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SAMUEL HARTLIB HIS LEGACIE: OR An Enlargement of the Diſcourſe of HUSBANDRY USED IN BRABANT and FLAUNDERS; Wherein are bequeathed to the COMMON-WEALTH of ENGLAND more Outlandiſh and Domeſtick Experiments and Secrets in reference to Univerſall HUSBANDRY.

Pſalme 144. verſe 13, 14, 15.

That our Garners may be full, affording all manner of ſtore, that our Sheep may bring forth thouſands, and ten thouſands in our Streets.

That our Oxen may be ſtrong to labour, that there be no com­plaining in our Streets.

Happy is that People that is in ſuch a Caſe: YEA, HAPPY is that People whoſe God is the Lord.

Pſalme 4. verſe 6, 7.

There be many that ſay: Who will ſhew us any Good? Lord, lift thou up the light of thy Countenance upon us:

Thou haſt put gladneſſe in my heart, more then in the time, that their Corne and their Wine increaſed.

Entered according to the late Act concerning Printing.

LONDON, Printed by H. Hills, for Richard Wodenothe at the Star under St. Peters Church in Cornhill, 1651.

To the Reader.

Courteous Reader,

THe Diſcourſe which I did formerly publiſh con­cerning the Brabant-Husbandry, was ſomewhat imperfect, nor was the Author thereof then knowne unto me; but ſince I have learned who the Author was, I have alſo lighted upon a more perfect Copy, which I intend to offer to the Publique in a Second Edition; that ſuch as have enter­tained that firſt offer with liking and acceptance, may finde the benefit of a clearer and fuller ſatisfaction in that which ſhall further be imparted unto them. And to the end that Ingenuity and Induſtry may want no incouragement, in the meane time accept of theſe Enlargements upon the ſame Sub­ject; wherein you will find divers other wayes, and no leſſe (if not more) profitable, then that which was left by Sir RICHARD WESTON (the Author of the Brabant-Husbandry) as a Legacy to his Sonnes: Whoſe Introduction to that Diſcourſe, I have here premiſed to this, to beſpeake thee in his words to his Sonnes, and to gain thy affections more fully to theſe wayes of advantaging both thy ſelfe and the Publique. And I could wiſh, that God would put it in the heart of thoſe Worthies that manage the Publique Truſt, that by their Influence and Authority, theſe and ſuch like Meanes of Induſtry, may not be left wholly to the uncertaine, diſor­derly and lazy undertakings of private men, ſo as not to have an eye over them, and over that which in their pro­ceedings doth ſo mainly appeare to be a Publique Concern­ment. Therefore let us all joine to intreate and petition them, that in order to the Publique and General Welfare of this Common-wealth, theſe two things at leaſt may be thought upon and ſetled.

1. In reſpect of the known unto wardnes of the Major part of the People; who being wonderfully wedded to old cu­ſtomes, are not eaſily won to any new courſe, though ne­ver ſo much to their owne profit, that two or more fit Per­ſons of approved skill and integrity may be made Publique Stewards or Surveyors; one of the Husbandly, the other of the Woods of this Common-wealth, and impowered to overſee and take care of the preſervation of what is, and by all good improvement to procure and provide for what is wanting to the preſent age: and (except ſome ſuch Expedients be u­ſed) it is more then likely will be wanting to ſuceeding a­ges.

2. That according to the uſual cuſtome in Flaunders, a Law may be made of letting & hiring Leaſes upon Improve­ment; where the manner is, That the Farmer covenanteth on his part, to improve the land to ſuch or ſuch a great­er Rent, by an orderly and excellent management of Hus­bandry, as well as Building. The Landlord on the other ſide covenanteth on his part, at the expiration of the ſaid Leaſe, to give ſo many years purchaſe of the Improvement (according to the agreement) which is 3. or 4. years or ſome times more, or to give out of it ſuch a parcel or moity of Ground. As if land formerly going for 6. 8. an Acre, be upon Improvement worth 10. 8. or 13. 8. 4. d. an Acre. The Landlord is to give 4. or 5. 8. upon every Acre, more or leſſe, according to the agreement. If it pleaſe God to bleſſe theſe Motions, and that accordingly the National Husbandry of this Common-wealth be improved; we may hope through Gods bleſſing to ſee better dayes, and to be able to beare neceſſary and Publique burdens with more eaſe to our ſelves, and bene­fit to Humane Society then hitherto we could attaine unto. Which more and more to advance, in reference to a Publique and Ʋniverſal Intereſt, as ſubordinate to Higher things; & which though leſſe viſible and ſenſible, are more permanent, and to truly Rational and Spiritual Husbandmen as perceptible, ſhall be the unceſſant prayers and endeavours of

Thy faithful Servant SAMUEL HARTLIB.

Sir RICHARD WESTON late of Sutton in the County of Surrey his Legacy to his Sonnes &c. Anno Dom. 1645.

My Sonnes,

I Have left this ſhort enſuing Treatiſe to you as a Le­gacy; if I ſhall not live my ſelfe, to ſhew you (what therein is written) by examples, which I know inſtruct far more then precepts; yet precepts from a dying Father, inſtructing of his Children what he hath ſeen and knowne, and received information of from wit­neſſes free from all exceptions, ſhould make ſuch an impreſſion on them, as at leaſt to beleeve their Father writ what he thought was true; And therefore ſuppoſe thoſe things worthy to be put in practiſe by them, which he himſelf would have done, if it had pleaſed God to have grant­ed him Life and Liberty; Eſpecially ſeeing the matter it ſelf, which is required by him to be done, is in ſhew ſo profitable, and ſo eaſie to be effected, and with ſo little charge, conſidering the great gaine that is propoſed by it, that not any thing can reſtraine a rational man from triall thereof, but not giving credit to the Relator.

The whole Diſcourſe ſhewes you, how to Improve barren and hea­thy Land, and how to raiſe more then ordinary profit thereof, by ſuch waies and Meanes as are not practiſed in England: but as commonly in ſome parts of Brabant and Flaunders, as the Husbandry of Wheate and Rie is here. By that meanes you may nobly augment your eſtates, and will receive ſo much the more profit and praiſe, by how with more induſtry and diligence you governe your affaires; and will not onely be imitated, but alſo honoured by your Neighbours, when they ſhall ſee your labours proſper ſo farre, as to convert barren and heathy ground left unhusbanded for many ages, into as com­modious arable land, with Paſtures and Meadowes, as any be in this Kingdome. And certainly, that man is worthy of praiſe and Honour, who being poſſeſſor of a large and barren Demeaſne, conſtraines it by his labour and induſtry to produce extraordinary fruit; which redounds not onely to his own Particular profit, but alſo to the Publique benefit. Cato ſaith, It is a great ſhame to a man, not to leave his Inheritance greater to his Succeſſors then he received it from his Predeceſſors: and that he deſpiſeth the Liberalities of God, who by Slothfulneſſe loſeth that which his land may bring forth, as not ſeeming willing to reape the fruits which God hath offered him. Nay he threatens the crime of high Treaſon, to thoſe that do not augment their Pa­trimony ſo much as the Increaſe ſurmounts the Principal. It is a thing much celebrated by Antiquity, and thought the nobleſt way to gather Wealth, for to imploy ones Wit and Money upon his Land, and by that meanes to augment his eſtate. If you obſerve the Common Courſe of things, you will finde that Husbandry is the End, which Men of all eſtates in the world do point at. For to what purpoſe do Souldiers, Scholars, Lawyers, Merchants, and men of all Occupations and Trades, toyle and labour with great affection, but to get Money? and with that money when they have gotten it, but to purchaſe Land? and to what end do they buy that land, but to receive the Fruits of it to live? and how ſhall one receive the fruits of it, but by his own Husbandry or a Farmers? So that it appeares by degrees, that what courſe ſoever a man taketh in this world, at laſt he cometh to Husbandry, which is the moſt Com­mon Occupation amongſt men, the moſt Natural and Holy, being commanded by the mouth of God to our Firſt Fathers. There is Care and Diligence requiſite in Husbandry, as there is in all the Acti­ons of the World; and therefore as a Captain hath a Lieutenant to command his Souldiers in his abſence, or for his eaſe: So muſt you provide ſome able honest man, to whom you will commit the execu­tion of ſuch things, as you your ſelves cannot do without too much la­bour: whereof you muſt often take an account, and conferre with him (as occaſion ſhall require) about your buſineſſe, that nothing may be left undone for want of Providence. To ſuch a man you muſt give good wages, with intent to advance your own gaine, and take the more eaſe by reaſon of his honeſty and knowledge.

You will finde this Husbandry (after you have once had experience of it) to be very pleaſing to you, and ſo exceeding profitable, that it will make you diligent: For no man of any Art or Science (except an Alchymiſt) ever pretended ſo much gaine any other way, as you ſhall ſee demonſtrated in this enſuing Treatiſe. The Uſerer doubles but his Principall, with Intereſt upon Intereſt in ſeven yeares; but by this little Treatiſe, you ſhall learne how to do more then treble your Principal in one years compaſſe. And you ſhall ſee how an Induſtri­ous man in Brabant and Flaunders would bring 500. Acres of barren and heathy Land, that was not worth at the moſt above 5. l. a year, to be worth 7000. l. a year, in leſſe time then ſeven years. I know no reaſon, why the like may not be done in England: for we are under as good a Climate as they are; Our heathy Land that is nei­ther Sand nor Loame, is as good a ſoile as their barren ground is. We have not onely Dung to enrich our Land, but alſo Lime and Marle, of which they know not the uſe, where they ſewe their gain­fulleſt Commodities mentioned in this enſuing Treatiſe, nor of any other Manure, but onely Dung. In fine, I am certain, there is none of their Commodities but grow in England, as they do in Brabant and Flaunders, but ours are not of the ſame kinde, as theirs, nor put to the ſame uſe. What cannot be vented at home, may as well be vented from hence into Holland, as the like Commodities are from Flaun­ders thither. I will ſay no more of this Subject in the Preface: one­ly it remaines to tell you, that you muſt not expect either Eloquence or Method in this enſuing Treatiſe; but a true Story plainly ſet forth in the Laſt Will and Teſtament of your Father, which he would have you execute: but before all things, to be ſure you lay the Foundation of your Husbandry upon the Bleſſings of the Almigh­ty God, continually imploring his divine aide and aſſiſtance in all your labours: for it is God that gives the increaſe: and beleeving this as the Quinteſſence and ſoul of Husbandry, Primum quae­rite Regnum Dei; et poſtea haec omnia adjicientur vobis. Theſe things being briefly premiſed, I will leave the rest to this ſhort enſuing Treatiſe, and commit you all with a Fathers Bleſſing to the Protection and Providence of Almighty God.

Thus far Sir RICHARD WESTON'S Introduction to the Diſcourſe of BRABANT-HUSBANDRY; which is ſhortly to be publiſhed in a Second Edition corrected and enlarged.

The greater Faults eſcaped in Printing.

PAge 11. line 29. for Raith Rape, reade raith (or early-ripe) Rape. p. 22. l. ult: for theſe in Northampton-ſhire. I know. r. theſe. In Northampton­ſhire I know &c. p. 41. l. 26. for a hundred hands, r. a thouſand hands. p. 57. l. 17. for Spine, r. Spaine. p. 78. l. 4. for how ill they manage, r. how they till, manage. p. 87. l. 16. for putrifyed r. petrefied p. 93. l. 13. for go tound, as the cauſes of their operations. r. go round, as an horſe in a mill, and endeavour very little to advance or know the cauſes of their operati­ons. p. ead. l. 17. for the is, r. is the. p. ead l. ult. for on, r. our. p. 94. l. 31. for dence, r. pence. p. 99. l. 23 for Maram's works. r. Markam's works. p. 105. l. 20. for mentioned, r. as mentioned. p. ead. l. 29. for avdance, r. advance. p. 126 l. 23. for The Profeſſors of Art and Induſtry preferre their private gain, r. The Profeſſors of Art and Induſtry, beſides their private, aime alſo at a publick good; theſe preferre their private gaine &c.


