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The Examiner defended, IN A Fair and Sober ANSWER TO The Two and twenty QUESTIONS which lately examined the Author of Zeal Examined.

In this ANSWER are (not unſeaſonably) touched,

  • Chriſt's intereſt in this and all Nations.
  • Chriſt's intereſt, and the Commonweals, as to the preſent affairs.
  • The true nature of all Civil States.
  • The nature of all Civil Magiſtracie, and of the Civil Sword.
  • The Title of Chriſtian Magiſtrate.
  • National Churches and Covenants.
  • The world of Religions and Conſciences thorowout the world.
  • The permiſſion due to Conſcience in (meer­ly) Spirituals, all the world over.
  • Idolatry, and the kindes of at.
  • The Spiritual and Civil Sword, and the ef­fects of them, in Spirituals.
  • The Forms of Worſhip.
  • The cauſes of deſtruction to Nations.
  • The Violence to the Souls of men; and of Intereſt the cauſe of it.
  • The dangerous conſequence of ſuch Vio­lences, experimented in ſo many Nations.
  • The difference of the Land of Canaan, and the Kings thereof, from all Lands and Kings beſides.
  • Chriſt Jeſus himſelf, and his followers, ever accounted and puniſhed, as the greateſt He­reticks, Blaſphemers, &c.
  • The crying guilt of Soul-Rapes and Na­tional hypocriſie in Worſhip.
  • The light of Nature in Spirituals.
  • The acts of Aſa, Artaxerxes, &c.
  • The Fast of Nineveh.
  • The Conſcientious differences of the moſt Conſcientious in the world, about God's Worſhip.
  • The juſtice and prudence of State-proviſi­on againſt allncivilities both of Popiſh and Proteſtant Ranters.

LONDON, Printed by James Cottrel. 1652.

To the Reader.

Pious Reader,

TWo honorable Gentlemen (as is ſaid) have ſo far (lately) honoured Chriſt Jeſus and their honorable ſtations,The occaſion of this Diſ­courſe. and them ſelves, as to try by the Sword of God's Spirit (the Word of God) whether the World, and the Civil States and Nations thereof, may permit Ido­laters, Hereticks, &c.

The firſt of theſe Two Worthies publiſhed his Zeal Examined: The ſecond attempts upon the former with Two and twenty Queſtions, under this Title; The Examiner Examined.

It was deſired that the Examiner of Zeal might have examined theſe Queſtions alſo. But finding an indiſpo­ſition of health upon his perſon, and multiplicity of Publike affairs engaging his hours and minutes; I have been humbly bold to look up to heaven, and to beg the finger of God's moſt holy and gracious Spirit, for the diſſolving and untying of them.

It was a truely-gallant and heavenly ſpeech of the Author of theſe Queſtions,An heavenly ſpeech. (whoſoever he be) in his Epiſtle or Preface: [I profeſs my ſelf a lover of Truth, whereſoever I finde it, though in an heap of Errours: for I know well, that it is the high-way to be given up to ſtrong deluſions, not to receive the love of the Truth, yea, an univerſal love of all truth.] But I had almoſt ſaid, (not onely, What Saint, what An­gel, but) What man will not ſay, Vincat Veritas? We know who ſaid, Amicus Plato, &c. magis Amica Ve­ritas. Such counſel is like our common counſel of Phyſick to others, but not ſo pleaſing and practical in our own diſtempers.

And Oh how many are the Skreens, the Veils, the Hoods, the Vizards the Curtains, the Hangings, the Cloks, the Clouds, and Colours, by which the luſtre and ſhining of that which we call Truth, is hidden and eclipſed from us!

For inſtance:1. Truth ſuſ­pected for a Novelty. This cannot be Truth, it is a Novelty. What will this babler ſay? (ſaid the famous Acade­mians of Athens) he feemeth to be a ſetter forth of new Gods; though all the old were falſe, and indeed but new, and therefore falſe; becauſe not the Alpha and Omega,Quod antiquiſ­ſimum optimum. the Firſt and the Laſt. Thus cry the Papiſts againſt the Proteſtants, and the Proteſtants againſt each other: New Doctrines, New Men, New Lights, New Chriſts, New Gods, &c.

There is no room in the Inne for Chriſt Jeus & his Mo­ther,2. Commonly Truth is out­wardly poor. ovely among the beaſts in the ſtable, in the Manger: A poor Carpenters ſon, whence hath be ſuch learning? How ſhould ſuch baſe and unlikely Medicines as Clay and Spittle, pn men〈◊〉? How ſhould the dry and lowe tree be fruitful? How poor Fiſher-men, Tent-makers, Mechanicks, know and preach Chriſt Jeſits? &c.

He takes away our Hogs (ſay the Gadarenes) and therefore beſeech him to depart from us. 3. Truth is coſtly.By this Trade (ſaith Demetrius and his Crafts men) we have our living, &c. our Popedoms, Biſhopricks, Benefices. If we believe this Doctrine, the Romanes will come and take away our place and nation, &c.

How can you believe (ſaith Chriſt Jeſus) who re­ceive honour from one another,4. Truth is in diſgrace. and not that honor which comes from God alone? How many had been convinced and perſwaded that Chriſt Jeſus was the Son of God, but that they loved the praiſe of men, more then the praiſe of God?

Howſoever ſometimes it hath pleaſad God to take off the Rod and Plough of the wicked,5. Truth is perſecuted. from the back of the righteous; yet the general Rule is That All that will live godly in Chriſt Jeſus, muſt be hunted. The great Lord General, Chriſt Jeſus, carried his Croſs and Gallows; and profeſſath it impoſsible for any to fol­low him, without a denying of himſelf and taking up his Croſs, or Gallows alſo. Thus are we (ſaith Da­vid and Paul) as ſheep for the ſhambles all the day long. Thus muſt thoſe bleſſed Petitioners under the Altar wait, until the reſt of their fellow-brethren and ſervants were ſlain alſo. Hence (though Chriſt's fol­lowers have ever found the ſweeteſt enjoyments of God and Chriſt, and the holy Spirit, in ſufferings, yet) how harſh is this Alarm to fleſh and blood which there­fore rather ſeeks a thouſand ſhifts, to ſwear, to ſubſcribe, to conform, (upon the point) to deny Jeſus Chriſt, &c.

Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth? 6. Truth is prejudiced.Can Micaiah ever ſpeak good to me, who never yet ſpake good to me? And Haſt thou found me, O mine enemy (ſaid A had to two Prophets.) This Stone the builders have abready refuſed, &c. This may be Je­bovah's miraculous work, to chuſe the ſtones caſt by, &c. but fleſh and blood cannot got over this mountain.

Do any of the Rulers believe in him? Do the learned Scribes,7. Truth is followed with ſew wiſe, great, learned. the Reverend Clergie, the King, the Queen, the Parliament, the Counced, the Univerſity, the Convocation, the Aſſembly, the Synod? Oh how thick is this Choud, that the eyes of the wiſeſt can­not pierce it! for it is God's deſigne, that few wiſe and piencing eyes are choſen, to ſee Chriſt Jeſus, and his deſpiſed Truths and Myſteries.

How many whom Chriſt invites, ſend Chriſt this an­ſwer:8. Truth findes few at leaſure. I have not ſuch time to ſearch the Scriptures, as the Bereans had: So many are my diſtractions, ſo neoeſſary are my occaſions, about my Farm; about my Oxen, about my Merchandiſe, about my Marriage. Go thy way, Paul, (and Peter, and Chriſt, and God) ſaith Feſtus, until I have a more convenient time, &c. It is the voice of my Beloved, ſaith the ſoul, Cant. 1. yea, Martha knows 'tis Chriſt's voice; but dinner muſt be dreſt; and 'tis for Chriſt himſelf alſo, &c.

This Jeſus (ſay the Jews) cannot be He: This man is a Glutton, a Drunkard, a Company-keeper. And juſt as, John, becauſe auſtere and harſh, came from hell, and had a devil, was Jeſus a Glutton, &c. becauſe of a mire loving and ſociable, of a more merciful and piti­ful diſpoſition and cenverſation. I acknowledge, the followers of Chriſt Jeſus,The lives of Gods children, cauſing his name to be blaſphemed, like to kindle Fares of perſe­cution. by unchriſtian courſes, may cauſe the Name of Chriſt to be blaſphemed (as que­ſtionſeſs the lives of many Papiſts and Proteſtants cauſe both Jews, and Turks, and Pagans, to ſtumble at him; and therefore, were there no ſlaughter of Witneſſes in queſtion, I cannot but ſuſpect a ſtorm, a fireſtraight impending, which ſhall bring forth a more refined and purer Edition of Chriſtianity to the whole world;) yet ſince the devil in Engliſh, is an Accuſer ſtanderes &c. it is but deviliſh to reproach, and it is but fooliſh to ſtumble at reproaches.

There is another, of a finer ſpun and thread;10. Our ſpiri­tual ſences may deceive us. which damps the ingennous ſearchings after, Truth; and that is (like unto deceptio viſus) a Deluſion from our very Senſes, and from our very experiments of our good can­ditions. Truth kept out by experi­ence.Thus (not onely ignorant ſouls plead for the old Religion, and the Jews for their cakes to the Queen of heaven; then 'twas better, &c. but) what rejoycing findes the heart of, David himſelf, and ſo wa­ny thouſands of Iſrael with him, even in a falſe carry­ing of the Ark, the ſigne of God's moſt holy preſence? Yea, is it not one of the unkindeſt Anſwers that ever was given to ſo dear a Saviour, (Cant 5.) My feet are waſhed, how ſhall I defile them? &c.

Laſtly,11. Hatred of Truth the higheſt wall againſt it. What trembling calls for that moſt black and horrid ſackcloth of hell it ſelf (to the weaving of which many of the former contribute) to wit, a malicious ha­tred of the very purity and holineſs of the Son of God.

There is a twofold hatred of Chriſt Jeſus. Two walls of hatred of Truth.

Firſt, Natural. The wiſdom of the fleſh, is enmity with God. But this wall is ſaltable and breakable, and bleſſedly gives way in Gods choſen, to reconcilia­tion, and leagues of eternal loves with Jeſus Chriſt.

The ſecond, is a wall ſo high and ſtrong, as it ſtands for ever. This is a malice and hatred after light. Such (probably) was Saul's againſt David the ſhadow, and the Phariſees againſt Chriſt Jeſus himſelf: They hated him, and ſaid, He ſhall not raign over us. Thus, a­mong the many hundreds of falſe Prophets, there is one more ſaith Ahab, Micaiah; but I hate him, &c.

The reſult of all theſe (gentle Reader) is too often even in the heart of the greateſt lover of Truth in the world, a ſeeret prejudice,Reſolutions againſt truth. a barricado, a reſolution againſt ſome Truths of God. Such a reſolution was that of the Captains, conſulting Jeremiah about their ſtay in Cal­dea, yet ſecretly reſolved to go down to Egypt Thus, like thoſe fourty reſolved to kill Paul, they pretend to enquire ſomething more perfectly.

The truth is, Truth is a priſoner upon ſuſpition. How many millions are the conſpirators againſt the life of it? And yet, let's examine the priſoner, call Aſſem­blies, Claſſes, Synods, Councels, &c. appoint Diſ­putations, Conferences, &c. But before the priſoner come to the Governour, the Parliament, the Councel, &c. ſtab it, kill it. Yet God forbid we ſhould wound the Truth, but the Heretick, the Seducer, the Diſturber, &c.

My humble prayer therefore is preſented to the Father of lights, (who is light, and love, and truth) that theſe honorable Examiners, and all thoſe noble Bereans who candidly ſhall pleaſe to examine them and this, may cry with David, ſenſibly and cordially, (Pſal. 119.) I am a ſtranger in the earth: O hide not thy command­ments from me.


Page 10. read ſhadowing rocks and trees. p. 27. l. 4. put out but. p. 41. for Religions, r. religious. p. 42. for ought they, r. ought they not. p. 54. l 24. for height and prudence, r. high prudence. p. 56. l. 29. for Whe. r. Whether. p 57. l. 12. for Sorms, r. Storme, p. 61. l. 2. r. Canaan. p. 74. in the margin, r. whether the piſhops. p. 76. for the Idolatry, r. Idolatry.



THe Ship of the Commonwealth (like that gallant**The Sove­raign, or Com­monwealth. Ship now going forth, ſo called) muſt ſhare her weals and woes in common.

