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THE COMPLEAT Tradeſman: OR, THE EXACT DEALERS Daily Companion.

Inſtructing him throughly in all things ab­ſolutely Neceſſary to be known by all thoſe who would thrive in the World; and in the whole ART and MYSTERY Of TRADE and TRAFFICK; and will be of conſtant USE For all

  • MERCHANTS,
  • WHOLE-SALE-MEN,
  • SHOP-KEEPERS,
  • RETAILERS,
  • YOUNG TRADESMEN,
  • COUNTREY-CHAPMEN,
  • INDUSTRIOUS YEOMEN,
  • TRADERS in Petty Villages;
  • And all FARMERS,

AND Others that go to Countrey FAIRS and MAR­KETS; and for all Men whatſoever, that be of any TRADE, or have any conſiderable Dealings in the WORLD.

Compoſed by N. H. Merchant in the City of London

The Second Edition with large Additions.

LONDON, Printed for John Dunton, at the Black Ra­ven, at the Corner of Princes-ſtreet, near the Roy­al-Exchange. 1684.

TO THE MERCHANTS Wholeſale-men, Shop-keepers, and Handycrafts-men of the CITY of LONDON, AND Elſewhere throughout the Kingdom OF ENGLAND.

Gentlemen, and much reſpected Friends,

I Have endeavoured in this Manual to avoid Prolixi­ty, and to omit no Remarkables, as far as my deſigned brevity would admit; intending rather a Com­pendium of the whole Art and Mystery of Trade and Traffick, than a Voluminous Treatiſe, which would have been too large for a Pocket Companion.

What lay ſcattered in divers Volumes, are reduced (in a method wholly new) under their proper Heads, briefly, yet (I hope) not obſcurely. I have intermixt many new things, which fell within my own obſervation (or my Friends) reſpecting Trade and Commerce, ſome of which were never to my knowledg I am ſure, ne­ver in this Method) Publiſhed. It is ſaid, That

Omne tulit punctum, qui miſcuit utile Dulci:

If that be not done here, yet it is an Eſſay of that kind, being a mixture, wherein with great variety things high­ly and daily uſeful for all manner of Traders, are inter­woven with delightful obſervations. And if there be any miſtakes or imperfections, which all Men are liable to, upon any Information (which ſhall be thankfully reſen­ted) it may be capable of rectifying hereafter.

Gentlemen,

In Erecting ſuch a troubleſome and various Edifice, the Spectator, at firſt view, will hardly conceive how much pains was beſtowed in digging the Foundation, in raiſing Scaffolds, in finding, conveighing, and fitting Materials, in contriving the Architecture, in removing the Rubbiſh, &c. Other Builders, conſult only their own Brains, and the Dead; (that is, Books) whereunto acceſs may be had at all Hours: But in this Work, the Living, and the choiceſt among them, where to be adviſed with; whereof ſome were far diſtant, others ſeldom at leiſure; ſome unwilling to Communicate their Knowledge, others not at all affable.

However, If the Reader, reaping in few Minutes, the Fruits of many Hours Labour, ſhall receive any Content, I ſhall not only be ſatisfied for this, but encou­raged for another like Enterprize.

N. H.
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THE Compleat Tradeſman, &c.

CHAP. I. Of Induſtry, and Trade in General.

THE happineſs and welfare of all People ariſes, by having or acquiring, through ſome Induſtry or other, ſuch convenien­cy of Lively-hood, as may not only keep them from Want and Poverty, but render them plea­ſant and ſociable to one another; this holds both in private Perſons and Families, and alſo in Bodies Politick: that they may be able to grow and flouriſh, at leaſt bear up againſt the Malignity of Enemies, and adverſe Fortune.

Now Money being the common receipt, and ſtan­dard of all the World, as to commerce and commu­nity one with another, that Nation that hath moſt Money, or Goods Money-worth, muſt needs be moſt ſubſtantial and wealthy.

And Money is gotten either naturally, by digging it out of the Mines, or elſe by Trade and Manufa­ctury, ſupplying thoſe which have Money with ſuch things as they want: and ſo fetching of it to us by Merchandiſe. They firſt way we want, the having of it in the Mine, and therefore muſt have recourſe to2 the ſecond, of Trade, Manufacture, and things Mo­ney-worth.

Wherefore we ought to furniſh our ſelves, within our ſelves, of as many needs of life as may be, by Manufactures, and all Huſbandries whatſoever, that our Country will make or bear, and want as few as we can, ſo ſhall leſs Money ſerve our turn, and yet we have ſtore of Money by making and producing thoſe things that draw in Money continually.

But Money is chiefly gain'd by Trade and making ſtore of Manufactures, which other Nations want; and improving of our Ground with variety of Huſ­bandry Commodities, and to furniſh them with ſuch of our Productions; for we ought to ſupply our ſelves within our ſelves, that we need few Foreign things, and make as many Commodities at home as poſſible, that Foreigners want, and ſo export it to them.

For England is properly a Nation of Trade, and extreamly well ſituated for Commerce, and the Inhabitants Ingenious, and fit for it, if encouraged: alſo furniſht within it ſelf with ſtore of Materials, which are the grounds of Trade.

But being an Iſland, and independent from our Neighbours, the leſs War, and more Peace we have, the better; for Conqueſt of unprofitable Countries help us not, but hinder us; are chargeable, and waſte our People: Our buſineſs is to keep at unity with our ſelves, and enjoy a free Trade; keeping only ſome Forts and Iſlands in profitable Places, whereby we become Maſters of Trade.

Alſo ſuch Laws might be made and contrived for the encouragement of Trade and Manufactures, that without coſt or charge Induſtry would increaſe, ma­ny particular Arts riſe of themſelves, and Riches be produced of courſe. The chief things that promote3 Trade, and make it flouriſh, are, that it be free, Naturalization, Populacy, Comprehenſion, freedom from Arreſts, certainty of Property, and freedom from Arbitrary power, ſmall Cuſtoms; all conveniency and advantages for Trading People; Loans of Intereſt, publick places of Charity for all wanting and diſtreſſed People, and alſo Imployments ready for all perſons that want it: The more ſtrict alſo Laws are againſt grand Vices, the more Seriouſneſs, Learning, and Trade will flouriſh.

It would be for the advantage of Trade, that what­ever Apprentice had ſerved his time in one Corpora­tion, ſhould be free of any.

CHAP. II. Directions for the well managing a Trade.

THE firſt is, Depute not another to do that buſi­neſs which thou thy ſelf canſt effect; for he that hath a Mouth of his own, muſt not ſay to another blow: nor is it probable that another ſhould concern himſelf in thy affairs as thy ſelf, who feeling where the Shoe wrings thee, art not only more active by the preſent ſmart, but more ſenſible to which part to apply a Remedy. And if thoſe whom thou em­ployeſt be negligent, thy buſineſs is undone; if dili­gent, thy buſineſs in a ſhort time becomes theirs; and like the Mayors of the Palace in France, and the Sultans in Egypt, they ſet up for themſelves, and thruſt out their Maſters, while they mind their eaſe4 and give up their Affairs to be managed by others And to give you a clear ſight how much this matter doth concern you: I'ill tell you a true Story, and leave you to think on't. There was a Gentleman in Surrey that had Land worth two hundred Pounds per annum; which he kept in his own hands? but running out every year, he was neceſſitated to ſell half of it to pay his Debts, and Lett the reſt to a Far­mer for One and Twenty Years. Before that Term was expired, the Farmer one Day bringing his Rent, ask'd him if he would ſell his Land? Why, ſaith he, would you buy it? if it pleaſe you, ſaith the Farmer. How? ſaith he, that's ſtrange! Tell me how this comes to paſs, That I could not live upon twice as much, though 'twere my own; and your upon the one half thereof, though you have paid Rent for't, are able to buy it? O Sir, ſaith the Farmer, but two words made the difference; you ſaid Go, and I ſay Come. What's the meaning of that? ſaith the Gentleman. Replies the Farmer; You lay in Bed, or took your pleaſure, and ſent others about your Buſi­neſs: And I roſe betimes and ſaw my Buſineſs done my ſelf.

And therefore to this we may well add the conſi­deration of that old Engliſh Proverb;

He that will Thrive,
Muſt riſe by Five.

And that other to the ſame purpoſe:

He that lies long in Bed, his Eſtate feels it.

For doubtleſs, thoſe young Men who muſt build up their own Fortunes, had need be early at it. It5 being not only true, Aurora Muſis Amica, but as true that for all Buſineſs, and in all Countries the Sun riſeth in the Morning, Occaſion then combining her Head, and putting the Lock of ſucceſsful Opportu­nity into your hand. And therefore Solomon is ſo poſitive, that the Sluggard ſhall be clothed with Rags. And a more unthrifty Generation the World ſurely ſcarce ever knew, than thoſe our Days afford, who ſit up to play till Midnight, and lye in Bed till Noon the next Day; who give ſo large an evidence what conſequences follow thence; being as bare of Money for the moſt part, as the Lybian Deſarts of Water­ſprings, or he that is broke of Friends.

In the next place, be not adviſed to engage in too many Buſineſſes, leſt ſome Irons burn; nor in too great Affairs, leſt thy loſs prove irreparable: Re­membring that in a great River Fiſh is to be found; but then take heed you be not drown'd: For great Undertakers are like Forelorn Hopes; Aut Caeſar, aut Nullus: and in deſperate Caſts, 'tis very great odds if they trhow not Ams Ace. And on the other hand, many Buſineſſes are like the King of Spains Do­minions, that lye ſo far aſunder, the charge of kee­ping them eats out the profit. So that there are very few who thus engage themſelves, but have by experi­ence found, That Man diſquieteth himſelf in vain. I once my ſelf, to my no ſmall loſs, had concerns with a perſon involv'd in much buſineſs, of whom it may ſeem that Speech was not meant, In the ſweat of thy brows thou ſhalt eat bread; for he ſweat till he was ready to ſtarve, working himſelf by a World of Buſi­neſs out of many Thouſands, till at laſt he was ne­ceſſitated to take harbour in a Priſon.

But certainly, as 'tis an happineſs to have our buſi­neſs within our reach, ſo is it no leſs to be our ſelves6 without the reach of buſineſs, I mean to be ſo much in our own power, as not to be perplext with our concerns, but do our duty in that way wherein God's provi­dence hath placed us with all our might, and leave the whole ſucceſs to him that doth diſpoſe all things as he will, and frequently effects things happy for us, by thoſe very means which did moleſt and grieve us. Thus is the priſon made a ſtep to raiſe up Joſeph to be Lord of Egypt; and ſo Rome's burning by the Gauls, was but the demoliſhing of Shepherds Cottages, that they might be chang'd into much more ſtately and mag­nificent Structures. So that in truth, we know not what we ſhould be pleaſed at moſt, or troubled, what to refuſe or what deſire: When our Wiſhes many times do prove our Ruine; and as the Satyriſt ob­ſerved.