A Large letter concerning the Defects and Remedies of Engliſh Husbandry written to Mr. SAMUEL HARTLIB.


According to your deſires, I have ſent you what I have obſerved in France, about the ſowing of a ſeed called commonly. Saint Foine, which in Engliſh is as much to ſay as Holy-Hay, by reaſon, as I ſuppoſe of the excellency of it. It's called by Parkinſon in his Herball, where you may ſee a perfect deſcription of it, Onobrychis Vulgaris, or Cockes head; becauſe of its flower, or Medick Fetchling: By ſome it is called Polygala; becauſe it cauſeth cattel to give abundance of milke. The plant moſt like unto it, and com­monly known; being frequently ſowne in gardens, is that which is called French Honey-ſuckle, and is a kind of it, though not the ſame. France although it be ſuppoſed, to want the feweſt things of any Pro­vince in Europe; yet it hath no ſmall want of Hay, e­ſpecially about Paris; which hath neceſſitated them to ſowe their dry and barren lands with this ſeed. Their manner of ſowing it, is done moſt common­ly thus: When they intend to let their Corne-lands ly; becauſe they be out of heart, and not ſituate in a place convenient for manuring; then they ſowe that land with Oates and theſe ſeeds together about equall parts; the firſt year they only mowe off their Oates, leaving the Saint Foine to take root and ſtrength that year; Yet they may if they pleaſe, when the year is ſeaſonable, mowe it the ſame year it is ſowne; but it's not the beſt way to do ſo: the2 year following they mowe it, and ſo do ſeven years together; the ordinary burthen is obout a loade or a load and a halfe in good years, upon an Arpent, (which is an 100. ſquare Poles or Roddes, every Pole or Rod being 20. foot) which quantity of ground being nigh a 4th. part leſſe than an Engliſh Acre; within a league of Paris, is uſually Rented at 6. or 7. s. After the land hath reſted 7. years; then they uſually break it up, and ſowe it with Corne till it be out of heart, and then ſowe it with Saint Foine as formerly: for it doth not impoveriſh land, as Annuall Plants do; but after ſeven years, the roots of this plant being great and ſweet, as the roots of Licoriſh, do rot, being turned up by the Plough, and enrich the Land. I have ſeen it ſowne in di­vers places here in England; eſpecially in Cobham-Park in Kent, about 4. miles from Graveſend; where it hath thriven extraordinary well upon dry Chalky bankes, where nothing elſe would grow: and indeed ſuch dry barren land is moſt proper for it as moiſt rich land for the great Trefoile or great Clover-Graſſe (although it will grow indifferently well on all lands) and when the other graſſes and plants are deſtroyed by the parching heat of the Sun; becauſe their roots are ſmall and ſhallow; this flouriſheth very much, having very great root and deepe in the ground, and therefore not eaſily to be exſiccated; As we have obſerved Ononis or Rest-Har­row commonly to do, on dry lands; but if you ſowe this on wet land, the water ſoon corrupts the root of it. This plant without queſtion would much improve many of our barren lands, ſo that they might be mowen every year once, at leaſt 7. years3 together, and yeeld excellent fodder for Cattel, if ſo be that it be rightly managed; otherwiſe it com­eth to nothing; as I have ſeen by experience. I therefore councel thoſe who ſowe this, or the great Trefoile or Clover-Graſſe, or any other ſorts of graſſes; that they obſerve theſe Rules.

1. That they do make their ground fine, and kill all ſorts of other graſſes and plants; otherwiſe they being native Engliſh will by no meanes give way to the French ones; eſpecially in this moiſt climate; and therefore they are to be blamed; who with one ploughing ſowe this or other ſeeds; for the graſſe preſently groweth up and choaketh them, and ſo by their negligence, and ill Husbandry, diſcoura­geth themſelves and others.

2. Let them not be too ſparing of their ſeeds; for the more they ſowe, the cloſer and thicker they will grow, and preſently fully ſtock the ground, that nothing elſe can grow. And further, the ſeeds which come from beyond the Seas, are oftentimes old and much decayed, and therefore the more ſeed is required.

3. Not to expect above 7. years profit by it; for in that time it will decay, and the natural graſſe will prevail over it; for every plant hath his period; ſome in one year; ſome in 2. others in 3. as the common Thistle; and therefore after 7. years, let them either plough the land up, and ſowe it with that ſame ſeed again, or with other Graine as they do in France.

4. Let not ſheepe or other cattel bite them the firſt year, that they may be well rooted; For theſe graſſes are farre ſweeter then the ordinary graſſes; and4 cattel will eat them down, leaving the other; and conſequently diſcourage their growth.

5. The beſt way, if men will be at the charge, is to make their ground very fine, as they do when they are to ſowe Barly, and harrowe it even; and then to howe theſe ſeeds in alone without any other graine, as the Gardiners do Peaſe; yet not at ſo great a diſtance; but let them make the ranges a­bout a foot's breadth one from another, and they ſhall ſee their graſſes flouriſh, as if they were green Peaſe; eſpecially if they draw the howe through them once or twice that ſummer to deſtroy all the weeds and graſſes: And if they do thus, the great Clover and other ſeeds may be mowen even twice the firſt year, as I have experimented in divers ſmall plots of ground.

There is at Paris likewiſe another ſort of fodder, which they call La Lucerne, which is not inferior, but rather preferred before this Saint Foine, for dry and barren grounds; which hath been lately brought thither, and is managed as the former; and truely every day produceth ſome new things, not onely in other Countreys, but alſo in our own. And though I cannot but very much commend theſe plants unto my Countreymen, knowing that they may be beneficial to this Nation; yet I eſpecially recom­mend unto them a famous kind of graſſe growing in Wilſhire 9. miles from Saliſbury, at Maddington, which may better be called one of the wonders of this Land, then the Hawthorne-tree at Glaſſenbury, which ſuperſtition made ſo famous: for divers of the ſame kind are found elſewhere. You may find this graſſe briefly deſcribed in a Book called Phyto­logia5 Britannica, (which lately came forth, and ſet down even all the plants which have been found na­turally growing in England Gramen Caninum Supinum Longiſſimum, which groweth 9. miles from Saliſbury, Mr. Tuckers at Maddington: where with they fat hogs; and which is 24. foot long, a thing almoſt incredi­ble; yet commonly known to all that Shire. Now without queſtion, if the ſeed of this graſſe, be ſowne in other rich Meadowes, it will yeeld extra­ordinarily, though perchance not ſo much, as in its proper place. I wonder that thoſe that live there abouts, have not tryed to fertilize their other Mea­dowes with it: for it is a peculiar ſpecies of graſſe; and though ſome Ingenious men have found about 90. ſpecies of graſſes in this iſland: yet there is none like to this, that can by any meanes be brought to ſuch an height, and ſweetneſſe. And truly I ſuppoſe, that the thorough examination of this graſſe, is a thing of very great importance, for the improve­ment of Meadowes and Paſtures; and it may excel the great Trefoile, Saint Foine, La Lucerne, or any exo­tick plant whatſoever. And though I am very un­willing to exceed the bounds of an Epiſtle; yet I cannot but certifie you, wherein the Husbandry of this Nation in other particulars (as I ſuppoſe) is great­ly deficient, which I will do as briefly as may be; and likewiſe, how ingenious men may finde Remedies for theſe deficiencies.

Firſt he would do the honeſt and painful Hus­band-man1. defici­ency con­cerning ploughs and car­riages, a very great pleaſure, and bring great pro­fit to this Nation, who could facilitate the going of the Plough and lighten our ordinary Carriages. I won­der, that ſo many excellent Mechanicks, who have6 beaten their braines about the perpetual Motion and other curioſities, that they might find the beſt wayes to eaſe all Motions, ſhould never ſo much as to honour the Plough (which is the moſt neceſſary Inſtrument in the world,) by their labour and ſtu­dies. I ſuppoſe all know, that it would be an extra­ordinary benefit to this Countrey, if that 1. or 2. horſes could plough and draw as much as 4. or 6. and fur­ther alſo, that there is no ſmall difference in ploughs, and waggons, when there is ſcarce any ſure rule for the making them; and every Countrey, yea almoſt every County, differs not onely in the ploughs; but even in every part. Some with wheels, others with­out; ſome turning the Rest (as they call it) as in Kent, Picardy and Normandy,) others not; ſome ha­ving Coulters of one faſhion, others of another; o­thers as the Dutch, having an Iron wheele or circle for that purpoſe; ſome having their ſheares broad at point; ſome not; ſome being round, as in Kent, others flat; ſometying their horſes by the taile, as in Ireland. So, likewiſe Waggons and Carts differ: ſome uſing 4. wheels, others two onely; ſome car­rying timber on 2. wheeles in a Cart, others with 4. wheeles, and a long pole onely between, which is the beſt way; ſome plough with 2. horſes onely, as in Norfolke, and beyond ſeas in France, Italy, where I never ſaw above three horſes in a Plough, and one onely to hold and drive: but in Kent I have ſeen 4. 6. yea 12. horſes and oxen; which variety ſheweth, that the Husband-man, who is ordinarily ignorant in Mechanicks, is even at his wits end in this Inſtru­ment, which he muſt neceſſarily uſe continually. Surely he ſhould deſerve very well of this Nation,7 and be much honoured by all, that would ſet down exact Rules for the making of this moſt neceſſary, yet contemned Instrument, and for every part there­of: for without queſtion there are as exact Rules to be laid down for this, as for Shipping & other things. And yet in Shipping, how have we within theſe 6. years out-ſtripped our ſelves, & gone beyond all Nations? for which Art ſome deſerve eternal honour. And why may we not in this? I know a Gentleman, who now is beyond ſeas, where he excels even the Holland­ers, in their own buſineſſe of draining; who pro­miſed much in this kind, and I think, he is able to performe it; I could wiſh, he were called on to make good his promiſe. In China, it is ordinary to have waggons to paſſe up and down without horſes or Oxen, with ſailes as ſhips do: & lately in Holland a waggon was framed, which with ordinary ſailes carryed 30. people 60. Engliſh miles in 4. houres. I know ſome excellent ſchollars, who promiſe much by the meanes of Horizontal ſailes (viz.) to have 3. or 4. Ploughs to go together; which ſhall likewiſe both ſowe and harrow. I dare not being ignorant in theſe high ſpeculations, engage my ſelfe to do much thereby; but wiſh theſe Gentlemen, whom I know to be extreamly ingenious, would attempt ſome­thing, both for the ſatisfying of themſelves and o­thers. There is an ingenious Yeoman of Kent, who hath 2. ploughs faſtened together very finely, by the which he plougheth 2. furrowes at once, one under another; and ſo ſtirreth up the land 12. or 14. inches deep, which in deep land is good. Neare Greenwich there liveth an Honourable Gentleman, who hath ex­cellentCol. Blunt. Corne on barren land, and yet plougheth his8 land with one horſe, when as uſually through Kent, they uſe 4. and 6. Theſe things ſhew that much may be done in this kinde; and I hope ſome in theſe a­ctive times, wil undertake and accompliſh this work of ſo great importance.

There is a Book long ſince Printed made by Sir2. Defi­ciency, about digging of land, Setting and how­ing in of Corne. Hugh Plattes, (the moſt curious man of his time) cal­led Adams Art revived, wherein is ſhewed the great benefit which would accrew to this Nation, if all land which were fit to be digg'd, were ſo ordered, and their corne ſet. Mr. Gab. Plattes likewiſe hath written much of this kind, and promiſeth that men ſhall reape 100. for one; all charges borne which are very great. That this may be true, he bring­eth ſome probable Reaſons, ſuppoſing that leſſe then a peck of Wheat will ſet an Acre. I dare not promiſe ſo much as theſe Gentlemen do, neither can I com­mend M. Gab. Plattes ſetting Inſtrument: For I know there are many difficulties in it, which he himſelfe could never wade through; but concerning digging and ſetting and howing in of Corne, theſe things I dare maintaine.