As the one, ſo the other hath its dangers of Rocks and Sands,Common Woes Storms and Tempeſts, Want of Proviſions, Sickneſſes and Diſ­eaſes, treacherous and profeſſed enemies, Fires, Leaks, Mutinies,and &c.

I humbly beg of God, and wiſh to both, their Fair Windes and Weathers, Plentiful proviſions, Unani­mity and Peace, Preſervations, Victories, Boon Voyages,Weals. and joyful Anchoring in their deſired Ports and Har­bours. Such woes and weals are common to all that ſail in either.


Now in a Ship there is the whole, and there is each private Cabbin. A private good engageth our deſires for the publike, and raiſeth cares and fears for the due prevention of common evils.

Hence is it,Common Duty. that in a Ship all agree (in their com­manding orders, and obeying ſtations) to give and take the Word, to ſtand to the Helm and Compaſs, to the Sails and Tackling, to the Guns and Artillery. This is, this muſt be done in Artificial, and in each Civil Ship and Commonweal.

Hence, not to ſtudy, and not to endeavour the com­mon good, and to exempt our ſelves from the ſenſe of common evil, is a treacherous Baſeneſs, a ſelfiſh Monopo­ly, a kinde of Tyranny, and tendeth to the deſtruction both of Cabin and Ship, that is, of private and publike ſafety.

I hope it will not therefore be offenſive,Chriſts Interest the Common­weals. that into the great and common treaſury I caſt my mite, and ſay, Chriſts intereſt is the Commonweals. Chriſts intereſt is that Sheat-Anchor, at which this Ship hath rid, and can onely ride in ſafety. All power in heaven and earth is his. If England make peace with him, ally with him, &c. though every duſt of the field were an army, and every drop of the Ocean ſprung up a Navy againſt us; yet our tranquillity ſhould not be ſhortned, our Commonweal, our Parliament, our Peace ſhould flouriſh.

But where is that man whoſe Caſe is not right? Where is the conſcientious Papiſt, or Prelatiſt, or Presbyterian,Every Chriſt but one (the true) calls for the Civil ſword and mainte­nance. or Independent, that aſſumes not thus; [Chriſts intereſt is mine?] And (in ſome ſenſe) I verily believe they all ſay true; plainly thus. As no Religion in the world can juſtly chalenge the3 drawing of the ſword for its defence; ſo, leaſt of all deſires it that which is, of all, the beſt (and onely true) the Chriſtian.

I know each Sect is apt to plead, Mine intereſt be­ing Christs, the Purſe and Sword of the State is not onely mine, but 'tis Christs due: But,

I alſo maintain, that 'tis not true Civility,Chriſts Intereſt in any Nation, is ſoul-free­dom. not true Chriſtianity, that draws the Sword for one or other. Chriſts Intereſt in this Commonweal (or any) is the freedom of the ſouls of the People. I confeſs that all Nations, all Peoples, Kings, Princes, Iudges, &c. ought to kiſs the Son, to be nurſing fathers and mothers to Chriſt Ieſus and his followers. But what a dread­ful miſtake is this, that no people muſt live but Christians? That the many millions of millions in our own and other Nations of the world, muſt either at the ſhaking of a ſword fall down before Chriſt, or with the edge of it be cut off for Idolaters, Here­ticks, Blaſphemers (or evil ſpeakers) againſt Chriſt and his Religion?

Hath not the God of heaven, the Father of lights, written it with the beams of the noon-day-ſun, that (notwithſtanding pretences) the truth is, That the Parliament of England, and the Religion of Eng­land,The Parliament and the Religion of England, have ever fol­lowed the Sword of England. hath ever followed the Sword of England? Was not the Parliament and the Religion of England all Popiſh in Henry the ſeventh's days? But in his ſon's, Henry the eighth, the Parliament and Religion divided, and turned half Popiſh, half Proteſtant. In Henry the eighth his three children's days, what turns, what wonders? Was not the Parliament and the Religion all Proteſtant, in that moſt hopeful Ed­ward's ſpring? &c. and as altogether Popiſh, when4 the Sword-fell into the hands of that bloody Mary? And when Gods providence and vengeance wrung the Sword from the paw of that Lioneſs, and reacht it to the hands of that tender Lamb Elizabeth; how hath the Parliament and the Religion of England (ſince her time) carried the face, and hung out the flag of all Proteſtants? &c.

In theſe late Earthquakes and Combuſtions (which the late King begun, by impoſing upon the conſciences of the Scotch Presbyters, in favour of his Prelates) how dreadfully hath a naked Arm from heaven ſnatcht away the Sword from both, and fixt it in a hand more merciful (I hope) to the ſouls of all men, Iews and Gentiles!

Who ſees not this to be the deſigne and the decree of Heaven,Gods preſent deſigne in England. To bring into the light, and to break to pieces the more-then-iron Yokes and Chains upon the ſouls and conſciences of men? Who ſees not, with holy fear and wonder, that this his Decree hath begun to break the arms and necks of all both Popiſh and Proteſtant perſecutore?

What eye ſo weak, but may obſerve how little and how ſeldom it pleaſed the God of heaven to go out with our Armies,The Goings of God in the late Wars. until this intereſt of the Son of God (ſoul-freedom. ) begun to be ſeen and ſerved by our Armies, and that they fought not for one ſect or conſcience, but (as to Religion) againſt tyranny, and perſecution of any conſcience?

Till then, the Balance turned not, and our Armies could hardly be ſaid to proſper: And ever ſince, they never did but proſper; and, I verily believe, ſtill ſhall, and the Commonwealth of England, and the Parliament thereof ſtill flouriſh, till that fatal hour,5 when they ſhall ceaſe to break the yokes, (ſoul-yokes eſpecially) and to let the oppreſſed go free.

One of the greateſt Knots this day in England, concerns the riſing of this Parliament, and the ſitting of the next. I confeſs, Alexander's ſword will cut all Gordian knots, but none but the finger of Chriſt's intereſt will untie them. There was none in heaven, nor earth, nor under the earth, that could open the ſeals; but the Lamb did. The ſame bleſſed Lamb of God, and the intereſt of ſoul-freedom to all men, can,One of the greateſt knots this day in England, un­tied. and can onely maintain this Commonweal in the free­dom and glory of it: for,

Who but ſoul-oppreſſors can be unwilling that mens Conſciences be free to ſee with their own eyes, and themſelves be judges of the path they chuſe, in which they hope to finde eternal life and Bleſſed­neſs?

Who but Tyrants and Oppreſſors can be grieved, that the ſouls of men ſhould chuſe whom to hear, what and with whom to pray, whom and how to pay and maintain, according to their Abilities and Conſciences?

Who but ſuch as buy and ſell Chriſt Jeſus, and make a trade and living of Heaven and Hell, can cry out, Great is Diana, for hours and yeers toge­ther?

Will not all the people of the Nation ſtand ob­liged,The onely woy (according to God) of obli­ging the people of this Nation to the preſent Government and Gover­nours. as one man, to live and die with ſuch Saviours and Deliverers, and to elect and chuſe ſuch Vindica­tors of their ſpiritual Freedoms?

How will all men be enforced (either from the freedom of their conſciences, or from the freedom of their purſes (which is their due) I ſay, be obliged6 and enforced to ſend ſuch Repreſentatives as have ſtood for, and may maintain the Common Free­doms and Liberties (eſpecially the ſoul-freedoms) of the Commonweal of England?

Againſt many Objections, I briefly oppoſe my An­ſwer to theſe two and twenty Questions: onely to one Objection, thus,

Object. That I anſwer with Quections.

Anſw. Firſt, it was frequent with our Founder, Chriſt Jeſus.

Secondly, in juſtice, this Re-examiner cannot re­fuſe his own coyn.

I confeſs, my Principle of Soul-freedom com­mands me to applaud and honour this ſearching and propoſing from the holy Scripture: yet ſince the Sun of righteouſneſs is riſen ſo high (as to ſoul-freedom) and darts the beams of his Light upon the very eyes of all that love his Name (eſpecially) I plead for a more gentle cenſure, if in any line or letter I ſpeak too loud to ſuch a moſt unſeaſonable ſleeper.

The ſum of the firſt Queſtion.

Whether the Civil Magiſtrate,Queſt. 1who knows the Doctrine of Salvation, &c. be not bound, as a nurſing father, to provide ſaving food for the people, and to provide that poyſon be kept from them?

Anſw. I anſwer,The prophecie of Kings and Queens nurſing fathers and mo­thers. and ask, firſt, Whether this Prophe­cie of Kings and Queens being nurſing fathers and nurſing mothers to the Saints, be not (as many wiſe and godly take it) a peculiar prophecie and promiſe7 to that peculiar and distinct Nation and People of God, the Jews: And whether theſe words (verſ. 22 of that 49 of Iſaiah) I will lift up mine band to the Gentiles, &c. be not a character fixing this Prophecie unto that (yet) beloved people?

And ſo conſequently, Whether all thoſe bloody Perſecutors (Papiſts and Proteſtants) who have uſed to draw this ſhaft out of this Quiver of Scri­pture, whereby to pierce the tender heart of Chriſt Jeſus; yea and all that give a power to the Civil Magiſtrate in Spirituals from this Scripture, Have not moſt ignorantly profaned this Prophecie, and that to uſurpation over the Temple of God, the Con­ſciences of Gods own people; and to bloody vio­lence againſt their Bodies, although under a cloak of providing wholeſome food for their children, and prohibiting poyſon? &c.

Secondly, I ask, Whether there be not two ſorts of Nurſes, literal and myſtical;Fathers, Mo­thers, Nurſes, distinguiſhed. and again of myſti­cal two ſorts, Civil and Spiritual? as alſo, Whether there be not the ſame diſtinction of Fathers and Mothers, who are diſtinct from Nurſes? &c.

And whether theſe Kings and Queens (in Iſa. 40.) yea and ſuppoſe all other lawful Magiſtrates, muſt needs be underſtood to be ſpiritual Nurſes, ſuch as Paul (who was no King, &c.) profeſſeth himſelf to be, being a Meſſenger of Chriſt Jeſus to the Theſſalonians; and ſpiritual fathers and mothers, ſuch as he profeſs'd he was to the Corinthians and Gala­tians?

Or, Whether here is not propheſied and promi­ſed to this People; or rather, whether is there not here propheſied and promiſed to theſe Saints (whe­ther8 literal or ſpiritual Iews) that Kings and Queens ſhall put off their Lion-like and Lion ſs-like nature towards Gods people, and ſhall be (as the Poets uſed to write good Kings ought to be) ſhepherds of the people, &c.

If this be not the true meaning, I aske why is it ſaid,Wonderful ho­nour that Kings and Queens ſhall yeeld to the Sain's. verſe 23, That theſe Kings and Queens, ſhall bow down to theſe Iewes with their Face to­ward the Earth, and like the duſt of their feet? which poſture and practice ſeems not to imply a diſrobing themſelves of their civil Dignities and Authori­ties (for that is it by which they ſhew ſuch kind­neſs to the Saints) but rather, their high eſteem unto theſe Saints, in heavenly and ſoul matters; and that in ſpiritual reſpects they are ſo far from chal­lenging to be Fathers and Iudges of what is whole­ſome food and poyſon, that they bow downe and kiſſe the feet of Chriſt Ieſus in his Saints, far more ſuperiour in ſpirituals then themſelves.

Thirdly,Kings and Queens, and all Magiſtrates eſſentially Ci­vil, and as a Maſter of a Ship, &c. I aske whether the Office of Kings and Queens, &c. be not (in the ſhip of all Common­weals in the world) meerly and eſſentially Civil, juſt as the Office of a Captain, or Maſter of a Ship at Sea, who ought of all his Paſſengers to be honour­ed and reſpected, paid and rewarded for his ſervice: But as to the Conſciences of the Paſſengers, whether Jews, Turks, Perſians, Pagans, Papiſts, Proteſtants, &c. whom he tranſports from Port to Port upon a civil account of payment and recompence; I ask whe­ther he go not beyond the Sphere of his Activity, if he act by any authoritative reſtraining them from their own Worſhip, or conſtraining them to his? And whether he have any more to do, but a ſhew­ing9 kindneſs and countenance, according to the quality and temper of his owne Beliefe and Conſci­ence?