Evertere domos totas optantibus ipſis, Dii faciles.

For our Proſperity not ſeldom doth undo us; and 'tis the peculiar praiſe of Veſpatian, that he only, of all the Princes that went before him, was the better for reigning. And I think we can hardly parallel him with any that came after him, unleſs it be our Henry the Fifth. 'Tis therefore excellent, and much more conducing to our Peace, to entertain Occurrents with indifference, as in uncertainty to give our judg­ment of them, whether they're good or hurtful to us: (And like the Hollanders, who though the greateſt Traders in the World, and moſt induſtrious, yet Starda ſaith of them, and he an Enemy, That what­ſoever Gain or Loſs befalls them, they paſs it by with ſuch a little ſence of joy or grief; Vt alienis in­tereſſe non ſua curare credas, You'ld think they were7 but only Lookers on of others buſineſs, and not con­cerned in it as their own.

Let me offer this alſo to your practice, that you be cunning and honeſt; which agrees with our Sa­viours Directions, Be ye wiſe as Serpents, and innocent as Doves; for that cunning which hath no reſpect to Right, is like dealing iFire-works, or working in a Mine, whereby the Enemy is not always endama­ged, but the Wiſe are often taken in their own Craf­tineſs. If Men be diſpoſed like that Roxelana, to be wittily wicked, the Devil that old Serpent and Deceiver, will furniſh them with Arts; but he com­monly deals with them as he doth with Witches, with whom he always plays a ſlippery trick, in the Concluſion; and they whoſe whole Life was but a Cheat, are cheated themſelves moſt miſerable at the laſt. For in the obſervation which I have made, I never knew any of theſe Craft-maſters that in the winding up of their Affairs came out as they went in; but like the ſubtil Chymiſts, with their Policies and Tricks, when they look for Gold, are blown up in Duſt, or like the Politick Count S. Paul, in the time of Lewis the Eleventh, who ſpun ſo fine a Thread of ſubtil Con­trivances between: that King and Charles the Warlike Duke of Burgundy, that while he was truſted nei­ther by the one nor the other; the end of his Cun­ning was his own Confuſion. When on the other hand, Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright; for the end of that man is Peace. GOD giving his Bleſſing to the Honeſtly-wiſe, and proſpering thoſe Deſigns; which like the quiet Herd, lye in the Pail of Integrity, when that Rambling Deer, whom no Fence of Equity holds, is in continual fear, and proves a lean poor Raſcal.

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CHAP. III. Directions to young Shopkeepers, and others Tradeſmen, about their ſetting up in the World when they come out of their Apprentiſhips.

MY Firſt Advice to you, as to this is, That you look upon this Buſineſs, as that which de­ſerves much Avice. There being; not a few, who by their haſte and precipitation in this affair, have ruined their fortunes: and while they have been weary of being Servants, have made themſelves in a ſhort time perpetual Slaves to indulgence and want. For if having once ſet up, you then miſ­carry, it proves like blaſting of a young Sprout, which if if not thereby utterly killed, yet becomes ſo checkt and dejected, that it never attains a freſh and flouriſhing condition after. It concerns you therefore to look before you leap, and not to be in­duced by the Name of a Maſter, and a Shop, to ſkip into that in haſte, from whence you will be ſhortlyurned out with ſhame.

It hath been obſerved, that they ſeldom prove well; who ſet up young; that Age being for the moſt part precipitate, and forwarder to do, than to conſider, and alſo apt to pre-occupy the ſucceſs of things, by a too promiſing hope: and like young Setters, to ſet an Haunt inſtead of a Covie; where­by they are many times groſly abuſed, and err at ſuch a rate, as admits of (only if any; yet) a dif­ficult recovery. Whereas thoſe that like bobbed9 Partridges have been ruft in the Net of deception; by what they have obſerved at others charge, are much more wary and cautious, of being again tra­panned. Beſides, Age doth give a natural alloy, like a Bartholomew-dew, cooling the immoderate heat and raſhneſs of younger years.

It is therefore taken notice of, that young Men do then proſper beſt, when they have either ſerved as Journey men unto ſome wary Stagers; or have the happineſs to be taken in as Partners unto ſuch, whereby, as Bears by their grown Cubs, they are taught to catch the Prey with the greateſt cleverneſs and certainty, and with the leaſt hazard.

'Tis not amiſs here alſo to admoniſh you, that great Rents have very often broke the back of young beginners; who before they could get acquaintance, and gain cuſtom to defray the charge of ſo great ex­pence, are drain'd dry, to the very vital Blood, and experienc'd, like a Candle for want of Fat, to feed the the Fire on't: Conſider therefore, that Omne prin­cipium eſt debile; and the ſtrongeſt Man was at firſt but Punctum tacens, ſuch a ſmall matter as could hard­ly be diſcerned; and 'tis wiſdom to diſpoſe all thy projects in a proportion to that infirmity: For he that arms himſelf beyond his own dimenſions, is in­cumbred with his own Furniture, and commonly falls the more ridiculous ſubject of others ſcorn and triumph. Be therefore adviſed to begin warily, having as the firſt, ſo the laſt game to play; and as one jeſted, it being all one, and one all; it concerns you ſo to diſpoſe it, as may admit of the leaſt hazard.

Nor is it leſs good counſel to begin low, according to the advice of the Country-man, to eat your brown Bread firſt: If there were no other reaſon, at leaſt, becauſe 'tis ſhameful to come lower. And experi­ence10 tells us, that the Bullock which hath been fed with Hay, will almoſt ſtarve before it will be kept withſtraw: for though there be nothing more eaſie than to come down, ſo there's nothing more difficult than to bring our minds to it.

But further, as thoſe ſtructures which are raiſed higheſt, have always their foundations laid loweſt; ſo you can hardly inſtance in any great eſtate, whoſe beginning was not with ſuch a providence, as conſulted for mean things. And this doubtleſs may be rendred as the principal cauſe, ſo that very few of thoſe prove ſucceſsful, who have been furniſh'd cut into the World plentifully by their friends: for building thereupon with too much confidence, they ſet out at ſuch a rate, as before they have run far, breaks their Wind; whereas they who come forth un­der-hatcht, conſcious of their own infirmity, ride with a ſtrait hand, and if they were wiſe; put not into a gallop, till their Wind be well rack'd: and by that means prove of good Spur-mettle to the laſt.

And therefore do not ſettle thy ſelf in a great Houſe, for it is much better the Houſe would be too little for a day, than too big for a year; there being not on­ly the inconvenience of much Repair (for a great body muſt be plentifully maintained) but there is a kind of inclination which it begets of coſtlineſs and expence, when the mind runs upon the knack of U­niformity, and the Spaniſh Faſhion is thought ugly, with the huge Doublet and ſcanty Breeches. Beſides, a great Houſe muſt have great Furniture; and the Coſtlineſs of Houſholdſtuff is as great a Vanity as can lightly come under your Conſideration; for Money laid out in this reſpect, is not only buried without profit, but is diminiſh'd daly; for Houſholdſtuff is dear to buy, and cheap to ſell, and herein, if in11 any thing, you may quickly bring a Noble to Nine­pence. And there is another inconvenience in't; for this expence doth uſually befall the young Begin­ners, when the Wives portion is newly received, and the Bride that ſo lately was, muſt be humour'd in Houſholdſtuff correſponding to the Wedding-Clothes; though then Money in the Purſe be as ne­ceſſary as Blood in the Veins: and to be laviſh of that in the furniſhing of an Houſe, where it lies dead and turns to no profit, is like the humour of Tavern­keepers, who hang out a brave Sign on the out-ſide that coſt many pounds, and have Wine within would poyſon an Horſe; whereas were that Money laid out on choice Liquor, the good Wine would need no Buſh.

CHAP. IV. The Rules to be obſerved by all Tradeſmen, in the fair and honeſt Buying and Selling of Commodities.

EVery man knoweth, that in the buying and ſelling of Commodities, there is an eſtimation and price demanded and agreed upon between both Parties ac­cording to a certain equality in the value of things, permuted by a true reaſon grounded upon the com­modious uſe of things: So that Equality is nothing elſe but a mutual voluntary eſtimation of things made in good order and truth, wherein Inequality is not ad­mitted or known. And the ſeller is to ſell his Wares according to the common eſtimation and courſe, at12 ſuch time as he ſhall think convenient, unleſs it be for Victuals or Munition, wherein neceſſity compelleth him to ſell for the general good, by the interpoſition of the Magiſtrates, by whoſe authority he can obſerve no time, but muſt ſell, taking a reaſonable gain for the ſame: for the eſtimation is alſo the greater upon ſuch occasions and accidents, when the ſelling of a thing is not according to the goodlineſs of the nature of the thing, but rather according to the uſefulneſs of it to Mankind: and therein the condition of the thing is to be conſidered, which may decay and be ſubject to corruption in quantity, quality, and ſubſtance, or which is not ſubject thereunto.

True it is, That there can be no rule preſcribed or taught how to buy and ſell, which is lawful and un­lawful, or juſt and unjuſt, by any wiſe man whatſo­ever; becauſe the Children of this Age are wiſer than the Children of Light in their Generation and Calling. Which is the cauſe that ſome Divines having written hereof, do proceed with great moderation, obſer­ving that the transferring of things from one owner to another, is effected five manner of ways by private perſons.

1. Firſt by Donation, which is altogether of free gift, according to the ſaying recorded, Luke 16. Mutuum date, nihil inde ſperantes.

2. By Permutation, Do ut des, I give becauſe you ſhould give; as the Proverb is,

Si mihi des, tibi do, ſi nil des, nil tibi reddo;
Hoc verbum do, das, nutrit amicitias,

3. By Emption, or buying of things.

4. By Vendition, or ſelling of things.

5. By actual mutation, or mutual giving or lending of monies.

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And in buying and ſelling of things there are required eleven neceſſary conditions: Firſt, a conſent in the ſelling: Secondly a power to ſell, the like in the buyer: Thirdly and Fourthly, conſent and pow­er: Fifthly and Sixthly, ſome conditions on either ſide, agreeing in the transferring of the thing. : Se­venthly, that the ſame be honeſt: Eighthly, alſo law­ful: Ninthly and Tenthly, to be without unreaſona­ble conditions, to buy and ſell the ſame again: Ele­venthly, that it be an abſolute irrevocable bargain. And herein is the Law of Nature to be regarded and obſerved, Quod tibi fieri non vis, alteri ne feceris, or do as you would be done to. Yet if I have occaſion to buy that which another is about to buy, it is lawful and juſt for me to buy the ſame.

But to avoid ſuſpition in ſelling juſtly or unjuſtly, three things are required. Firſt, the Buyer to be ex­pert in the Commodities he buyeth. Secondly, that he be not too needy, or conſtrained to buy. And Thirdly, that perſwaſive reaſons be omitted, which cauſe the party to buy dearer.