1. That it is a deficiency in Husbandry, that it is u­ſed no more.

2. That one good digging, becauſe it goeth deep­er than the Plough, and buryeth all weeds, killeth the graſſes; is as good as three ploughings, and if the Land be mellow, not much more chargeable.

3. That it would imploy many 1000. of people, that a third part of the ſeed might be ſaved. As I have found by experience, that all the weeds and graſſes, might be more eaſily deſtroyed thereby, and the ground better accommodated for other9 crops; and to conclude, the croppe conſiderably greater. Yet thus much I muſt further ſay, con­cerning ſetting of Graine, That great Beanes are e­ven of neceſſity to be ſet, and that ſmall Beanes in Surrey and other places, are likewiſe ſet with Profit, for the reaſons above mentioned; that to ſet Peaſe (unleſſe Hastevers) Oates, Barley, is a thing even ridi­culous: that Wheate although in divers grounds it may be ſet with Profit; yet to Howe it in (as the Gar­diners ſpeak) as they do Peaſe, though not at the ſame diſtance, but about a foot the ranges one from another, is better then ſetting, for theſe Rea­ſons.

1. Becauſe to ſet Corne is an infinite trouble and charge; and if it be not very exactly done, which children neither can nor will do, and theſe muſt be the chiefe ſetters; will be very prejudici­ous.

2. If wormes, froſt, ill weather, or fowles, de­ſtroy any part of your ſeed, which they will do; your croppe is much impaired.

3. The ground cannot be ſo well weeded, and the mould raiſed about the roots by the howe. Which 3. inconveniencies are remedied by the other way.

Further I dare affirme, that after the ground is digged or ploughed and harrowed; even it's better to howe Wheate in, then to ſowe it after the common way; becauſe that the weeds may be eaſily deſtroy­ed by running the howe through it in the Spring, and the mould raiſed about the roots of the Corne, as the Gardiners do with Peaſe, it would ſave much Corne in deare yeares, and for other Reaſons before mentioned. Yea it is not more chargeable; for a10 Gardiner will howe in an Acre for 5. s. and after in the ſpring for leſs money runne it over with a howe, and cut up all the weeds, and raiſe the mould: which charges are not great, and you ſhall ſave above a buſhel of ſeed, which in deare years is more worth then all your charges.

Further 1. s. 6. d. an Acre for the ſowing and har­rowing of an Acre in Kent is accounted a reaſonable price; but if any feare charges let him uſe a Drill-Plough. I therefore cannot but commend the how­ing in of Wheate, as an excellent peece of good Hus­bandry, whether the ground be digged or plough­ed; not onely becauſe it ſaveth much Corne, im­ployeth much people; and it is not chargeable; but it alſo deſtroyeth all weeds, fitteth grounds for af­ter crops, & cauſeth a greater increaſe, and in my ap­prehenſion is a good Remedy againſt Smut and Mil­dew. There is an Ingenious Italian, who wonder­eth how it cometh to paſſe, that if one ſetteth a Graine of Corne, as Wheate, Barly, &c. it uſually pro­duceth 300. or 400. as I have tryed: yet if you ſowe Wheate after the ordinary way, 6. or 8. for one is ac­counted a good crop; what becometh of all the Corne, that is ſown, when as the 50th. part, if it do grow, would be ſufficient? For anſwer to this.

1. I ſay, much Corne is ſowne, which na­ture hath deſtinated for the Hens and Chickens, being without any conſiderable vegetative faculty.

2. Wormes, Froſts, Floods, Crowes, and Larkes, (which every one doth not conſider) do devour not a little.

3, Weeds, as Poppie, May-weed, and the graſſes growing with the Corne, do deſtroy much.


Laſtly, when Corne is ſo ſowne after the ordinary manner, much is buried in the furrowes; eſpecial­ly if the ground be grazy: much is thrown on heaps in holes, and conſequently ſtarve and choake one another. Moſt of theſe Inconveniencies, are to be remedyed by this way of ſetting, and howing in of Corne.

Gardening, though it be a wonderfull improver of lands, as it plainly appears by this3. Deſi­ciency concern­ing Gar­dening. that they give extraordinary rates for land (viz.) from 40. s. per Acre to 9. pound, and dig and howe and dung their lands, which coſt­eth very much; Yet I know divers, which by 2. or 3. Acres of land maintaine themſelves and family, and imploy others about their ground; and there­fore their ground muſt yield a wonderfull increaſe, or elſe it could not pay charges; yet I ſuppoſe there are many Deficiencies in this calling.

1. Becauſe it is but of few years ſtanding in England, and therefore not deeply rooted. About 50. yeares ago, about which time Ingenuities firſt began to flouriſh in England; This Art of Garden­ing, began to creepe into England, into Sandwich, and Surrey, Fulham, and other places.

Some old men in Surrey, where it flouriſheth ve­ry much at preſent; report, That they knew the firſt Gardiners that came into thoſe parts, to plant Cabages, Colleflowers, and to ſowe Turneps, Carrets, and Parſnips, to ſowe Raith, Kape, Peaſe, all which at that time were great rarities, we having few, or none in England, but what came from Holland and Flaunders. Theſe Gardiners with much ado pro­cured a plot of good ground, and gave no leſſe then12 8. pound per Acre; yet the Gentleman was not con­tent, fearing they would ſpoile his ground; becauſe they did uſe to dig it. So ignorant were we of Gar­dening in thoſe dayes.

2. Many parts of England are as yet ignorant. Within theſe 20. years, a famous Towne within leſſeGraveſ­end. then 20. miles of London, had not ſo much as a meſſe of Peaſe but what came from London, where at pre­ſent Gardening flouriſheth much. I could inſtance divers other places, both in the North and Weſt of England, where the name of Gardening, and Howing is ſcarcely knowne, in which places a few Gardiners might have ſaved the lives of many poor people, who have ſtarved theſe dear years.

3. We have not Gardening-ware in that plenty and cheapneſſe (unleſſe perhaps about London) as in Holland and other places, where they not onely feed themſelves with Gardiners ware, but alſo fat their Hogs and Cowes.

4. We have as yet divers things from beyond Seas, which the Gardiners may eaſily raiſe at home, though nothing nigh ſo much as formerly; for in Qu. Eliz. time, we had not onely our Gardiners ware from Holland, but alſo Cherries from Flaunders; Apples from France; Saffron, Licoriſh from Spaine; Hopps from the Low Countreys: And the Frenchman who writes the Treaſure Politick ſaith, that it's one of the great Deficiencies of England, that Hopps will not grow, whereas now it is knowne, that Lico­riſh, Saffron, Cherries, Apples, Peares, Hopps, Cabbages of England are the beſt in the world. Notwithſtanding we as yet want many things, as for example: We want Onions, very many coming to England from Flaun­ders,13 Spaine; Madder for dying cometh from Zurick-Sea by Zealand; we have Red Roſes from France; Anice-ſeeds, Fennell-ſeeds, Cumine, Caraway, Rice from Italy, which without queſtion would grow very well in divers moiſt lands in England; yea Sweet Mar­jorame, Barly, and Gromwell-ſeed, & Virga Aurea, though they grow in our hedges in England.

Laſtly, Gardening is deficient in this particular: that we have not Nurceries ſufficient in this land, of Apples, Peares, Cherries, Vines, Cheſtnuts, Almonds; but Gentlemen are neceſſitated, to ſend to London many 100. miles for them.

Briefly, for the advancement of this ingenuous calling, I onely deſire, that Induſtrious Gentlemen would be pleaſed to encourage ſome expert work­men into the places where they live, and to let them land at a reaſonable rate, and if they be poor and honeſt, to lend a little ſtock; they will ſoon ſee the benefit that will redound, not onely to themſelves, but alſo to all their neighbours, eſpecially the poor, who are not a little ſuſtained by the Gardiners la­bours and Ingenuities.

4. Our Husbandry is deficient in this, that we know not how to remedy the infirmities of our grow­ing4. Defi­ciency in Smut & Mildew. Corne; eſpecially Smut and Mildew, to inſtance in theſe two onely, which oftentimes bring great ca­lamities to theſe Nations: Smut in wet years, Mil­dewes in dry. Theſe diſtempers in Corne, are not onely in our Countrey; but alſo in other places. A learned Author ſaith, that Smuttyneſſe of corne, which maketh it ſmell like a Red Herring, was notHelmont. knowne in France, till about 1530. at which time the great foule diſeaſe began to break forth, which14 he conceiveth from hence to have ſome original; as alſo the campe-diſeaſe. Mildewes are very great in the Kingdome of Naples, which oft ſtick to the ſithes of thoſe that mowe graſſe and Corne: and (God be thanked) we are not troubled with Locusts, which is a great flying Graſſe-hopper, nor Palmer-wormes, which is a kind of great black Catter-piller, nor with great haile in ſummer, nor with great drought, which ſti­fleth the eare in the ſtalke; which Calamities in hot Countreyes, do very oft totally deſtroy the honeſt and patient Husband-man's labours: neither are we troubled with extreame colds, which in New-England and other cold Countreyes, do oft deſtroy the Corne. But to returne to our purpoſe.

And firſt briefly to ſhew you my opinion concern­ing the Cauſes of Smuttyneſſe. I deſire not to fetch Cauſes a farre off, and to tell you of the ſad Conjuncti­ons of Mars and Saturn (for I think, Quae ſupraenos, be­long not to us) when as we have enough at home: This is certain, ethat there are many evident Cauſes of this corruption of Corn.

1. A moiſt ſeaſon about Kerning-time: which moi­ſture either corrupteth the roots of the Plant, or the nouriſhment of it, or the ſeed in its Embrio: or per­haps in ſome meaſure all theſe.

2. Low, moiſt, foggy ground, for the reaſons a­bove mentioned.

3. Dung'd land. In Vineyards it's obſerved, that dung cauſeth more increaſe in quantity, but leſſe in goodneſſe, ſo that the ill taſte of the dung may ea­ſily be diſcerned; becauſe wine hath an high taſte, without queſtion the ſame happeneth to other Plants, although it be not ſo eaſily diſcerned for the15 ferment or ill odour of the dung, cannot be over-maſtered by the Plants, as wee ſee alſo in Animals, that corrupt diet cauſeth unfavory taſtes in the fleſh: ſo hogs in New found-land, were they are nouriſhed by fiſh, may by their taſtes be called rather Sea-porpuſſes, then Land-ſwine.

4. The ſowing of Smutty Corne oft produceth Smuttyneſſe; the Son like unto the father; I account Smutty Corne an imperfect or ſick Graine, and ſup­poſe that by a Microſcope the imperfection may be diſcerned.

Laſtly, the ſowing of the ſame ſeed oft on the ſame field, cauſeth Smuttyneſſe; becauſe that nitrous juice, which is convenient for the nouriſhment of the Graine, hath been exhauſted in the precedent years; and therefore it is excellent Husbandry eve­ry year to change the ſpecies of Graine, and alſo to buy your Seed-Corne, from places farre diſtant. I am informed of a Gentleman, who did ſowe ſome Wheate which came from Spaine, where the Graine is uſually very hard and flinty, and as it were tran­ſparent, and farre weightier then ours (as it ap­peareth by a meaſure at Amſterdam which holdeth about 3. buſhels, and if our Wheat in the Northerne parts weigheth 160. the Southerne Corne weigheth ſometimes 180. 200. 220 :) and had a crop beyond expectation.

The uſuall Cures of Smuttyneſſe, beſides thoſe mentioned before, are theſe.

