was almoſt miraculous (not to repeate here any bold diſquiſiti­ons, with thoſe who give them­ſelves a liberty in theſe days, to ſpeak evil of dignities) ſo is his perſon a Character doubtleſs of no leſſe Majeſty, and fair hopes; and certainly, if his Education be8 fitted to the prognoſticks of his Nature, he cannot but emerge a Prince of ſingular Qualities and e­gregious perfections: This I am willing to adde from that Me­chanick and Artificial breeding,Artifice of the French Queen and publick mi­niſters in the are kings Education. which men conceive ſome of his progenitors and neereſt relation received; that ſo not being alto­gether ſo dextrous and knowing in King-craft, as their high cal­ling required, they might with leſs ſuſpicion and more eaſe ſuf­fer themſelves to be governed, by the counſels and inclinations of ſuch, whoſe myſtery and ambiti­on it hath ever been to continue by this means their Greatneſſe, and reinforce their Authority.

This preſent King hath one onely Brother,Duke of Anjou his Character. who is called the Duke of Anjou: but more fre­quently diſtinguiſhed by the name of Monſieur; a child of an extraordinary prompt and ready ſpirit.

The other principall branches of this Royall Family,Duke of Orleans his character. are in the9 firſt place, Gaſton Jean Baptiſt, the Kings Ʋncle, and Duke of Orleans, Lieutenant General of the K. and Governor of Langue­doc; the ſame, who during ſo many years as his Brother was without off-ſpring, had thoſe fair hopes of a Crown; which how­ever his merit and abilities for ſuch a jewel be commonly diſpu­ted, to his no great advantage, certainly there is no man alive in competition with him for his exquiſite skill in Medailes, To­pical memory, and extraordina­ry knowledge in Plants: in both which faculties the moſt reputed Antiquaries & greateſt Botaniſts do (and that with reaſon) ac­knowledg him both their Prince, and ſuperiour.

The Eldeſt daughter of this Duke, is Anne Marie D'orleans,Mademoi­ſelle her character. particularly called Mademoiſelle, Sans queüe per eminentiam, as be­ing the firſt in praeeminence, and (after the Queen) greateſt La­dy in France, to give whom the10 Epithetes of her great worth, were to ſpoile all her ſex of their Praiſes, and make her as much envied, as ſhe is indeed juſtly to be admired.

The next in Blood and Ranke is Loüis de Bourbon the Prince of Condy,Prince of Condy his deſcent and haracter. the ſon of Henry de Bour­bon, who (to ſo little purpoſe) was yet ſo miraculouſly ſaved in the laſt bloudy and inhumane Pariſian Maſſacre. This Prince is Grand Maiſtre of France, Go­vernour of Bourgongne and Bery, deſcended by a direct line maſcu­line of Francois de Bourbon, ſe­cond brother of Antonee of Bourbon, Earle of Marle, af­terwards Duke of Vandoſme, and King of Navarr, the Father of Henry the Great, and of Charlot Catherine de la Trimoüille, his ſecond Wife.

A Prince, whoſe merit in field, and ſucceſsfull Atchieve­ments, high extraction, and extraordinary parts, prompt him ſometimes to Enterpriſes be­yond11 the duty or praiſe of a Loy­al ſubject; for their lives not a more Ambitious young man up­on earth, having outlived his im­priſonment, once chaſed his ene­my the Cardinal; and not ſatisfied with this revenge (or what ever other aſſurances the State can render him) puts fair by a freſh Rebellion to ſpeede a proſperous Traytor; or perfect his Infa­mie.

His brother is Armand de Bourbon Prince of Conty,Prince of Conty his Character. ſeeming­ly deſigned for the Church, but ſuſceptible of any other advan­tage; a prince of a weak fa­brick and conſtitution, but ſound intellectuals. They have like­wiſe a Siſter called, Mary, Wife to the Duke de Longuevill.

How the daughters of France have been diſpoſed of into Eng­land, Spain, Savoy, Mantoa,daughters of F. how diſ­poſed of. &c. will be here ſuperfluous to relate. The naturall iſſue of the K of F. how eſteemed.

Touching the Natural iſſue of the Kings of France (who are e­ver12 in this kind Country in very great Reputation and place, ſuta­ble to their birth, (by their fa­thers ſide) I cannot learne that the late King had any; nay, it is reported, he did ſo abhorre Pa­liardize, that he ſcarce thought any other act to be ſin in compa­riſon of it: contrary to the opinion of his wiſe Counſelor and Cardi­nall de Richlieu, who (as I have ſometime heard) did uſe often to ſay, that a Concubine was the honeſt mans recreation: a Prieſt­ly Aphoriſm, and ſpoken like a Churchman.

Now to ſay ſomething of the Soveraignety of the Kings of France,The Sove­raignty of the French Kingdome, how it be­came ſo ab­ſolute. we will ſtep a little back, and ſee by what meanes and de­grees it became ſo abſolute.

Whilſt the Nobility of France were in a manner free and inde­pendent Princes (for ſuch was heretofore the moſt part of them) how are Hiſtories loud with their carriages and deport­ment towards their Soveraigns? 13What checks upon every occa­ſion were they ready to give them? Witneſſe thoſe frequent impreſſes of a certain Duke of Gienne, Bourbon, Bretagne, and others of the ſame rank; nor hath theſe later times exempted the Crown it felf from the dange­rous conſequences which ſo ma­ny fortified Towns, Governments, and Places of importance have ſo often menaced, and in effect nota­bly brilding the head of Majeſty; untill the defunct and great Car­dinall de Richlieu found out a ſpeedy and fortunate expedient to reduce them to obedience,C. de Rich­lieu his ſub­tility in re­ducing it to that inde­pendency. and that not onely by ſubjugating the Poſts themſelves, which he performed by ſtrength; but like­wiſe by ſo dextrouſly intereſſing the Gentry and refractory Nobi­lity, both by honours and blood, to the Court and his faction, which he did by policy: In fine, he ſo handled the Cards, that the better ſort of people became tractable out of meer reſpect to14 their Relations; and the meaner by an inevitable conſtraint, as well as the example of their Chiefs, were compelled to a due ſubmiſſion; ſo that now the So­vereignty of France is become ſo Independent and abſolute, that albeit it do ſtill reteine a ſhadow of the ancient form, yet it is, du­ly conſidered, a thing heavenly wide and different:The Kings abſolute power, both, For in the Kings ſole power it is to reſolve of, and diſſolve warrs; by him are the Lawes interpreted; Let­ters of grace, of Naturality, and other Acts given out; he it is im­poſeth Taxes, from which (by a ſpeciall decree) the Church her ſelfe is not exempt;In Church and State. nay, al­beit the Pope his own holineſſe conſent not; from all whoſe Ec­cleſiaſticall Cenſures, Fulmina­tions, and Anathema's he eſteems himſelfe alſo priviledged, and therefore nominates all Spiritu­all perſons to their preferments and dignities: Notwithſtanding all this; the handſomer to diſ­guiſe15 and apparell theſe his vo­lunties, and render them at the leaſt ſpecious proceedures of Ju­ſtice,Thouh un­der colour of Juſtice & he permits none of his E­dicts to paſſe as authentick untill the Court of Parliament (who is abſolutely at his devotion) have firſt verified them; a favour, this likewiſe out of complement too,Comple­ment. non tam neceſſitatis, quam huma­nitatis, as a Civilian (whoſe gloſſe it is) hath warily termed it. Parliament of France a name only.So that as for the Parliaments of France (beſides the name and Formality) there is in truth, now no ſuch thing in Nature; which together with their ancient liber­ties, how deſervedly they loſt them, may be eaſily diſcovered in their frequent Rebellions. In a word, he who would per­fectly, and without more a­doe underſtand by what Law and Rule the Kings of France impoſe on their Vaſſals, may ſee it ſummarily, yet very legibly ingraven by that forementioned Cardinall, upon that excellent16 Artellery, which defend his Ma­jeſties Citadell at Haver de grace in Normandy; where you may run and read the beſt of Tenures, as the times are now, in this E­pigraph, RATIO ƲLTI­MA REGƲM, though for this ſlavery of theirs, they may in ſome degree thank our Country­men,By what means diſ­compoſed. whoſe forces being embowel­led amongſt them, hindred the Aſſembling of the Three Eſtates (as they ſhould have done:) whereupon the King being ne­ceſſitated to make his ſimple E­dicts paſſe for Authentick Laws (although this power were deli­vered to him during his wars on­ly) was the reaſon why the peo­ple could never recover or ſeize on them ſince. A Jewel this of too great value (ſome think) to bee intruſted to one perſon, upon what pretence or neceſſity ſoe­ver. To the King and his im­mediate Iſſue, in dignity and rank, are the Dukes and Peers of France.