The Civilians (affirming that probality to prove the eſtimation of a thing is ſufficient, whether it be more or leſs worth) do admit that a man may ſell dearer unto an expert man, that unto a ſimple man; and to ſell dearer than the thing is worth by common eſtimation, is adjudged by them to be always unjuſt: as alſo to uſe reaſons and inducements to ſell Wares the dearer; neither is the ſeller to demand or expect any thing above the price agreed upon, and in treat­ing hereof they make large diſcourſes, which I do o­mit to handle, for the reaſons aforeſaid.

Buying and ſelling ſay they, is done two manner of ways. Firſt, that the thing be ſo bought, that all power of pretence be avoided, which is giving a thing14 at a certain price for a thing: Secondly, that the thing ſold be as a gift for that price, which in ſubſtance may be ſaid to be a plain abſolute and lawful bar­gain, ſold as we ſay, in open Market or Shop, in­ſomuch that there be not a Curtain to hide the Com­modity ſo bought and ſold: Howbeit in all Fairs and Markets in the parts beyond the Seas, a TradeſmanShop and a Merchants Warehouſe is taken to be pub­lick and open at the appointed times.

They have alſo determined, that a ſeller may not demand a greater price for the forbearance of his payment of ſatisfaction of the thing, but he may well diminiſh the price, if the buyer do ſatifie him the ſooner, and before the time of payment, by way of an­ticipation, which nevertheleſs reſteth in his own pow­er to accept thereof, or to expect the time. But this is commonly done, not by abating of the price of the Com­modity, becauſe Money hath made a certainty of the total ſum of the ſaid Commodity, but by allowance or deduction of the Intereſt of the ſaid Money, for the time to come and unexpired, according as they make their agreement of the price of Intereſt.

To conclude, the premiſes touching, buying and ſelling, we find, that no man in ſelling any Wares is bound to declare, whether any quantity of the like Wares are to be had or expected, when he ſelleth.

CHAP. V. The Compleat Houſe-keeper, or Directions to all Trades­men, for the well and cheap ordering their Domeſtick Affairs; that they may the better thrive in their Callings.

AND the firſt ſhall be to avoid thoſe hangers on, that are the Flies which attend the Fleſh of others Tables, and requite you with their Maggots;15 ſuch as your Chare-women, and men at a call, who make it their work to rob you under a finer notion than that of plain ſtealing; or at beſt, like thoſe Beg­gars who give you an half-farthing Wand, that they may receive your two pence. Such as theſe ſhall your Servants have to ſerve their turn with a wet fing­er; and pay them largely, not with their own Mo­ther; but your Meat: which if you connive at, they praiſe you highly, and you are their very good Ma­ſter: and when they have undone you, ſhall do you this kidneſs, to ſay 'tis pity, For you were no Bodies Foe but your own.

Yet think not much to be free in the relief of thoſe you know to be poor, and labour with induſtry to get their own Livings: For Alms to the idle, is like Greaſe to a Cart-Wheel, which makes it go round the eaſier, but ſtill upon the ſame Axle; whereas ſupply to thoſe who are wanting, yet laborious, or impo­tently neceſſitous, is a debt due to their want; yet of that nature, that while we pay what is their due, God accepts it as a Loan, and hath put himſelf under an Obligation to make Repayment. And truly I have obſerved, that while I have known many undo themſelves with riotous Houſe-keeping, entertaining needleſs Gueſts and Idle Bellies; I could never yet meet with any, who could ſay, he was the poorer, nay not the richer, for ſuch Acts of Charity as were done to the Needy: But that ſuch diſtributions, like the Loaves of our Saviour among the four thouſand, leave behind them more baſkets of Fragments, for the Heirs to give away, than the principal was in quantity, which the Father ſo expended.

Yet let me tell you, 'tis no wiſdom to make your Servants your Almoners; and allow them the liberty of diſpoſing your Charity; for one hand to give is e­nough16 in a Purſe. And that Charity is the beſt which hath the Spirit of diſcerning; and like that Boy gives Hony to the Bees, but hath a Whip to drive away the Drones.

Be here adviſed too, not to be given to the hu­mour of coſtly entertainments. For I have often ſeen that men of that fancy have inverted the Kallen­der, and have found their Faſts after their Feſtivals; who, when they have ſpent all, have been as wel­come to their Gueſts, as a former Wives old Clothes to a new married Bride. Beſides, the Obligation which you lay by your Coſt on thoſe which are en­tertained, is for the moſt part as far below it, as the Church of St. Faith's is beneath Paul's Steeple. For the moſt at ſuch encounters are more concern'd to cenſure your expence, then acknowledge your kindneſs and generally jeer at ſome things you might fail in, rather than fairly accept what you courteouſly intended.

But the entertainment of great Perſons is a greater vanity: For ſuch think they oblige you, in doing you the honour to eat up vour Cheer; which to them which fare ſumptuouſly every day, is ſcarce look't upon as extraordinary; ſo that inſtead of accepting your civility, they reſent it as an affront that it was no richer; and what ſhall be indeed profuſion in you, will be lookt upon but as the Wrens piſſing in the Sea to them.

But what I have here ſaid of entertainment, I in­tend not of ſuch as are accidentally Gueſts, Perſons that come to viſit in kindneſs: For unto ſuch as theſe entertainment is due, and ought to be free, and pro­portioned to the quality of the Perſons concerned, with that heartineſs and plenty, as may abundantly ſpeak for you, that they are welcome: And in very17 deed, ſuch intercourſes as theſe, are neceſſary to pre­ſerve a mutual Friendſhip, and keep alive the remem­brance, or that Kindred and Relation, which other­wiſe, like unremoved Legs, would grow into the Earth which at firſt begat them.

But what Houſe ſoever you keep when Friends are with you, let your ordinary and private fare be never coſtly; but ſuch, as though the beſt in its kind, yet plain and wholſome; to fortifie Nature, and nouriſh, not to tickle the Palate: For the Bit that one eats makes no Friend: For to pleaſe the dainty Tooth, is an ex­penſive humour, and doubles that charge which Houſe-keeping bringeth; while the ſauce is more than the Meat; and 'tis as dear to Cook a Diſh, as to pro­vide it. And verily the vanity of ſome deſerves our wonder, who are of that Heliogabalian Stomach, to which nothing doth reliſh which is not dear, and fan­cy Fiſh moſt when fartheſt from ſhore; then onely loving Peaſe, when they are ſcarce to be had; and Cherries when they are ty'd on Sticks.

In buying proviſions be your own Caterer, where­in at leaſt you may have this convenience, that you may pleaſe your ſelf. Beſide, however faithful your Servant may be, ſo that he lets down no gnats with­out a ſtrain, you cannot expect that he ſhould part with your Coyn, with that care and difficulty as you would your ſelf, whoſe dayly feeling how mech pro­viſion doth pinch, makes wary, and hard to be drawn to expence.

But be chiefly advis'd not to run on the Score; for you may be aſſured, that with great advantage you may take up Money at Uſe to pay ready down: For there's none of them all, but reckons how they forbear, and will be ſure to be allow'd, not only becauſe they muſt ſtay for their Money, but truſt; there being no­thing18 ſo certain in the World, as that which is pre­ſent. You will alſo find that a true Proverb, That the beſt, is beſt cheap: For beſides that in fleſh, there is much the leſs quantity of Bones for the weight, where they are covered almoſt twice of the thick­neſs: in all other things you'll find much the leſs waſte, becauſe that which is the good goes down without Scraps, while parings and refuſe go a great way in what is not: Servants making no ſcruple to caſt that to the Dogs, which they are ſoon apt to think is not good enough for themſelves.

Be you alſo aſſur'd, that the beſt of Servants muſt be over-lookt: for it is rare to find thoſe, who will not make waſte: And as it is fit they ſhould have to the full, their Meat being a great part of the wages of their work; So are there few, but do labour un­der fulneſs of Bread; and none that conſider of what they would be glad, when they come to keep a poor houſe of their own.

In your buying Proviſions, you'll find it the beſt to go to their Fountains; for the farther from thence, ſo much the dearer. There being no ſecond hand, but ſo licks his own fingers, as what while he hath his gains, the Commodity is inhanc'd; and that which is his livelihood, muſt be what you give more than he paid.

'Tis alſo beſt to buy by the great: All Chapmen complying much ſooner for much than for a little; their gains by ſo much the more conſiderable, and their put off the greater. But then muſt your Ex­penditor be wary, and ſo give out the ſtore which you have provided, as remembring the place to ſpare, is never at the bottom; beſides, the much more ea­ſineſs to lurch the greater quantities, where a little taken is not diſcern'd: for which cauſe, it is not ſafe19 to truſt a Servant at an whole heap; there being very few of that Integrity, as then to keep their hands from picking, when none can witneſs that they did prevari­cate; or if they be ſuch, it is not ſafe to tempt with opportunity.

CHAP. VI. Of the Trude of LONDON.

TO go about to demonſtrate the great neceſſity and benefit of Trade in General, in a Common­wealth or City, were but (In re non dubia, uti ora­tione non neceſſaria) in a matter which is undoubted to uſe a needleſs Harangue; it being certain, that Wealth and Riches (which are acquired by Traf­fick and Induſtry) are Subſidia Belli, & Ornamenta Pacis, the Supports of War, and Ornaments of Peace; by which the wants of one place are ſupply­ed by the plenty of another, and the indigence of the Poor, relieved by employments from the Rich; there being ſuch a general dependance of one Cal­ling upon another, from the higheſt to the loweſt, that they cannot well ſubſiſt without the mutual aid of each other; in which is manifeſt the infinite Wiſ­dom of the Sovereign Diſpoſer of all things, who has order'd Humane Affairs to ſo due and regular a ſubordination to each other, and ſo neceſſary a Con­catenation among themſelves, that by a perfect Sym­metry, or Simphony of Parts, they conclude in a perfect Harmony, of general good to Mankind; which Superlative Bleſſing ſhould be improved to mutual Advantage, and the Glory of the Supream Author of it.

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CHAP. VII. Of the Corporations of London.

THE other Traders in London are divided into Companies or Corporations; who are as ſo ma­ny Bodies Politick. Of theſe there are Twelve cal­led the chief Companies, and he that is choſen Lord Mayor, muſt be free of one of theſe Companies, which are,

  • 1. Mercers,
  • 2. Grocers,
  • 3. Drapers,
  • 4. Fiſhmon­gers,
  • 5. Goldſmiths,
  • 6. Skinners,
  • 7. Merchant-Tay­lors,
  • 8. Haberdaſhers,
  • 9. Salters,
  • 10. Ironmongers,
  • 11. Vintners,
  • 12. Clothworkers.

And if it happen that the Lord Mayor Elect, is of any other Company, he preſently removes to one of the Twelve. All theſe Companies have Aſſembly-places, called Halls, which are ſo many Baſilikes, or ſtately and ſumptuous Palaces, worthy to be view'd by all Strangers. It hath been the Cuſtom of our Kings, to Honour ſome of theſe Com­panies by taking their Freedom thereof; and the preſent King was pleaſed to be made Free of the Company of Grocers, and the preſent Prince of Orange was not long ago made Free of the Company of Drapers.