1. To lime your ground, which warmeth and dryeth the land.

2. To lime your Corne, which is done thus. Firſt ſlack your lime, and then moiſten your Corne or16 lime, and ſtirre them together till your Graine be as big as a ſmall Peaſe. This liming preſerveth Corne likewiſe from birds and wormes, and is found a very good Remedy againſt this diſeaſe: others make a ſtrong ly with common ſalt, and ſteepe their Corne in it all night, and then draw away their ly for fur­ther uſe; which ſeldome faileth of its deſired effect. Whether this ſtrong ly doth by its corroſivenes, mor­tify the weake and imperfect Corne, ſo that it will not grow; Or whether it be a Remedy, to cure the imperfections thereof, is worth the enquiry? I ſup­poſe that this ly doth exſiccate the ſuperfluous humidi­ty, which is the cauſe of this corruption. If Corne be brought into the barne very Smutty, in Kent they uſually thraſh it on dry floores planked with boards; by which meanes, the Smuttyneſſe is beaten away, and ſticketh not to the Graine, onely a little blacknes appeareth about the eye, but if it be thraſh­ed on a moiſt floore, the blackneſſe ſticketh to the graine, which therefore appeareth darke, and is ſold at a lower rate to the Bakers.

Mildew is without queſtion an unctuous dew, which deſcendeth from above, about Midſommer; it aboundeth in dry years, as Smuttyneſſe in moiſt. I cannot thinke that there is ordinarily any Maligni­ty in this dew, but it produceth its effect by mani­feſt cauſes, viz. from an oily viſcous quality which ſtoppeth the pores of the husk wherein the Wheate lyeth, and depriveth it from the Aire, and conſe­quently from nouriſhment: for the Aire is the life of all things. I have heard and do beleeve, that if you ſtreake any eare of Wheat with oile, it will produce the ſame effect. I am ſorry that I never17 tryed, that I might better underſtand the nature of this ſad calamity; which often undoeth the Indu­ſtrious Husband-man; and cauſeth great ſcarcity in this Iſle. It is to be obſerved further, that Wheat on­ly ſuffereth conſiderable damage by Mildew; be­cauſe it lyeth in a chaffy husk, which other Graines do not. The Grounds moſt ſubject to Mildew are theſe.

1. Thoſe that are incloſed with trees and high hedges. And truly this is the onely great Inconveni­ency I find by encloſures.

2. Lowe velleyes. I have ſeen very oft in the ſame field, the bankes fine, bright Corne; and all the lower parts, though greater in ſtraw; yet little worth by reaſon of the Mildew.

3. Dung made of ſtraw, I have obſerved to diſ­poſe much to Mildew, and Sheeps-dung to be a kind of Antidote againſt it: as alſo Pigeons-dung; becauſe, as I conceive, theſe, 2. laſt ſorts abound much in Ni­ter, which produceth a firme, hard, bright Corne, not eaſily to be putrefyed; but the other being more oily and Sulphureous cauſeth a darke Spungy Corn, ſoon corruptible. And 2. Becauſe straw is a part of the ſame kind corrupted which is alwayes in ſome meaſure hurtfull to the ſame ſpecies both in Ammals and all Vegetables; and therefore rotten ſticks or the earth proceeding from them, is found hurtful to the roots of trees; and trees will hardly grow, where the Roots of other trees have formerly been corrupt­ed.

The Remedyes for this Accident, briefly are theſe. (Not to ſpeak of Bees, who queſtionleſſe make moſt of their Honey from theſe Honies or Mildews: for they18 gather very little, in compariſon of that which fal­leth.)

1. The beſt way is to cut down the trees about your ground, and your hedges low, that the wind may ventilate your Corne.

2. To ſowe early; that your Corne may be full Kerned, before theſe Mildewes fall. I am informed,Sir Jo. Culp. that an Ingenious Kt. in Kent, did for curioſity ſowe Wheate in all moneths of the year and that the Corne ſowen in July, did produce ſuch an increaſe, that it is almoſt incredible; and truly I think it a great fault in many places, that they ſowe late, for many reaſons: I am ſure in France, they uſually ſowe before Michaelmas.

3. Some uſe (and with good profit) to draw a line over their Corne, and to ſtrike off the Mildew, before it be inſpiſſated by the Sun; This ought eſpe­cially to be done before ſun-riſing: 2. men in an hour will eaſily run over an Acre; the Mildewes uſually fall like a thick fog, or a Misty raine; if you go to your Bees, you will ſoon perceive it by their extraordina­ry labour, very early in the morning.

4. The uſe of a kind of bearded Wheate, is an ex­cellent Remedy: for the beard ſhoveth off the dew, that it doth not ſo eaſily inſinuate it ſelfe into the eare, and likewiſe cauſeth the eare to ſhake by the leaſt wind. There is a kind of Wheate in Bucking­ham-Shire called Red-straw-Wheate, which is much commended: it's a ſtrong-ſtalked Wheate, and doth not ſoon lodge, and therefore excellent for Rank land, where Corne is apt to lodge, and conſequent­ly to Mildew; but I queſtion whether it hath any property againſt Mildew. This I am very confi­dent19 of, that if this Wheate, or any other, were without the Chaffy huskes expoſed bare to the Aire; as Bar­ly and Rie are, Wheate would not be afflicted with Mil­dew: Perhaps ſuch Graine may be found by diligent enquiry. I have caſually picked out of a Wheate-field ſome ſtalkes, which have had 2. eares on them: and though Barly uſually hath been 2. ranges; yet I have ſeen ſome ſorts with 4. 6. and there are many great varieties in graines not yet diſ­covered. Truly, if any one knoweth better wayes then theſe, how to cure this Malady of Mildew, he is much to blame, if he do not publiſh it for the good of his Countreymen,

I will not here ſet downe the divers manners of5. Defi­ciency, cocern­ing the planting of Apples, Peares, Cher­ties, and Plums. Graftings and Inoculations, which nevertheleſſe is an art abſolutely neceſſary in Planting; for every book of Husbandry doth ſhew it, and every Gardiner can teach it thoſe who are deſirous to learn it; Neither will I ſet down all the ſorts of Apples, Peares, Cherries, Plums, &c. for it would be too tedious a diſcourſe; and Mr. Parkinſon hath already very excellently done it, in his Book called Paradiſus Terreſtris, where at leaſure you may read it. I will onely point brief­ly at the Deficiencies, which I find in this part of Husbandry, and the beſt wayes to Remedy them.

1. I ſay, that it is a great Deficiency in England, that we have not more Orchards planted. It's true, that in Kent and about London, and alſo in Gloucester-Shire, Herford, and Worcester, there are many gal­lant Orchards, but in other Countreys, they are very rare, and thinne: but if there were as many more, even in any Countrey, they would be very profitable. I know in Kent, that ſome advance their ground e­ven20 from 5. s. per Acre to 5. pound by this meanes, and if I ſhould relate, what I have heard by divers concerning the profit of a Cherry-Orchard, about Sittenburne in Kent, you would hardly beleeve me; yet I have heard it by ſo many, that I beleeve it to be true: Namely; that an Orchard of 30. Acres of Cherryes, produduced in one year above a 1000. pound, but now the trees are almoſt all dead; it was one of the firſt Orchards planted in Kent. Mr. Camb­den reporteth, that the Earle of Leicester's Gardiner in Qu. Eliz. time, firſt began to plant Flemiſh Cher­ryes in thoſe parts; which in his time did ſpread in­to 16. other Pariſhes, and were at that time ſold at rgeater rates then now; yet I know that 10. or 15. pound an Acre hath been given for Cherryes, more for Pears, and Apples.

2. There is a great Deficiency in the ordering of Orchards, in that they are not well pruned, but full of Moſſe, Miſletoe, and Suckers, and oftentimes the ground is packed too thick of trees; for they ſhould ſtand at leaſt 20. foot aſunder; neither will ill husbands beſtow dunging, digging, or any o­ther coſt on Orchards, which if they did, might pay halfe their rents in ſome places. One told me for a ſecret, a Compoſition for to make Trees bear much and excellent fruit, which was this: Firſt in an old tree, to ſplit his root; then to apply a Compoſt made of Pigeons-dung lees of wine, or ſtale Ʋrine, and a little Brimſtone, (to deſtroy the wormes,) it hath ſome probability of truth: for experience I know, that a buſhel of Pigeons-dung, hath cauſed a tree to grow and bear, which for divers years before ſtood at a ſtand; but concerning ſplitting the roots, I know21 not what to ſay. Some old Authors affirm this ought to be done; becauſe that the roots may as wel be hide-bound, as other parts of the tree, and not able to attract his nouriſhment, and when the Roote is ſplit, it will ſpeedily ſend forth divers ſmall fibrous roots, which are the principal Attractors. It were good that ſome would give us an exact account of this Experiment. But Some will object againſt Or­chards, that they ſpoile much ground, and there­fore ought to be planted onely in hedges. To this I anſwer.

1. That Plumtrees and Damſins, may very well be planted in hedges, being ordinarily thorny plants; this is uſed very much in Surrey and Kent, where the Plums uſually pay no ſmall part of their Rent; yet I never ſaw in theſe Southerne parts of Eng­land, any Apples or Peares thrive in an Hedge, un­leſſe a Crab or a Wilden, or ſome Sweeting of little worth. How they thrive in Hereford-Shire and thoſe places, I know not.

2. The Inconveniences of Orchards, planted at 20. or 30. foot diſtance, is not worth ſpeaking of: for this is the uſuall courſe in Kent, when they plant any ground, they exactly place them in ranke and file, and then plough their lands many years, and ſow them with Corn, till the Orchard beginneth to beare fruite; then they lay them down for paſture, which Paſture is not conſiderably ſoure; but hath this advantage above other Paſtures.

1. That it is ſooner growne by 14. dayes in the ſpring than the Medowes, and therefore very ſervice­able.

2. In Parching Summers here is plenty, when other places have Scarcity

223. They are great ſhelters for Cattel, eſpecially Sheepe, who will in thoſe places, in great ſnowes ſcrape up meate, which in other places they can­not do: and if the paſture were ſoure; yet the loſſe is not great; for it will be a convenient place for the Hogs to run in, who muſt have a place for that pur­poſe, where there are no Commons.

4. I ſay, that the Benefits are ſo many by Orchards, that you ought not like an ungrateful man to thruſt them up to the hedge: for they afford curious walkes for pleaſure, food for Cattel, both in the ſpring ear­ly, and alſo in the parching Summer, and nipping ſnowy Winter: They affoard fuel for the fire, and alſo ſhades from the heat, phyſick for the ſicke, refreſh­ment for the ſound, plenty of food for man, and that not of the worſt, and drink alſo even of the beſt, and all this without much labour, care, or coſt, who therefore can juſtly open his mouth againſt them?

3. Deficiency is, that we do not improve many ex­cellent Fruits, which grow amongſt us very well, and that we have as yet many fruits from beyond ſeas, which will grow very well with us. I paſſe by the generall and great ignorance, that is amongſt us, of the variety of Apples, of which there are many ſorts, which have ſome good and peculiar uſes; moſt men contenting themſelves with the knowledge of half a ſcore of the beſt, thinking the vertues of all the reſt are comprehended in them: as alſo of the variety of Pears, which are incredibly many. A Friend of mine neare Graveſend, hath lately collected about 200. ſpecies. I know another in Eſſex (Mr. Ward) who hath nigh the ſame number. I heare of another in Worcer­ster-Shire, not inferiour to theſe in Northamton-Shire. I23 know one, who hath likewiſe collected very many. So that I dare boldly ſay, there are no leſſe in this Iſland then 500. ſpecies; ſome commended for their early ripeneſſe; ſome for excellent taſtes; ſome for beauty; others for greatnes; ſome for great bearers; others for good Bakers; ſome for long laſters; other for to make Perry, &c. But to our purpoſe: I ſay many rare Fruits are neglected; to Inſtance.

1. in the Small-nut and Filbird, which is not much inferiour to the beſt and ſweeteſt Almonds.

2. The great Damſin or Pruin-Plum, which groweth well and beareth full in England.

3. Almonds, which groweth well and beareth good fruit, as I have ſeen divers buſhels on one tree in my brothers Orchard.

4. Wal-nuts, which is not a fruit to be deſpiſed.

5. Vines, and Mulberries, but of theſe preſently in an­other place. I might likewiſe add Currants, Raſpeſes, of which excellent drinkes may be made.