Fourthly, I ask,Idolatrous and Popiſh Magi­ſtrates as law­ful as, &c. Whether all Magiſtrates in the world (of what quality and conſcience ſoever) be not as true and lawful Magiſtrates, as he that is moſt truly Godly and Chriſtian; like as Idolatrous and Pagan Fathers, Husbands, Masters, are as truly ſuch in their Relations, & c? Whether doth not the holy Teſtament of Christ Ieſus acknowledge this? the Lord Ieſus, both by his word and practice, com­manding obedience, honour, maintenance, for their Ci­vil relations and work ſake?

Fifthly, Whether Kings and Queens,The People of each Nation the fountain of the Government of it. and other Princes, receive not all their Power and Anthority from the ſeveral and reſpective Peoples who call them and impower them to their ſeveral and reſpe­ctive Services? Accordingly, Whether it have not been declared by the Parliament, that the foun­tain and original of all Authority and Rule, is the People, conſenting and agreeing in their ſeveral Com­binations, by themſelves or their Deputies, for their better ſubſiſtence in Peace? &c.Power of judg­ing in Spirituals detected to be but uſurpation in Kings and Queens, &c. And conſequent­ly, Whether have the Nations and People of the world, in their meer natural and national capacities, any one jot of Spiritual and Divine power, with which to betruſt their Magiſtrates and Officers? And if, upon due weighing in the Balance of the San­ctuary, it be found that they have not, Is not this chalenging of Spiritual power to judge and deter­mine what is ſoul-food and ſoul-peyſon, (I mean, in a coercive way binding all ſouls, and the very ſouls of them that ſent them, and who neither did nor could10 commit ſuch Power unto them) Is not this, I ſay, a ſoul-rape, and tyranny, and a meer policy of Satan, deceiving (too often) honeſt and zealous mindes, but moſt commonly acting the ſubtil Ieroboams and Nebuchadnezzars of the world, to erect their State-Calves and Images? &c.

Sixthly, Admit ſome Kings & Queens thus to have been impower'd by God, in ſome juncture of time, either for the Jews ſake,Few Magi­ſtrates in the world (ſaving­ly) know Christ Jeſus. or any of his people, upon ſome eſpecial and extraordinary account; yet I ask, What is this to all Kings, and Queens, and Magi­ſtrates in the world, that it ſhould be their charge, duty, and calling, impoſed upon them from Heaven? when the counſel of God is revealed, that as his flock is a little flock, and that he appointed ſpiritual Paſtors and Shepherds for the feeding of them; ſo his holy purpoſe was to call few wiſe, few noble, few mighty, to the ſaving knowledge of Chriſt Jeſus.

Seventhly, If the counſel of Chriſt Jeſus had been otherwiſe, and that he had committed (as is pleaded) the judging of ſoul-food and poyſon, to the Kings and Queens,Chriſt Jeſus rarely ſends godly Kings, Queens, &c. &c. ſince he wanted not power, (for all power in heaven and earth was his) nor love and faithfulneſs, (for he laid down his life, and poured out his heare-blood for his;) I ask, Why in the firſt three hundred yeers (under the Romane Emperours) nor in the ſecond and third three hundred, (under Emperours and Popes) nor ever ſince, he hath not been pleaſed to furniſh the world with ſuch Shep­herds, but rather permitted Wolves, and Lions? &c. notwithſtanding that he is pleaſed ſometimes (after long and ſharp perſecutions, to ſtir up ſome bleſſed inſtruments, as Rocks and Trees, Fathers, Mothers,11 Nurſes, to refreſh, and ſhade, and comfort, and countenance his ſervants.

Eighthly, When it hath pleaſed him graciouſly to call and change, by his Word and Spirit, any of the Wiſe, and Noble, and Mighty of the world; I ask, Whether their Regeneration and New-birth hath made any addition to their Civil Magiſtracie and Authority; and more eſpecially (as Popiſh and Pro­teſtant Rabbins have taught us) that now the Chri­ſtian Magiſtrate he muſt judge in ſpiritual matters more then all the Magiſtrates in the world beſide; who though (ſay they) they have equal Authority and Duty, yet they ought to ſuſpend acting in Spiri­tuals (ſaith M. Cotton) until they be rightly informed, that is, upon the point, until they be of his Church and Conſcience? And if ſo,A Magiſtrate is not more or leſs a Magiſtrate, by being a Chriſtian or Antichriſtian. that by this profeſſing Christianity, they receive this addition of Magiſterial power in Spirituals; I ask if it do not clearly fol­low, that (according to that moſt dangerous and ſe­ditious doctrine of ſome Papiſts and Proteſtants) ſuch Magiſtrates who change their judgements and way of Worſhip, muſt loſe their Headſhip in Spiri­tuals, and conſequently be found unfit at laſt to go­vern in Civils alſo?

And will not this doctrine extend to all other Ci­vil Officers, both at Land and Sea; yea, even to all Fathers, Husbands, Maſters; and ſo at laſt confound all Relations, and tear up by the roots all Civility, and all Order, and the world out of the world?

Ninthly, As to the matter of fact, do not all Hi­ſtories and all experience demonſtrate, that moſt of all thoſe Kings, and Queens, and Princes, and Ma­giſtrates (Popiſh and Proteſtant) that have pretend­ed12 to this power of judging of ſaving food and poy­ſon,All Magiſttrates pretending pow­er in ſpirimals, have ever forced down poyſon in ſsead of food. have groſly miſtaken the poyſon of Satans in­vertions, Superſtitions, Will-worſhips, &c. for that wholeſome and heavenly food pretended; and with bloody hands have forced this poyſon down the throat of thouſands and millions, or elſe forced and fired them out of the world with barbarous perſecu­tions, if any have been enlightned by Chriſt Ieſus to diſcern this poyſon, and to refuſe it?

Hath not Chriſt Jeſus, in theſe laſt times, decla­red it, that neither Conſtantine, nor the good Emperors before the Popes roſe, nor Proteſtant Kings, Queens, and Magiſtrates departing from the Pope unto this day, but have been ſtill miſtaken moſt groſly (either in Doctrine or Diſcipline) and that in great quantities (ſometimes) of dangerous poyſon, for ſaving and wholeſome food?

What man,From Con­ſtantine to the laſt Presbyterian Magiſtrate. but may furniſh himſelf with in­ſtances, even down to the very Presbyterian Magi­ſtracy? And whoever ſhall next pretend to judge between this poyſon and food, and put forth a reſtrain­ing or a Conſtraining Sword accordingly, How is it poſſible but they muſt alſO daſh upon thoſe Rocks, whereon the very Tyde of ſuch a practice doth ne­ceſſarily inforce ſo many gallant Sbips miſcarriage? Therefore (laſtly) ſince that typical land of Canaan is aboliſhed, the Partition-wall broken down, and in every nation (not Whole nations) he that feareth God and worketh rirghteouſneſs, is accepted with him, Acts 10. ſince Magistracy is a meerly-Civil Ordinance, and the forms and ſword thereof derived from the People; and all Magiſtrates in the world (ſo derived) are law­ful, and none can receive any addition to the power13 of Magiſtracie, by his (ſpirituality or) Chriſtianity; I ask, Whether this doctrine of Kings and Queens judging of ſoul-food and poyſon for all their ſubjects,The doctrine of Kings & queent being nurſing fa­thers, the Fire­brand of the world. &c. hath not been (e! pecially in Popiſh and Proteſtant Nations) the Fire-brand that hath kindled ſo many devouring flames of War? &c. Yea, was not this the very Doctrine that coſt the late King Charles his Crown, and life? who being flattered and bewitched into this dream of a Nurſing father,The Ax that cut off the laſt King's head. and a judge of wholeſome food and poyſon for his people; he forced poyſon for food upon the Scotch nation, and upon that occaſion was perſwaded to maintain his ſtew­ards and cooks, the Biſhops, by commencing and pro­ſecuting thoſe fatal Wars, which (by a naked hand from heaven) juſtly pluckt up root and branch, both Ceremonles, Biſhops, and King together.

The ſum of the ſecond Queſtion.

Whether the magiſtrate be not bound to advance the doctrine of Grace,Queſt. 2. and 3.which doth advance the peace and proſperity of a Nation?

Of which nature is the third Queſtion, viz.

Whether a Magiſtrate be not bound to advance that Godlineſs which giveth all good and happineſs to a nation?

I anſwer, and ask, (as before) Whether,Anſw. ſince Civil Magiſtracie is meerly civil, and the power thereof derived from the People, the fountain of it; it will not appear, that the Magiſtrate can no more14 judge authoritatively what is the doctrine of Grace, & what is the doctrine of Godlineſs, no more (I ſay) then the people of each Nation, in its national and natural capacity, can be the primitive and original Iudges thereof, and may therefore rightly delegate ſuch a Spiritual power unto their Officers or Magiſtrates?

Secondly, I ask, Whether the propoſer of theſe Queſtions intendeth not, by the Magiſtrates advan­cing the doctrine of Grace, and the doctrine of God­lineſs, theſe two things:

  • 1. A National profeſſion of the doctrine of Grace, and the doctrine of Godlineſs.
  • 2. The advancing of ſuch doctrines by the power of the civil Sword? And if ſo, (as the ſcope of all the Queſtions ſeem to imply) then,

Thirdly, Whether there be any ſuch thing to be found in the laſt Will and Teſtament of Chriſt Ieſus, as a National Church; that is, whether (as the Land of Canaan was a Land holy unto God, ſo) any Nation, as a Nation, may lawfully pretend to be the Spouſe, and Wife, and Body of Chriſt Jeſus, accord­ing to his own holy Order and Appointment? Or rather,

Fourthly,The world (and Eng and in a national reſpect) lies in wicked­neſs. Whether, ſince the world lieth in wicked­neſs, dead in ſins and treſpaſſes, &c. ſince every Na­tion in the world is a part of it; ſince ſuch as fear God in a nation, are diſtinguiſhed from the Nation, (Act. 10) I ask, Whether this Nation, as a part of the World, lieth not in the ſame eſtate of wicked­neſs alſo, more or leſs, and the body of the people eſtranged from the life of grace and godlineſs, not­withſtanding that this body be ſometimes clothed with the name of Chriſtianity, under (ſometimes) a15 Popiſh, and ſometimes a Proteſtant faſhion, as it pleaſ­eth God to permit the Sword to pretend to and ad­vance its way of doctrine of grace and godlineſs? And whether, beſide the common nature of mankind,Four greatchan­ges of the Reli­gion of this na­tion in abous 12 yeers ſpace, in Hen. 8. Edw. 6. Qu Mary, and Qu. Elizabeth. the wonderfull changes of Religion in other Nations, and in none more then in this, and that in the ſame individual perſons, in a few yeers, do not make this undeniably evident and demonſtrate?

For illuſtration, I ask, ſhether the Kings and Queens, Parliaments and princes of all nations, and of this, have not been the Gods of the Nations,Kings & Queens &c. the Gods of people; and Re­liegions their pi­ctures in which themſelves are worſhipped. whom they have werſhipped in and by the ſeveral Images and Repreſentations of their mindes and wills, which they have ſet up as ways of Worſhip and Religion to the Nations? Thus Ieroboam pretends the Name of the God of Iſrael; but, upon the point, Ieroboam was their God, and robb'd the true God of his ho­nour, by the golen calves which Ieroboam had ſet up. Thus Nebuchadnezzar pretends honour to his golden Image; but himſelf was really the Deity which all Nations worſhipped, through the golden Image which he had ſet up.

Fifthly, I ask, Whether God people (that is, ſuch as fear God in every nation, Act. 10.) be not the true, and proper, and only Antitype of that ty­pical Nation the Jewes, in that typical land of Ca­naan, according to 1 Pet. 2. You are a choſen Ge­neration (as Abraham and his off-ſpring in the Type were) a Kingly Prieſthood, and holy Nation? &c.A National Church is Ju­daiſm. And therefore I aske, Whether, to modellize a Body or Church of Chriſt, with Natural and National bounds and circuits (after the pattern of the typical Land of Canaan) be not to dwell in the old Levitical ſha­dowes,12 in the A.B.C. and Horn-book of Judaiſm, and in the denial of Chriſt Ieſus to be yet come?