But firſt, It is to be obſerved, that the Princes of the Blood of this Kingdom poſſeſs their Lands and Revenues under the name of Appanage,Their E­ſtates rever­table to the Crown by Appanage. and not as abſolute Proprietaries; by which means all their Eſtates return again to the Crown by the right of Reverſion, to the end that the domaine abide intire; and for other the like reaſons: the Duke of Sully Hen­ry Richmont, heretofore called Bois Belle (on which there hangs a Story) only excepted.

We will paſſe over their origi­nal, which would be extreme dif­ficult to inveſtigate,Their Ori­ginall, Au­thority, and proceed to their Authority, which was firſt eſtabliſhed by Hughes Capet and his deſcendants, who there­upon obliged them to hold their Lands of the Crown immediately; by which means he alſo gained many that before were diſaffected to him; as the Earls of Flanders, the Archbiſhop of Rheims, and divers others, who had been at the firſt great oppoſers of this18 Ʋſurper. Now of theſe Peers, there were at the firſt Twelve onely ordained:and Num­ber. to wit, ſix of the Spiritualty, and as many of the Temporalty: but at this day their number is become indefinite, de­pending ſolely on the pleaſure of the King: And theſe are ſo na­med, not for that they pretend to any equality of Dignity with their Soveraign, but their mutual parity in authority one amongſt another.

The Eccleſiaſticks were
  • 1 Th' Archbiſhop and Duke of Rheims.
  • 2 The Biſhop and Duke de Laon.
  • 3 The BP and Duke de Langres.
  • 4 The Biſhop and Earl of Beau­vais.
  • 5 The Biſhop and Earl of Noyon.
  • 6 The Biſhop and Comte de Cha­lons in Champagne.
The ſix Temporal were
  • The Dukes of 1 Bourgongne.
  • The Dukes of 2 Normandie.
  • The Dukes of 3 Guyenne.
  • 19
  • The Compts of 4 Tholouſe.
  • The Compts of 5 Champagne.
  • The Compts of 6 Flanders.

Theſe twelve Peers compoſed likewiſe in times paſt the Parlia­ment of France; from whence it is to this day called (as once with us) the Court of Peers. Their im­munities & priviledges.

Now, amongſt ſundry other Immunities & Priviledges which they injoy, this is none of the leaſt, that they can neither be diſpoſed of, nor appealed in judg­ment, but onely in the Court of Parliament, where they have their Places as the Princes of the Blood have: for before the Inſtitution of that high Tribunal in this Kingdom, the Peers were thoſe which judged all Cauſes that were ordinarily brought before the King; nor did he manage any thing elſe either in War or Peace, without their ſpeciall aid and aſſiſtance. Moreover, this digni­tie to ſome hath been granted for life, ſome perſonal, others onely20 to the Males deſcending,Women ca­pable of Paireries. ſome for ever; yea, and even women them­ſelves are alike capable of Paire­ries.

It would take up too much time, ſhould I trouble you with their ſeverall Functions and Char­ges at the Coronation,Charges at the Corona­tion. more fit for an Herauld, than an Hiſtorian; this onely is obſervable, that al­beit there were never ſo many Peers preſent, Thoſe onely who bare the Titles of the ſix Spiri­tuall, and ſix Temporall before noted, officiate at the Ceremony; for which very purpoſe, thoſe who are wanting, or extinct, have yet their Repreſentatives, who upon this occaſion ſtand for, and ſupply their Perſons.

We have ſpoken now of the King and prime Nobility;The Crown of France, and Officers belonging to it. Let us next ſurvey the Crown, and the prime Officers thereunto be­longing.

The late Author of the E­ſtat de France hath divided them21 into three Ancients, three Modern, and three Domeſtique; which truly, is not an unequall tricho­tomy: But for that I intend to perfect what I have already eſta­bliſhed touching the Court, I wil commence with the three laſt in this partition, and ſo come to thoſe which more immediately appertaine to the State after­wards.

The Dome­ſtique Offi­cers.
The three Domeſtick Officers and Charges are,
  • The Grand Maiſtre of France,
  • The Grand Chambellan of Fr.
  • The Grand Eſcuyer of France.

The office of the Grand Maiſtre de France,The office of the Grand Maiſtre de France. is ſuperintendent of the Kings houſe, and hath abſo­lute juriſdiction over all the domeſtick officers and Proviſions of his Majeſties table; and is a place of ſo ſupreme Authority, that it is ſeldome conferred ſave upon one of the Princes of the Blood; The Prince of Condy at preſent undeſervedly inheriting his fathers charge therein.


Under the Grand Maiſtre,Subordinate officers to him. are many ſubordinate officers; as Maiſtres de Hoſtel, Butlers, Carvers, Gentlemen waiters, and a whole Regiment of o­thers, which are reduced to no certain number: One thing is to be noted,ceremony at theeath of the king. that when the King dyes, the Grand Maſtre breaketh his ſtaffe of office, not only as an embleme of the diſmiſſion of the reſt, but likewiſe to ſhew that their charges are only depen­dant upon the life of the King, albeit afterward, the ſucceſſor for the moſt part re-eſtabliſh them. The high Chāberlain and officers ſubordinate to him.

Next to the G. M. is the High Chamberlain of France, who hath the ſuperviſall and diſ­poſition of all officers of the Kings Bedchamber and Wardrobe, gives or denyes acceſſe to his Ma­jeſtie; under him there are four chief Gentlemen of the Chamber, called, les quatres premiers gentils hommes de la chambre du Roy; one of theſe ever lies in the Kings23 Bedchamber, or very neer to it. Under theſe are the Maſters of the Wardrobe, very lucrative places, to whom are ſubordinate the Pages, &c.

Laſtly, the Grand Eſcuyer,The Grand Eſcuyer, his authority. or Maſter of the Horſe, ſuperinten­dent of the Premier Eſcuyer and other Officers of the ſtables; his charge it is to march on Horſe­back before the King, bearing a Sword and Belt, when his Maje­ſty entreth into any City; but in thoſe towns which have a Parlia­ment he carries (in place thereof) a Caſque of blew velvet ſemeèd with flowre de lys, his own horſe Capariſoned with the like. He pretends alſo authority over the Maſters of the Poſt, Offices of wonderfull gain; but it is now otherwiſe ſettled. The Maſter of the Horſe hath likewiſe under him four and twenty Pages, who being the ſons of prime Noblemen, are educated in all ſuch exerciſes as become their quality. The Grand Eſcuyer is at preſent the Prince of Harcourt.


The Premier Eſcuyer (whom I have before mentioned) hath particular care of the Kings lit­tle Stable,Premier Eſ­cuyer. where the coach hor­ſes are kept, as alſo over the Pa­ges, who be no leſſe then fifty in number, and the Kings foot-men; in effect he commands equally both the great and little ſtables, ſo that the charge of the Premier Eſcuyer is not much inferiour to that of Maſter of the Horſe himſelf. Secretaries of the Kings Chamber and Cabinet

The King hath likewiſe foure Secretaries of his Chamber, and three of his Cabinet: to ſpeak truth, the multitude of thoſe who ſtile themſelves Secretaries to the King, is ſuch, that what with the greatneſſe of their number, and inconſiderableneſſe of moſt of their perſons, the dignity of the charge is extremely Eclip­ſed.

The Kings Bibliothecarius,The Biblio­thecarius, Controlers Treaſurers, Mareſhals des Loges. Su­perintendant of the Moveables of the Crown, Controlers, Trea­ſurers, Mareſhals des Loges, la25 Capitaine de la Porte,Capitain de la porte, &c. who hath under him a guard of fifty Hal­berds, &c. and of other inferi­our officers of all ſorts under thoſe above five hundred more, though never half of them wai­ting at a time, and ſo not con­ſtantly eating at Court,Order, ſplen­dor, & hoſ­pitality, of the Engliſh Court pre­ferred. as did heretofore moſt of the officers of the Kings of England; the ſplen­dor, hoſpitality, order, and decent magnificence of whoſe ſervice and attendance in this kind, I am confident no Court of Europe hath ever approach'd or Paral­lell'd.

There are likewiſe of Church men,The Great Almoner. The Greate Almoner of France, upon whom depend all of that Robe in the Court; un­der him is alſo the Premier Al­moner,Chaplains, Clerks, con­feſſors. and ſubordinate to him the ſeverall Chaplains, Clerks, Confeſſors.