Each Company or Myſtery hath a Maſter annu­ally choſen from among themſelves, and other ſub­ordinate Governers, called Wardens or Aſſistants, Theſe do exactly correſpond with the general Go­vernment of the City, by a Lord Mayor, Aldermen and Common-Council, who are ſelected out of theſe ſeveral Companies: ſo excellent a harmony there is in this Government.

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Theſe Corporations, or Bodies-Politick, have all their ſtately ſpacious Halls (as was ſaid) with Clerks and other Miniſterial Officers, to attend them when they meet to conſult about the Regulation of their reſpective Societies, and for promoting publick Good, and advancement of Trade and Wealth; as alſo when they meet at their ſumptu­ous and ſplendid Feaſts. And in this London ſur­paſſeth all other Cities.

CHAP. VIII. The Oath of a Freeman of London.

YE ſhall Swear, That ye ſhall be good and true to our Sovereign Lord King Charles the Second, and to the Heirs of our ſaid So­vereign Lord the King. Obeyſant and Obedi­ent ye ſhall be to the Mayor and Miniſters of this City, the Franchiſes and Cuſtoms thereof, ye ſhall maintain, and this City keep harmleſs in that which in you is. Ye ſhall be contri­butary to all manner of Charges within this City, as Summons, Watches, Contributions, Tax­es, Tallages, Lot and Scot, and to all Charges, bearing your part as a Freeman ought to do. Ye ſhall colour no Foreigners Goods, under, or in your Name, whereby the King, or this Ci­ty might or may loſe their Cuſtoms or Advan­tages. Ye ſhall know no Foreigner to buy or ſell any Merchandize with any Foreigner with­in this City or Franchiſe thereof, but ye ſhall warn the Chamberlain thereof, or ſome Miniſter22 of the Chamber. Ye ſhall implead or ſue no Freeman out of this City, whilſt ye may have Right and Law within the ſame City. Ye ſhall take none Apprentice, but if he be Free-born, (that is to ſay) no Bondmans Son, nor the Son of any Alien, and for no leſs term than for ſe­ven years, without fraud or deceit: and with­in the firſt Year ye ſhall cauſe him to be In­rolled, or elſe pay ſuch Fine as ſhall be rea­ſonably impoſed upon you for omitting the ſame, and after his terms end, within conveni­ent time (being required) ye ſhall make him Free of this City, if he have well and truly ſer­ved you. Ye ſhall alſo keep the Kings Peace in your own Perſon. Ye ſhall know no Ga­therings, Conventicles, or Conſpiracies made a­gainſt the Kings Peace, but ye ſhall warn the the Mayor thereof, or lett it to your Power. All theſe Points and Articles ye ſhall well and truly keep, according to the Laws and Cu­ſtoms of this City to your power: So God you help, &c.

CHAP. IX. The Particular Advantages of London, with Reſpect to Trade.

SOme of the Advantages of this great City, is by the goodly River of Thames, which, opening Eaſtward towards Germany and France, is much more advantageous for Traffick, than any other River in England; and it may be ſaid without vanity, that23 no River in the World can ſhew a braver ſight of Ships than are commonly to be ſeen (like a floating Forreſt) from Black-Wall to London-Bridge; which in continual Voyages import all ſorts of Goods, ei­ther for need or ornament, and Export our Super­fluities, to the extraordinary Advantage of all ſorts of People, high or low.

Another Advantage that London hath, is, its being ſituate ſo far within the Land, that iis plentifully ſupplied with all neceſſary proviſion from the Country, at eaſie and indifferent Rates, and the Manufactures of the reſpective Counties, which the City diſperſes to Markets beyond Seas; in recom­pence, the Country is ſupplied by the City, with all ſorts of neceſſary Merchandizes, wanting there, &c. Inſomuch, that London is a large Magazine of Men, Mo­ney, Ships, Horſes, Ammunition, of all ſorts of Commo­dities neceſſary or expedient for the uſe or pleaſure of Mankind. It is the mighty Rendezvouz of Nobility, Gentry, Courtiers, Divines, Lawyers, Phyſitians, Merchants, Seamen, and all kind of excellent Arti­ficers of the moſt refined Wits, and moſt excel­lent Beauties. For it is obſerved, that in moſt Fa­milies of England if there be any Son or Daughter that excels the reſt in Beauty or Wit, or perhaps Cou­rage or Induſtry, or any other rare Quality, London is their Pole-Star, and they are never at reſt till they point directly thither; which vaſt confluence (be­ſides being the Kings Chief and Imperial Seat, where Parliaments and the Principal Courts of Juſtice are held, where the in as or Colleges of the Municipal Laws are Stated, wth the great Houſes of the No­bility and Miniſters of State) muſt needs bring a vaſt Advantage and Increaſe to Trade, beſides the moſt Exquiſite Ornament and Gallantry that any place in the World can ſhew.

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CHAP. X. Of the Foreign Trade of London.

AS to the Trade of London into Foreign Parts, we have almoſt prevented our ſelf by what is delivered before; we ſhall therefore only add, that England abounding with many rich and uſeful Native Commodities, as Woolen-Cloths of all ſorts, Broad and Narrow, called by ſeveral Names in ſeveral Shires; alſo, Perpetuanoes, Bays, Says, Serges, Cottons, Ker­ſies, Buffins, Mocadoes, Grograms, Sattins, Tabbies, Callimancaes, Camlets, Velvets, Piuſhes, Worſteds, Fuſtians, Durances, Tukes, Crapes, Flannels, and infinite others Furs and Skins, as Conney-skins, Squirrel-skins, Fitches, Calve-skins, Hides, &c.

Mines, as Tin, Lead, Allom, Copper, Iron of all ſorts; Sea-Cole, Salt, &c.

All manner of Grain, as Oats, Peaſe, Barley, Rye, and Wheat in great plenty, &c. Alſo Linnen-Cloth, Flax, Hemp, &c. All Iron Wares, Tallow, Leather, Glaſſeof all ſorts, and Glaſs, Venice-Gold and Sil­ver, Train-Oyl, Salmons, Pilchards, Herrings, Hake, Conger, Haberdine, Cod, Ling, Hops, Wood, Butter, Cheeſe, Beer, Syder, Saltpetre, Gun-powder, Honey, Wax, Alabaſter, and other Stones, Wools, Woolfels, Yarn, Fullers-Earth, Saffron, Liquoras, &c. And ma­ny other good and rich Commodities, too tedious to be enumerated: The Merchants of London do year­ly Export great quantities of ſuch of theſe Goods, as are not prohibited, to Foreign Markets, and make good Returns, and bring to ſupply the Kingdom, a great deal of Treaſure and rich Commodities from all25 parts of the World, to the enriching of themſelves unſpeakable benefit of the Nation, and Credit of the Engliſh in genetal, who are generally as fair Dealers as any in the World, and of as active and underta­king Souls; and the principal Seat or Emporium of this great Trade, is the great and famous City of Lon­don.

CHAP. XI. Of the Trade of London into the Countrey.

OF this we need ſay but little, it being ſo univer­ſally known to the whole Land; the Londoners uſing to ſupply all the Trading places of the Kingdom; eſpecially on great Fairs, to which they reſort in great numbers, and afford their Goods at the beſt hand, to their own and their Countreys great bene­fit: and in requital, the adjacent Counties ſupply the City with all manner of Neceſſaries for Food, Hay, Fuel, &c. inſomuch that Strangers have admi­red at the prodigious plenty of all ſorts that are to be ſeen in the great and well-furniſhed Markets of Lea­den-Hall, Stocks, Milk-ſtreet, New-Gate, Clare, South-Hampton, St. Albans, Weſtminſter, Hungerford, and Brooks, with ſeveral others: ſo that here is a perpetual Mart, where any ſort of Goods may be purchaſed at a convenient and reaſonable Rate. Nor is there any place in the Kingdom where poor people (or ſuch as would be very frugal) may live chea­per, or the ſplendid Liver gallanter, &c.

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CHAP. XII. Of all Trades being in Companies.

IF all thoſe of a Trade were of one and the ſame Company, and had power to make ſome By­laws for the good of their Trade, it would extream­ly conduce, not only to the promotion of the ſame, but to the keeping of it in a right and good order, preſerving (at leaſt) a temperamentum ad juſtii­am, if not ad pondus, in our Trades and Negotiations.

And doubtleſs ab Origine it was ſo in London, as appears by the ſeveral denominations of their ſeveral Companies; the defect whereof, I judge, is the rea­ſon that the Trade of that City is declining, and grown ſo conſumptive, and (unleſs ſuitable and timely means be uſed in order to its recovery) will certainly and ſuddenly expire: For if none were of a Company, but thoſe only that were of the ſame Trade, they would be frequently whetting one ano­ther to do ſomething that might be for the advance­ment thereof; and every one would refrain the doing of any thing that might give a wound to the ſame, for fear of being reprehended by the Company.

But now if any perſon's Trade do differ from the Trade of his Company of which he is free, he doth then mind but little the Trade of that Company, be­cauſe he hath a ſmall benefit by it; but if his Trade be the ſame with the Company of which he is free, then he is very often mindful of what may be ne­ceſſary to promote the ſame, becauſe he doth expect a benefit by it.

Now (I conceive) this might eaſily be reduced to what it was at firſt; for it would be no prejudice to any of the Companies, for every one to have the liberty to come into that Company that his Trade is27 of, and to be in the ſame ſtate and degree therein, as he was in, in that Company that he came out of, without paying any thing more for it; becauſe as they ſhall hereby loſe ſome of their Members out of every Company, ſo will there be received ſome more into them.

Obj. Now there are two Companies in London, viz. the Girdlers and Fletchers, that the Trades thereof are quite loſt and gone, there being none of either of them; and if this device ſhould take place, the Rents belonging to thoſe two Halls will be loſt, be­cauſe there will be no body to look after them.

Sol. That the Linnen-Drapers have no Hall, and is no Company, which now is the moſt flouriſhing Trade of the City, therefore it would be very con­venient to joyn theſe two Halls together, and to make them belong to the Linnen-Drapers Company.

And then, to the end that this Order might con­tinue, it would be neceſſary, that no perſon be ſuf­fered to ſet up the Trade of any particular Company, unleſs he be firſt made free of the ſame.

Obj. But if this be ſo, then the Priviledge of the City will be loſt; which is, that he that is free of any Trade, may ſet up any other whatſoever, that he can beſt live upon.