To this end, I ask, Whether ſome Presbyterians (in forraign parts) come not neerer to the truth of the firſt Chriſtian worſhip, who admit not one of ten or twenty to be of their Churches: And the Indepen­dents yet neerer, who admit onely ſuch in their So­cieties, in whom they hopefully ſee the Spirit of Regeneration and Holineſs?

sixthly, I ask, Whether there hath not been in all Ages of the world, and are at this day, many great and mighty Nations of the World (ſome of ſome hundreds, yea of ſome thouſands of years continuance and flouriſhing) in which the Doctrine of Grace,Flouriſhing States of the World in which Chriſt Ieſus is not heard of, &c. and the Doctrine of Godlineſs hath not been (I am ſure not nationally) advanced? And notwith­ſtanding that Godlineſs hath promiſes belonging to this life, as well as to the life approaching, and the God of heaven is pleaſed to imprint a Character and Crown of his favour and love upon ſome Perſons and Actions, when his name is greatly engaged (as in Queen Elizabeth her daies againſt the Spaniard, and in our late Wars both againſt EngliſH, Scotch, and Iriſh, yet) whether it be not generally and or­dinarily true, that all that will live godly in Chriſt Ieſus, muſt be perſecuted or hunted; and the more Godly, the more perſecuted? and according to the myſtery of the fifth Seal, the Souls under the Altar muſt reſt but until the reſt of their fellow-ſervants are ſlain, &c.

Is it not (upon the matter) a Turkiſh argument,The peate and proſperity of Gods people in this world, is ſpiritual, &c. We have conquered ſo many Nations, Kingdoms, &c. Therefore Mahomes is above Chriſt? And alſo, is it17 nota Popiſh plea, All Nations have bowed down to our Church, who ſits as a Queen; therefore it is the onely true, &c. God hath given the Weſtern Mines of Gold and Silver to the Catholicks, not to the Pro­teſtants; and to the Spaniards before the Engliſh, (who had the firſt offer; therefore, &c. Since then that National and typical holineſs, with all the annexed outward peace and proſperity, promiſed upon condition, is vaniſhed, and the Lord Ieſus, by his Birth in a ſtable and his Death on a Gallowes, hath taught all his followers to deſpiſe this Worlds Goods and this Worlds Evils; how ſhould his Saints ſtudy the difference between the Tenour of the Old and New Covenant, the Iewiſh and the Chriſtian Canaan, and at laſt finde out that peace and proſperity they ſpeak of, in thoſe ſpiritual pleaſures, Beauties, Ho­nors, Riches, Ioyes, which are even in this preſent life un ſpeakable and full of Glory?

Eightly, Since the Throne is upholden by Mer­cy,Mercy to the perſecuted, the upholder of States. Prov. 20. and both the holy ſcriptures and Hiſto­ries tell us how many Thrones of Kings and States, that ſeemed to have been placed among the ſtars, are tumbled downe, &c. I aske if it be not at laſt the wiſdome of this State, to tremble at the ſhipwracks and downfull of our Predeceſſors, and to learne not onely the ſong of judgement and Zeal (as we judge) for the doctrine of grace and godlineſs, but the ſong of mercy alſo to ſuch whoſe Conſciences (whether out of a ſlaviſh or child like awe of God, are (it my be) Antipodes to ours? To ſay nothing of all former examples, are not two moſt wonderful before our eyes and fee?

Firſt, ſhat was it that within the memory of18 man hath ſo wonderfully (almoſt miraculouſly) raiſed and advanced from the low valleys, that poor fiſher-town of Amſterdam (now one of the gallanteſt of the Lady Cities of the world? I ſay, What was it but Mercy, Mercy which that poor Fiſher­town ſhewed to diſtreſſed and perſecuted conſciences, who fled from Enchuyſin and other perſecuting parts thither?

Secondly,The riſe of this State and Com­monweal. What was it (as before) that pluckt up the roots and foundations of ſo many Thrones of late a­mong our ſelves, and lift up and exalted our preſent State and States-men, but mercy to the long-oppreſſed ſouls of men, amongſt whom Chriſt Jeſus (who will not ſuffer a cup of water, given to his, to paſs un­paid for) hath been favoured and relieved? Break off thy ſins by righteouſneſs, and thine iniquitiess by ſhew­ing mercy to the poor, if it may be a lengthing to thy tranquility: For,

Are not falſe Worſhips, as to God, and Tyranny as to men, the two Generals, under whoſe bloody colours the moſt Sins and Plagues, in all the Nations of the World,Hollands great­eſt ſin as to Eng­and. have ever marched? I queſti­on not, but Ambition and Pride, Covetuouſneſs, and Greedtneſs Ingratitude and Unthanfulneſs Exceſs and Drunkenneſs, now lodge in the new-raiſ'd Towers of the aforeſaid Fiſher-Towne. But 'tis that Sin of Sodom, the not ſtrengthning the hand of the poor, the Poor oppreſſed in England, op­preſſed both in their ſpiritual and temporal liberties, and their late notorious ſtrengthning the hand of Oppreſſours, the King and his Cavaliers that ſin (I ſay) if any, will ſtaine the pride of all their riſing Glory.


But are there not the cries of the oppreſſed aſcend­ing to the heavens againſt us alſo? (to ſay nothing of the many other particulars of Soul-Violence and Oppreſſion, which ſome have reckoned up yet ſtill in England) I ask, if ever ſuch cries went up to Heaven in the late Kings Reigne, or his Fathers,The oppreſſion of Tythes now greater in Eng­land then for­merly, (I hope) before their downfal. or all the long tyranny of Elizabeth's Biſhops, from ſuch, whoſe either conſciences or neceſſities, can­not permit them to practice that notorious Iudaiſm of Tythes?

The Nonconformers (it's true) were ſued, and caſt, and paid; but they were never ſo torn with the three-tooth'd Hook of Elies SOns, the Treble da ma­ges and oppreſſions.

I as therefore, ſhat Grace, what Godlineſs that is, that teacheth us, after all our our former ſins, and judgements, and deliverances, and vows, to ſtop our Eares from the oppreſſed, their Cries, their Teares, their Conſciences, and to imagine that our Com­monweal, our parliament, our Counſel, our Com­monweal, our parliament, our Counſel, our Army, our Navy muſt proſper, in our moſt knowne op­preſſings of Him, whoſe is all power in Heaven and Earth, the Son of God Christ Ieſus?

The ſum of the fourth Queſtion.

Whether the Magiſtrate,Queſt. 4he not bound to love God, and to advance his Glory, true worſhip and ſervice, and the good of his people, with all his might?

I ask, Whether (as before) the Magiſtrate be­ing the Civil officer of the People, hath any Might,Anſw. 20Authority, or Power, but what the People commit unto him? And Whether any People will or can betruſt ſuch a Power to the civil magiſtrate, to com­pel their Souls and conſciences unto his?

Secondly,Spiritual wea­pons and carnal, compared. Whether the Spirit of God ſpeak not expreſly that the Weapons of Chriſtians are not Sword and Might, but the Spirit? and whether his Spiritual Weapons (2 Cor. 10.) be not ſufficiently and abundantly able and mighty, to bring down every ſtrong hold, and every high thing, and every imagi­nation and thought to the obedience of Ieſus Chriſt? And Whether ever any carnal might ever did or can effect ought in Chriſtianity, but the ſtorming of the Nations into an Antichriſtian Hypocriſie and Compliance?

Thirdly,The woful ef­fect of carnal weapons in Spi­rituals. Whether this Principle of the Magi­ſtrates putting forth his carnal might in ſpirituals, hath not conſtantly occaſioned the Magiſtrate (ac­cording to the miſtakes of his owne conſcience) to promote Superſtition and Idolatry; And alſo hath rendred the ſtrongeſt ſword to be the meaſure and ſtandard of all Religion in the World; and the Ma­giſtrates thereof, the Nimrods and mighty Hunters be­fore the Lord?

Fourthly, I ask, Where Chriſt Ieſus (the onely Law-giver to Christians hath appointed in his holy Teſtament,Chriſt Jeſus not forgetful to fur­niſh his kingdom with ſpiritual weapons. the civil ſwrod the judge and defender of his Religion and Worſhip? And why he hath not furniſh­ed his civil Magiſtrates of Iuſtice in the World with ſuch hearts and ſpirits, but contrarily hath call'd few of them to the profeſſion of his Name? And whether he hath not ever furniſhed, and doth, and will, his ſpiritual Miniſters and Meſſengers with21 ſpiritual might and power, ſufficiently and abun­dantly efficacious for the propagating of his holy Name and Truth, and for the confounding of An­tichriſt and all Antichriſtians by the breath of his Mouth, that two edged Sword of his Spirit?

Fifthly, Whether Chriſtianity did ever ſo flou­riſh,The ſirſt and laſt times of Conſtantine conſidered. as when the people of God in the firſt 300 yers after Chriſt, had no might but that of Chriſts ſpiritual weapons? Ans when it pleaſed God to raiſe up Conſtantine, to give ſome reſt to his people from perſecution; whether Chriſtianity did moſt flou­riſh in the firſt time of Conſtantine, when he with his Colleageue Licinius publiſhed the edict of Free­dome of Religion to hisſubjects; or in his after­times, when he compell'd all the World to Chriſtia­nity, but (as is confeſt by many) occaſioned the World to put on the bare and empty name of Chriſli­an? &c.

Laſtly, I ask, Whether this Principle of the Ma­giſtrates employing the carnal ſword or Might in ſpi­rituals,The Carnal ſword an Spiri­tuats, the occa­ſion of ſo much bloodſhed in for­mer, and in our late Wars. have not in all Hiſtories and Experience been the Firebrand which hath kindled ſuch devouring flames of War about Religion, in all both Popiſh and Proteſtant Countries? And Whether it did not kin­dle our late Wars, and occaſion all the dreadfull Calamities, between the Biſhops and the Presbyters, which proved fatal to the both? And whether all theſe Experiences are not the voice of God out of the whirlwind, to waken all the Magiſtrates of the World, to keep within the Civil ſphere of Civil Juriſdiction and Deminion?


The ſum of the fifth Queſtion.

Whether the people be not bound to pray for Magiſtrates,Queſt. 5that under them we may live a peaceable and quiet life in all Godlineſs and Honeſty and whether the Magiſtrate is not bound to do that for which the People pray? &c.

  • 1. I ask,Anſw. Whether (as ſome have urged) theſe words godlineſs and honeſty, be rightly tranſlated; but rather, upon a miſtake in the Tranſlation, weak­ly made the ground for the Magiſtrates being the heeper of godlineſs in the firſt, and honeſty in the ſecond Table?
  • 2. I ask,
    The puring and pre-eminence the firſt Chri­ſtian times.
    To whom this direction of praying for Magiſtrates was given? Whether they were not the firſt and pureſt Saints, and thoſe times the moſt glorious, wherein the Saints enjoyed two ſuch helps as no Chriſtians ever ſince did?

Firſt, the preſence of the holy Apoſtles or meſſen­gers of Chriſt Jeſus amongſt them.

Secondly, the wonderful effuſion of the holy Sou­rit of God, in thoſe rare and miraculous gifts and ope­rations, (1 Cor. 12.) Now to imagine that thoſe firſt Saints ſhould pray for the Civil ſword to defend (I ſpeak not of their perſons, but) their godlineſs, and ſuppreſs ungodlineſs, &c. doth it not imply this twofold ſtrange and moſt unchriſtian Paradox?

Firſt,Two ſtrange Pa­raderes. that thoſe Saints muſt imagine thoſe Civil Magiſtrates to have a clearer ſight in diſcerning,23 and an higher Authority in judging of Godlineſs and Chriſtianity then themſelves and the Apoſtles of Chriſt Jeſus, who are call'd expreſly the (Miniſte­rial) Foundations of the Churches, Fpheſ. 2.

Secondly, That they being thus call'd of God, and indued with the Spirit of God ſo ſavingly, ſo miraculouſly, yet ſhould not be able to live in God­lineſs and the pure profeſſion of Chriſt Jeſus, with­out the help of a carnal ſword to preſerve them pure, eſtabliſh and reform them, &c.

Thirdly, I ask therefore, Whether the ſcope of the holy Exhortation be not this;The ſcope of 1 Tim. 2. pray for Magiſtrates. That thoſe firſt Believers, and all Believers in the Ages follow­ing, ſhould be much in prayer with God, and not onely for themſelves, but for all men, and eſpe­cially for Magiſtrates the Chiefe of men?