6. Quinces, of the which I cannot but tell you that a Gentleman at Prichenell in Eſſex, who had a tree from beyond Sea, hath the beſt in England, and hath made above 30. pound of a ſmall peece of ground planted with them, as I have heard from his own wifes mouth. And therefore it is by reaſon of our ill Hus­bandry, that we have Quinces from Flaunders, Smal­nuts from Spaine, Pruins from France, and alſo Wal­nuts and Almonds from Italy, and Cheſtnuts (which I had almoſt forgot) from Portugall. And now I cannot but digreſſe a little, to tell you a ſtrange and true ſto­ry, with my opinion of it. In divers places of Kent, as at and about Graveſend, in the Countrey and elſe­where, very many of the prime Timbers of their old barnes and houſes are of Cheſtnut-wood, and yet24 there is ſcarce a Cheſtnut-tree within 20. miles of that place, and the people altogether ignorant of ſuch trees. This ſheweth that in former times thoſe places did abound with ſuch timber; for people were not ſo fooliſh ſurely in former times, to runne up and down the world, to procure ſuch huge ma­ſtey timbers for barnes and ſuch buildings when as there was plenty of Oakes, and Elmes, at their doors: And further, it ſheweth, that theſe Trees will grow again with us to a great bigneſſe. This putteth in­to my minde, the ſtory of the moore-logs, which are found in divers places of the North of England, in moores many foot deepe; which logs are long and black, and appeare to be a kinde of Firre, or Pine; and yet in thoſe places, people are altogether ignorant of theſe Trees, the Country not producing any of theſe ſpecies. The firſt ſtory of Kent, which I know to be true, cauſeth me to wonder the leſſe at the latter: for I ſee that a ſpecies of wood, may be deſtroyed, even totally in a place. And

2. I know, that in Virginia and New-England, that Pines and Firres and Cedars, do grow wonderfully thick in ſuch Moores or Swamps, and being light wood, and eaſily wrought, they are continually u­ſed, while they laſt, for buildings. Further, I ſup­poſe, theſe Moores, are Commons, to the which the poore have uſed to reſort for firing, and how ſoon great woods will be conſumed by them, every one making what havock he pleaſeth, all men know. As concerning their being ſo deepe in the ground, and blackneſſe; I ſuppoſe that when wood, was abun­dant in thoſe places, every one did cut what they pleas'd, and left what was not for their turnes,25 which being in moiſt places, was ſoon glutted with moiſture, and made ponderous; by which meanes it ſoon buried it ſelfe, as ſhips do, on quickſand, or perhaps the turffe (which hath a peculiar faculty vegetative, for where it is exhauſted, it ſoon grow­eth againe) in time hath growne over them; the people permitting it, becauſe that wood, once ſobb'd in wet, is of little uſe, as we ſee by Piles on the marſhes-ſide, ſcarce any man vouchſafing to carry them home. The blackneſſe of this wood proceed­eth, as I ſuppoſe, from the ſooty fume, or evaporati­on of the black turffe, which endeavoureth, as all earths do, to reduce all things into it's own nature; which though it be not able fully to accompliſh; yet it introduceth divers diſpoſitions, and quali­ties, as blackneſſe in the wood. Some ſuppoſe, that theſe moore-logs have laine there ever ſince the flood, with whom I will not contend; ſeeing that any wood, if it be kept from the Aire continually moiſt or dry, will endure even thouſands of yeares with­out putrefaction.

6. Deficiency, is the Not-improving of our Fruits for the beſt ends and purpoſes. Normandy, whichThe 6. de­ficiency, concern­ing not impro­ving our Fruits. produceth but little wine, maketh abundance of Cider and Perry, which they eſtimate equally to wine, if it be made of good fruit. The ordinary Per­ry is made of Choaky Peares, very juicy, which growe along by the high-way-ſides, which are not to be eaten raw. In Biſcay in Spain, where wine is ſcarce, they make Cider of a certaine ſweet Apple, which hath a little bitternes in it, and is like to our ſnonting, & the Cider is very good. And truly here in England, if we would make Cider and Perry of the beſt ſorts26 of Fruits, which is rarely done, (for we think any fruit good enough for that purpoſe) we might make drinks no wayes inferiour to the French wines, which are uſually ſpoyled before they come over the ſeas to you, their ſpirits ſoon evaporating. There are two wayes of making Cider and Perry: one, by bruiſing and beating them, and then pre­ſently to put them into a veſſel to ferment or worke (as it is uſually called) of themſelves: The other way, is to boile the juice with ſome good ſpices, by which the rawneſſe is taken away, and then to ferment it with ſome yeſt, if it worke not of it ſelf, this is the beſt way: and I have taſted Cider thus made of an excellent delicate taſte. Neither let a­ny complaine of the windineſſe; for it is onely want of uſe: When I had for 2. or 3. years continu­ally drunk wine beyond Sea, the ſtrongeſt beer for 2. or. 3. weekes, was as windy to me, as Cider will be to any; and afterward when I went to Paris, the wine of that place was as troubleſome as Engliſh beer for a little time: how much wine might be ſaved and alſo malt if Engliſh-men did take theſe good courſes, which other Nations do, and conſequently how much advantage would this Iſland reape there­by? If I were an houſe-keeper in the Countrey, I would make excellent Beere, Ale, Cider, Perry, Metheg­lin, Wine, of our own grapes, and if my Friends would not drink theſe, they ſhould drinke water, or go away a thirſt: I would ſcorne to honour France ſo much as men do uſually; and the Spaniard and I­talian ſhould not laugh at us, and ſay that we can as well be without bread, as their wines, Currents &c. Thus may many other excellent drinks bemade out of27 our Fruits: not to ſpeak of thoſe which are made of our Graine, as Barly, Wheate, &c. yet I muſt tell you, that I know an Ingenious man, who can without malting Barly, make a drink not inferiour to wine, and a greater quantity of Aqua-vitae out of them, and with leſſe coſt, then by the ordinary way, by a pecu­liar fermentation of his own; which time will diſco­ver. There is another Ingeuious man, who out of Damſins, and other fat and ſweet plums, can make a drinke not inferiour to the beſt wines, and abun­dance of Aqua-vitae. Many Ladies know how to make Cherry, Raſpes-wines; and Sir Hugh Plattes in his Cloſet for Ladies, diſcloſeth many ſecrets of this kind; as alſo for Conſerves, Marmalades, which are things both delightful and profitable. I have a kinſman, who can even out of black-berries, make a very plea­ſant drinke, which curioſity he is unwilling to pub­liſh. Glauber an excellent Chymiſt hath divers ſe­crets of this kind, even to the advancing of Hawes, Hips, Canker-Berries, Slowes, to excellent Aqua-vitae's, drinkes, vinegers, which he himſelfe firſt invented. In Ruſſia in the ſpring-time it's an uſual cuſtome to pierce the barke of the Birch-trees, which at that time will weepe much liquor, and yet like children be little the worſe; this the poor ordinarily drinke for ne­ceſſity,Helmont it's a pleaſant healthful drinke; and alſo the rich men, becauſe it's an excellent preſervative a­gainſt the ſtone.

The meanes to advance this profitable and plea­ſant worke, are theſe.

1. To advance Nurceries of all ſorts of Peares, Ap­ples, Plums, Cherries, which Gentlemen may do for a ſmal matter, and then plant out theſe trees, when28 they are growne great enough. The beſt and cheap­eſt wayes to raiſe all Nurcery wares is done thus. Plums may be raiſed either of ſtones, which when you have eaten the plums, may be preſently pricked into the ground, or by Slips, which you will find about the old trees. Apples may be raiſed from Ker­nels (Crab kernels are the beſt) which ought to be preſerved in dry ſand, till the ſpring, leaſt they grow mouldy: or Crab-ſtalke may be fetched out of the woods, and grafted. Some Trees as Sweetings, Cod­lings, Quinces, will grow very well of ſlips. Cherries are very well raiſed by ſtones, (the Black-Cherries are the beſt) which ſo ſoone as you have eaten them, are to be howen into Beds made very fine, the ranges a foot diſtant; beware leaſt you let them heate, and take heed of the mouſe. I have ſeen Cher­ry-ſtones and Apple-Kernels grow 2. foot and a half in one yeare; and conſequently in few years they would be fit to be tranſplanted. The Art of Grafting, Inoculating a Gentleman will learne in two houres.

2. For the advancing of Ingenuities in this kind, as that making of Vinous-Drinks, out of Apples, Plums &c. I counſel all Ingenious Gentlemen to try divers experiments in theſe kinds; with theſe Cautions.

1. That he attempt not great quantities at firſt, which perchance will be chargeable and trouble­ſome; for by a gallon he may have as much certain­ly, as by a hogſhead.

2. Not to be diſcouraged, if they ſucceed not well at firſt daſh: for certainly there are many Ingenui­ties in theſe fruits, which time will diſcover.

3. Proceed by fermentation: for every liquour which will ferment, hath a vinous ſpirit in it, & with­out29 fermentation even the beſt fruits will have none.

Laſtly, fermentation is done either in liquido, or hu­mido; and herein conſiſts ſome Myſtery. I have forgot to ſpeake of Apricocks, Peaches, Melicotores, which are fine pleaſant fruits, yet very dangerous; and therefore called by the Italians, Mazzofranceſe, that is, Kill-Frenchman; and wiſh Ladies, and others to take heed of ſurfeiting by theſe and ſome other dangerous plums.

I cannot without much tediouſneſſe, relate the diverſe ſorts of Vines, which are even Infinite;The 7. deficien­cy, con­cerning Vines. Rome having in it uſually, 40. or 50. ſorts of Vines, and all very good: Other places of Italy, Spaine, and France, have alſo great varieties; I therefore paſſe them by, as alſo the manner of managing of them; becauſe it is deſcribed in the Countrey-Farme, and alſo by Bonovil a Frenchman, who at the command of King James wrote a ſhort treatiſe of Vines and Silk-wormes, for the inſtruction of the plantations of Virginia. I ſhall onely according to my method ſhew you the Deficiencies amongſt us in this particu­lar plant, and the beſt Remedies for it.

And firſt, although I thinke that the wine is the great bleſſing of God, which Hot Countreys eſpecial­ly enjoy, as temperate Countryes do Milke, Butter, Cheeſe in abundance, and the coldeſt and Barrenneſt Fowle, & Fiſh in an incredible number; God of his goodnes diſtributing ſome peculiar bleſſings to every Coun­trey; Notwithſtanding I dare ſay, it's probable, that Vineyards have formerly flouriſhed in England, & that we are to blame, that ſo little is attempted to revive them againe. There are many places in Kent called by the names of Vineyards, and the ground's of ſuch a30 Nature, that it ſeemeth probable, they have been ſuch. I heare further by divers, people of credit, that by records it appeareth, that the tithes of wine in Glocesterſhire was in divers Pariſhes conſiderably great; but at length Gaſcony coming into the hands of the Engliſh, from whence cometh the moſt of the ſtrong French wine, call'd high-Countrey-wine, and cu­ſtomes being ſmall, wine was imported into England from thence, better and cheaper then we could make it, and it was thought convenient to diſcour­age Vineyards here, that the greater trade might be driven with Gaſcoine, and many ſhips might finde imployment thereby.