Now before I proceed, ſom­thing I ſhould ſpeak of thoſe Royal officers which ſuperintend the Kings pleaſures and ordinary26 Recreations,pertaining to the Kings pleaſure: as Veneur, Fau connier '&c. ſuch is the Grand Veneur and Fauconnier, the chief Hunter, and maſter of the Game, places not only of very great ho­nour, but alſo of Command; but a word of them ſhall ſuffice, as offices rather of dignity then policy.

Touching the officers belong­ing in particular to the Queens houſhold,Officers be­longing to the Queens in particular much like thoſe of the Kings. I ſhall herein like­wiſe much contract my ſelf, ha­ving ſo amply diſcourſed of thoſe which appertain unto the King; and the rather, in regard that in moſt of the ſubalternate, they ſo much reſemble the one the other:Except maids of honour. Knights, &c Yet ſhe hath different­ly one Dame d' Honneur, of Extra­ordinaries many more; ſix Maids of Honour, twelve Chamber-maids called Filles de la Reyne: a Knight of Honor divers Maſters, Cup­bearers, & carvers; a chief Groom, under whom are a great many pa­ges and footmen: alſo Secretaries, Treaſurers, &c. She hath like­wiſe her Grand Aumoſnier and27 a Premier Aumoſnier, Eccleſia­ſticks, and the like, as before was ſaid of the King.

And now having ſurveied the Principal officers of the Court, I know you are ready to enquire of me where the Guard of this great Monarch is all this while? I will but only mention the grand Prevoſt,The Grand prevoſt, his command. at preſent the Mareſhal d' Hoquencourt, whom I may not omit, and then I will draw them forth in their ſeveral or­ders:

Not only the Grand Prevoſt is an office which extends it ſelfe over all the officers (already men­tioned) which belong to his Majeſties Houſhold, but it hath likewiſe command abſolute for ſix leagues round about Paris, and the Court, every way, which is in truth a very great and no­ble juriſdiction; beſides he is judg of all cauſes, as well civills, as criminels, which are incident in Court, and hath for this Re­ſpect two Leutenans, Fifty Ar­chers28 of the Kings Guard, and ſe­verall other officers: To him appertaineth the impoſing of the price of Bread, wine, fleſh, fiſh, hay,Guard of the King of F. oates, with ſundry other very important priviledges. But behold, here comes the Guard, The firſt which preſent them­ſelves are. 100 Gen­tlemen.

Le Cent Gentils hommes, ſo named from their primary reſtri­ction (albeit now double in num­ber) they are called the Kings Company, and wait on him upon all days of Ceremony, and like occaſions.Muſquetiers on horsback Next

The Muſquetiers on Horſe­back, which during the Regency have been diſſolved, but are now in great probability to be reeſta­bliſhed by the King: they were compoſed of a hundred and fifty horſemen, choſen out from a­mongſt the prime youth of the chiefeſt families of France, and at the firſt inſtituted by Lewis the thirteenth,Late Kings curioſity in chooſing them. father of this preſent King, who was ſo Phyſiognomi­cally29 punctual in their Election, that it is reported, he would ad­mit none who were of a Red hair: Theſe waited on his Ma­jeſtie in Perſon when ever hee went abroad: but after theſe, and the more Ancient farr (who be­ſides their immediate attendance on the Perſon of the King wee are to accompt as principall and ſolid Forces of the State) are the Guards of French, Scotch, and Swiſſe: Of all whom, be­cauſe thoſe who approach neereſt to the perſon of his Majeſty are the Scotch (by an extraordinary & ſpecial good fortune (it ſeems) ever eſteemed faithfull to this King and Crown only, for they are very neer his perſon, and therefore called the Guard de La Manch) I will firſt begin with them. Scotchguard or guard de la Manch.They conſiſt of an hun­dred Archers, and four Exempts, who carry a ſtaffe or Trunche­on in ſtead of an halberd, with the reſt, from whence they are ſo denominated: Theſe wait30 on the King, and obſerve him in all motions, joyned alſo with ſome other of his Majeſties guards, wherof ſome bear halberds, others Carabines, whether the King be at Table, in Coach, or in his bed­chamber. But this guard of Scots, as ſympathizing with the calamity of their Nation, is of late years very much impaired, divers French ſuborned in their places,Decay of the Scots at preſent. and many of their privi­ledges loſt and infringed, inſo­much as it ſeems at preſent to re­tain rather a name then a real Being.

The Swiſſe (for being likewiſe ſtrangers) I produce in the next place:Guard of Swiſſe. The guard of this grim Nation, is compoſed of ſixteen Companies: but of theſe the more immediately attending as the Kings conſtant Guard are only an hundred of them, who all weare the Kings cloath, mar­ching which halberds on their ſhoulders, drum always beating, and fife playing before his Maje­ſty,31 when'ere he ſtirs but into the City.

Laſtly, the Guard of French,Guard of F. or Regiment des Guards. called the Regiment des Guards, with the Swiſſe (compoſing two entire Companies) guard all the avenues and precincts of the Kings Palace: They are both of them two Regiments, whereof each is made up of 30 companies, conſiſting of two hundred men a piece, if full; and Beſides theſe there is alſo another Companie de Gens d' Armes,Gens d'arms Cavalry. who are Cava­lieres, & ſerve quarterly on horſe back.

Thus is this great Monarch ſo inviron'd with men of iron whereever he goes, that one who ſhould meet him abroad, though but upon the moſt or­dinary occaſion, would ſuppoſe them an Army Marching rather to defend or invade ſome diſtreſ­ſed Province, then the private guard only of a Princes Perſon; ſo carefull have the Kings of France ever been to maintain this32 principle of greatneſſe and ſecuri­ty the very quinteſſence certainly of true Polity,True ſigna­tures of Ab­ſolute Mo­nar hy. and infallibleſt ſignatures of an abſolute juriſdi­ction.

It would now peradventure be thought proper here to ſpeak next of the Militia, having al­ready placed the Guards, who in­deed compoſe ſo conſiderable a part thereof: but becauſe wee have now done with the court,Officers of State. we will in the next caſt our eyes upon the State, and afterwards ſecure it.

But firſt a word or two tou­ching the Kings Revenue, & Coun­ſel;Ks Revenue as being the very Nerves and Pillars of all earthly gran­deur.

The ordinary Revenue of the Kings of France is extreamly un­certain, albeit vaſtly augmented within theſe late few years, and (beſides from the Domains for­merly engaged to the Crowne) are infinitely increaſed by the Doüanes Tailles, and other cu­ſtomes33 ariſing upon all manner of Merchandize; a treaſure alto­gether uncertain, and therefore impoſed ſtill as occaſion requi­reth, and at the pleaſure of the King. In order to this, are e­ſtabliſhed ſeverall grand Officers of whom in order firſt.

The Superintendent of the Fi­nances,Superintendent des Fi­nances, or Cuoſtumes. equivalent to our quo­dam Lord High Treaſurer, and officers depending on him. This is he who doth abſolutely diſ­poſe of the Farmes and Cuſtoms of the King, hath the charge and diſpenſation of the Revenues: In ſhort, it is a place ſo immen­ſly lucrative, and prodigiouſly rich, (as being obnoxious to no Account) that there is no man able to make a juſt eſtimate of their gaine. Subordinate to him are four other Intendents,Threſtiers de l' Eſpar­gne. and as many Treaſurers de l' Eſpargne, whereof one of each wait every moneth, and theſe are thoſe great Financiers, who ſuck the very bloud of the people; for34 which (like the Jewiſh Publicani their Brethren) they are ſuffi­ciently blaſphemed by them upon all occaſions.

The Treſoriers de l' Eſpargne (which are as Chancellours of the Exchequer have an alterna­tive office; becauſe the num­ber of them is not alwayes cer­tain, places of that vaſt Reve­nue, that they are frequently ſold at no leſſe then a million of livers: for this the Eſpargne is reſembled to the Ocean ſea, into which, like ſo many rivers, all the other Receipts, generall and parti­cular, of the Kings Revenue, do praecipitate themſelves, and pay their tribute. From hence all other the Treaſures, as well or­dinary as extraordinary, of the Wars, Generals of the Provinces, Maritime Officers, Payers of Pub­lick rents, Courts, &c. receive money, and advance for their ſe­veral and reſpective diſtributions.

There are likewiſe beſides theſe, the Treaſurers of the Par­ties35 Caſuelles, who are four. The Treaſu­rers of the parties Ca­ſuelles.Theſe have charge to receive all monies proceeding from the ſale of offi­ces, (which is a gain here openly avowed.) But that which much countervails the inconvenience of their caſualties, unto which they are incident, is, that though a man depoſit a vaſt ſumme, and even exhauſt himſelfe for the purchace, they are yet hereditary,Caſual Offi­ces heredi­tary even to Widows, and how. ſo that even the Widow of the defunct, may delegate it to a Deputy, or Proxy, the King on­ly reſerving a ſmall annuall rent, which they call La Paulet; in de­fault of which payment, or that the perſon die without having re­ſigned his office. Theſe Treaſu­rers diſpoſe of it to the Kings uſe and benefit.