1. That ſuch as were Gods Elect amongſt them might be called.

2. For the peace of the Nation and Cities where­in they lived; and ſo, conſequently, that God would gratiouſly guide the hearts of the Helms-men the Magistrates, that the ſhips of the ſeveral ſtates (wherein the Saints as Paſſengers were imbarqued) might Sail in peace and ſafety, that in the peace thereof they might have peace, (according to the command of God to his people in Babel, Ier. 29.) That ſo the Saints injoying civil peace, and alſo (if it may be the holy pleaſure of God) injoying reſt from perſecution (Act. 9.) might multiply, walking in the fear of God and Chriſtian Edificati­on, whatever the Religions fo the States or the magiſtrates there ſhould be, though Babylonian, Roman, &c.


fourthy, I ask, Whether the bleſſed Spirit of Life and Regeneration which is in all Gods people, be not abundantly ſufficient to preſerve them in Godlineſs and true Chriſtianity, to preſerve them from falling, and to reform and reſtore them from all their Backſlidings and declenſions? I add, to preſerve them,1 Iohn 3. Rom 6. Iohn 5. that ſin have no dominion over them; that they ſin not, and watch againſt the touching of Sa­tan; to preſerve them in the uſe of the Word and prayer, and all ſuch paths and meanes, which in Faith they are perſwaded of to be the commands of Chriſt ieſus? The moſt holy and moſt pow­erful and eter­nal indwelling of Gods moſt holy Spirit in all Gods Chil­dren.All this, and more, the holy Spirit of God works in Gods Children, although there ſhould not be a Magiſtrate in the World, yea although all the World and the whole World oppoſe them; yea although there were no Heaven nor Hell, no Reſur­rection, no Iudgement, nor World to come, wherein they ſhould be rewarded or puniſhed, glorifyed or tormented; yea although they ſhould want all Spiritual helps and Teachers (which reſpectively are neceſſary) for they have received an Anointing, which teacheth them, and abident with them, and will abide with them for ever.

Fifthly, I ask, Whether in the preſent ſtate and jun­cture of affaires in England,The diviſions of the Clergie now, like that of the Friers in Chaucers tiem. wherein (as Chaucer ob­ſerves of the four great differing Orders of Friers in his time) every Sect, every Order and conſcience pleads the integrity and purity of their way, and the Peo­ple of God themſelves are ſo divided and different­ly perſwaded, as of late (in the Scotch wars) to blood and dreadfull ſlaughters (I ſay) I ask, Whether we may pray, without prophaning of the holy Name of God, and the guilt of the breach of the civil25 Peace of the Nation, that God would ſend ſuch Ma­giſtrates, who ſhould authoritatively judge, whoſe Conſcience, whoſe Worſhip, whoſe Godlineſs is true,What prayers ought to be put up for Magi­ſtrates? and accordingly maintain that Godlineſs, defend that Faith, advance the Worſhip and ſervice of God, &c. As alſo prohibite by his carnal Sword, all other Conſciences, Worſhips and Godlineſs, as Schiſmatical, heretical, Seditious, Blaſphemous? &c.

How much rather ought we to pray, that it may pleaſethe moſt holy and only wiſe Goe, to vouchſafe ſuch a Spirit of Godlineſs and Wiſdomie to the Rulers of this Commonweal, that the civil Rights may be pre­ſerved and Civilities may flouriſh in Righteouſneſs and Mercy, even in the midſt of ſo much ſpiritual Diviſion and Oppoſition, which are and muſt be grea­ter and greater, in all Nations of the World, when once the Chains and Yoaks of implicite Faith,Soul Yoaks believe as the Church believes, Decrees and Precepts of Men, Tradition of Elders, Cuſtomes, Antiquity, &c. re torn off, and broke from the ſouls and necks of the People, and Inhabitants hereof?

The ſum of the ſixth Queſtion.

Whether Abraban, and Jacob,Queſt. 6and o­thers before the law, were not Magistrates in their Families, and commanded and re­formed their Families in matters of Religi­on, or were meetly fello-Servants, with their Servants, as the Examiner ſaith?

Firſt, I ask, Whether the Queſtionist hath dealt fairly with the Examiner,Anſw. in bringing him in (ſ026 odiouſly) to ſay, that Abrahams and Jacobs Houſ­holds might command them, as well as Abraham and Jacob might command their Houſhoulds? And Whether or no did the Examiner once menti­on Abraham and Iacob? It is true, he maintaineth, (and with expreſs words and clear light of holy Scripture well may) that in Religious matters the Magiſtrate and Subject are fellow-Servants: but gave he any colour or appearance of Countenance to Servants to be inobſequious to their Maſters, Children to their Parents, Wives to their Husbands, people to Magiſtrates, in all their civil ſpheres and re­ſpects?

I ask further,The diſpenſati­ons of the Fa­thers and magi­ſtrates of Cods Iſrael, figurative and typical. Is the conſequence fairly gathered, that becauſe Abraham, I ſaack, and Iacob, and thoſe Fa­thers of Families and Elder Brothers, thoſe Saviours, Judges, Governours, and Kings of the Iſrael and peo­ple of God, in thoſe ſigurative times and typical ad­miniſtrations, commanded and puniſhed, even with a material and carnal ſword in ſpiritual matters; therefore every Maſter of a Family, Husband, Fa­ther, Elder brother, Judge, governour, King, Magi­ſtrate, hath the ſame Authority in ſpiritual matters now? And that therefore, according to Numb. 30. an Husbands or Father may now diſannul and over­rule the meerly Religious Vowes and Devotions of their Wives and Daughters? Or rather, ſince the Lord Jeſus the ſubſtance of thoſe ſhadowes is come, Whether ti be not one expreſs end of his coming,Great diviſcons in matters of Conſcience, ne­ceſſary, &c. to ſet a man at variance which his Father, & Mat. 10.) in a family of five perſons, to ſet two againſt three, and three againſt two; that is, in the matter of Re­ligion and Canſcience? And I ask, Whether the wife27 (notwithſtanding in civil converſe ſhe ſubmit with all wife-like ſubmiſſion and affection, yet) as to Religi­on ought ſhe not to judge of her Husbands Beliefe or Unbelief in God? and may ſhe not joyn with him or ſeparate from him, labouring to be a Saviour to him? How knoweſt thou, O Wife, but that thou mayeſt ſave thy Husband? &c. And ſo conſequently, the ſervant to his Maſter, the Child to his Parent, the ſubject and ſouldier to the higheſt Magiſtrate and Commander? For, Gal. 3. there is neither Iew nor Greek, there is nei­bond nor free, there is neither male nor female; for yea are all one in Chriſt Ieſus.

Secondly, I ask, Whether it be not the deſigne of God (for the manifeſtation of his owne moſt glo­rious Brightneſs) to cary on the Myſtery and Glory of Chriſtianity in the meaneſt and loweſt of Earthen Veſſels, according to that of Iames 2. Hath not God choſen the poor of this World, rich in Faith,Gods deſigne of chuſing men of low deeree, not many wiſe, no­ble nor mighty. and Heires of the Kingdom? Hence, in a moſt ſtupendious con­deſcenſion, God manifeſteth himſelf in Fleſh, and that Fleſh muſt be taken from a poor Carpenters wife, and ſhe delivered of her bleſſed fruit in a ſtable amongſt Beaſts: And however he command thou­ſand thouſands of thoſe moſt bleſſed Inviſible Spirots the Angels, yet, for his viſible attendants and Embaſſadours to the World, were they not (ordi­narily) of a low Ranck and condition, even thoſe two Pillars whoſe names have ſo ſounded in all parts (eſpecially at Rome, and London) Peter the Fiſh­crman, and Paul the Tent-maker? Further, I ask, Whether that Rule be not conſtant in the Chriſtian Profeſſion, Not many Wiſe, not many Noble, not many Mighty? And therefore, Whether it be28 not againſt the purpoſe and deſigne of God, and a­aginſt his declared will and courſe, that his Ser­vants ſhould expect many Chriſtian great or noble perſons, many Chriſtian wife or learned men, many Chriſtian mighty men either for wealth or valour, many Chriſtian magiſtrates, &c.

Hence though we finde the Saints in Caeſars houſhold (Phil. 4.) yet I ask, How many Caeſars (Maſters of thoſe houſhoulds) do we finde believing in leſus, for three hundred years together? and therefore, ſhether the pooreſt Saint in the Houſ­hold or Court of theſe Caeſars, were not higher (in Spiritual and Chriſtian reſpects) then thoſe Emper ours of the World themſelves?

Thirdly,A true Chriſti­an who. What is it that makes a Chriſtian, but the Spirit of Chriſt in a perſon, manifeſted in the profeſſion of his Name before the World? Mat. 16. Rom 10. And if ſo, I ask, Whether that more of the Grace and knowledge of Chriſt, render not perſons more and more eminent and glorious in Chriſtianity? And conſequently, Whether the pooreſt Subject or Servant, participating of more of the Grace and ſpirit of Chriſt, be not inveſted with more of the Authority and Power of Chriſt Ieſus,What Chriſtions the highneſt. in his affaires and Kingdome, then the higheſt Magrſtrates or Superiours, that are not ſo indowed? According to that Honour of all his Saints, who (eſ­pecially) bind Kings in chains, &c. And that charge from Heaven, Iames 2.1. My Brethren, have not the Faith of our Lord Ieſus with reſpect of perſons; a Scri­pture, that being read out in the following words, ſeems, at firſt bluſh, to intrench upon civility and good manners, except it be granted, this in Chriſti­anity29 the greateſt reſpect is not given to greatneſs of Place, Birth, Wealth, Autherity, Braverie, &c. but to the greatneſs of Humility and Grace of Chriſt, according to that of the Lord Ieſus (Match. 18.) Whoſoever ſhall humble himſelf as this little child, the ſame is the greateſt in the Kingdom of Heaven.

We read of two mighty Princes profeſſing the name of Chriſt, meeting together in England, Charles the Fifthe Emperour of Germany,Two mighty Princes pre­tending to glo­rious Hights in Chriſtianity. and Henry the Eighth of England: Their names then ſoar'd ſo high for Chriſtianity, that they were both in Letters of Gold, ſet upon the very Gates of Guildhal in London, Ca­rolus Defenſor Eccleſiae, Henricus Fidei: yet when Luther, or the pooreſt follower of the truth of Chriſt ieſus witneſſed by Luther, were condemned and per­ſecuted by that Charles the Fifth, the great defender of the Church; I ask, Who had the greateſt Au­thority in Chriſts affaires, the great Emperous Charles, or the pooreſt true Chriſtian? Yet the pooreſt witneſs of any truth of Chriſt Jeſus above them.And when that glo­rious (pretended Defendour of the Faith) Henry the Eighth, with all his Nobles and Biſhops, ſat in per­ſon with ſo much Glory and Majeſty, Terrour and Au­thority, in that famous Diſputation, and Condem­nation of that faithful witneſs of Chriſt Ieſus Iohn Lambert; I ask, where was in truth the true Autority and power of Chriſt Ieſus, Whether in the ſtately aſſembly of Kings, Nobles and Biſhops, or in the two-edged Sword of the Word and Spirit of God, in the mouth of that one ſingle, and yet moſt faithful witneſs of Chriſt Ieſus?

Nay further, I ask,The Authority of reproving in the name of Chriſt. If that rule of Chriſt Ieſus (Luk. 17.) be not yet in force (If thy Brother ſin againſt thee, reprove him; if he repent, for give him) Conſequent­ly,30 Whether a Magiſtrate (eminent in the grace and knowledge of Chriſt, yet) if a Brother in Chriſt be not to be reproved for ſIn, by his loweſt Groom or handmaid, and that by way of Authority in hte Name of Chriſt Jeſus? Yea and I add, Whether have not ſuch inferiour perſOns Authority from Chriſt upon Repentance, to grant a true pardon to ſuch a magiſtrates penitent Soul, then all the Popes and Prieſts in the World can affoard him? And in caſe of final obſtinacy, contradicting and blaſpheming; I ask, Whether ſuch a poor Believer in Chriſt Jeſus hath not a power and priviledge to ſeparate from ſuch a Magiſtrate (in ſpiritual reſpects) and refuſe to touch Spiritually ſUch a (Spiritually) unclean per­ſon?

The ſum of the ſeventh Queſtion.

Whether Artaxerxes and the K. of Nine­veh,Queſt. 7did well in making their decrees? &c.

I ask,Anſw. Whether theſe two Kings and the Inſtan­ces be not ill coupled, for the one, Artaxerxes (Ezra. 7.) gave free liberty of conſcience to the Iewes;Artaxerxes his decree exami­ned. whereas the King of Nineveh forced all his people to a poſitive Act of Faſting? But more particularly, as to Artaxerxes.