Some fond Aſtrologers have conceited, that the earth being growne older and therefore colder, hath cauſed the ſun to deſcende many degrees lower to warme and Cheriſh it, and one argument which they bring for this opinion is, that Vines and Silke-wormes are found in thoſe Countreyes, wherein for­mer times they were unknowne: But if theſe fond men, had conſidered the good Husbandry in theſe times, with the bleſſing of God on it, they had not run into ſuch fooliſh imaginations. This is true indeed, that the Roman ſouldiers, who had Alſatia given them to live in, which is one of the beſt and moſt Southerne places of Germany, mutined; becauſe they thought it ſo cold, that Vines would not grow there, and that therefore they ſhould be deprived of that delectable liquor; whereas we find at this preſent day Vines flouriſhing many hundred miles more to­wards the North, both in France, Loraine, and Germany; and that they are crept down even to the latitude of England; for the Reniſh-wines grew within a degree31 of the Weſt-Southern places of this Iſle, & Paris is not 2. degrees South of us, yet Vines grow three ſcore miles on this ſide Paris, at Beaumont; yea the Vines of theſe places are the moſt delicate; for what wine is preferred before the neat Reniſh for Ladies, and at table; and truly in my opinion, though I have tra­velled twice through France; yet no wine pleaſed me like Vin D'ache & of Paris; eſpecially about Rueill, which is a very fine brisk wine, & not fuming up to the head, and Inebriating as other wines: I ſay therefore that it is very probable, that if Vines have ſtept out of Italy into Alſatia, from them to theſe places, which are even as farre North as England, and yet the wines there are the moſt delicate, that they are not limit­ed and bounded there. For a 100. miles more or leſſe cauſeth little alteration in heat or cold, and ſome advantages which we have will ſupply that defect. But not to inſiſt too long on probabilities, Iſay, that herein England ſome Ingenious Gentlemen uſu­ally make wine very good, long laſting, without ex­traordinary labour & coſt s. To inſtance in one, who in great Chart in the Wilde of Kent, a place very moiſt and cold, yearly maketh 6. or 8. hogs-heads, which is very much commended by divers who have taſt­ed it, and he hath kept ſome of it 2. yeares, as heSir Pe­ter Ri­card. himſelfe told me, and it hath been very good; O­thers likewiſe in Kent do the ſame: and lately in Sur­rey a Gentle-woman told me, that they having many grapes, which they could not well tell how to diſ­poſe off, ſhe, to play the good Houſe-wife, ſtampt them to make verjuice; but 2. moneths after drawing it forth, they found it very fine brisk wine, cleere like Rock-water, and in many other places ſuch experi­ments have been made. I therefore deſire Ingenious32 men to endeavour the raiſing of ſo neceſſary & plea­ſant a commodity; eſpecially when French Wine is ſo deare here, and I ſuppoſe is likely to be dearer, I queſtion not, but they ſhall finde good profit & plea­ſure in ſo doing, and that the State will give all en­couragements to them: and if the French Wine pay excize and cuſtomes, and the Wines here be toll-free, they will be able to affoard them far cheaper, than the French can theirs, and ſupply the whole Iſle, if they proceede according to theſe Rules.

1. To chooſe the beſt ſorts of grapes, which are moſt proper for this Iſle, and though there are many ſorts of grapes amongſt Gardiners; yet I commend 4. ſorts eſpecially to them; and I deſire that they be very careful in this particular: for it is the founda­tion of the worke; if you faile in this, you faile in all; for I know that Burdeaux-Vines which beare very great grapes, make verjuice onely at Paris, and that the tender Orleans-Vine doth not thrive there.

The firſt ſort is the Parſely Vine or Canada-grape; becauſe it firſt came from thoſe parts, where it growes naturally; and though the Countrey be intolerably cold; yet even in the woods without manuring, it ſo farre ripeneth his fruits, that the Jeſu­its make wine of it for their maſſe; & Racineè (which is the Juice of the grape newly expreſt, and boiled to a Syrupe, and is very ſweet and pleaſant) for their Lent-proviſion, as you may reade in their Relations: and this Vine ſeemeth to be made for theſe Northerne Countreyes, becauſe it hath it's leaves very ſmall and jaggy, as if it were on purpoſe to let in the ſun, and it ripeneth ſooner than other grapes, as I have obſerved in Oxford-Graden.

332. Sort of Vine is the Rheniſh-grape; for it groweth in a temperate Countrey, not much hotter in ſum­mer then England; and the wine is excellent as all know.

3. Sort is the Paris-grape; which is much like the temper of England, onely a little hotter in ſummer: this grape beareth a ſmall bunch cloſe ſet together, very hardy to endure frosts and other inconvenien­cies, and is ſoone ripe; ſo that the vintage of Paris, is ſooner ended then that of Orleans or Burdeaux; and though it be not ſo delicate to the taſte, as ſome other grapes; yet it maketh an excellent brisk wine.

4. Sort is the ſmall muskadell; which is a very fine pleaſant grape, both to eat and to make wine. In Italy it uſually groweth againſt their houſes walls, and of this they make a ſmall pleaſant wine, a moneth or 2. before the ordinary Vintage. It is a tender plant in reſpect of the other Vines in the fields: theſe Vines I know are the moſt convenient for this Iſle; becauſe they beare ſmall bunches, and grapes ſoon ripen, and are hardy to endure froſts and ill wea­ther.

2. To chooſe convenient places. For this end I councell them, Firſt to plant Vines on the South­ſide of their dwelling-houſes, Barnes, Stables, and Out­houſes. The Gentleman of Kent, whome I mention­ed before, uſeth this courſe: and to keepe the Vines from hurting his tiles, and that the winde may not wrong his Vines, he hath a frame made of poles or a­ny kinde of wood, about a foot from the tiles, to the which he tyeth the Vines; by this meanes his Vines having the reflection of the yard, ſides of the houſes and tiles, do ripen very well, and beare much; ſo34 that one old Vine, hath produced nigh a hogshead of wine in one year: and I wiſh all to take this courſe; which is neither chargeable, nor troubleſome, but very pleaſant; and if all in this Iſland would do thus, it's incredible, what abundance of wine might be made, even by this petty way.

2. If that any Gentleman will be at the charge of making a Vineyard, let him chooſe a fine ſandy warm hill, open to the South-Eaſt rather than to the South-Weſt: for though the South-West ſeemeth to be hot­ter; yet the South-East ripeneth better, as I have ſeen in Oxford-Garden; becauſe the South-Eaſt is ſooner warmed by the Sun in the morning; and the South-West winds, are the winds which blow moſt fre­quently, and bring raine, which refrigerate the plants: and ſuch a place is very requiſite; for in o­ther places Vines do not thrive, even in France: for if you travel betwixt Paris and Orleans, which is a­bove 30. leagues, yet you ſhall ſcarcely ſee a Vine­yard, becauſe it is a plaine Champion-Countrey. So likewiſe betwixt Fontarabia to Burdeaux, in the Southerne parts of France, for an 100. miles together; becauſe the land is generally a barren ſandy plaine, where onely Heath abounds and Pine-trees, out of which they make Turpentine and Rozen, by wound­ing of them; and Tarre and Pitch, by the burning of them: and if any finde ſuch a fine warme hill, and do dung and fence it well, he hath a greater advan­tage of moſt of the Vineyards of France by this conve­niency, than they have of our Iſle, by being a hun­dred miles more South; for moſt of their Vineyards are in large fields not encloſed, on land that is ſto­ny, and but indifferently warme. But ſome will ſay,35 that the wet weather deſtroyes us. It's true, that the wet will deſtroy all things; Sheepe, Corne, &c. yet no man will ſay, that therefore England will not produce and nouriſh theſe Creatures; and if extraordinary wet years come, they ſpoile even the Vines in France: but take ordinary years and our moiſture is not ſo great, (though ſome abuſe us, and call England, matula Coeli) but the Vines, eſpe­cially thoſe I have mentioned before, will come to ſuch perfection as to make good wine: and if ex­traordinary raines fall; yet we may helpe the im­maturity by Ingenuity, as I ſhall tell you anon: or at worſt make vineger or verjuice, which will pay coſts.

Further theſe advantages we have of France.

1. This Iſle is not ſubject to nipping froſts in May as France is; becauſe we are in an Iſle, where the Air is more groſſe than in the Continent; and there­fore not ſo piercing and ſharpe, as it plainly appear­eth by our winters, which are not ſo ſharpe as in Pa­dua in Italy: neither are we ſubject to ſuch ſtormes of haile in ſummer, which are very frequent in hot Countreys, and for many miles together do ſpoile their Vines, ſo that they cannot make wine of the grapes: for thoſe grapes which are touched by the haile, have a Sulphurious and a very unpleaſant taſte, and onely fit to make Aqua-vitae. Further ſome­times in France, caske for their wines is ſo deare, that a tun of wine may be had for a tun of caske: and the custome and excize which is laide on wines here, is as much againe as the poore Vigneron in France ex­pects for his wine. Not to ſpeak of the ill managing of their Vines, eſpecially about Paris, where poor36 men uſually hire an Acre or 2. of Vines, which they manage at their ſpare houres, and moſt common­ly packe in ſo many plants on their ground, for to have the greater increaſe, that the ground and Vines are ſo ſhaded by one another, that I have wondered, that the Sun could dart in his beames to mature them; and therefore I cannot but affirme again, that we may make abundance of wine here with profit, the charges of an Acre of Vineyard, not being ſo great as of Hops: an hundred ſets well rooted, at Paris coſt uſually but 4. or 6. ſous or pence, where I have bought many: 2000. will plant an Acre very well, 50. s. a year is the ordinary rate for the 3. diggings with their crooked Inſtrument called Aven­tage, and the increaſe uſually 4. tuns for an Acre, which will be profit enough: and though I referre all to Bonovil and others, who have written of the managing of Vines; yet I councell to get a Vigne­ron from France, where there are plenty, and at cheaper rates then ordinary ſervants here, and who will be ſerviceable alſo for Gardening.

2. I will briefly tell, what I have ſeen. In Italy through all Lombardy which is for the moſt part plaine and Champion, their Vines grow in their hedges on Walnut-trees, for the moſt part: in which fields, they ſpeake of 3. harveſts yearly viz.

1. Winter-Corne, which is reaped in June &c.

2. Vines and Walnuts, which are gathered in Sep­tember.

3. Their ſummer-graines, as Millet, Panicle, Chiches, Vetches &c. Buck-wheate, Frumentone, or that which we call Virginia-Wheate, Turneps, which they ſowe in July when their Winter-corne is cut & reaped, they37 reape in October. In France, their Vines grow 3. manner of wayes; in Provence they cut the Vine a­bout 2. foot high, and make it ſtrong and ſtubbed, like as we do our Oſiers; which ſtock beareth up the branches without a prop.

2. about Orleans, and where they are more curi­ous, they make frames for them to run along.

3. About Paris they ty them to ſhort poles, as we do hops. In France they uſually make trenches, or ſmall ditches, about 3. or 4. foot from one another, and therein plant their Vines, about one and a half deepe, which is a good way, and very much to be commended; but if we here in England, plant Vines as we do Hops, it will do very well, but let them not be packt together too thick, as they do in France in many places, leaſt they too much ſhade the ground, and one another. In Italy when they tread their grapes with their feet in a cart, they powre the juice into a great veſſel or Fat, and put to it all their husks and ſtones which they call graſpe, and let them ferment, or (as we ſay) worke together 12. or 14. dayes, and uſually they put 1. third of water to it, this maketh a wine leſſe furious, Garbo or rough, and therefore a good ſtomack-wine; but it ſpoileth the colour, and taketh away the plea­ſant brisk taſte. In France ſo ſoon as they have preſ­ſed out their liquor with their feet, they put it in hogsheads, and after in their preſſe ſqueaſe out what they can, out of the graſpe; which ſerveth to fill up their hogsheads while they worke, which is uſually 3. or 4. dayes, and then ſtop them cloſe: this is alſo the way uſed in Germany, and is the beſt, for it maketh a fine gentile wine with a curious co­lour. 38In Germany, when their grapes are green, they make fire in their ſellars in ſtoves, by the which meanes, their wines worke extraordinarily, & do di­geſt themſelves the better: This courſe we muſt alſo take here in England ſome years; for it helpeth the rawnes of all liquors very much. There is an Inge­nious Dutchman, who hath a ſecret, which as yet he will not reveale, how to helpe maturation by a com­poſt applyed to the roots: The compoſt which I have ſpoken of before, made of brimſtone: pigeons-dung, is very excellent for that purpoſe, as alſo lees of wine, blood,Glauber. lime uſed with moderation. He alſo knoweth how to make ſoure grapes produce good wine; I ſuppoſe his way to be this, all juice of grapes newly expreſſed is ſweet, and which may by it ſelfe alone be made in­to a ſweet ſyrupe, which the French call Racineè: fur­ther in the Evaporation of liquors, which have not fermented or wrought, the watery part goeth a­way firſt.