The Controuler General des Finances,Comptrol­lers General of the Cu­ſtomes. his office it is to regi­ſter all receipts and expences; but for the preſent, it remaines extinct.

Theſe Treaſurers are diſtribu­ted into Generalities or Bur­auxBureaux & Generalties36 (ſo called from a ſtuff of that name which covereth the table,Bureaux and Gene­ralties. as our Exchequer) the Ge­neralties are twenty two great Cities, and each of thoſe have their generall and particular Re­ceivers, which laſt bring the mo­nies of Tailles (which certain elected officers impoſe or aſſeſſe upon the Pariſhes) unto the re­ſpective Collectors who receive it:How the taxes are collected. and theſe at Paris render it into the Office aforeſaid.

The ancient Kings of France had other wayes then theſe to ſubſiſt,Kings of France had other wayes of ſubſiſting till King Pepin. till Pepin and ſome later Princes of the third Line, ſo much augmented the Domaine of the Crown; as by Appanages, which through defect of Iſſue Male now revert unto it; alſo by poſſeſſion of Lands and Seignio­ries annexed to the Crown, by Rents, Fifts, and other rights proceeding from Fiefs. Impoſitions by Edicts.By Im­poſitions and dues which are pay­able by Edicts. By a number of Lands who owe faith, and do ho­mage37 to the Prince. Droict d' Aubaine, death of ſtrangers, Baſtardy, Vacancy through death, Firſt-fruits and dues from Eccleſia­ſticks.By the Droct d' Aubaine, by which the goods of ſtrangers dying in France, moſt inhoſpitality eſcheat to the King; putting (in this reſpect) no difference between them, and Baſtards unnaturalized. By the goods vacant through death, &c. By Annates or Firſt fruits, Dues from certain Archbiſhopricks and Biſhopricks, to the number of 30, and more: as likewiſe innume­rable other wayes, which here it were too long to reckon up.

Nor can the Domain be other­wiſe alienated, then (as already hath been ſaid) in caſe of Ap­panages: The other upon ſome extraordinary and deſperate ne­ceſſity, as in occaſion of warre, yet then alſo but upon con­dition of Redemption, and that they be both firſt verified in Parliament. But theſe it ſeems of late, not ſufficing the pub­lick expenſes of ſo great a Prince and his many Armies; Thoſe Tailles and ſubſidiary aſſiſtances38 before mentioned, have been more frequently levied;The ordina­ry entertain­ment of the Souldiery. yea now (ſince Charles the ſeventh) made the Ordinary Entertaine­ment of the Souldiery. Not­withſtanding the Gentry and No­bility (for theſe tearms are coinci­dent and convertible in France) Churchmen,Gentry and Clergy ex­empt of Ta­xes. and their dependants are exempt from theſe contribu­tions; an immunity which they enjoy as a diſtinction, which ours of the ſame quality in England never ſo much as taſted off; ſo that (amongſt us) if a perſon be not Rich, let him be never ſo well borne,Nobility no advantage in England. the Peaſant is as good a man every whit for any priviledg which the other enjoys above him; through which defect, as there remains little encourage­ment and reward for ancient vertue or future induſtry, ſo muſt it needs, in time both utterly con­found, and degenerate the race of the moſt illuſtrious Families, which have yet hitherto remai­ned.


The Aides (which I therefore the rather mention,The Aids, what, and when inſti­tuted. becauſe it was inſtituted upon occaſion of King John's impriſonment in England) is now become a perpetual and generall Tax upon all ſorts of Commodities whatever,All commo­dities taxa­ble in France, wheat onely exempted. excep­ting wheat only, which is the ſole individual in all France free from any Impoſt.

But that which ſeaſons all the reſt, and is indeed a principal in­gredient to the Kings Vaſt reve­nue, is the Gabels upon Salt;Gabels up­on Salt. which yeelds this Monarch more then Twenty Millions of Livers: for which reſpect there are divers officers appertaining therto, ſome whereof have power to conſtrain men to buy a certain quantity of the King whether they wil or no;Rigour of exacting. a rigour, ſome interpret extreamly approaching the very height of extortion: ſome particular pla­ces yet of the Kingdome, (as to­wards the Frontiers, and ſea towns) are exempted, and have their ſalt quit of any impoſt at all.


Theſe are in fine the moſt prin­cipall quarries from whence this Monarch diggs forth and fetches his treaſure and revenue,K. of Fran­ces's Reve­nue 14 mil­lions ſter­ling. which thoſe who are yet thought to have made a favourable Audite, do not bluſh to affirm, ammounts unto more then an hundred and fourty Millions of Livers, which is about fourteen Millions of our mony: nay ſome, that in Car­dinall Richlieus time, it was brought to an hundred and fifty: which portentous and monſtrous Treaſure, together with the man­nagement and manner of exa­cting it, might (as ſome think) ſerve a little to extenuate that which was yet thought a propor­tion too large for a moſt excel­lent prince, whoſe whole Reve­nue could never yet be ſtretched to above one Million ſterling in all, viis et modis. Which is ſome thirteen ſhort of that, which the Kings of France at preſent en­joy.

Now 'ere we define the more41 diſtinct Miniſters of State,Supream counſels of France. wee wil firſt ſpeak ſeverally of the ſu­pream Counſels which are two: The chief is called the ſecret or (more frequently) le Conſeil d'en hault, that is,Le Counſel d'en hault, of this coun­ſel are the Duke of Or­leans, Prince of Condé; The Cardi­nall and 4 principall Secretaries of State. (after our old En­gliſh ſtile) the Cabinet Counſel; be­cauſe it is commonly held in the Kings Bedchamber: for which reſpect you may reaſonably imagine it to be compoſed but of few, and thoſe the prime and moſt illuſtrious perſons of charge and title in the Kingdome: ſo that (according to the nature of affaires) it is ſometimes reduced unto two or three only: but upon intelligences and tranſacti­ons of State, as thoſe which con­cern matter of warr, forrain Alliances, &c. Then there is a fuller number of other Miniſters required to be preſent.

The other Conſeil is termed le Conſeil d'Eſtat & privé where,The counſel of State. when the King himſelf ſits not, the Precedency is given to the firſt Prince of the Blood then preſent,42 and in default of their abſence, to the Chancelour, who, together with the Treaſurer or Superin­tendent, hath principal authori­ty in all thoſe Courts I have, or ſhall ſpeak of; and this Court (beſides the above named who are chief) is compoſed of many Counſellours of State, who are all perſons of great merit, and com­monly ſuch as have given ſignal teſtimonies of their abilities and addreſſe by their long ſervices, as Ambaſſadors and Orators to for­raign Princes; or officers in other juriſdictions and Counſels: alſo to this Court appertaine foure Secretaries that ſerve quarterly: eighteen Maiſtres de Requeſts, who (according to the nature of the affaire) with the Intendents, make the Reports, having firſt re­ſolved the buſineſſe amongſt themſelves, according to which the Arreſt is ſometimes gi­ven.

In this Counſell paſſe all mat­ters belonging either to Warr or43 Peace, and all other concerne­ments of the Crown whatever; for here they determine definitively, which judgment ſo paſſed, is ter­med an Arreſt or Act of Councell; howbeit, in cauſes of high con­ſequence they are often revoked both from this Tribunall (yea, and the Parliament it ſelf alſo) unto the Counſeil d'-en-hault al­though a Counſell but of a later Initiation. Branches from this are alſo the Counſell of the Fi­nances or Cuſtomes, called the Councel of direction;The Coun­ſell of di­rection. where all the affaires of the Exchequer are diſpoſed: likewiſe the Chancelor holdeth another Counſell,The Coun­ſell of Par­ties. called the Counſeil des parties, wherein the Proceſſes of particular parties and Recuſations have their pro­per hearing; and to this alſo belong quarterly Secretaries a­part.

Now the manner of proceed­ing in theſe Courts goes according to the diſpoſition of the ſeverall affairs,The manner of proceed­ing in theſe Courts. by the Reports made rea­dy,44 reformed and firſt ſigned, which is by them, then by the Chancellor if it be at the coun­ſell of parties; if at the Finances, by the Duke of Orleans, Monſr, the Prince, and Superintendents, who deliver them to the Grefier or Clerk, by whom they are to be allowed, that is paragraphed in Parchment, to which they ſub­joyne a commiſſion which is ſea­led by the chancellor, if they are to be immediately executed. O­ther Arreſts and Acts of Counſel are executed by an uſher or Ser­gaent of the Counſel, who wears a chaine of Gold about his neck, with a Medail pendent, where­in there is impreſſed the Kings pi­cture. Grand Con­ſeil.