Sol. My meaning is, that he that hath been Ap­prentice to a working Trade, ſhould not have the priviledge of ſetting up the Shop-keeping Trade: yet I deny not but that it might be convenient enough for any Shop-keeper (that is only of buying and ſelling) to have that priviledge to leave his own Trade, and to take up another Shop-keeping Trade, that he may live better upon; but then it would be neceſſary that he ſhould be enjoyned to leave his own Trade altogether, and to quit his Freedom of28 his Company, and that within a certain time that may be thought convenient; and that he be alſo fur­ther enjoyned to take his Freedom of that Compa­ny as the Trade is of that he intends to ſet up, and that within ſuch a convenient time.

And as this being in Companies is neceſſary for Shop-keepers, and all other Trades; even ſo it is for Merchants too, and all they that do traffick to any particular Countrey; which would exceedingly en­courage all Foreign Trade: for there would be then ſuch an Order in the Trade of every particular Coun­try, that men would gain thereby; whereas now it doth too often happen that they do loſe.

I know there are very wiſe men that are very much againſt Merchants being in Companies, but I cannot find that any Merchandizing Trade is mana­ged ſo well as thoſe that are managed by Companies: and this appeareth by the Dutch, who do trade al­together in Companies; and who is it that hath ſuch ſucceſs in Trade as they have? Likewiſe our Hamborough Trade was never carried on better than when they were in a Company, and it was then bet­ter for Clothiers too than ever it hath been ſince; and I cannot but believe, that if the Fiſhing-trade, that is ſo advantageous to the Dutch, were commit­ted to a Company, it would in a ſhort time turn to a very good acount.

But I ſuppoſe that the reaſon that many are againſt Merchants being in Companies, is, becauſe hereby many men would be barred from adventuring to any Country unleſs they were free of that ſame particu­lar Company. Now to help this, it would be ne­ceſſary that any one ſhould have the liberty to be of any Company of Merchants that he hath a mind un­to, always provided, that every ſuch perſon do en­gage29 to ſubmit to the Laws and Orders of the ſaid Company; and if it be ſo, it can be no prejudice to any man, for he that hath an Eſtate enough, may be free of many Companies, and ſo may adventure into many Countries.

CHAP. XIII. Of Tradeſmen breaking, and paying ſo little in the Pound of their true Debts.

THere are four things that occaſion mens break­ing.

1. Some ſudden Contingencies as the Merchant may meet with; Great and ſudden loſſes at Sea: Or the Shop-keeper may be utterly undone by ſudden Fire, or the like. In theſe caſes there ought to be Mercy ſhewed to ſuch poor men: and it is much to be lamented, there is not a way thought on to raiſe Moneys to ſet them up again.

2. The want of Succeſs. Many a man doth take a great deal of Care and Pains in his Trade, and yet all will not do, ſtill he goes backward in the World; yet this is not common and uſual, for God hath pro­miſed to bleſs the Hands of the diligent; yet ſome­times it may ſo fall out. However, this man ought to be honeſt, and to make a Diſcovery of his Condi­tion in time, leſt that he ſhould ſpend upon other mens Money: and he that is a careful, honeſt, and induſtrious man, muſt needs know when he is ſink­ing in his Eſtate.

3 Ill Huſbandry is another thing that doth occaſion30 men to break: Some will ſpend their time in Drink­ing and Gaming, neglecting their buſineſs until they are undone. And ſuch Perſons as theſe are, ought to be dealt ſeverely with: For why ſhould they ſpend the Money of other induſtrious men by their luxurious living.

4. A deſign of Gain is another thing which doth occaſion ſome men to break. They find ſome have got Eſtates by breaking, and therefore they will do ſo too. Now we may conclude, that this man doth not deſerve leſs puniſhment than he that taketh a Purſe upon the High-way: for by the reaſon of this Man's pretended honeſty, he is truſted, but ſo is not he that robbeth upon the Boad.

I judge therefore it would be of very great uſe and benefit to the Trade of this Kingdom, if there were a Law made to inflict ſome bodily puniſhment upon every one that ſhould break for above One hundred pounds, and ſhould not pay Fifteen ſhillings in the Pound of his true and juſt Debts: and thus no man could be ſo ſuddenly undone by bad Debts; for then men would not loſe ſo much by Three hundred pounds, as now they commonly do by Two, nay by One.

Object. But many a man hath been brought low in the World, and yet hath got up again.

Anſw. Grant that there have been ſome that have got up again, who have not been able to pay full Fif­teen ſhillings in the pound. I ſay, admit there have been ſuch black Swans, yet this is Rara avis in terris And theſe are few in compariſon of the many Hun­dreds, who have not riſen again after ſuch a Fall. Therefore there ought to be a ſevere Penalty infli­cted on theſe, to compel them to diſcover their con­dition before it cometh to be at this rate with them. 31Beſides, this is the more probable way of their Re­covery. For hereby they will be out of Debt, and their Creditors, by reaſon they ſhall loſe ſo little by them, will certainly be the more kind unto them.

5. I might alſo add one thing more, that is the reaſon of the breaking of many men, who are of Re­tailing Trades, or at leaſt of not paying their Credi­tors ſo timely as otherwiſe they might, who might have been Ranked among thoſe mentioned in the firſt Particular, to whom there ought to be ſhewed much Mercy and Compaſſion. Such are thoſe Retai­lers that are encouraged to truſt perſons becauſe of their great Eſtates and Revenues, who do neither take any Care, nor make any Conſcience of paying their juſt and true Debts; who will keep the Tradeſ­man from his Money ſometimes two or three years, although they have been importuned by him, both to his Expences and loſs of time. And although ſome will be ſo fair as to give both good Words and Pro­miſes, yet theſe have been but miſerable Evaſions and Put-offs, as is evident, in that they never mind the Performance of them. But then again, there are others that are ſo far from giving good words, that they give altogether menaces and threatnings, which have made many a Tradeſman afraid to aſk for his own, for fear of a Stab.

And others there are, that will pretend the Tradeſ­man hath cheated them in over-prizing his Commo­dities, and therefore he muſt ſtay longer for his Mo­ney, which is another ſhift: Whereas it is the Tradeſ­man indeed that is cheated, in being forced to ſtay ſo long for his Money againſt his will. For it is im­poſſible that he that ſhall ſtay a Twelve-month for his Money, ſhall ever inhance the price of his Com­modity ſo far, as to be ſufficiently recompenſed for32 ſtaying ſo long a time for it. All men I think will grant, that if the Tradeſman hath ready money, two ſhillings in the pound is but reaſonable. Now then, if he doth ſtay a Twelve-month before he is paid, he ſhould have four ſhillings profit in the pound, if two years, then ſix ſhillings in the pound, and ſo on, ac­cording to the time he ſhall ſtay for his Money; be­cauſe it will eaſily appear, that more than ten in the hundred profit might be made in a year, with ready money in a Trade. But now it is next to an impoſſibility for any Tradeſman to gain four ſhillings in the pound, unleſs it be in ſome hidden Commo­dities, ſuch as belong to the Apothecaries; and yet this in reaſon they ought to have, if they ſtay a Twelve-month for their Money. And if they can be no Gainer then, what will they be, if they ſhall ſtay two or three, nay, four years before they are paid. Aſſuredly, no man can poſſibly deny, but in this caſe a Tradeſman muſt needs be a very great Loſer.

Further, it often hapneth, that after all this, the Tradeſman doth loſe his whole Debt, if it be not paid before the perſon is dead, for then the Heir doth claim the Inheritance, and the Widow her Joynture, and there is nothing left to pay the Debts but the Perſonal Eſtate, which is ſeldom more than a Coach and Horſes, and ſome Houſhold Goods, which will not pay ſometimes a tenth part of the Debts. This is quite contrary to what was formerly wont to be. Then the truly Noble Gentlemen of this Kingdom did eſteem it their great honour, to fulfil exactly whatſoever they had promiſed, although it had been never ſo much to their detriment and loſs. They would heretofore have diſdained thoſe Riglings and Shiftings which are uſed in our times: inſomuch, that33 if the Tradeſman had their Promiſe, they might more certainly have depended on it, than now they may on their Bonds. And hence it was, that the Statute of Banquerupt did concern only Tradeſmen, becauſe all others then were punctual to obſerve and to perform their word, and careful to pay all their juſt and true Debts.

There are two things that probably would remedy this, if it would not be thought too great a piece of preſumption.

1. The firſt is this, That for all Debts that are not paid within ſix Months time, or thereabouts, after they are Contracted, the Debtor ſhould afterwards be liable to pay the Intereſt; And likewiſe if any die, whoſe perſonal Eſtate will not reach to pay all their debts, there may be in this caſe, by a Law, Commiſſioners that might be authoriſed to ſell and diſpoſe of ſo much of the Land, that was poſſeſſed by the Debtor deceaſed, that will fully pay all the debts; and certainly this would be of no ill conſequence to the Kingdom: For it would not only be a Conveniency to Tradeſmen, but in all probability might be an inducement to all perſons to take greater care to live within the compaſs of their Eſtates.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Shop-keeping Trades in this Kingdom.

THat which hath been the Bane almoſt of all Trades, is the too great number of Shop-keepers in this Kingdom. For as it is related by Mr. Coke, in a Treatiſe of his concerning Trade, that there are ten thouſand Retailing Shop-keepers more in London, than are in Amſterdam.

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Now the reaſon hereof is, Firſt. Becauſe for many years there have been no other Trades but theſe to receive the Youth of this Nation. Formerly, when the Cloath­ing Trade did flouriſh with us, there were many ſuf­ficient Mens Sons put Apprentices to this Trade. Se­condly, Becauſe the Shop-keeping Trade is an eaſie life, and thence many are induced to run into it, and there hath been no Law to prevent it, or if there be any, it hath been very ſlackly executed, which maketh very ma­ny (like a mighty Torrent) fall into it, which hath been verified for ſeveral years paſt, by many Husband­men, Labourers and Artificers, who have left off their Working Trades, and turned Shop-keepers.

And of Quakers, great numbers of late years are become Shop-keepers; for if a man that hath been very meanly bred, and was never worth much above a Groat in all his life, do but turn Quaker, he is pre­ſently ſet up in one Shop-keeping 'Trade or other, and then many of them will compaſs Sea and Land to get this New Quaking Shop-keeper a Trade: And if he be of a Trade that no other Quaker is of in the Town or Village, then he ſhall take all their Money which they have occaſion to lay out and expend in his way; their cuſtom being to ſell to all the World, but they will buy only of their own Tribe: Inſomuch that it is conceived by ſome wiſe men, that they will in a ſhort time engroſs the whole Trade of the King­dom into their hands.

And then again, there are ſome of the Silk-Wea­vers, but more of the Clothiers, that deal in as many, it not far more Commodities than any Shop-keeper doth, that hath been Apprentice to his Trade; for they ſell not only the Cloath that they make, but Stuffs, Linnen, and many other things; and have ſuch ways to put off their Commodities, which the35 Shop-keeper hath not; for they will truck them off for Shoes with the Shoe-maker, for Candles with the Chandler, and ſometimes with the Butcher for Meat, and will make their Work-folks to take the ſame for their Work; (although there be an expreſs Statute againſt it,) and then theſe Work-folks will fell the ſame again for money, to buy ſuch neceſſaries which they want.