3. Fermentation giveth a vinous taſte, and ma­keth a liquor full of ſpirits.

You may then eaſily gueſſe at the way, and per­haps he may add alſo ſome ſugar and ſpices, as the Vintners do when they make Hippocras. I know a Gentleman, who hath made excellent wine of raiſins well boil'd in water, and afterward fermented by it ſelfe, or with barme, its called uſually Medea. I like­wiſe know, that all ſweet and fatty Juices will make fine vinous Liquors, as Damſins, if they be wrought or fermented ingeniouſly: but whoſoever goeth about ſuch experiments, let him not think that any thing is good enough for theſe purpoſes: but let him uſe the beſt he can get: for of naughty corrupt things,39 who can expect that which is excellent and delicate.

The Deficiency of us in this kind is ſo obvious, that all the world takes notice of it, and it is (next the8. Defi­ciency concern­ing Hemp & Flox. neglect of fiſhing) the greateſt ſhame to this Nation; for all know that we have as good land for theſe ſeeds as any can be found in Europe. and that the ſowing of them requireth neither more labour, coſt or skill than other ſeeds. And further that the ma­terials made from theſe are extreamly neceſſary: for how miſerable ſhould we be without Linnen, Can­vaſes, Cordage, Nets? how can we put our Ships to Sea, which are the bulwarks of this Iſle? And yet we are neceſſitated to have theſe Commodities, from thoſe who would deſtroy (I will not ſay the Nation, but I may boldly ſay) our Shipping, and Trade. I hope that this will more ſeriouſly be conſidered by thoſe at the Helme of our State. I will freely and plainly relate, how this Deficiency may eaſily be Remedyed, according to my judgement.

1. To compell by a law, that all Farmers, who plough and ſowe 50. or 100. Acres of land, ſhould ſowe halfe an Acre or an Acre of Hempe or Flax, or to pay 5. s. or 10. s. to the poore of the Pariſh where they live, or ſome law to this purpoſe; for there is no man but hath land fit for one of theſe, Hempe de­ſiring, a ſtiffe land, Flax that which is light.

For there is ſo much irrationality in ſome profeſ­ſions that they muſt be forced even like brutes to un­derſtand their own good. In King Edward the 6. dayes ſomething was enacted to this purpoſe, as I am informed. In Henry 8. dayes, there was a law enacted that every man ſhould ſowe his lands, and that no man ſhould encloſe his lands, leaſt he ſhould40 turne it to Paſture; for we have had great dearth in England through the neglect of Tillage, which lawes even as yet ſtand in force; yet there is, nor need­eth there be any force to compell men to till and ſowe their lands; for they have at length found the ſweetneſſe, and willingly go about it for their own profits ſake, and now we ſuppoſe (and not without cauſe) that Encloſing is an Improvement: and ſo concerning Hempe and Flaxe, I ſay, if they were once accuſtomed to ſowe them, they would never leave it, as I ſee Farmers do in Eaſt-Kent; ſcarce a man but he will have a conſiderable plot of ground for Hempe, and about London far greater quantities of Flax is ſown then formerly.

2. It were convenient, that every Pariſh through the Nation ſhould have a ſtocke for to ſet their poor to worke, that the young children and women might not run up and down idle, and begging or ſtealing (as they do in the Countrey) of Apples, Peaſe, Wood, Hedges, and ſo by little and little, are train­ed up for the Gallowes.

3. That a ſevere law ſhould be enacted againſt thoſe who run up and downe and will not worke: for if all know, that they may have worke at home, and earne more within doores honeſtly, then by running rogueing up and downe, why ſhould they not compell them to it? and though ſome may think the Pariſhes will loſe much by this way; becauſe that the ſtock wrought will not be put off, but with loſſe, as perhaps 10. l. will be brought to 8. l. yet let them conſider how much they ſhall ſave at their doors, how many inconveniences they are freed from; their hedges in the Countrey ſhall not be41 pulled, their fruits ſtolne, nor their Corne pur­loined; and further, that the poor will be trained up to worke, and therefore fit for any ſervice: yea and in their youth learne a calling by the which they may get an honeſt lively hood; and I dare ſay, their Aſſeſſements for the poor, would not be ſo fre­quent, nor the poor ſo numerous: and the bene­fit which redownds to the Nation, would be very great.

4. The charitable deeds of our fore-fathers, ought to be enquired after, that they be not miſplaced, as uſually they are, but be really be­ſtowed for the good of the poore, that are labo­rious (as in London is begun) and if there be any that will not worke, take Saint Pauls rule, who beſt knew what was beſt for them. I dare not adviſe to take in part of Commons, Fens, &c. and to improve them for this uſe, leaſt I ſhould too much provoke the rude mercileſſe multitude. But to returne to my diſcourſe. I ſay, that ſowing Hempe and Flax, will be very beneficial.

1. To the Owners of land: for men uſually give in divers places 3. l. per Acre, to ſowe Hempe and Flax (as I have ſeen at Maidſtone in Kent, which is the onely place, I know in England, where thread is made: and though nigh a hundred hands are im­ployed about it; yet they make not enough for this Nation,) and yet get good profit. How advantageous will this be to thoſe who have drained the Fens, where queſtionleſs Hempe will flouriſh, and exſiccate the ground, (for Hempe deſireth ſtiffe moiſt land, as Flax light and dry,) and like wiſe to thoſe in the North of England, where land is very cheape? I hope42 in a little time Ireland will furniſh us with theſe com­modities, if we be idle; for there land is very cheap, and thoſe ſeeds need no incloſure; for cattel will not touch them, neither doth it feare the plunderer either in the field or barne.

2. It's profitable to the ſower. I know that they uſually value an Acre at 10. or 12. l. which coſteth them uſually but halfe the money. Whether there be Flax, that will yield 30. or 40. l. per Acre as ſome report, I know not.

3. To the place where it is ſowne; becauſe it ſets many poore to worke. I wiſh it were encouraged more in the North than it is; becauſe there be ma­ny poore, who could willingly take paines: and though ſpinning of linnen be but a poor worke; yet it is light, and may be called Womens recreation, (and in France and Spaine the beſt Citizens wives think it no diſgrace to go about ſpinning with their Rocks) and though in ſome part the poore think it nothing to earne 4. or 6. d. per day, and will as ſoon ſtand with their hands in their pockets, as worke cheape; yet in the North they account it well to earne 3. d. or 4. d. by ſpinning, which they may do.

Laſtly, it would be very beneficial to this Nation, and ſave many thouſand pounds, I may ſay 100. thouſands, which are expected, either in caſh or good Commodities; and we ſhould not be beholding to Holland for fine linnen and Cordage, nor to France for Poldavices, Locrams, Canvaces, nets, nor to Flaunders for thread; but might be ſupplyed abundantly with theſe neceſſary Commodities even at our own doors.

There is no ſmall Deficiency in dunging and ma­nuring43 lands, both becauſe that all manner of ma­nuring9. Defi­ciency, concern­ing Dunging, and Ma­nuring Lands. and amending lands, is not known to eve­ry one, and alſo that they do not imploy all they know to the beſt uſe. I will therefore ſet downe moſt of the wayes I have ſeen here in England, and beyond Seas, by which land is improved, and the beſt wayes to uſe the ſame.

1. To begin with Chalke, which is as old a way as Julius Ceſars time, as he himſelfe reporteth in his Commentaries. Chalke is of 2. ſorts.

1. A hard, ſtrong, dry Chalke, with which in Kent they make walls, burn lime &c.

2. Kind is a ſmall unctuous Chalke: this is the Chalke for land, the other helpeth little; onely it maketh the plough go eaſier in ſtiffe lands: broomy land is accounted the beſt land for Chalke and lime, but it helpeth other lands alſo; eſpecially, if you Chalke your ground, and let it ly a year or 2. which is the way uſed in Kent; that it may be matured and ſhat­tered by the ſun and raine, otherwiſe if it be turned in preſently, it is apt to ly in great clods, as I have ſeen it 20. years after. Chalke alſo ſweetneth paſture, but doth not much increaſe it, and killeth ruſhes and broome.

2. Lime, which is made of divers ſorts of stones, is an excellent thing for moſt Lands, and produceth a moſt pure graine: 160. buſhels is uſually laid on an Acre, but I ſuppoſe that if men did lay but halfe the dung on the ground, as they uſually do, as al­ſo lime and Chalke, and dung and lime it oftener, it would be better Husbandry: for much dung cauſeth much weeds, and cauſeth Corn to lodge; and too much Chalke doth too much force the land, ſo that after44 ſome good crops, it lyeth barren many yeares. It's good Husbandry likewiſe to lay down lands before they be too much out of heart; for they will ſoone recover; otherwiſe not.

3. Ordinary Dung, which every one knoweth; but let it not be expoſed to the Sun too much, nor let it ly in an high place; for the raine will waſte away it's fatneſſe. It's obſerveable, that earth the more it is expoſed to the Sun, it's the better, as we ſee that land is much bettered by oft ploughings: for the Sun and dew engender a nitrous fatneſſe, which is the cauſe of fertility; but dung is exhauſted by the Sun, as it appeareth by the foldings of Sheepe, which profit little, if it be not preſently turned in; there­fore a Shepherd if his time would permit, ſhould turne up the ground with an howe for to ſowe Tur­neps, as Gardiners do. I have ſeen Ordinary Dung on dry lands in dry years to do hurt, and it oft cauſeth weeds and trumpery to grow.

4. Marle. It's of divers kinds: ſome ſtony, ſome ſoft, ſome white, ſome yellewiſh, but moſt common­ly blew. It's in moſt places in England, but not knowne by all: the beſt markes to know it, is to expoſe it to the Aire, and to ſee if the Sun or Rain cauſe it to ſhatter, and if it be unctuous, or rather to take a load or 2. and lay it on the midſt of your fields, and to try how it mendeth your lands. It's excellent for Corne, and Pasture; eſpecially on dry lands. In Eſſex the ſcourings of their ditches they call Marle, becauſe it looketh blew like it, it help­eth their lands well,

5. Snaggreet: which is a kind of earth taken out of the Rivers, full of ſmall ſhels. It helpeth the bar­ren45 lands in divers parts of Surrey. I beleeve it's found in all Rivers; It were well, if in other parts of England, they did take notice of it.

6. Owſe out of marſh ditches, hath been found very good for white Chalky land: as alſo Sea-mud & Sea-Owſe is uſed in divers parts of Kent, and Suſſex.

7. Sea-weeds.

8. Mr. Carew in his Survey of Cornwall relateth, that they uſe a fat Sea-ſand, which they carry up many miles in ſacks, and by this they have very much improved their barren lands. It were worth the while to try all manner of Sea-ſands: for I ſup­poſe, that in other places they have a like fertilizing fatneſſe.

9. Folding of Sheepe, eſpecially after the Flaunders manner, (viz.) under a covert, in which earth is ſtrewed about 6. inches thick, on which they ſet divers nights: then more earth muſt be brought and ſtrewed 6. inches thick, and the Sheepe folded on it, and thus they do continually Winter and Summer. I ſuppoſe a ſhepherd, with one horſe will do it at his ſpare houres, and indeed ſooner then remove his fold; and this folding is to be continued, eſpecially in Winter, and doth the Sheepe good; becauſe they ly warme and dry: and truly if I am not miſtaken, by this meanes we may make our Sheepe to enrich all the barren dry lands of England.

10. Aſhes of any kind. Seacoale-aſhes with horſedung the Gardiners of London much commend for divers uſes. It's great pitty, that ſo many thouſand loads are throwne into waſte places, and do no good.