There is likewiſe another Councell, called the Grand con­ſeil, in which alſo the Chancel­lor preſides virtually, though ſel­dom preſent in perſon; and this is Compoſed of four Preſidents, and a hundred and fifty Coun­ſellers, who ſerve by Semeſter:45 and this court is chiefly, and in­deed only converſant in affaires Eccleſiaſtical, ſuch as concerne Biſhopricks, Priories, Hoſpitals, &c. collation and preſentation to Benefices in the juriſdiction ei­ther of King or Pope within this Realme; and therefore here is the Kings Advocate, and proctor Generall continually attend­ing.

And now (returning to our former diviſion) we may remem­ber that the more ancient officers of the Crown were likewiſe three: viz. The Conneſtable, the Mareſ­chal and the Chancellor: I ſhall forbear a while to ſpeak much of the two firſt, till I come to treat particularly concerning matters of warr:Officers of State & Ju­ſtice. Chancelour of France. we are now in affaires of State and Juſtice, wherein this laſt in our diviſion as chiefe and ſoveraign; his office is to diſ­patch and modifie all the Graces and gifts of the King, is keeper of the Great ſeale, with which hee confirmes all the Ordinances, E­dicts,46 declarations and pleaſure of his Majeſty; for which reſpect he hath in Parliament his ſeat on the left hand of the King, when he is there preſent. But there are no dayes properly deſign­ed for ſealing, that wholly de­pending upon the will of the Chancellour. Days and manner of Sealing.The manner thereof is this: The chancellour ſits at the middle of a large Table, upon which is placed a cabinet or coffer (wherein there is locked all the publick ſeals of France) the key of which he carries about his neck: at the End of this Table are two Maſters of Requeſts, with whom he may adviſe in caſe the affaire require it; and over a­gainſt the Chancelor one of the four Referendaries of France who reads all the Letters, Arreſts, and other expeditions, which if ap­proved, are accommodated with Yellow wax fitting and ready for the ſeale, and ſo put up into a box to be controuled by the Kings Secretaries, who muſt firſt47 allow and Paragraph them, and then they are ſealed: for Expe­dition of higheſt conſequence, as Treaties, Edicts, Abolitions, &c. in green wax: but the ſeals of Dauphine are in red: Moreover the character of the Chancelor is eſteemed ſo ſacred & Inviolable, that it remains altogether indele­ble but by death onely;Guard des ſceaux. yet not­withſtanding upon decadency, or diſgrace with the King, there is commonly one called Gard des Sceaux, who executeth his charg & hath alſo the ſame authority; for the Seales may be taken away at his Majeſties pleaſure, but not the Chancelorſhip, which as it is never to dye, but with his Perſon, ſo may he not put on Mourning for the King himſelf, his Father or Mother if any of them deceaſe, as being inſenſible of all other Relations, and conſi­derations beſides the ſole intereſt of the People: his habite is a Robe of black Velvet doubled, or lined with Crimſon pluſh: be­fore48 him goe two Searjeants, with chains of Gold, who bear 2 rich maces of gold on their ſhoulders.

The Secretaries of State and commands of the King are four in number;Secretaries of State. whoſe functions, for being different, deſerve to bee mentioned in the next place. One of theſe Secretaries is for Expedi­tions altogether forraign: one for affaires Eccleſiaſticall and be­nefices; a third for matters only appertaining to the Kings houſe, and the fourth, ſerves for affairs and concernements of war; and thus have they the whole King­dom ſo cantoniz'd betwixt them, that upon all particular Exi­gences of the Provinces, e­very one knows his diviſion: In Court and preſence of the King, they waite alternatively by Months; for he uſes them likewiſe in affaires of the ca­binet, which for not being mat­ter of State, hee will not have made known or divul­ged.


Laſtly,Maſters of Requeſts. The Maſters of Requeſt (of whom there are at preſent no leſſe then ſeven­ty) are as it were Aſſeſſors of the Chancellour, and compoſe the body of the Court of Parli­ament, (of which we ſhall ſhort­ly ſpeak) and have their Seats next to the Counſellers, but not exceeding four at a time. In abſence of the Preſidents, they preſide alſo in many other Judi­catures, and Bailliages: theſe make report and ſign the Requeſt of Juſtice, and ſometimes the af­faires of the Exchequer: they are likewiſe many times choſen for Extraordinary Embaſſades, as wel as Commiſſioners for his Ma­jeſty in the Cities and Provinces, where they judg and determine upon all affairs of the Crowne with moſt abſolute power and authority.

The reſt of the Officers more immediately belonging to the Kings Revenue I have touched at large already. I50 come now to the Parlia­ments of France, of whom there hath hitherto been ſo much talke.

The Juſtice of France (in the equal diſpenſation whereof ſhould be the glory and diadem of a Prince in Peace,Parliament of France, as is the multitude of people his viſible ſtrength in warr) is doubtleſſe very good, but wonderfully ill executed; which happens through the ſordid corruption of ſuch as diſpenſe it for mony and favour, without which there is nothing to be hoped for in this Kingdom: and good reaſon there ſhould bee ſome gaine made of that which the dividers thereof buy ſo dear, purchaſing their places and offices at ſuch exceſſive charges, that they are conſtrained to fell their Vertue to him who bidds moſt for it. But this is not (I ſuppoſe) the only Monopoly which drives that trade. by whom e­ſtabliſhed.

Philip the Faire eſtabliſhed51 the Parliament of Paris; for before it was Ambulatory, and onely obſerved the motion of the King) whither both Eccle­ſiaſticks and ſeculars repaired. As it is now conſtituted, it is compo­ſed of Five houſes or chambers: La Grand Chambre hath twenty five Counſellers,La grand chambre des Enqueſts. who take cog­niſance of affairs of higheſt Con­ſequence: and of five Chambres des Enqueſts, to either of which there is alſo about the ſame num­ber of Counſellers: likewiſe two other Chambers, one whereof is called La Tournelle,La Tour­nelle. wherein are pleaded only matters Crimi­nall, compoſed of two Coun­ſellours of the Grand Chambre, and of two of every Chambre des Enqueſts. The Chambre del 'E­dict that is of the Edict of Nan­tes, which only toucheth the af­faires of the Proteſtants, and is al­ſo compoſed of two Counſellers, out of each of the ſix other Chambers, who are nomina­ted every ſecond year by the52 Chancellour and the Proteſtant deputy Generall. De l' Edct for the Proteſtans Peſident au Morter. becauſe there ſtandeth a cupade in faſhion of a mo••er over the mantling of the Arms in lieu of a wreath and helmet.

In the great Chambre preſi­deth the Preſident au Mortier, who preſenteth the ancient Dukes and Peers: theſe preſidents are Counſellers of State the firſt day of their reception, and have about their neck an hood of vel­vet, lined with furr, from whence ſome affirme they derive their name: they are now in num­ber ſeven or eight, having of late been encreaſed.

To all the other Chambers of Parliament there are like­wiſe Preſidents:Preſidents, Conſeillers, Advocats &rocteurs. viz. two at the Tournelle, and one at the Edict: To each Chambre des Enqueſts are two, but theſe laſt for being only commiſsionated Counſellers, have no places as preſidents in ful aſſemblies of Parliament. Be­ſides preſidents and Counſellers; there is moreover a Procureur, and two Advocates General, who intervene in all Cauſes which con­cern either the King or State:53 beſides an Infinity of other Ad­vocates who are rather to count by m••titudes then numbers e­ſtabliſhed, only the proctors have of late years been reduced to a­bout 600.

There is likewiſe a Greffier en chef, or clerk of the Parliament,Clerk of the paliaet. one of the moſt luerative charges of France, as eſteemed to be no leſſe worth then an 100 Crowns of Gold a day: This office ha­ving now ſucceſſively remained in the family of Monſieur, du Tillet neer three hundred years, we could not paſſe his name in ſilence; Laſtly, of Com­miſes, Searjeants, Ʋſhers, and under officers there are in very great numbers.

All the Officers of Parliament wear a long Gown,Robrs of the Officers of Parlia. and ſquare cap, but the Preſidents au Mor­tier and Counſellours, upon ſo­lemn occaſions, put on Robes of ſcarlet, which are trimmed with black velvet.