And it is not much better with them of the City of London, for there are many that do live in a Cham­ber, that do take twice as much money as many Shop-keepers do, who pay four times the Rent that they do; ſo that it cannot be imagined what an in­numerable company of Shop-keepers are in every place; and ſuch practices as theſe have utterly im­paired all Shop-keeping Trades in this Kingdom; which are Grievances never ſuffered in former times, being againſt the common good of the People of this Nation; and it's deſired they were ſpeedily redreſſed for theſe following Reaſons.

Firſt, Becauſe the Shop-keeping Trade is both a con­venient and eaſie way for the Gentry, Clergy, and Com­monalty of this Kingdom, to provide for their younger Sons, that ſo the Bulk of their Eſtates may go to the Eldeſt. For there are few younger Sons who are Tradeſ­men, that have much above one years Revenue of their Fathers Eſtate for their Patrimony. Now theſe being kept cloſe to buſineſs, is the time of their youth, ma­ny of them come to be ſober and induſtrious men; and with this ſmall Portion to live a little anſwerable to the Family from whence they deſcended, being ſerviceable in their Generation both to their King and Country, and many times keep up the Name and Grandeur of their Fa­mily, when their Eldeſt Brother by his vitious and in­temperate Life hath loſt it. And oftentimes it proveth36 advantageous to their Daughters too; for it doth fre­quently happen when the Gentry die, that they leave but ſmall Portions to their Daughters, ſcarce ſufficient to pre­fer them to Gentlemen of great Revenues, (parallel'd to their Families) yet nevertheleſs may be thought wor­thy and deſerving of Tradeſmen, who are the younger Sons of Gentlemen, and by their Matching with ſuch as thoſe do come to live a little ſuitably to their Birth and Breeding.

Indeed the Inns-of-Court, and the Univerſities, muſt be acknowledged to be both of them places fit for the preferment of younger Sons; but every one hath not a Genius capable of learning thoſe Noble (yet abſtruſe) Sciences, there taught and profeſs'd, who notwithſtanding are capable enough of a Shop-keeping Trade. Beſides, if every one were fit for either of theſe, yet they would not ſuffice to receive a third part even of this ſort of Youth, and then what ſhould be done with the reſt, ſhould they be brought up to no Employment? but he left to the Extravagancy of their youthful Luſts, to commit ſuch Impieties and Debaucheries which may juſtly entitle tham to the Compellations given by Auguſtus Caeſar to his lewd Children viz. to be called The Botches and Boyls of their Family? As it is obſervable in thoſe Countries where the Gentry diſdain to place forth their Children to Trades, who therefore turn very diſſolute and vicious, and no way ſerviceable (in times of peace) in their Generation, either to their King or Country where they live.

Secondly, Becauſe Shop-keepers by reaſon of their E­ducation, were never uſed to labour, and ſhould their Trades be deſtroyed by theſe means, they will not know how to maintain themſelves and their Families; but they that have been bred to work, they may labour37 in any other Employment, if that to which they have been bred will not maintain them.

Thirdly, Becauſe this hath rendred the Shop-keeping Trade to be unprofitable, like unto many unſtinted Com­mons, that no body is the better for. Now where there is no Order or Rule, there muſt be Confuſion; as it is in Trades at this time; and yet there is Order and Rule obſerved in other Vocations, and why not ſo in this? The Miniſter muſt not preach until he is Ordained; the Lawyer muſt not plead before he is called to the Bar; the Chyrurgeon muſt not practiſe before he hath his Licenſe; neither can the Midwife practiſe before ſhe hath her Licenſe too: And therefore why ſhould any ſet up a Shop-keeping Trade before they have been made free of the ſame.

This is one Reaſon why ſo few Apprentices after they come out of their time, do get into the World, or can make any benefit of their Trades; wherein it concerneth all whatſoever, whether Gentlemen or Clergymen, to be very ſollicitous for the preſerva­tion of this way of life, which is ſo conducing to the preferment of their Children.

Fourthly, Becauſe it will coſt a round Sum of Money before a Child can be ſetled in any Shop-keeping Trade; Firſt to breed him at School, and to make him fit for the ſame, 2. To place him forth to the ſaid Trade when he is fit; which will coſt in a Country Market Town, not leſs then fifty or ſixty Pounds, but in London upwards of an hundred; ſo that theſe Trades do ſeem to be purcha­ſed, and that not only with Money by the Parents, but with a Servitude alſo by the Son.

Therefore as I conceive, they ought to have the properties of their Trades confirmed unto them, e­ven as other men have the properties of their Lands confirmed unto them: That is, that no perſon do ſet38 up any Shop-keeping Trade, unleſs they be made Free of the ſame. And if any ſhould plead, that it might be lawful for one man to uſe anothers Land as his own for a Livelihood, he would preſently be ac­counted a Leveller and a ridiculous Fellow: And certainly no leſs can he be accounted, that ſhould argue it might be lawful for one man to uſe anothers Trade. For this Trade is bought with the Parents Money, and the Sons Servitude, and intended for a future livelihood for the Son in the ſame manner as Land is bought by the Father, and ſetled upon the Child for his future Livelihood and comfortable ſub­ſiſtence.

CHAP. XV. Of petty Shop-keepers living in Countrey Villages.

THis is another thing that (as well as Pedlars) doth greatly increaſe and add to to the number of Shop-keepers, and doth likewiſe contribute to­wards the ruining of the Cities and Market-Towns in England, and which was never wont to be for­merly; for now in every Countrey-Village, where is (it may be) not above ten Houſes, there is a Shop-keeper, and one that never ſerved any Ap­prentiſhip to any Shop-keeping Trade whatſoever; and many of thoſe are not ſuch that do deal only in Pins, or ſuch ſmall Wares, but ſuch that deal in as many ſubſtantial Commodities as any do that live in Cities and Market-Towns, who have no leſs than 1000 l. worth of Goods in their Shops, for39 which they pay not one farthing of any Tax at all, either Parochial or National.

Certainly all men muſt needs apprehend, that if this and Pedlars be ſuffered, that Cities and Market-Towns muſt needs be impoveriſhed; becauſe then there will be little occaſion (I ſay) to bring the Countrey people to them; the which hath happen­ed in a very great meaſure already; for in ſome places there is not a fifth part of the money taken by the Shop-keepers as was formerly, and in many places not half, and in ſome particular Trades there is (as may be made appear) 25000 l. ſtock made uſe of leſs than there was heretofore. And there are theſe ſeveral reaſons following why it is neceſſary that Market-Towns and Cities ſhould be encouraged and upheld in their Trades.

1. Becauſe the People that do live in Cities and Markets-Towns, do depend wholly upon a Trade for the maintenance both of themſelves and their Fa­milies; and if their Trade be taken from them by ſuch ways as theſe are, they will be at a very great loſs to know what to do, becauſe they were never bred to any thing elſe; yet ſo it is not with thoſe that deal in Villages, who have been bred in ſome other way; and they have, or may have ſome other way of living beſides the Shop-keeping-Trade.

2. Becauſe if Cities and Market-Towns be impo­veriſhed, then the general part of the People of this Kingdom will loſe that neceſſary conveniency be­fore-mentioned, for the preferment of their Chil­dren. And this one reaſon, that when many Pa­rents have been at great charge in placing forth their Children to Trades in Cities and Market-Towns, and the Children have faithfully ſerved out their full time, that after all, they are but little the better for40 it, becauſe Pedlars and Shop-keepers in Villages ſuch that never ſerved any Apprenticeſhip to any Shop-keeping-Trade, do intercept a very great part of the Trade from coming to them.

3. This will be a great means to depopulate not only the Cities and Market-Towns, but alſo the whole Kingdom; for when men can find little or no in­couragement in their Trades, then they will endea­vour to tranſplant themſelves into other Countries, where they may have better encouragement, by which means we ſhall loſe our People; whereas (in the Opinion of many wiſe Men, we do already want more People in England than now we have: there being very great numbers that have gone, not only into our own Plantations, but into Holland, and ſetled there.

4. If Cities and Market-Towns be impoveriſhed and depopulated, then there will not be raiſed out of them that proportion of all manner of Taxes as now there is; ſo that the burthen hereof will be the heavier upon Lands and Revenues in the Countrey. And it will be a very great diminution of all thoſe ſtanding Taxes, that the Cities and Market-Towns do bear the only, or at leaſt the greateſt proportion, as they do in the Exciſe of Beer and Ale, for little is gathered any where elſe: and the Farmers of the Exciſe are always ſenſible of the ebbing and flowing of Trade, whoſe Exciſe doth ebb and flow according­ly. And then if Cities and Market-Towns grow poor, the Chimney-money will never increaſe there­by. The gatherers of this Tax are able to give an account what multitudes of Paupers are exempted by Certificates in Cities and Market-Towns in Eng­land; and yet notwithſtanding there be many do pay, who had need alſo to be exempted.

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5. If Cities and Market-Towns be impoveriſhed and depopulated of their wealth and rich Inhabi­tants for want of Trade, the great and numerous poor that are in moſt of them will want to be relie­ved, which is a burthen that doth lie very heavy up­on them already; for in ſome Market-Towns there are many that are not worth much above a hundred pound ſtock, which do not pay leſs than ten ſhillings a year towards the relief of the poor; which is ſuch a burthen, that if it lay upon the Countrey Farmer, it would much weaken him in the paying of his Rent. Now if the poor ſhould not be relieved, what can be expected, but that ſwarms of them would go in­to the Countrey for relief, as already they do in many places? and when the ruder ſort cannot get enough by begging, they will be pilfering and ſtealing. So that the conſideration of theſe poor, and the many younger Brothers that will be out of any way of living with the like contingencies, will adminiſter juſt oc­caſion to any wiſe and intelligent Perſon, eaſily to preſage the misfortunes and miſeries that will here­upon neceſſarily enſue throughout this Kingdom.

6. If Cities and Market-Towns be impoveriſhed and depopulated for want of a Trade, then what will the Countrey-man do to have money for all his Com­modities, as his Butter, his Cheeſe, his Cattel, his Wool, his Corn, and his Fruit? the Shop-keepers in the Country-Villages will yield but little help in this caſe, and the Pedlers much leſs. It is manifeſt, that the People living in Cities and Market-Towns, con­ſume all theſe Commodities of the Farmers, and do help them to ready money for the ſame; by which means they have wherewith to pay their Rent, and ſerve their other occaſions; and it is impoſſible for them to ſubſiſt but by this way. So that in all rea­ſon42 this kindneſs ought to be reciprocal, and when it is ſo, it is the better for both; for it cannot be ſuppoſed that Tradeſmen in Cities and Market-Towns ſhould ever hold out, to buy the Farmers Commo­dities, and help them conſtantly to money for them, if they ſhould always go home, and lay out little or no part thereof again with them.