  • 1. Was not an Idolatrous King,
    A Terror of God ſometimes cauſeth dilaters to favour Gods people.
    a ſtranger from the God of Iſrael, one that held the people of God in ſlavery, one that had no true love to the God of Iſrael nor his people, but onely out of a fear of the wrath of the God of Iſrael, ſhe wed favour to his people, granted them free liberty of their conſci­ence, to go up to Ieruſalem to worſhip?
  • 2. He bountifully incouraged and aſſiſted them.
  • 31
  • 3. He furniſhed them with a Decree, ſuiting to their National Eſtate, and mixt condition of Church and Comonweal.

But (Secondly) I ask, Did this Artaxerxes com­pel any of theſe Iewes to his owne Religion (which he believed to be the onely true) the Religion of the Perſians? Or did he compel the Perſians to the wor­ſhip of the God of Iſrael? Or did he compel the Iewes themſelves, or any one man of them, to go up to the worſhip of their owne God at ieruſalem? but verſe 13. Let all which are minded of their owne free will go up, &c. Therefore,

Thirdly, I ask,Artaxerxes his edict freely made for ſoul freedom. What Concluſion can be ga­thered from thence, but that it ſometime pleaſeth God to affect the hearts of Idolatrous Kings with kind­neſs to his people, and forceth them to permit his people the liberty of their conſciences, yea and that with Countenance, Incouragements, and Authority? for which mercy (although the Nations where they live, and the Princes thereof, partake not of ſuch mercies themſelves, yet, ought Gods people to praiſe God, as Ezra doth.

Fourthly, I ask, Whether this Inſtance of Ar­taxerxes, do not abſolutely condemn the forcing of all the people and conſciences in a Nation to one way of worſhip, whether Popiſh or Proteſtant, or to any particular ſect or way of either of them? And Whether it do not abſolutely make for Soul-Free­dom in ſpiritual matters, in that theſe very Iewes were not forced to their own Ieruſalem, but as eve­ry one was freely willing? &c.

Secondly As to the proclamation of the King of Nineveh?


Firſt, I ask, Whether all examples recorded in holy Scriptures, bind our conſciences in our worſhips and communion with God?

In particular,The King of Ni­neveh his Pro­claiming a Faſt, examined. muſt there be a King and Nobles in London to Proclaim a Fast, as we know there was in Nineveh? muſt the Beaſts alſo be kept from Food and Water, as there? muſt Man and Beaſt be covered with Sackcloth, as there? If one part of the Exam­ple bind us, why not the other? Or if we ſay that ſuch practices were ceremonial and typical, how will that be proved amongſt the Ninevites, ſt angers to the true God and his Servant Moſes? although pro­bably they might light their Candle from the Ex­ample of that national Church of Iſrael, which kept their National Faſts, ordinary and extraordi­nary, &c. And if example be Rule for Gods Ser­vants, I ask, Whether all Ship-maſters or Magi­ſtrates, in their reſpective ſtormes and tempeſts, may exhort their Paſſengers, and Sea-men, and Peo­ple, to ariſe and call upon their ſeveral Gods and Dei­ties, as the Ship-master deales with Ionah in the firſt Chapter?

Secondly,No Warrant in Chriſts Teſta­ment for a nati­onal (muchleſsm forced) worſhip I ask, Whether in the New Testament of Chriſt Jeſus, by which the National Church, and the worſhip of that Church, was aboliſhed, there be any Example or Rule for any ſuch National wor­ſhip, of one ſort or another, for what cauſe ſo­ver?

And although it may be ſaid, Chriſt Jeſus ap­proves the Action; yet I ask, Whether he ſpeakes one Tittle to the Decree of the King and his Nobles, but onely to the Repentance of the People, at the preaching of Ionah? And upon the point, Whe­ther33 the ſcope of the Lord Ieſus, was not to upbraid the hardneſs of our hearts, in not repenting at the threatnings of Gods judgements, as the Ninevites did?

Thirdly, I ask, Whether this example of the King of Nineveh,Many various Conſciences; and more will be, in the Nations. can be a proper and fit exam­ple for the imitation of all the Nations in the World, whoſe Conſciences (like the various Meridians and Climates of Nations and places) may wonder­fully differ in one and the ſame Commonweal and Kingdom; the Magiſtrates (poſſibly) may be of one Conſcience, and all or the greateſt part of ano­ther: And (like as in a Ship) where ſeveral Con­ſciences of Seamen and Paſſengers happen, how can there be an inforcing of all Conſciences unto one worſhip, without great Violence and Diſtraction, and ſometimes hazard of the whole, in breach of Peace by mutinies? &c.

Fourthly, I ask, Whether the holy Name of God hath not been mightily prophaned, and the ho­ly Eyes of his Jealouſie mightily provoked in this Nation, by the Faſts and Thankſgivings, which the People of this Nation have been forced to obſerve, even againſt their hearts, and ſouls, and conſci­ences? How did the Parliament at firſt, inforce the People of this Nation to Faſt and Pray, for the de­fence of Religion, King, Parliament, Lawes, Liberties? And how did the King at the ſame time, command that party of the Nation under his command to Faſt and Pray, for his contrary Forces fighting upon the very ſame Grounds and Cauſes?

How did the Parliament command the People to give Thanks to God for thoſe Victories, for34 which the King commanded the People to give thanks for, as his, got over and againſt the Parlia­ment?

How have thouſands been forced to pray for the Parliament,The wonderful prophaning of the name of God, by the in­forced Worſhipe of Prayer and Thankſgiving in this Nation. whoſe hearts and courſes have ra­ther joyned with the King, againſt the Parliament; and thouſands, commanded by the King to pray and faſt for him, whoſe hearts and cauſes have more adhered to the Parliaments cauſe and In­tereſt? Yea as to the Presbyterians, whoſe cauſe of violence this was (and therefore, O that their Souls may ſee it as from God, juſt upon them) how have they been forced to ſuch publike Actions of pray­er and thankſgivings (and eſpecially, in reference to the Scotch Nation and cauſe) the which their Soules and Conſciences have much abhorred? O the infinite and unſearchable Treaſure of the pati­ence of God, to ſuch Worſhips, ſuch Violences! &c: and therefore,

Laſtly,The duty of the Magiſtrates ap­prehending Gods Judgements. I ask, Whether the Governour of Ships, artificial at Sea, or myſtical, Commonweales on ſhore, in their ſeveral ſtormes and tempeſts, can do any more rightly and Chriſtianly, by the Teſta­ment of Chriſt Jeſus, then,

Firſt, Humble themſelves in ſuch waies of Wor­ſhip and with ſuch Societies and Communions, wherein they have fellowſhip with God and one with another, and to ſtand in the Gap by Humili­ation, by Righteouſneſs and Mercy? Daniel 4.27. &c.

Secondly, Uſe all poſſible perſwaſions and ex­hortations, to the ſeveral Paſſengers under their ci­vil care and charge, to turn to God, to pray unto35 him. Thus Peter exhorteth Simon Magus (fearing Gods judgements) to turne unto God by repentance, and then to call upon him; And thus Paul, know­ing the Terour of the Lord, 2 Cor. 4. perſwades men to be reconciled to God, &c. implying this to be the way for the prevention both of Temporal and Eternal Iudgements.

Thirdly,The Duty of good Magi­ſtrates in pub­like Calamities. Intreat the Prayers and Supplications of ſuch, whom they believe to be the People of God, whoſe Prayers he profeſſeth to be his Delight, and hath promiſed to hear them, while the Pray­er of the wicked is an Abomination, and therefore more provokes him.

Thus ſome good Emperours have uſed to deſire the Interceſſions of Gods People, in times of danger and diſtreſs. Yea and Paul himſelf, ſo high in fa­vour with God, and ſo full of the Grace and Spirit of God, yea and ſo ful of the Spirit of prayer (as next to the Lord Ieſus, we read of no man more in the the New Teſtament) yet no man do we read of, that ſo frequently and earneſtly begs the prayers of Gods people.

The eighth Queſtion.

Whether any of the Prophets or Apo­ſtles,Queſt. 6yea our Saviour himſelf, did ever except againſt the Magiſtrates Authority, for queſtioning them in matters of Reli­gion?

Firſt, I ask,Anſw. Whether the Prophets and Christ Ie­ſus and his Apoſtles, are here ſo fitly joyned in this36 Witneſs,The diſpenſation of the Prophets before Chriſt. ſince the Prophets before Chriſts com­ing, were under the diſpenſation of ſhadowes and figures, in that National and typical Church of Iſ­rael, and onely propheſied of that great High-Prieſt, and King, and Prophet to come, Chriſt Ieſus? The Law and the Prophets were until Iohn (ſaith Chriſt Ieſus) and their actions (as relating to a National Church) cannot be brought as witneſſes with Iohn or Ieſus?

Secondly, I ask, Did not all the Prophets fore­tel of this moſt abſolute and independent King and Law-giver to his People, the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, by whom onely God hath ſpoken in theſe laſt times? Chriſt Jeſus the onely King of Iſrael, and that ſpiritually.Heb. 1. Did not the Angel de­clare to Mary, that he ſhould be the King of Iſrael, and ſhould ſit on the Throne of his Father David, (which yet he never did literally?) Luke 1. Was he not ſaluted by his followers, Thou art the King of Iſrael, Iohn 1. And was it not for this very cauſe, viz [that he was the King of the Iewes,] that he was Arraigned, Condemned, and Executed, and the crime pretended, fixed on his Gibbet, in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin; Ieſus of Nazareth King of the Iews? All which he was, not in any temporal or worldly reſpect (for he diſclaimed and refuſed the offer of a temporal Crown) but in an abſolute ſpiritual con­ſideration, reſpecting the ſouls and conſciences, the Religions and Worſhips of the children of men.

Thirdly, I ask, Whether the Lord Ieſus except not expreſly againſt the Magiſtrates in matters of Religion, in that ſo famous Diſtinction between Ce­ſars right and Gods; give unto Ceſar the things that are Ceſars, and unto God the things that are Gods? 37More particularly and conciſely, I ask,Caeſars due is Gods due, and yet Gods due diſtinct from Caeſars. Whether Ceſars Sword was not Gods Sword? Rom. 13. And Whether by giving unto Ceſar his Submiſſion, Ho­nour, Tribute, &c. was not a giving God his due (in a true ſenſe) by giving this his due to Ceſar? And if ſo, then what ſingular and diſtinct Character is this, which gives unto God his due, diſtinct from Ceſar? And Whether there can be any other Characte­riſtical difference imagined, but onely that of mat­ter of conſcience, ſpiritual and Religious, which Ceſar himſelf (as the old Martyrs witneſs of Ieſus, were wont to ſay) had no power over?

Fourthly, As to the Apoſtles, I ask,The Apoſtles were the higheſt and next to Chriſt Ieſus, in matters of the chriſtian name and Worſhip. If the book of the Acts, and the Epiſtles, &c. breathe not forth the moſt abſolute Independency of their Miniſtery and Apoſtleſhip, from the higheſt civil powers in the World?

Tis true, Paul makes an humble Appeal (againſt the Perſecuters of his life) to the higheſt Magiſtrate Ceſar: But as to the matters of Religion and Chriſti­anity, was not the Church built upon the Foundation of the Apoſtles and Prophets? (Eph. 2) Were not their Commands, in ſpiritual things, the command of Chriſt Ieſus (1 Cor. 14.) even to the higheſt Kings, and Keyſars? Was not that an Apoſtles voice (in caſe of Religion) Ye are bought with a price, (1 Cor. 7) let no man (conſequently not the higheſt, &c.) judge you in reſpect of meats and drinks, or an holy day? And what can be more expreſs, then ſuch peremptory, not onely refuſalls to obey ungodly and unchriſtian commands (Act. 4.5. ) but even to own the very Courts and Judi­catures of the higheſt in the matters of the King of Kings and Lord of Lords, Christ Ieſus?


Laſtly, Since the Magiſtrates Authority in queſtioning matter of Religion, may be taken two waies:

Firſt,Twofold queſti­oning in Religi­ous matters. For demanding a private reaſon of a Chriſtians Faith or Practice; ſo here it cannot be in­tended: for there is no queſtion, but that every Ser­vant of Chriſt Ieſus ought to be ready, to give a rea­ſon to every one, &c. 1 Pet. 4.