The Solemne Arreſts or Acts54 of Parliament are pronounced four times the year:Arreſts of Parl. when pronounced. viz. on Chriſtmas Eves eve, on the Tueſ­day before Eaſter, on Whitſon Eves eve, and the ſeventh day of Sept. till which, from the mor­row after the feaſt of St Martine it continues: but the Parliament doth not open untill ſuch time as the King renews their Commiſ­ſion.

there are beſides Paris,Cities be­ſides Paris, that have parliaments theſe nine Cities which have Parlia­ments,

  • 1 Toulouſe.
  • 2 Roüen.
  • 3 Bourdeaux.
  • 4 Dijon.
  • 5 Grenoble.
  • 6 Aix.
  • 7 Rheims.
  • 8 Pau.
  • 9 Mets.

Whoſe Conſtitution and Compoſition are alike to that of Paris,In what they differ from the Par. of Paris. except that of Mets55 and Roüen, whoſe Preſident and Counſellers of late ſerve ſeme­ſtraly, that is half during one ſix months, and halfe the other: ſome of the Parliaments alſo have no chamber of Edict, as Rheims, and Dijon, ſo that the Proteſtants of thoſe parts repaire to Paris to plead; and in Toulouſe, Bordeaux, and Grenoble, for default thereof, thoſe of the Religion have eſta­bliſhed them Chambers Mi­parties, that is, of equal num­bers of Romaniſts; nor have the other Parliaments ſo many chambers of Enqueſts, as not (in truth) needing them

Likewiſe this Prerogative hath the Parliament of Paris,Prerogative of the P. of Paris. that it hath the ſole honour to be cal­led the Court of Peers; for here only can they of right be judg­ed: yet this priviledg was not a­ble to protect them, at what time the late great Cardinal de Richlieu made bold to infringe it, when it ſerved to his pur­poſe.


In all theſe Parliaments afore­ſaid the Advocates plead covered,How the Advocates and proctors plead. but the Prectors both bareheaded and kneeling.

Moreover, the buſineſſe of the Parliament of Paris, beſides the verifying of the Kings Edicts, Ordinances, and letters Patents (as hath been already touched) is the diſpenſing of all other Ju­ſtice Civill and Criminall: here the Appanages of the crown are regulated, the erection of new dignities, Modification of the Popes Legats, Commiſſions, pro­cedures to Baniſhment, Let­ters of naturalty, Pardons and the like ſupream tranſactions of State have their genuine and na­turall ſource.

The Biſhops in Parlia­ment have right of place,Biſhops and eccleſiaſticks in Parliament have place, no de­liberative Voice, ex­cept B. of Paris, and abbot of St. Denys. but no deliberative Voice, except only the Archbiſhop of Pa­ris, and Abbot of Saint De­nys. Thus much ſhall ſuffice to have been ſpoken touching the Parliaments.


The Chamber of compts (which comes next in order) is a ju­riſdiction and Court apart,Chamber of compts, its high au­thority and number. that concernes & judges the accompt of all the Receivers, Treaſurers and officers paid into, or received out of he Kings Exchequers, for which cauſe all their Letters, Edicts, Ordinances, &c. are read, regiſtred, and verified. Here it is that homage for Feifs mo­ving from the Crown are acknow­ledged. It hath belonging to it ten Preſidents, Monſieur Ni­colas, who is the firſt (having from Father to Son conſerved this charge neer two hundred years in his Family) hath re­fuſed for his charge 1400000 Livers, which the late D'Eme­ry offered him for it. To it alſo appertaineth ſeventy Mai­ſtres des compts, eighty Audi­tors: in fine, it is a Court of that high Authority, that it hath ſometimes ſtood even in com­petition with the Parliament it ſelf. There are eight of theſe58 in France. Chambers des Requeſts du Palais.Beſides this Court, there are likewiſe the two Cham­bres des Requeſts du Palais, where is pleaded the Priviledg of the Royall offices, and houſe­hold; and therefore they con­ſiſt of Counſellers of parliament, &c.

The Cour des Monnoyes com­poſed of three Preſidents,Cour des Monnoyes. twenty four Conſeillers, theſe con­cerne the Mint in all parti­culars. Mint.

Alſo the Admiralty,Admiralty and Table de Marbre. called the Table de Marbre inſti­tuted for Maritime affaires. And laſtly,

Les Eaux & Forreſts,Waters and Forreſts. with ſome other inferiour courts, wher­of we have already ſufficiently ſpoken elſewhere.

And ſo I am come out of Weſtminſter-hall to the other two of our three ancient Of­ficers, viz. the Conneſtable and Mareſchall of France, being the laſt of our diviſion and will naturally lead us to59 diſcourſe ſomething of the Mi­litia.

The Conneſtable,Military of­ficers, and firſt the Conneſt a­ble of F. albeit an of­fice, to a greater then which the King himſelf can promote no ſubject, yet for that it is not a charge which is always in being, but upon extraordinary Emer­gencies and grand occaſions, will be needleſſe to ſay more of it, then that this Office holdeth ranke immediately after the Princes of the blood;The D. of Orleans is as it were Conneſtable now. and in Par­liament it is before the Dukes and Pairs: The Conneſtable therefore is chief, ſuperiour, and Genera­liſſimo over the Armies of France, for which reſpect he hath his ju­riſdiction in the Court of the Ta­ble de Marbre; but at this day the Mareſchals ſupplying this high office (although pro­perly ſpeaking, but his Lieu­tenants) come next to be ſpo­ken of. Mareſchals de Fr.

The Mareſchals de France, or rather, ſo many Generals, are the onely perſons of Enterpriſe and60 Action in their Armies, both at home and abroad; being com­monly men who are elevated to thoſe Charges, purely by their own Valour and Demerits: ſo that as their number is indeter­minate, ſo there is no Souldier, of what condition ſoever, but may poſſibly by his vertue aſpire to this preferment. I ſaid even now, that their Juriſdiction did much reſemble that of the Conneſtables; nor can they be deveſted of this honour during their lives. Be­fore theſe Mareſchals are deter­mined all matters of private quar­rels and defies incident to the No­bleſſe; for which cauſe they have their Provoſts or Lieutenants in all the greateſt Cities of the King­dome. They bear in their At­chievements a Truncheon Salter­wiſe azure, ſemeéd with Flowr de lyces or.

Finally,Laſt diviſiō (which is the laſt part of our diviſion) the three Modern Offices of the Crown, viz.

  • 1. The Admiral of the French.
  • 61
  • 2. Le Colonel de l' Infanterie.
  • 3. Le Grand Maiſtre de l'Ar­tillerie.

In the firſt place the Admiral, (who holds likewiſe his place du­ring life) is Generall of all the Kings forces by ſea,Admirall. and under him are al the Marine juriſdicti­ons. The charge hath in times paſt been divided unto more, both Guyenne and Provence ha­ving enjoyed theirs apart: but the defunct Cardinall de Richlieu (who hath left this high office to his Nephew) united them all un­der one: his juriſdiction alſo is at the Table de Marbre, where (for being but ſubalternate judges) their places in Parliament is at the lower end. The charge is now in the perſon of the Queen Regent, ſome ſay, the Duke of Vendoſme: likewiſe the General des Galeres hath here his ſeate,General des Galeres. which is a place of very notable gaine and Authority on the coaſts of the Mediterranean ſeas, where his Majeſties Gallies do62 both harbour and ride. Colonel of the Infantry

Next is the Colonell of the French Infantery, which is a charge one of the moſt conſidera­ble in all reſpects, of France, eſpe­cially for Gain, receiving eight ſolz every Muſter for every ſouldiers head his authority being gene­rally over all the French-foot,Maſters of the Camp. and hath for his Lieutenant Co­lonels the Maiſtres de Camp: un­der his name iſſue all Ordinances of Warr.

There is likewiſe a Colonel General des Suiſſes,Colonel General des Suiſſes who hath juriſdiction over all thoſe Merce­naries, as well thoſe of the Kings Guard, as thoſe who ſerve in the field and in the Gariſon; of which there are conſtantly about eight thouſand in this Dominion.

Laſt of all,Grand Mai­ſtre de l'Ar­tillre. the Grand Maiſtre de l'Artillerie, which is a charge equal with a Mareſchall of France: under his tuition and conduct is the Arſenall of Paris, all the Can­non and Ammunition of warre in the Kingdome, for which cauſe he63 hath his Lieutenants, Captains, and other officers belonging to the Carriages in great number: be­ſides all this, he hath the manage­ment of five millions of Livers, to­gether with the arbitrary diſ­poſition of above eight hun­dred Officers; of all which he is obliged to no particular ac­compt. Grand pri­curde France Mr. of the Religion of Malta.

There is likewiſe the Grand Prieur de France, which for being a quality of high reputation is not to be pretermitted. The Maſter­ſhip of the Religion and Order of Malta for the French being not leſſe worth then 10000 pounds yearly: his ordinary Reſidence is at the Temple, a quarter in the town of Paris as is that of ours in London ſo called. Counſell of War.