11. Soote is alſo very good, being ſprinkled on ground but it's too deer, if it be of wood; for it's worth 16. d. or 2. s. a buſhel.

4612. Pigeons or Hens-dung is incomparable: one load is worth 10. loads of other dung, & therefore it's uſually ſowne on Wheate, that lyeth a far off, and not eaſy to be helped: it's extraordinary likewiſe on a Hop-garden.

13. Malt-duſt is exceedingly good in Corne-land: blood for trees; alſo ſhavings of hornes.

14. Some commend very much the ſweeping of a Ship of Salt, or droſſey ſalt and brine: it's very pro­bable; becauſe it killeth the wormes, and all fertility proceedeth from ſalt.

15. I have ſeen in France, poore men cut up Heath and the Turffe of the ground, and lay them on an heape, to make mould for their barren lands. Brakes laid in a moiſt place, and rotted, are uſed much for Hop-grounds, and generally all things that will rot, if they were ſtones, would make dung.

16. In New-England they fiſh their ground, which is done thus: In the ſpring about April, there cometh up a fiſh to the freſh Rivers, called an Alewife; becauſe of it's great belly: and is a kind of ſhade, full of bones; theſe are caught in wiers, and ſold very cheape to the planters, who uſually put one or two cut in peeces into the hill where their Corne is planted, called Virginia-Wheate, for they plant it in hills, 5. graines in an hill, almoſt as we plant Hops (in May, or June; for it will not endure froſts) and at that diſtance; it cauſeth fertility extraodinary for two years, eſpecially the firſt: for they have had 50. or 60. buſhels on an Acre, and yet plough not their land, and in the ſame hills do plant the ſame Corne for many years together, and have good crops: beſides abundance of Pumpions and47 French or Kidney beanes. In the North parts of New-England, where the fiſher-men live, they uſually fiſh their ground with Cods-heads; which if they were in England would be better imployed. I ſup­poſe that when ſprats be cheap, men might mend their Hop-grounds with them, and it would quit coſt: but the dogs will be apt to ſcrape them up, as they do in New-England, unles one of their legs be tyed up.

17. Ʋrine. In Holland they as carefully preſerve the Cowes urine, as the dung to enrich their land: old urine is excellent for the Roots of trees. Columella in his book of Husbandry, ſaith, that he is an ill hus­band that doth not make 10. loads of dung for every great beaſt in his yard, and as much for every one in the houſe, and one load for ſmall beaſts as hogs. This is ſtrange husbandry to us: and I be­leeve there are many ill husbands by this account. I know a woman who liveth 5. miles South of Canter­bury, who ſaveth in a paile, all the droppings of the houſes, I meane the urine, and when the paile is full, ſprinckleth it on her Meadow, which cauſeth the graſſe at firſt to look yellow, but after a little time, it growes wonderfully, that many of her neigh­bours wondered at it, and were like to accuſe her of witch-craft.

18. Woollen raggs, which Harford-ſhire-men uſe much, and Oxford-ſhire, and many other places: they do very well in thinne Chalky land in Kent for 2. or 3. yeares. It's a fault in many places, that they neg­lect theſe, as alſo Linnen-raggs, or Ropes-ends, of the which white and browne paper is made; for it's ſtrange that we have not Linnen-raggs enough for paper, as other Nations have; but muſt have it from Italy, France, and Holland.

4819. Denſhyring, (ſo called in Kent, where I onely have ſeen it uſed, though by the word it ſhould come from Denbigh-ſhire,) is the cutting up of all theMr. Camb­den. turffe of a Meadow, with an inſtrument ſharpe on both ſides, which a man with violence thruſts be­fore him, and then they lay the turffe on heapes, and when it's dry, they burne it, and ſpread it on the ground. The charge is uſually 4. Nobles, which the goodneſſe of a crop or 2. repayeth.

20. Mixture of lands. Colum. an old writer ſaith, that his Grand father uſed to carry ſand on clay, and on the contrary to bring clay on ſandy grounds, and with good ſucceſſe, the Lord Bacon thinking muchNatur. Hiſtor. good may be done thereby; for if Chalke be good for loamy land, why ſhould not loame be good for Chalky bankes?

21. I may add Encloſure as an Improvement of land: not onely becauſe that men, when their grounds are encloſed, may imploy them as they pleaſe; but be­cauſe it giveth warmth and conſequently fertility. There is one in London, who promiſed to mend lands much by warmth onely, and we ſee that if ſome few ſtickes ly together, & give a place warmth, how ſpeedily that graſſe will grow.

22. Steeping of Graines. The Auncients uſed to ſteep Beanes in ſalt-water: and in Kent it's uſual to ſteep Barly, when they ſowe late, that it may grow the faſter; and alſo to take away the ſoile: for wild Oates, Cockle, and all ſave Drake will ſwimme; as alſo much of the light Corne, which to take away is ve­ry good. If you put Pigeons-dung into the water, and let it ſteep all night, it may be as it were halfe a dunging: take heed of ſteeping Peaſe too long; for49 I have ſeen them ſproute in three or four houres.

23. Is the ſowing of Courſe and cheape Graine, and when they are growne to plough them in. For this purpoſe the Auncients did uſe LƲPINES, a plant well knowne to our Gardiners: and in Kent ſome­times Tares are ſowen, which when the cattel have eaten a little of the tops, they turne them in, with very good Improvement for their ground.

I will not deny, but that we have good Husbands,10. Defi­ciency, concern­ing the not Im­prove­ment of our Mea­dowes. who dung and Marle their Meadowes and Paſture­land, and throw downe all Mole and Ant-hills, and with their ſpud-ſtaffe, cut up all thiſtles and weeds, and that they likewiſe ſtraw aſhes on their grounds to kill the Moſſe; and ſalt for the wormes, and they do very well, but yet there are many who are negli­gent in theſe particulars, for the which they are blame-worthy, but the Deficiencies, of which I in­tend to ſpeak of, are theſe following. Cato, one of the wiſeſt of the Romans, ſaith, that Pratum eſt quaſi paratum; alwayes ready, and prepared; and preferreth Meadowes before the Olive-Gardens, (al­though the Spaniards bequeath Olive-trees to their children, as we do cotages) or Vines or Corne; becauſe Meadowes bring in a certaine profit, without labour and paines: but the other requireth much coſt and paines, and are ſubject to Froſts, Mildew, Haile, Locusts: to the which for the honour of Meadowes, I may add, that the ſtock of Meadowes, is of greater value, and the Commodities which ariſe from them, are divers and of greater value, than Corne, as Butter, Cheeſe, Tallow, Hides, Beef, Wooll; and therefore I may conclude, that England abounding in Paſtures more than other Countries, is therefore richer; and I know (what others think I care not) that in France Acre for50 Acre is not comperable to it, Farteſcue Chancelor of England, ſaith, that we get more in England by ſtand­ing ſtill then the French by working: but to ſpeak of the Deficiencies amongſt us.

1. We are to blame, that we have neglected the great Clover-graſſe, Saint Foine, Lucerne.

2. That we do not float our lands, as they do in Lombardy, where they mowe their lands 3. or 4. times yearly, which conſiſt of the great Clover­graſſe. Here are the excellent Parmiſane-cheeſes made, and indeed theſe Paſtures far exceed any other places in Italy, yea in Europe. We here in England have great opportunities by brooks & Rivers in all places to do ſo, but we are negligent; yet we might hereby double if not trebble our profits, kill all ruſhes &c. But he that deſireth to know the manner how to do this, and that profit, that will ariſe thereby, let him reade Mr. Blithes Booke of Husbandry, lately print­ed.

3. That when we lay down land for Meadow or Pasture, we do not ſowe them with the ſeeds of fine ſweet graſſe, Trefoiles, and other excellent herbes. Concerning this you may reade a large Treatiſe of the Countrey-Farmer; for if the land be rich, it will put forth weeds and trumpery, and perhaps a kind of ſoure graſſe little worth, if it be poore, ye ſhall have thiſtles, May-weed and little or no graſſe, for a yeare or 2. I know a Gentleman, who at my entreaty, ſowed with his Oates the bottome of his Hay-mowe, and though his land were worne out of heart, and naturally poore; yet he had that year not onely a crop of Oates; but he might if it had pleaſed him, have mowen his graſſe alſo, but51 he ſpared it, which was well done, till the next year, that it might make a turffe and grow ſtronger. By this Husbandry lands might be well improved, e­ſpecially if men did conſider the diverſity of graſſes, which are 90. ſorts, and 23. of Trefoile: I know a place in Kent, which is a white Chalky downe, which ground is ſometimes ſowen with Corne a year or 2. and then it reſteth as long or longer: when it is laid down it maintaineth many great Sheepe and ve­ry luſty, ſo that they are even fit for the Butcher; and yet there doth ſcarce appeare any thing that they can eate, which bath cauſed divers to wonder, as if they had lived on Chalke-ſtones: but I more ſeri­ouſly conſidering the matter, throughly viewed the ground, and perceived that the ground natu­rally produceth a ſmall Trefoile, which it ſeemeth is very ſweet and pleaſant, it's commonly called Trifolium luteum, or Lupilinum, that is, yellow or Hop-Trefoile: and I am perſwaded, if that the ſeed of this Trefoile were preſerved, and ſowen with dates, when they intend to lay it downe, it would very much advance the Paſture of that place; there­fore I deſire all Ingenious men, ſeriouſly to conſider, the nature of the Trefoiles, which are the ſweeteſt of graſſes, and to obſerve on what grounds they natu­rally grow: and alſo the nature of other graſſes, which (as I have ſaid before) are no leſſe then 90. ſorts, naturally growing in this Iſle; ſome on wa­try places, ſome on dry, ſome on clay, others on ſand, Chalk &c. ſome on fruitful places, others in barren; by the which meanes I ſuppoſe a ſolid foun­dation might be laid, for the advancing the Paſture-lands of all ſorts, through this Iſland: for I know52 ſome plants, as the Orchis call'd Bee-flower &c. which will thrive better on the Chalky barren bankes, than in any garden, though the mould be never ſo rich and delicate, and the Gardiner very diligent in cheriſhing of it: and why may not the ſame pro­priety be in graſſes? for we ſee diverſe benty graſſes to thrive, eſpecially on barren places, where ſcarce any thing elſe will grow. J muſt againe and againe deſire all men to take notice of the wonderful graſſe which groweth neare Salisbury, and deſire them to try it on their Rich Meadowes.

It's a common ſaying, that there are more waste lands in England, in theſe particulars, than in all11. De­ficiency, concern­ing waſte Lands. Europe beſides, conſidering the quantity of land. I dare not ſay this is true; but hope if it be ſo, that it will be mended. For of late much hath been done for the advancement of theſe kinds of land; yet there are as yet great Deſiciencies. In the times of Papiſtry, all in this Iſland were either Souldiers or Scholars; Scholars, by reaſon of the great honours, priviledges, and profits, (the third part of the Kingdome belonging to them) and Souldiers, becauſe of the many and great warres with France, Scotland, Ireland, Wales. And in thoſe times Gentlemen thought it an honour to be careleſſe, and to have houſes, fur­niture, diet, exerciſes, apparell, &c. yea all things at home and abroad, Souldier-like: Muſick, Pictures, Perfumes, Sauces (unleſſe good ſtomacks) were counted, perhaps unjuſtly, too effeminate. In Qu. Elizabeth's dayes Ingenuities, Curioſities, and Good Husbandry began to take place, and then Salt Marſhes began to be fenced from the Seas; and yet many were neglected, even to our dayes, as Hollhaven in53 Eſſex, Axtel-holme Iſle in York-ſhire: many 1000. of Acres have lately been gained from the Sea in Lin­colne-ſhire, and as yet more are to be taken in there, and in other places. Rumſey-marſh in Kent, con­ſiſting of 45000. Acres and upwards, (as Cambden relateth) is of ſome antiquity,