Secondly, For Authoritative queſtioning ei­ther by inferiour Magiſtrates Executive, or Supe­riour, Legiſtative: and if Chriſt Ieſus had been ſub­jected, and bound to anſwer any Authority queſtio­ning him, or his Apoſtles, as to matter of his King­dom or Chriſtian Worſhip,Chriſt Jeſus the he moſt abſolute Monarck. if himſelf and his Apoſtles and followers, had or ſhould owne any Tribu­nal in Spirituals but his owne, they ſhould have pluckt up the roots of his moſt glorious and moſt abſolute Government and Headſhip. And if ſo, what kinde of Hereſie and Blaſphemy againſt Chriſt Ieſus this is, let the Heaven and the Earth be Judges.

The ſum of the ninth Queſtion.

Whether the Examiner have cauſe to ſay,Queſt. 9that the Believing Magiſtrates giving wholeſome Food, and forbidding of Poy­ſon, be a ground for a Magistrate to com­mand Poyſon? &c.

Unto which may be added, the ſum of the tenth Queſtion. Queſt. 10

Whether Aſa's Authority from God to39 advance the true Religion, were a ground for Manaſſeh to ſet up Idolatry, and a prin­ciple of Perſecution, to kill thoſe that would not worſhip his Idols?

As alſo the ſum of the Eleventh.

Whether Gods Law, puniſhing Blaſphe­my unto death,Queſt. 11laid a principle for Jeza­bel to kill Naboth?

And of the Twelfth.

Whether Paul commanding Parents to bring up their Children in the Nature and Admonition of the Lord,Queſt. 12laies a princi­ple for Children to be brought up in Ido­latry?

I ask, Whether the propoſer of the QueſtionsAnſw. do indeed think the Examiner ſo void of Zeal and Reaſon, as to imagine that Corruption and Abuſes,All Gods works and Inſtitutions, and God eimſelf obuſed by man. are ſufficient ground to overthrow a truly-Chriſti­an, yea or the leaſt natural or Civil Conſtitution and Appointment? Or rather that he grants all Natural Bodies, both Caeleſtial and Terreſtrial, yea all Divine and Civil Conſtitutions from God or Men, are Gods works, and excellent in their kinde, although by man abuſed to Idolatry, Superſtition, Oppreſſion, Glut­tony, Drunkenneſs, Whoredome, Pride, Ambition, Re­venge? &c.


Secondly, I ask, Whether all the Queſtions are not built upon theſe Principles, which are not one-in Diſpute, and not granted, but now at this time of the day, they do moſt ſhamefully beg of Moſes, of Chriſt, of theſe late Times, and mercifull diſco­veries of the true principles, both of Spiritual and Civil Government; I ſay, beg for that which can never more be granted, without horrible Oppreſſi­on and Tyranny, over the ſouls and bodies of all the ſons of men? viz.

To particularize:Foundations out of courſe. Firſt, That Civil Magiſtracy is not meerly a Civil Thing, in the very nature and eſſential Qualities and beings thereof; but rather ſome Divinum quid, and that Kings and Queens and Magiſtrates are Gods (not onely by way of Alluſion and Conſimilitude, and in a reſpect, but really they are Sacred (or holy) perſons, their Majeſties Sacred, their Crownes Sacred, their Thrones Sacred, and their very Kingdomes and Empires Sacred. The Blaſphe­mies of the Kings Em­perous, &c. Hence that moſt horrid Blaſphemous Character, on the Forehead of the Whore and of the Beaſt, Sacrum Ro­manum Imperium, that Sacred or holy Roman Em­pere.

Secondly, That the People and Inhabitants of the Nations of the Earth, are borne Slaves, and Villaines, and are not the Original and Fountain both of their Offices, Officers, and of the Authori­ty committed to them.

Thirdly, That no Magiſtrates in the whole world, are lawful Magiſtrates, but Chriſtian and conſequent­ly none but the Proteſtant; and among them, none but of ſuch a Sect or Conſcience.

Fourthly, That the Land of Canaan (that Land41 of Ceremonies, Types, and Miracles was a Land of patterne and example, for all Lands, all Nations, all Magiſtrates, and that not in matters of Morality, Civility, and Humanity onely (which is not contro­verted) but even in the matters of Religion, and Spi­ritual Covenant, of Conſcience in Gods Worſhip, &c. If theſe Queſtions are built upon theſe grounds, I ask, if theſe Roots be found rotten and withered, what can be lookt for on the Branches?

Thirdly, I ask, How can it be avoided, but that one of theſe two Conſequences muſt be grant­ed? Either,

Firſt, If Magiſtrates, as Magiſtrates,The dangerous hanging or ſuſ­pending Magi­ſtrates. be keepers of both Tables, then muſt they keep them and in­terpret them, and determine Controverſies about Religion by thoſe Eyes, and by that Eye-ſight, which they have in Religions and heavenly things (be it Pagan, or Turkiſh, or Popiſh, or Proteſtant.)

Or elſe, ſecondly, they muſt flie to Maſter Cottons refuge of ſuſpending (or hanging up) all the Magi­ſtrates in the World from acting in Spirituals,The rooting up of all Societies out of the World. if they ſee not the true and onely way of Worſhip; and that for all the daies of their life, except God give them Repentance, and reveal the true and onely way un­to them.

And I add, and ask, Whether this Doctrine in­cline not ſtrongly, to theſe two more (juſtly ex­ploded) dangerous Conſequences?

Firſt, That as no Magiſtrate muſt act in Spiritu­als, but ſuch as are of the pretended true (which every Sect is prone to plead to be his) and Magi­ſtrates (many thouſands and ten thouſands, muſt be hanged up as above ſaid) yea and hanged outright,42 for want of thoſe Eſſential and Fundamental Qua­lifications, which may inable him to diſcharge the principal end of his Office; ſo, neither may the People, which are the Original and Fountain of Go­verment, lawfully combine and live in civil Coha­bitation, or Societies, but muſt live Barbarians or worſe, ſince that all the People and Nations of the World, in this depraved ſtate of mankinde, are wholly void of heavenly underſtanding, and can no more convey to their Magiſtrates any ſpiritual Authority or Power, then a Dead man can appoint his Officers, &c.

Secondly,Proteſtant Je­ſuits. If ſuch Orthodox, ſound and right (Magiſtrates choſen by the People, come to be of another conſcience, perſwaſion and Worſhip (true or or falſe) ought they to be depoſed? &c. and may not that Oxford Author, who put forth that Book, called the Puritan turn'd Jeſuite, and all that hold that principle of Magiſtrates being Cuſtodes utrinſ­que Tabulae, be forced to ſay, that (in this reſpect) the Biſhops were Jeſuits, the Preſbyterians are Jeſuits, the Inderendants are Jeſuits, and hold that dange­rous Doctrine of depoſing haeretical Magiſtrates? &c.

Laſtly,Strange violence to childrens and Parents conſci­ences. As to the Queſtion from the New Teſta­ment (Epheſ. 5.4. Fathers, provoke not your children in wrath, but bring them up in the Inſtruction and admo­nition of the Lord) may not he do this, except he force them to his owne conſcience and Worſhip?

And I ask further, if it followes not, that if the child by ſome providence of God (as ſometimes it falls out) become Superiour and Magiſtrate to the Parent, The child now being Father, muſt force43 his Fathers Conſcience, according to that typical Example of Aſa (puniſhing his Mother Maachah for her Conſcience?) Yea I ask, how could it be avoided, that by this Rule King Edward did well, in forbidding his Siſter Mary the uſe of her Conſci­ence, when he (though younger) was her Head; and Mary (though a woman, yet now Head of the Church) could not do other, but forbid her Siſter Elizabeth, the uſe of her Proteſtant Prayers and Con­ſcience alſo? And therefore I ask, Whether it fol­lowes not by this Rule, that all Conſcience and Re­ligion in the whole world, be not (except we grant the monſtrous ſuſpenſion of almoſt all the Magi­ſtrates and Fathers in the world) be not, I ſay, to be meaſured by the accidental turns of Superiority, and the Civil Sword?

The ſum of the thirtenth Queſtion, viz.

Whether ſince Idolatry was puniſhed by the light of Nature (as Job acknowledged,Queſt. 13Job 31.28. ) the Magiſtrate ought not much more to puniſh it in the Goſpel-light? &c.

Anſw. Firſt, I ask, As to that place in Iob,Iob. 31.28. Examined. Whether there be not many various Tranſlations and Inter­pretations of this Scripture? Doth not the Septua­gint, (the Seventy) interpret thoſe words [that were an Iniquity (as we turn it) to be puniſhed by the Iudges] I ſay, the Seventh turn it thus:〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉For this would have been accounted, judged or eſteemed, the greateſt, or a very great iniquity.


Others, Quae eſt Iniquitas maxima, which is the greateſt, or a very great Iniquity.

Others, Etiam hoc futſſet Iniquitas judicata; For this had been a plain condemned or judged Ini­quity.

2. For Interpretation, ſome interpret thoſe words (If I behold the ſun when it ſhined, or the moon walking in brightneſs) to imply Iobs denying of his worſhipping the Sun and Moon, &c. Some Metaphorically, for being puft up with proſperity and ſucceſs, which tempts all men,Gods people moſt apt in proſ­perity to deny him. and even Gods People themſelves, (as Agur confeſſeth) to ſay unto God when they are full, who is the Lord? and to deny Him who is the Alpha and Omega, the Author and Fountain &c. of all their mercies. And therefore I ask, If it be not probable, that Iob might ſooner be tempted to that ſo pleaſing a ſin of applauding himſelf in the ſhining of the ſun (Heavenly (and right-hand) mercies) and the brightneſs of the Moon (left-hand, and inferiour mercies) then to be inticed to that groſs and ſo palpable an Idolatry, of worſhiping the Sun and moon? &c.

Secondly, Grant that the beholding of the Sun and Moon by Iob, and the ſecret inticement of his Heart, and the kiſſing of his mouth, &c. relates to Idolatry, in the very real and literal Worſhiping of thoſe Creatures; grant that was Iniquity to be puniſhed by the Iudges: As alſo that Iob lived be­fore Moſes, and acknowledged the Juſtice of ſuch puniſhments (all which particulars can be but pro­bably diſputed, pro and con; and therefore is not ſuch a Building and Fabrick, to be laid upon ſo uncertain a Groundſel and Foundation.) But admit all,45 yea and further [that the Goſpel gives more light for the Diſcovery of the ſinfulneſs and guiltf Idolatry] Yet,The diſpenſati­ons of God, both before and after Moſes. ſince both Moſes and Iob alſo lived un­der ſuch diſpenſations of National Covenants and Worſhips, and before them of the Family-Cove­nants and Worſhips, ſuch as Abrahams, Iſaacks, Iaccbs, and the Patriarchs, wherein the Fathers of Families, and the elder brothers (in a figurative Birthright of the firſt born) carried on the figure Chriſt Ieſus to come,The Land of Canaan a none-ſuch, and typical as ſupream Heads and Governours in all cauſes, as well eccleſiaſtical as Civil; ſhall we now then, in the bright light of the Sun of Righteouſ­neſs, the true King of Iſrael, &c. erect new Lands of Canaan in all the Nations of the World? Will they not be meer Skeletons, Shadowes and Car­kaſes, without thoſe living Demonſtrations, and mi­raculous appearances of God, from firſt to laſt with that wonderful and typical People? Shall we ſtill take the Lord Ieſus by force to make him a temporal King, and a temporal Iudge;Chriſt Jeſus not a temporal King. when he peremptorily refuſeth, and proclaimes that his Kingdome is not of this World? &c.

Will not this be as Iob there ſaith, to deny the God that is above, or (as the Word ſeems to cary it) the God deſcending? who hath aſcended, but firſt deſcended God in Fleſh, and dwelt in Fleſh of the Lord Ieſus Bodily, and eſtabliſhed a ſpiritual King­dom, in the Conſciences, and Worſhips, and Con­verſations of Men, &c.

And however the Devil (deſpairing to deſtroy the appearance of God in Fleſh, either in the Per­ſon of Christs humane body, or in his mystical Body his Saints, by three hundred years perſecution)46 hath taken the advantage, by the ſhining of Peace and Favour to the Saints by Conſtantine, to turn the very World it ſelf Chriſtian, deſigning, under the Masks and Flag of the Chriſtian name, to conceal his Serpentine malice to pure and true Chriſtianity, and to effect that by the Roman Popes, the Foxes, which he could never do by the Roman Lyons, the Emperours.