The Councel of Warr is com­monly held in the Palace of the Duke of Orleans, as being Lieu­tenant General of all the Kings Forces, and therefore little re­mote (as hath been ſaid) from the dignity and charge of high Con­neſtable. 64Thus we have done with the Courts and Officers of France: now we will take a Proſpect of the Forces.

The King of France hath com­monly four Armies in field:Conſtant ar­mies of Fr. viz. that of Flanders, of Germanie, of Italy, and that of Catalogna; wherein the King, Queen, Mon­ſieur, the Duke of Anjou, the Duke of Orleans, Princes of the Blood, and Mareſchals of France have their ſeverall and individu­all Companies, whoſe Lieute­nants enjoy many ſingular pre­cedencies above other Offi­cers of the Armies: All theſe conſiſt of well armed horſe.

The light horſe are at preſent commanded by the Master of the Camp. Light horſe and other forces under continuall pay.The King hath com­monly under pay about a hundred and forty Cornets of cavalry diſtri­buted into 56 Regiments, beſides of Strangers twelve: Of Infantry the King hath two hundred and ten, whereof ſome Regiments65 have thirty Companies, and every company payed for eigh­ty men effective. Moreover, his Majeſtie hath divers Regi­ments of ſtrangers, whereof enough hath been ſaid in the be­ginning.

The Armada Naval may be compoſed of about twenty men of Warr, and as many Gallies;Armada Naval. I have ſhewed you before how theſe Forces are payed, and therefore we will proceed to the Governours of the Provinces, as being likewiſe Men of Armes.

The Governours of Provin­ces have their Commiſſions (which are ſimple and depending on the pleaſure of the King) ve­rified in Parliament,Governours of provnces, cities and ſorts. where they have their ſeats next after the premiers preſidents: they are in ſome degree equivalent to our Lieutenants of the ſhire, but exer­ciſe a much more vigorous power, which is yet reſtrained to matters of Armes; for in other juſtice66 they meddle not at all. So likewiſe the Governors of Cities, Fortreſſes, and places of ſtrength, all which are choſen of perſons of Blood, Valour and merit. But before we altogether quit this ſubject of Armes, it wil not be im­pertinent to ſay ſomthing here of the order of Knighthood in France.

I ſhall not much amuſe you with thoſe orders which are ſo far antiquated,Orders of Chevalrie in France. that even the He­ralds themſelves can ſcarcely ren­der us any certain accompt: Such is that which is named de la Genette, Inſtituted by Charls Martel, or the Order de l'Eſtoile by King John, the Order of the Croiſant, Porc Eſpic, nor much concerning the order of Saint Michael it ſelf,Inſtituted 1469 by Lewis the eleventh. although not ma­ny ages ſince firſt inſtituted, and for a long while, the prin­cipal Order in the Kingdome; compoſed but of 36, becauſe (as the manner of this Nation is to be as ſoon weary of their new inven­ons, as children are of Rattles)67 they begin to have this Order al­ready in contempt,Ordre de S. Michael. albeit the chain and pendent badg be com­monly reſerved in the Coat Ar­mours, together with that which is now in Vogue, and next enſues. Ordre du S. Eſprit. In­ſtitution.

L'Ordre du S. Eſprit was in­ſtituted on new years Day, Anno 1579, by Henry the third, and ho­noured with that name, becauſe he was both born, and afterwards Elected King of Polonia on Whitſonday: This Prince reſtrai­ned the number alſo to thirty ſix; but that is likewiſe as indefinite as it pleaſes the King: how­ever, it remaines yet the Order of greateſt eſteem, and therefore let us look a while upon the Cere­monies of the Inauguration.

The day of their Reception they appear all in Cloath of ſilver,Reception. their cloaks (eſpecially the capes) cut a l'antique, of black velvet; which they put off and change, to receive on them a robe of green Velvet ful of Embroydred tongues of fire: then re­maining on their knees, the King68 hands between the palmes of his own, ſtriking them lightly upon the ſhoulder, and kiſſes their Cheeke.

Ordinarily they wear a Flame,Order. or Orange colour Croſſe of vel­vet upon the left ſide of their cloakes, in the midſt whereof is emboſted a dove of ſilver, and about it a glory of Rayes, like that which our Knights of the Garter in England do wear, as ha­ving firſt aſſumed that mode from the French, albeit for Antiquity of the Order, ours ſtands much before it.

About their bodies likewiſe they wear a blew ribbon which of late they have watered, and at the end of that a Croſſe of Gold in the midſt whereof there is enna­mailed a White Dove: and this is all which I finde obſerva­ble.

We have been hitherto very ſi­lent of the State Eccleſiaſtick in particular,State Hie­rarchical. which although it come laſt in Order, yet was it one69 of the firſt in mine intention, as conſiſting of Perſons who beſides their qualities both for Extracti­on and Letters, poſſeſſe alone one third part of the total Revenue of France.

The Arch Biſhops of this king­dom are in number fifteen,Archbiſhops & Biſhops. where­of he of Lyons is the Primate and Metropolitan, and ſome of theſe be Peers. Biſhopricks, two hundred and one.

Of this Hierarchy is compoſed l' Egliſe Gallicane,L'Egliſe Gallicane. which by the concordats made with the Pope, hath ſundry rights and priviled­ges extraordinary, which for that they are not much incident to our diſcourſe, we will purpoſely o­mit, and content our ſelves with what hath been briefly ſpoken.

Having thus, as I was able, finiſhed my deſigne and your re­queſt, with what ſuccinctneſſe & perſpicuity I might (for herein I am obliged to ſome Relations, more diſcourſes, and a little expe­rience)70 I will make bold (the better to let you underſtand the full nature of things as they ſub­ſiſt and are govern'd at preſent) to reaſſume the Argument, & de­liver you the beſt and more ſolid opinions of men concerning the particulars already ſpoken of.

The Government of France doth at preſent rather totter then ſtand upon the late great Cardi­nals ſubſtruction;Preſent Go­vernment of France.Q. Regent. the Queen Regent having ever ſince his de­ceaſe continued in the principall miniſtry of State affairs:Card. Maza­tini. Her fa­vourite Mazarini, a perſon of (to ſpeak with the world) farre greater fortune, then either ex­traction or vertue; however he hath ſteered this great veſſel of Monarchy a long time, and that amidſt ſo many ſtormes, and in ſuch foul weather, as whether his craft or courage exceeds it is not yet decided: certaine it is, that as he hath longer held in, then by ſome wiſe men it was judg'd he could, ſo ſome late acti­ons71 of his (interpreted to have been ingratefull enough) make o­thersdaily cōfident of his abſolute ruine: and in truth, he doth play ſo hazardous a game at preſent, that as the hand is univerſally turned, it were great odds to lay on Confuſions ſide, ſo prodigious a fatality now threatning Princes, that if France compoſe not ſuddenly, theſe calamities I am confident, will epidemically viſite Europe for a time. And why it ſhould be that this active Nation have endured ſo many Strangers to governe them thus in cheif,Government by ſtrangers incident to this monar­chie. I am much to ſeek for a reaſon, when I ſtea­dily behold the univerſal prompt­neſſe of the Nobleſſe; unleſſe peradventure to avoid emulation at Court 'twixt ſo many greater Princes and Subjects, as might elſe pretend to higheſt Authority, they rather ſubmit themſelves to the meaneſt Alien. But this by way of gloſſe and ſpecies, not o­pinion. The ſubtill have e­ver been too hard for the ſimple:72 and though the law deny women ſucceſſion to the Crown, yet the Fate of the kingdome, and ad­dreſſes of the ſex, furniſh'd them a title which hath fully recompen­ſed for that injury.

The Nobleſſe of France com­prehend the Gentry,Nobleſſe of France, and Gentry the ſame thing. under one and the ſame common term; nor indeed is there in any Kingdome (ſave ours onely) that ſevere di­ſtinction of Minores and Ma­jores amongſt the Nobility: a difference which ſome think nei­ther ſuits with true policy or ju­ſtice. But quitting this deciſion to whom it belongs, we are (as I ſaid) in this Dominion to take, the Nobleſſe (that is the Gentry) for the ſole viſible body, and conſequently the Plebeians of a far more vile,Plebeians, their miſery. and naturally ſla­viſh genius, then they really are in any part of Chriſtendome be­ſides; which meanneſſe of ſpirit I eaſily conjecture to have been long ſince contracted from the o­ver ſeverity and liberty of their73 Superiors; their incomparable paucity, and exceſſive oppreſſion.