7. If Cities and Market-Towns be impoveriſhed and depopulated for want of Trade, the Kingdom may then be obnoxious to its Enemies upon all occa­ſions: For theſe uſe to be the Fence and Bulwarks of a Country, inſomuch that in ſome other Countries they are ſo far from admitting of Tradeſmen to live in Villages, that their Gentry do not live there, but in the great Cities and Towns; by which means they have greater Towns than we generally have; and moſt of their Towns are walled, and ſo are not only able to reſiſt an Enemy, but alſo upon all occaſions to ſuccour and ſave thoſe that ſhall fly unto them.

Furthermore, the Kings of England have been al­ways furniſhed with men for their Wars out of the Cities and Market-Towns of this Kingdom; and the greater Trade there is in any place, the more people commonly there are in that place: Therefore it con­cerns this Kingdom to have Trade promoted and en­couraged in Cities and Market-Towns, that ſo we might have people enough at all times to reſiſt an Enemy that ſhall oppoſe us. Beſides, poor and beg­gerly Cities and Market-Towns are a very great diſ­paragement to a Country; but the contrary is a great honour: For what more graceful to a Kingdom than the many rich and wealthy Cities and Towns there­in? for this reaſon, as well as for all thoſe already mentioned, all Perſons that are of publick ſpirits, ſhould do all they can to advance them, by encoura­ging43 of their Trade; and no one way can do it more effectually, than to ſuppreſs thoſe that do take their Trades from them.

And as Shop-keepers in Villages, are a very great injury to Market-Towns in the Country, even ſo are they to the City of London, that have (ſince the fire) ſet up in Covent-Garden, and on that ſide of the City; by which means many of the Houſes and Shops, are not tenanted, and thoſe which are, the Rents of them are exceedingly fallen; and all this is for want of the Trade that they had formerly.

Now conſidering what a renowned City that is, both for Government, for Trade, and for ſtately E­difices, that it's thought there is not the like in the whole World; and conſidering the great charge that they have been at in the rebuilding of it, it is very requiſite that they ſhould be encouraged as much as may be, and that their Trade ſhould not be taken may by ſuch ways and means as theſe are. Now there are ſome Trades whoſe Commodities are ſuch, that it would be very little more trouble for any one to go into the City to buy them, than to go to Covent-Garden, ſuch as Woollen, or Linnen-Cloth, Stuffs, or Hangings for Rooms, or Plate, or the like; If then all ſuch Trades were prohibited from ſetting up on that ſide of the City, it would preſently fill their Shops and Houſes with People, and their City with Trade: I had thought to have treated here, how the Shop­keepers are inconvenienced to get in their ſmall debts, which cannot be done any way without putting the People concerned to three times more charges than the debts are, which is likewiſe a great hinderance to the poor, as well as unto them; but this I ſhall omit.

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CHAP. XVI. Of Pedlars, and petty Chapmen.

THeſe are ſuch that do proffer Wares to ſale by Retail, either by crying it in Cities and Market Towns, or by offering it from door to door all about the Country, and which do greatly add to the num­ber of Shop-keepers, for they carry their Shops at their backs, and do ſell more that way, than many Shop-keepers do in their Shops; which is not only a prejudice unto them, but if they are ſuffered will in time be the utter ruine of all the Cities and Market Towns in England; for of late there is not any Com­modity to be named, and that can be any way port­ed, but that the Pedlar doth carry all about the Country to ſell; that people (after awhile) will have little or no occaſion to come to the Cities or Market Towns for any thing. This alſo was not wont to be formerly, and ought not to be now; as will ap­pear if it be conſidered, how much in theſe follow­ing particulars, the Shop-keepers are beneficial to the Commonwealth of this Kingdom; and in how few of theſe the Pedlars are beneficial unto the ſame.

1. The Shop keepers do bear a very great pro­portion in all the Taxes of this Kingdom, whether Parochial or National, but the Pedlars do pay but little or no Taxes at all: and if in Taxes they were to bear no more proportion than the Pedlars, it may be quaeried whether or no Taxes might be ſo eaſily gathered.

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2. The Shop-keepers do bear likewiſe all manner of Offices, whether Parochial or National, which are very expenſive unto them; but Pedlars bear no Of­fices at all.

3. The Shop-keepers do pay great Rents for the houſes that they live in, which are more certain Rents to the Gentry than their Lands; but the Pedlars pay little or no Rent at all, for moſt of them do lye in Barns. And if the Rents ſhould fall in Cities and Market Towns in England, as they do in moſt places, eſpecially in the City of London, they are never like to be rais'd again by Pedlars.

4. The Shop-keepers do keep good Houſes, and do relieve the Poor at their doors, ſpending abun­dance of meat, and other of the Farmers Commodities in their Families, for which they do always pay rea­dy money: But the Pedlars are ſo far from being be­neficial to the Commonwealth in this particular, that they are burthenſom unto the ſame; for they beg the moſt part of their Victuals, and the Country people (when the men are in the Field, and there hath been none at home, but Women and Children) have been forced to relieve them for fear of being miſ­chieved by them.

5. They and their Families do wear out abundance of Cloths, which doth promote the Trade of the Na­tion; but it is very little advance of any Trade that the Pedlars do make herein, for their Cloths do dif­fer little from Beggars; and did they wear better, yet they could not wear out much, becauſe few of them have Families to do it.

6. The Shop-keepers Trade is eſteemed credita­ble enough, for the preferment of the beſt mens Sons in the Kingdom, next unto the Nobility; but ſo is not the Pedlars Trade; for ſurely ſufficientmen would46 diſdain to have their Sons Pedlars, and to wander a­bout the Country like Vagabond Rogues as they do.

7. The Shop-keepers being ſufficient mens Sons, and being ſoberly and religiouſly Educated, they come to have (for the moſt part of them) ſuch prin­ciples in them, that they deteſt to uſe any indirect way in their dealings. And if they had not this in­ward principle, yet the conſideration how prejudi­cial any ſuch thing would be unto them in their Trades, by reaſon of their fixed Habitations, doth make them to do that which is right and juſt in their dealings. But neither of theſe can rationally ſway the Pedlars, becauſe their Education uſually is very baſe an vile; Being (for the moſt part of them) Wanderers from their youth, an Employment that few ſober men do meddle with; ſo that no man••ows whether they have any principle of Religion yea or no; for it is ſeldom that any of them are ever ſeen at any Church whatſoever: and then they be­ng Wanderers, makes them bold to uſe any indirect ways in their dealing, when they have an opportuni­ty; for when they have done, and taken their mo­ney, away they are gone into another Country, and are ſeen no more in that place.

And this is the reaſon that they do often ſell one thing for another, as Calico for Holland, and do ſell that by the Yard, that is uſually ſold by the Ell, and do often make leſs than meaſure, extreamly cheat­ing the ignorant Country-people in the price of their Commodities, by their aſking ſometimes three timethe price more than they can afford them.

8. And as the Shop-keepers are ſeldom guilty oany indirect ways in their dealings, ſo much leſs arthey at any time guilty of any felonious Actions: buthis cannot be ſaid of the Pedlars, who very often ar47arraigned at the Bar for breaking open of Houſes, or ſuch like things as theſe are, having by reaſon of their ſelling of Wares, acceſs to all mens houſes, and ſo do know the weakeſt part of every mans houſe; and if they are not Actors herein themſelves, yet they are able to inform any other perſon who hath a mind to do it; which doubtleſs they do, as hath been ac­knowledged by ſome that have been arraigned for this thing; and then they are the Receivers of all the ſtollen Goods, both of the Town and the Country. Sometimes that which is ſtollen from Shop-keepers in Market Towns, upon their Market and Fair-days, when they are buſie, and ſometimes that which is ſtollen from Country people, when their Linnen is hanged abroad to dry upon Hedges, or other conve­nient places.

I ſhall not inſiſt upon ſhewing wherein it is that they are prejudicial to the Shop-keepers, for this is obvi­ous to every man already, how they do come into any place where the Shop-keepers Trade doth lie, and there do take moſt of the ready money of their Cuſtomers, whilſt Shop-keepers Commodities lie by them, and braid at home. And by this means they ſell but little (unleſs any one do want to be truſted) for they ſeek no further than their Shops for a Trade, depending upon the people that ſhall come unto them, that do live within ſix or ſeven Miles of the Town where they do live.

I might add many other Arguments for the ſup­preſſing of them, were not theſe (already mention­ed) ſufficient.

48

CHAP. XVII. A Table of Accounts ready caſt up, for the Buy­ing or Selling of any Com­modity; either by Num­ber, Weight, or Meaſure, &c, Reſolving the moſt u­ſual Queſtions of the Gol­den Rule, or Rule of Three by Inſpection (or by Ad­dition) only: Of abſo­lute neceſſity for all man­ner of Merchants and whole Sale Traders what­ſoever.