Yet (I ask) Shall Gods people ſtill inhabit Babi­lon (or confuſion) and darkly confound all the moſt holy,Gods people commanded to diſobey the civil power in Sptrituals. moſt wiſe, diſtinct appearances of God toge­ther? and not rather liſten to the holy Spirit of God, in that abſolute prohibition (Col. 2) Let no man judge you in meats and drinks, &c. that is, upon any Spiritual account and Conſideration, albeit in Ci­vil affaires, we ought to be judged, and ſubmit to every Ordinance (or Creation) of man, for the Lords ſake? 1 Pet. 2.

Thirdly,Two kinder of Idolatry. I ask (as before) Whether the Goſpel-light hath not diſcovered unto us (more clearly at leaſt, then ever the Old Teſtament did) at twofold Ido­latry?

Firſt, Religious, which is (in a word) the fearing or Worſhipping of falſe Deities, or Gods, or God­heads, which all the Nations, all the World over, live in.

Secondly, Moral Idolatry, which is Idolatry in the Hearts and Lives of all mankinde, according to that of Paul to the Epheſians: and Covetouſneſs, which is Idolatry, &c.

According to this Diſtinction, how are all the Nations of the World (even that which is called Chriſtian alſo) or'e-ſpread with theſe Idolatries? 47Yea and (in lamentably too great a meaſure) how are Gods owne people reported (at leaſt in the moral ſence) to be Idolatrous? &c. For,

If Coveting of Gold and Silver, Houſe and Lands,The over-ſprea­ing of Idolatry in England, and all Nations. be Idolatry, and conſequently, all covetous actions (ſuch as raking, lying, ſtealing, &c.) are acts of Ido­latry in a Goſpel-ſenſe: Then conſequently the goings out of the heart in other Sins, Pride, Self-love, Ambi­tion, Whoredom, are Idolatry alſo, and all the Acts at­tending ſuch motions and deſires, Acts of Idolatry alſo in all the Inhabitants of the World, and then eſpecially and more eminently (or rather odiouſly) in ſuch as profeſs the name of Chriſt Ieſus. Oh what an object of the Iealouſie of the moſt High, is this Idolatrous Ball of the Earth, and even that part above all others, which pretends the name of the Son of God, and which (yet above all others) cries out againſt Idolaters? &c.

Fourthly, As to the Light of Nature, diſcover­ing Idolatry, I ask,

Firſt, If there be not a wonderful miſtake, a fal­lacie and ſnare in the term of expreſſion, Light of Nature?

'Tis true, The Nature of Gods Children is Light,Gods people in a glorious ſtate of Light. Epheſ. 5. Ye are light in the Lord; and Phil. 2. They ſhin as Lights: God is a Sun and ſhield unto them; Chriſt Jeſus is a Sun of Righteouſneſs ſhi­ning on them; The holy Scripture is a Light and Lanterne to them; The words of the Prophets, as a Light ſhining in a dark place, until the Day-ſtar Chriſt Ieſus ariſe ſpiritually in their hearts: They have glorious promiſes, that the Light of the Moon ſhall be as the Light of the Sun, and the Light of48 the Sun ſeven times brighter: They expect that time, when they ſhall need no more Candle nor Sun, but the Lord God and the Lamb will be their Light: and knowing that Light is ſown for the Righteous, they expect and ſhall aſſuredly reap the Harveſt of Light to all Eternity. But what is this to corrupt Nature,Light of Nature in ſpiritual things but darkneſs. to dark Nature? You were not onely in darkneſs and children of the night, but dark­neſs it ſelf (Epheſ. 5.) And if that which we call Light in men, be Darkneſs (as the Lord Ieſus ſpeaks) how great is that Darkneſs?

But if it be ſaid, that Iob and Paul ſay, that the Light of Nature diſcovers Idolatry; I ask, Whether Iob ſay ſo expreſly, or by any conſequence, which may not rather be counterbalanced another way? Or if Iob ſhould ſay ſo, whether upon an equal diſ­penſation? when in thoſe times corporal Judge­ments, and in Goſpel-times ſpiritual Judgements are proper; as in this very Rom. 1. is abundantly teſtified.

It is true, as Solomon ſaith, The Spirit of a man is the Candle of the Lord, ſearching all the inward parts of the Belly: It is an Excuſer and an Accu­ſer; a Secretary, a Sergeant, an Adverſary, a Iudge, an Executioner, within the boſome of all mankinde: But yet I ask,What knowledg of God, corrupt Nature may attain unto. how far this Spirit of Man, this Can­dle of Jehovah hath ſearched, and doth, or poſſibly may ſearch, into all the inward parts of the Belly, or Hearts of man, as touching this great myſtery of true of falſe Deities, and their reſpective Wor­ſhips? And

I ask, Where lies the Harmonie between theſe two Scriptures, this of Rom. 2. When they knew49 God, they glorified him not as God: and that of 1 Cor. 1. The World by Wiſdome knew not God. And

I ask, If natural wiſdome (that Candle or Light remaining in man) be not twofold? Natural light twofold.

Firſt, That which is Common to all mankinde in general; to the people, the loweſt, the vulgar?

Secondly, That which is more Noble and High,The higheſt at­tainments of the higheſt ſons of nature, in ſpirituals. (in degrees) refined and elevated by finer Animal Spirits, by Education, by Study, by Obſervation, by Experience. And

I ask, Whether theſe higheſt Lights, and great­eſt Candles can attaine, by their utmoſt Activity, to a true, and ſaving, and Goſpel-knowledge, even of God himſelfe? And therefore, whether the place of Rom. 1. They knew God, can amount unto more, even in the Princes of natural knowledge, Plato, Se­neca, Ariſtotle, &c. but unto a confeſſion of a Dei­ty, a Godhead above us, in us, about us; an Inviſi­ble mighty power, Creating, Ruling, Ordering all things; as alſo, a Conviction of Bleſſedneſs in the fa­vour of this Deity, and of Curſedneſs in Diſunion from it?

But now let's deſcend to Cultus Inſtitutus and Cul­tus Naturalis, an Inſtituted, and a natural Worſhip. Come to the light of nature worſhipping this Dei­ty: Come to the ſeven precepts of Noah, which ſome, both Jewes, and other ancients, talk of; and then I ask, if it be not a downright Doctrine of Free-will, in depraved nature? No ſpirituat object ſeen with a natural eye.If it be not to run point-blank againſt all the Hiſtories of the Nations, and all preſent Experience of mankind, in all known parts of the World, to attribute ſo much light to50 any of the Eldeſt and Gallanteſt ſons of Nature, as to attain a ſpiritual and ſaving knowledge of God, to attain a love unto God, in all their knowledge; to attain the myſtery of the Father and of the Son, God manifeſted in Fleſh, by whom Creation and Redem­ption are wrought; to the matter of true worſhip, or to any thing but Splendidum Peccatum, without the Revelation of the Word and Spirit of God, out of his abſolute, free, and peculiar Grace and Mercy in Chriſt Jeſus?

Hence I ask,The monſtrous opinions of the Nations, as to Dieties and their worſhips. If from this Corruption of Nature it have not ſprung, that the wiſeſt Nations, Councels, Parliaments, have run into ſuch monſtrous opini­ons about the Gods, and the number of them; and ſo many monſtrous and horrible, and ſome ridicu­lous kindes and waies of worſhip? Thus did the Chaldeans, the Egyptians, the Perſians, the Greeks, the Romans, and all the Generations and Nations of men, unto this day.

It is true, It is charged upon the wiſeſt of the Sons of men, Rom. 1. They glorified not God, as God, that they were not thankful; that they gave the glory of the Creator to the Creature; and that therefore God delivered them up to thoſe moral fil­thineſſes and defilements.

It is true,Two deep dun­geons of moral wickedneſs, in­to which the conſcience of ſome in wor­ſhipping have tumbled. That becauſe men received not the Truth in the Love of it, God delivered them up to ſtrong Deluſions, to believe lyes. And alſo theſe Spiritual Judgements have proceeded ſo far, that the poor deluded Generations of men, have tum­bled down millions of millions, one upon the neck of another, into theſe two deep and doleful Dungeons.


The firſt,Whoredom and Murder. Of practiſing uncleanneſs and Whore­dome, practiſed by ſome Nations, even upon the very account of Religion and Conſcience.

The ſecond, Of Cruelty and Murder, as of Baals Prieſts, cutting and launcing themſelves, and of many Prieſts and Sects, afflicting themſelves in ſome Nations, with many Torments; and above all, that of the abominable and moſt inhumane Sacri­ficing mankind: In which horrid Worſhip, not onely the Mexicans did abound,The Sacrificing of mankind out of conſcience. in their Sacrifi­cing yearly many thouſands Infants to their bloody Dieties, before the coming of Pizarro amongſt them; but alſo Gods owne people of Iſrael, and none of the very Kings of Iudah (before repentance) fell into this bloody pit, of offering up their Children through the fire to Molech.

I readily acknowledge, that in theſe caſes men­tioned,The Civil Sword must cut off all Inci­vilities, though under Religions pretences mask­ed and covered. and in all other caſes wherein Civility is wronged, in the Bodies or goods of any, the Civil Sword is Gods Sword, as well as mans, for the ſup­preſſing of ſuch Practices and Appearances, yea and the very Principles of them; and for the Incou­ragement and applauſe of the contrary, Chaſtity, Humanity, &c.

Hence, I honour that noble act of the Emperour of Rome, who cenſured that famous Ovid, for that wanton Book of his De Arte amandi, as a ſparke to immodeſty and uncleanneſs: and doubtleſs it is the the duty of the civil ſword, to cut off the Incivilities of our times; as the monſtrous haire of women, up-the heads of ſome men, &c.

But yet I ask, Whether Paul ſpeak ought, in the firſt of the Romans, of any humane Iudge or Iudge­ment52 upon the Nations of the World, for their meer Idolatries, thus moſt dreadfully plagued alrea­dy, by the moſt righteous Iudge of the whole World, in thoſe ſtrong Deluſions and Lyes, and de­liveries up to ſo many Luſts and Sins, which alſo run upon the Civil Sword of God and man, for their uncivil and unrighteous practices?

I ask further,All ſeeming in­civilities, not to be lookt upon with one eye. Whether or no ſome ſeeming In­civilities, which the Light of Nature more fairly may condemn, and hale before the Civil Tribunal, yet may not be ſuch; and ſo Circumſtantiated with Impreſſions from Heaven, that they ought not ſo ſuddenly and eaſily to be condemned and pun­iſhed, but, with a more tender and obſervant Eye, be diſtinguiſhed?

For (not to inſtance in any diſputable Acts which the holy Scripture and experience preſents us with) what ſhall be ſaid to that very common and conſtant practise of Circumciſion,The practice of Circumciſion, a ſeeming Incivi­lity. commanded by God himſelf to the Iewes, and now entertained by one of the greateſt Empires of the World, the Turks? may not it be (with faire probability) argued to be againſt the light of Nature? For, Although the Iewes might plead, The Inſtitution of this Ordinance was from Heaven, and the Lord of Nature, That it was done in ſo ſolemn and Religîous a way, that it was not performed with any laſcivious or uncleane obſervations or geſtures, but with Horror, and Pain, and Bloodſhedding, and great Affliction of the out­ward man (as we ſee in the Shechemites) And laſtly, That it was attended with heavenly and myſtical ſignifications, as a Type and Figure, &. Yet not with­ſtanding, how was it branded and blackr with the53 Scorned and Jeers of the Nations? inſomuch that the very Sabbath (the ſolemn worſhipping of God one day in ſeven, in a moſt religious acknowledge­ment of his moſt glorious Creating of this won­derful frame of the World in ſix) was jeered, from this very ſeeming Incivility of Circumciſion: Recu­titaque Sabbata, &c. the Circumciſed Sabbaths, &c.

If Abraham had lived now in England (one of the moſt zealous Nations of the World,Abrahams Sa­crificing of Iſa­ak a ſeeming in­civility. for inflict­ing torments on others, and being tormented for Religion and Conſcience) what would our raſh Zea­lots have done with Abraham, in caſe he had Sacri­ficed his ſon Iſaac? &c. would they have exami­ned the miraculous conception of the Child a s from Heaven, and the reaſon that that moſt holy and moſt glorious hand, that ſo miraculouſly and ſuper­naturally gave him, now call'd againe