Other immunities, beſides the fore rehearſed, which the Nobleſs enjoy in France, is, that with their Penſions and Governments, they are likewiſe exempted from all Contributions upon their own de­mains; which doth ſo far oblige them to their Prince, that there are none which render him ſuch real and conſiderable ſervice, up­on all urgent and brisk occaſions,Service the Noblity of France••eld their Prince. Ban and Ar­erBan. as do the Gentry; eſpecially, at what time the Ban and Arrier-Ban be ſummoned to their ſeveral aſſignations: And to this He­roique life of the Field,Chevalry, teigene­ral profeſſi­on. they are generally addicted, as being there­to excellently diſciplined from their very Cradles; by which means, certainly they become the beſt eſteemed, and moſt adroict Cavalry of Europe; nor doth this early education of them abroad, prejudice the State at home; for being kept, and diſſevered from projecting of commotion in the74 Country,Rebellions for the moſt part impro­ſperous in France; and why? their Rebellions have been for the moſt part, though fre­quent, yet improſperous, ſo con­ſiderable a party ever remaining with the Prince, whoſe perſonal preſence with them in the Field, gives an extraordinary life, and loyalty to their Actions.

As touching the Plebeians or Roturiers of France;Commons, their litigious nature in France. truly I e­ſteem them for the moſt miſera­ble object, that one may likely behold upon the face of the Earth; eſpecially, thoſe which live towards the Frontiers, ſo im­meaſurably exhauſted by Taxa­tions, Gabels, Impoſitions, Spoyls, and Contributions, unto which they are generally obnoxious: The reſt of the two firſt Eſtates, together with al their dependants, living onely upon their Revenues, remain free and exempt; but that which addes not a little to their Ruine, is (for all this) their extraor­dinary litigious nature, and vindi­cative diſpoſition, eſpecially thoſe of Normandy, Bretagne, Gaſcogny,75 and Provence; ſo that, what with the premiſes, delay of their Pro­ceſs, and the abominable corrup­tion of Juſtice, this rank of people ſeldom or never arrive to any conſiderable Fortune or Compe­tency, by their own wit or indu­ſtry, as do ſo many of our Yeomen and Farmers in England. Farmers in England.By theſe means alſo, their ſpirits becoming ſo abjectly debaſed, they are not able to afford their Prince that ready ſervice in matter of Arms, as indeed their multitudes and neceſſities, both promiſe and re­quire: To ſupply which defect, in all Expeditions of Conſequence, the King makes uſe of the Gaſ­cons and Biſcaians,Auxiliaries in the French Ar­mies. who being bred about the Confines and Frontiers of Spain, are much the better Soldiers, and eſteemed for the beſt Infantry of France; as alſo of the Dutch, Scotch, Iriſh, Italian, and others, in whom, to­gether with the Suiſſe (a moſt principal Ingredient) conſiſteth their greateſt Foot confidence; the76 more conſiderable part, whereof being mercenary Auxiliaries, and very frequently left in great arrears, might peradventure ad­miniſter to Politicians ſufficient cauſe of ſuſpition and diſcourſe; but the event having hitherto, for many ages paſt, been nothing prejudicial, takes away any far­ther occaſion of diſpute.

The People of Trade and Me­chanicks,Mecha­niques of France. are nothing ſo contemp­tible as the commonſort, of whom we have ſpoken a little; many of them living very decently and handſomly in their houſes, eſpe­cially the better ſort of Mer­chants,Merchants. who are better furniſhed then the reſt; howbeit, in com­petition with our Country-men of the ſame quality, to be eſteemed, in truth, but as mean Mounte­banks, and inconſiderable Pedlers. Thoſe of greateſt Wealth and Commerce, being ſome crafty Italian or Portugues, who (du­ring the time of the late, and pre­ſent Cardinal) have amaſſed very77 conſiderable Eſtates, and great Riches And here we may pro­perly obſerve, That no Gentleman will in France binde his yongeſt ſon to any Trade or Mechanique Calling whatever, under that of a Military life,Appreni­ſage cunt­ed a diminu­tion of ho­nor in France. as eſteeming eve­ry Apprentiſage and ſubjection, a ſtain and diminution to the Ho­nor and Dignity of his Family; the like alſo, they for the moſt part obſerve in their Marriages and Alliances: but herein the German is moſt religious.

The Nobility and Gentry of this Kingdom differ much from the garb of living in England,Noilities Garbe of living in France. both within, (and till of late) without doors: They have many of them vaſt eſtates, either in Lands or Offices; the Revenues whereof they chuſe rather to ſpend at Paris, and other great Cities, in a ſpecious Retinue of Coaches, Pa­ges, and Laquaies, then ſuffer themſelves to be eaten up at home in the country in the likeneſſe of Beef and Muſtard, among their78 unthankful Neighbours. This af­fection of theirs to reſide for the moſt part in the chief Towns of the Kingdom,Corporati­ons. is the reaſon why the Corporations are little conſi­derable, as not daring to be brew­ing and hatching ſuch Factions, as where the Gentry and civiller ſort of Mankinde are univerſally given to ſolitary and unactive lives in the country. Beſides, the Gentlemen are generally gi­ven to thoſe laudable Magnificen­cies of Building,Magnifi­cence of the Nobility & Gentry. and furniſhing their Palaces with the moſt pre­cious Moveables, much of the luxe and exceſſe of Italy, being now far entred amongſt them, as may well ſerve to exemplifie, when in the Dutcheſs of Chaulmes her Palace neer the Place Royal in Paris, the pennaches, or tuſts of plumes belonging to one of her beds onely, is eſtimated worth fourteen thouſand livers, which amounts to neer a thouſand pounds ſterling of our money.

Every great Perſon who builds79 here,Great pre­tenders to learning. however qualified with in­tellectuals, pretends to his Elabo­ratory and Library: for the fur­niſhing of which laſt, he doth not much amuſe himſelf in the particular elections of either Au­thors or Impreſſions; but having erected his caſes and meaſured them, accords with a Stationer to furniſh him with ſo many gilded Folioes, ſo many yard of quarto's, and octavo's by the great, till his Bibliotheke be full of Volumes. And yet ſome of them, both have excellent books, and are very po­lite Scholers: but the Nobleſſe do not naturally ſo addict them­ſelves to ſtudie, as the Gown-men do; accounting it a life ſo con­templative, and below their ſpi­rits,Phyſick and Law deſpi­ſed by the Nobility of France. that no Gentlemans neceſſity whatſoever ſhall eaſily engage him to ſeek any ſupport, either by Phyſick or Law: both which Profeſſions are (as in truth they highly merit) in very laudable e­ſteem and reputation amongſt us in England.


The State Eccleſiaſtick (com­prehending that of the Religion) is of two ſorts;State Eccle­ſiaſtick of France. the greater part whereof being Pontificians, and the Proteſtants,Proteſtants. commonly called thoſe of the Religion, (and by them with this adjunct, Preendue Reformée) who exerciſe the Do­ctrine and Diſcipline of Gene­va.

The Roman Catholicks of France are nothing ſo preciſe,Roman Ca­thlcks of Frac, how they differ from others of the ſame Religion. ſe­cret, and bigotiſh as are either the Recuſants of England, Spain, or Italy; but are for the moſt part an indifferent ſort of Chriſtians, na­turally not ſo ſuperſtitious and devout, nor in ſuch Vaſſallage to his Holineſſe, as in other parts of Europe, where the ſame opinions are profeſſed; which indifferency, whether I may approve of, or condemn, I need not declare here.

As for the poor Proteſtants,Proteſtants, how eclipſ­ed & weak­ned of late. they are now ſo inconſiderable, ſince the late Succeſſes of the Cardinal Richlieu, and eſpecially our Na­tions81 reproach, and their misfor­tune at La Rochelle; that for the preſent they poſſeſs no one place of ſtrength, or any other ſingular immunity above others, as being defeated of all Eminent Perſons, either of Birth or Charge, who might be able to defend or Coun­ſel them at need; the Court ha­ving now rendred moſt of them Proſelytes, by Preferments or In­tereſts, or other effectual means: Howbeit, ſuch as remain (and of which too there are likewiſe a very conſiderable body) are per­mitted peaceably to enjoy their Conſciences, upon renovation of the late Edict of Pacification; and are undoubtedly, in caſe of any conſiderable Rebellion, capa­ble to form a very ballancing and pondrous party; but with no­thing that front and confidence which within theſe twenty years paſt, they might have done; when they durſt even beard the King,The cauſe of〈◊〉. and protect ſuch as retired to them, from his diſpleaſure, in82 moſt of his, now ſtrongeſt Towns and places of Importance: But the Scean is now much altered, and they ſhrewdly contracted, eſpecially ſince the ſtir under that late and incomparable perſon, the D. of Rohan: the folly of their own private Intereſts, having e­