The Quantity of the Commodity to be bought or ſold.The Price of the Commodity by the Tun, Hundred, Pound, Ounce, Dozen, Yard, Ell, &c.
Number. 1 Farthing. 2 Farthings. 3 Farthings.
 l.s.d.q.l.s.d.. ql.s.d.q
1000100020003
2000200100012
3000300120021
4001000200030
5001100220033
6001200300042
7001300320051
8002000400060
9002100420063
10002200500072
200050001000130
300072013001102
400010001800260
50010202100312
60013002600390
700152021100442
80018003400500
900110203900572
100021004200630
2000420084001260
30006300126001890
4000840016801500
500010501010011130
60001260150011760
7000147019202390
800016801134021000
900018901116021630
10001010021803260
2000218043406500
3000326065009760
400043408680121000
5000542016840151260
100001084020168021500
The Quantity of the Commodity to be bougt or ſold.The Price of the Commodity by the Tun, Hundred, Pound, Ounce, Dozen, Yard, Ell, &c.
Number. 1 Penny. 2 Pence. 3 Pence.
 l.s.d.l.s.d.l.s.d.
1001002003
2002004006
3003006009
4004008010
50050010013
6006010016
7007012019
8008014020
9009016023
100010018026
20018034050
30026050076
400340680100
500420840126
6005001000150
70051001180176
800680134100
900760150126
1000840168150
200016811342100
30015021003150
4001134368500
500218434550
60021005007100
700218451683150
80036861341000
900315071001150
100043486812100
2000868161342500
300012100250037100
40001613433685000
5000201684113462100
1000041134836812500
The Quantity of the Commodity to be bought or ſold.The Price of the Commodity by the Tun, Hundred, Pound, Ounce, Dozen, Yard, Ell, &c.
Number. 4 Pence. 5 Pence. 6 Pence.
 l.s.d.l.s.d.l.s.d.
1004005006
20080010010
3010013016
4014018020
5018021026
6020026030
70240211036
8028034040
9030039046
10034042050
200680840100
30010001260150
4001340168100
5001681010150
601001501100
701341921150
801681134200
9011001176250
10011342182100
200368434500
3005006507100
40061348681000
500868108412100
6001000121001500
700111341411817100
8001368161342000
90015001815022100
100016134201642500
20003368411385000
30005000621007500
400066134836410000
500083681043812500
100001661341666825000
The Quantity of the Commodity to be bought or ſold.The Price of the Commodity by the Tun, Hundred, Pound, Ounce, Dozen, Yard, Ell, &c.
Number. 7 Pence. 8 Pence. 9 Pence.
 l.s.d.l.s.d.l.s.d.
1007008009
2012014016
3019020023
4024028030
50211034039
6033040046
7041048053
8048054060
9053060069
100510068076
20011801340150
300176100126
40131681100
501911341176
601150200250
702012682126
802682134300
902126300376
10021843683150
200516861347100
300815010001150
4001113413681500
500141181613418150
60017100200022100
700208423682650
8002368261343000
9002650300033150
10002938336437100
20005864661387500
30008710010000112100
40001161381336415000
5000145164166138187100
100002911382236037500
The Quantity of the Commodity to be bought or ſold.The Price of the Commodity by the Tun, Hundred Pound, Ounce, Dozen, Yard, Ell, &c.
Number. 10 Pence. 11 Pence.
 l.s.d.l.s.d.
100100011
20180110
3026029
4034038
5042047
6050056
70510065
8068074
9076083
10084092
2001680184
30150176
4011341168
502182510
6021002150
702184342
803683134
903150426
1004344118
200868934
3001210013150
400161341868
5002016822154
600250027100
70029343218
800336836134
900371004150
10004113445108
2000136891134
300012500137100
400016613418368
50002086812934
1000041813445868
The Quantity of the Commodity to be bought or ſold.The Price of the Commodity by the Tun, Hundred, Pound, Ounce, Dozen, Yard, Ell, &c.
Number. 1 Shilling. 2 Shillings. 3 Shillings.
 l.s.l.s.l.s.
1010203
2020406
3030609
40408012
505010015
606012018
70701411
80801614
90901817
1001010110
20102030
3011030410
40204060
5021050710
60306090
70310701010
804080120
90410901310
10050100150
200100200300
300150300450
400200400600
500250500750
600300600900
7003507001050
8004008001200
9004509001350
100050010001500
2000100020003000
3000150030004500
4000200040006000
5000250050007500
1000050001000015000
The Quantity of the Commodity to be bought or ſold.The Price of the Commodiy by the Tun, Hundred, Pound, Ounce, Dozen, Yard, Ell, &c.
Number4 Shillings5 Shillings6 Shillings
 l.l.l.s.l.s.
1040506
208010012
3012015018
40161014
51015110
615110116
71811522
81122028
911025214
102021030
20405060
306071090
4080100120
501001210150
60120150180
701401710210
80160200240
901802210270
100200250300
200400500600
300600150900
40080010001200
500100012501500
600120015001800
700140017502100
800160020002400
900180022502700
1000200025003000
2000400050006000
3000600075009000
400030001000012000
50001000 1250015000
100002000 2560030000
The Quantity of the Commodity to be bought or ſold.The Price of the Commodity by the Tun, Hundred, Pound, Ounce, Dozen, Yard, Ell, &c.
Number. 7 Shill8 Shill. 9 Shill. 10 Shill
 l.sl.s.l.s.l.s.
1070809010
201401601810
3111417110
41811211620
51152025210
6222821530
72921633310
82163431240
93331241410
103104041050
20708090100
3010101201310150
40140160180200
5017102002210250
60210240270300
7024102803110350
80280320360400
9031103604010450
100350400450500
2007008005001000
3001050120013501500
4001400160018002000
5001750200022502500
6002100240027003000
7002450280031503500
8002800320036004000
9003150360040504500
10003500400045005000
2000700080000900010000
300010500120001350015000
400014000160001800020000
500017500200003250025000
1000035000400004500050000
The Quantity of the Commodity to be bought or ſold.The Prince of the Commodity by the Tun, Hundred, Pound, Ounce, Dozen, Yard, Ell, &c.
Number. 1 Lib.2 Lib.3 Lib.4 Lib.5 Lib.
 l.l.l.l.l.
112345
2246810
33691215
448121620
5510152025
6612182430
7714212835
8816243240
9918273645
101020304050
2020406080100
30306090120150
404080120160200
5050100150200250
6060120180240300
7070140210280350
8080160240320400
9090180270360450
100100200300400500
2002004006008001000
30030060090012001500
400400800120016002000
5005001000150020002500
6006001200180024003000
7007001400210028003500
8008001600240032004000
9009001800270036004500
100010002000300040005000
2000200040006000800010000
30003000600090001200015000
400040008000120001600020000
5000500010000150002000025000
100001000020000300004000050000

CHAP. XVIII.

A Table for buying and ſelling any thing by the Hundred.
d.q.l.s.d.
01024
 2048
 3070
10094
 10118
 20140
 30164
200188
 1110
 2134
 3158
30180
 11104
 21128
 31150
401174
 11198
 2220
 3244
50268
 1290
 22114
 32138
602160
 13184
 2308
 3330
70354
 1378
 23100
 33124
803148
 13170
 23194
 341 
90440
d.ql.s.d
91464
 2488
 34110
1004134
 14158
 24180
 3504
110528
 1550
 2574
 3598
1205120
 15144
 25168
 35190
130614
 1638
 2660
 3684
1406108
 16130
 26154
 36178
150700
 1724
 2748
 3770
160794
 17118
 27140
 37164
1707188
 1810
 2834
 3858
180880
59

The Ʋſe of this Table.

IF you buy any thing by the Hundred (which is 112 l.) you may know what it coſt by the Pound; or if you buy any Commodity at ſo much the Pound, you may know the price of the Hundred.

Example 1. At 4 d. 3 q. the Pound, what is that the great Hundred?

Look in the Table for 4 d. 3 q. in the firſt Co­lume, and againſt it in the ſecond, you ſhall find 2 l. 4 s. 4 d. and ſo much will 112 l. coſt.

Again, If a hundred weight coſt 4 l. 1 s. 8 d. what is that the Pound?

Look in the Table for 4 l. 1 s. 8 d. in the ſecond Colume, and right againſt it in the firſt Colume, you ſhall find 8 d. 3 q. and ſo much it is by the Pound.

Example 2. One buys a hundred weight of a Com­modity for 4 l. 1 s. 8 d. which he retails again at 10 d. the Pound; what doth he get by ſelling a hun­dred weight?

A hundred weight at 10 d. the Pound, comes to 4 l. 13 s. 4 d. from which take 4 l. 1 s. 8 d. there remains 11 s. 8 d. and ſo much doth the Retailer gain.

60

CHAP. XIX. Of the LAWS of the MARKET. Stow. p. 664.

1. IN all the Markets of this City, no Victuals ſhall be Sold, but the Price ſet by the Mayor of this City.

2. No man ſhall foreſtal any Victuals coming to the Market; as for to buy in any Inn or other pri­vy place, or yet coming to the Market, whether it be found in the hands of the Buyer, or of the Seller, under pains of Forfeiture of the ſame: And no Inn­holder ſhall ſuffer any thing to be Sold in his Houſe, upon pain of Forfeiture of Forty ſhillings.

3. No man ſhall Regrate any Victuals which is in the Market, or by any Victuals to Ingrate in the Mar­ket, ſo that the Commons can or may have any part of ſuch Victuals, eſpecially ſuch as may be known for Huck ſters, or other people occupying their Living by ſuch Victuals as they would ſo Ingroſs, under pain of forfei­ture of ſuch Victuals ſo Regrated: Provided always, that any Steward for any Noble Feaſt, may buy or Ingrate ſuch Victuals as is convenient for the ſame Feaſt.

4. No Butter ſhall be ſold but according to the Weight, for the time of the year allowed.

5. No Poulterers ſhall deceivably occupy the Mar­ket, to ſell any ſtale Victuals, or ſuch as be Poulterers of this City, for to ſtand in ſtrange Cloathing ſo to do, under pain of Forty ſhillings, and the forfeiture of ſuch Victuals, Forty ſhillings.

6. No Hucksters ſhall ſtand or fit in the Market,61 but in the lower place, and the ends of the Market, to the intent they may be perfectly known, and the Stranger-market-people have the preheminence of the Market, under pain of Three ſhillings four pence, if the Huckſters diſobey the ſame.

7. No unwholſom or ſtale Victuals ſhall be ſold, under pain of Forty ſhillings, and forfeiture of the ſame Victuals.

CHAP. XX. Of the Coal-Market.

AT the Head of Billings-Gate Dock is a ſquare Plot of Ground compaſſed with Poſts, known by the name of Roomland, which with the adjacent part of the Street hath been the uſual place where the Ship-Maſters, Coal-Merchants, Wood-mongers, Ligh­ter-men, and Labourers do meet every Morning, in order to the buying, ſelling, delivering, and taking up of Sea-Coals, and Scotch-Coals, as the principal Market. This Coal-Market was kept on Great Tower-Hill in the time of the Cities late Deſolation.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Corn-Market.

UPon Bear-Key, between Sab's-Dock and Porters-Key, is the uſual place, or chief Market for Corn, which is bought and ſold there every day, but prin­cipally62 Mondays, Wedneſdays, and Fridays, which are the Market-days, where great quantities of all kind of Grain are bought and ſold by ſmall Examples, com­monly called Samples, whether it be lying in Grana­ries or Ships, and it (viz. Bear-Key) is the princi­pal place where the Kentiſh and Eſſex Corn-Veſſels do lie.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Fiſh-Market.

THe Freſh Fiſh-Market is kept at Billings-Gate, Mondays, Wedneſdays, and Fridays.

CHAP. XXIII. Of the Merchants of LONDON.

MErchandizing may be ſaid to be an Art or Sci­ence, Invented by Ingenious Man-kind, for the Publick Good and Profit of all, ſupplying (as was ſaid) the Native wants of one place, by the abundance of others, that do not conſume their own Growths, Pro­ducts, or Manufactures. Such as Negotiate and Traf­fick this way, are called Merchants. The things ſold or exchanged, are Two, Firſt, Wares or Goods; and Secondly, Moneys or Coyn, which are uſually Contra­cted or Bargained for, three ways.

Firſt, When Goods are Exchanged for Goods; that63 is, ſo much of one Sort, for like value of another; and this is called Bartering, uſual here in old times, and in many places of America, Aſia, and Affrica in theſe days; but in proceſs of time, Men finding it too diffi­cult and troubleſom to carry about them all things thus Bargained and Truckt for, from place to place, invented a common Standard or Meaſure that ſhould countervail, and be in value as all other things, and be accounted in Payments Satisfaction and Equiva­lency to all others: and this is called Money, of Gold, Silver, or other Metals. This uſe of Money is as old as Abraham, but it was not then Coyned, but only in Pieces unſtampt; and ſince by Authority of Princes, it