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AN EXPOSITION Of the EPISTLE ofSt JUDE, Together With many large and uſeful DEDUCTIONS.

LATELY Delivered in XL LECTURES In Chriſt-Church LONDON, BY WILLIAM JENKYN, Miniſter of the Goſpel of JESUS CHRIST.

The FIRST PART.but not printed as it was pthed

1 TIM. 4.1.

Now the Spirit ſpeaketh expreſly, that in the later times ſome ſhall depart from the faith.

TIT. 1.9.

Holding faſt the faithfull word.

〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉,Epiph. adv. Haer. l. 1. Tom. 2. haer. 25. p. mihi. 92

London, Printed by Th. Maxey, for SAMUEL GELLIBRAND, at the golden BALL in Pauls Church-yard. 1653.

To the Right Worſhipfull, and other my Beloved and Chriſtian Friends.Inhabitants in the Pariſh of CHRIST-CHURCH LONDON.

THE Souls of men may as cer­tainly be deſtroyed by poyſon­ing, as ſtarving. If Satan cannot hinder from ſome kind of taſting and receiving the grace of the Goſpel, he often perverts it poyſonfully, by making men to turn it in­to laſciviouſneſſe, and even by freedome from ſin, to allow themſelves in ſinning freely. The Seducers crept into the Church in Jude's time, un­der pretence of Chriſtian Liberty, introduced un­chriſtian Libertiniſm: No cheaper ſtuffe then Grace would ſerve their turns, wherewith to cloath laſciviouſneſſe; and no other Patron then the Lord Chriſt himſelfe to protect their impieties: Whether they were the Diſciples of Simon Ma­gus or Nicolaitans, or Gnoſticks, (as Epi­phanius thinks) I much enquire not; ſure I am, they were of the Synagogue of Satan; he was both their Father and Maſter, whom they reſem­bled, and whoſe works they did. In this Epiſtle the Apoſtle Jude, not only with Holy zeal oppo­ſeth them himſelf, but ſounds a Trumpet, for the rouſing up the Chriſtians, (upon whoſe Quarters theſe Seducers had fallen, to ſurpriſe their Trea­ſure, the Doctrine of Faith,) earneſtly to contend for the preſervation of ſo precious a Depoſitum, once, and once for all delivered to their keeping. The Arguments uſed by the Apoſtle are Cogent, his Directions Prudent, and probable it is, that his Pains were in ſome degree Succeſsfull. I know no Spiritually skilfull Obſerver, but apprehends too great a Reſemblance, between the faces of thoſe, and our times. Sins in our dayes are not only committed under the enjoyment, but (in pre­tence) by the encouragement of grace; men who now dare not ſin, are by ſome derided as ignorant of their Chriſtian liberty; and evident it is, that many live, as if being delivered from the fear of their enemies, they were delivered from the fear and ſervice of their Deliverer; and as if the Blood of the Paſſeover were not intended by God to be ſprinkled upon the door poſts to ſave them; but upon the threſhould of the door; for them to trample upon. Beloved friends, if God hath appointed that you ſhould reſemble theſe Chriſti­ans, to whom Jude wrote, in the danger of your times, its your duty to imbrace the directions deli­vered to theſe Chriſtians, for your defence from thoſe dangers. A gracious heart conſiders not how bitter, but how true; not how ſmart, but how ſeaſonable any truth is. My aime in the pub­liſhing theſe Lectures, is to advance holineſſe, and (ſo far as I could do it, with following the mind of the Apoſtle) to oppoſe thoſe ſins, which if peo­ple hate not moſt, are like to hurt them moſt; and to advance thoſe duties with which, if people be not moſt in love, yet in which they are moſt de­fective, and thereby moſt indangered. And now again, I beſeech you (that I may teſtifie my unfayned affection, as well by my Epi­piſtle as my Book) labour to keep cloſe to God in a looſe age; ſpend not your time in complaining of the licentiouſneſſe of the times, in the mean while ſetting up a toleration in your own Hearts and Lives. That private Chriſtian, who doth not labour to oppoſe prophanc­neſſe with a river of tears, would never (if he could) bear it down with a ſtream of power. Lay the foundation of Mortification deep. Reſerve no luſt from the ſtroke of Jeſus Chriſt. Take heed of pleaſing your ſelves in a bare for­mall profeſsion; Labour to be rooted in Chriſt: He who is but a viſible Chriſtian, may in a ſhort time ceaſe to be ſo much as viſible: He who ſpeaks of Chriſt but notionally, may in time be won to ſpeak againſt him: Love not the world. Beware of ſcandals; take them not where they are; make them not where they are not (the common ſin of our times, to black Religion, and then to fear and hate it.) Deſpiſe not the providences of God in the world; they are ſigns of Gods mind, though not of his love: Delight in the publick Or­dinances, and highly eſteem of faithfull Miniſters; they and Religion are commonly blaſted together. Shun Seducers; ſit down under a Miniſter, as well as under a Preacher; He who will hear everyone, may at length be brought to hear none; and he who will hear him preach who ought not, may ſoon be left to learn that which he ought not. Preſerve a tender conſcience; Every ſtep you take, fear a ſnare: Read your own hearts in the wickedneſſe of others. Be not ſlight in Cloſet-ſervices; and oft think of God in your ſhops, for there you think you have leaſt leaſure, but ſure you have moſt need to do ſo. Let your ſpeech be alway with grace, and a word or two of Chriſt in every company, if it may be; and yet not out of form, but feeling.

Theſe Lectures here preſented might ſooner have ſeen the light, had I not lately met with ſuch hinderances (ſufficiently known) as I once expected ſhould have ſtopp'd them altogether. The main of this imployment hath lien upon me ſince that time, which, conſidering my many other Imployments (you know) hath not been long, though otherwiſe long enough to have performed this work much more exactly. I here preſent you, though not with half of the Epiſtle, yet with more then the one half of that which upon the whole I preach'd. I have not knowingly left out any paſſages delivered in the Pulpit. The other part I promiſe in the ſame Vo­lume with this (ſo ſoon as God gives ſtrength & more leiſure) if this find acceptance with the Church of God. And now (Brethren) I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all them which are ſanctified; Reſting

Your Servant in the Work of Chriſt, WIL. JENKYN.


PAge 8. line 11. for four read three; p. 29. l. 27. for going to him for. r. we feel its; p. 44. l. 15. for them r. it. p. 119. l. 32. for feaſt r. food, p. 121. marg. r. differenter p. 123. l. 19 for lover r. love. p. 128. l. 5. r. (ſaith the ſoul) p. 152. marg. r. beneficentia, and under it Nieremb. p. 164. l. 9. for may r. might. p. 202. marg. r. omnes. p. 212. l. 8. for expli­cation r. exhortation. p. 228. l. 12. r. intruſted. p. 234. l. 30. r. invincible. p. 266. l. 12. r. opinions. marg. r. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. p. 288. l. 24. r. School-men. p. 305. marg. dele. Joſh. 62.9. p. 339. marg. r. ſolatia. p. 388. marg. r. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉frangere. p. 409. l. 34. r. diſtempered. p. 449. l. 27. r. ſubſtances. p. 460. for any one is r. men are. p. 363. l. 31. for and r. or. p. 464. l. 21. r. by. p. 465. marg. r. Enchir. p. 472. l. 36. r. put. p. 494. l. 19. r. alwayes continuing. p. 504. marg. r. comparativus. l. 31. r. heaven. l. 35. for in heaven. r. there. p. 512. marg. r. ſeveritas. p. 574 Obſer. 5. r. helliſhly. p. 579. l. 23. r. Do­moeritus. l. 26. r. in minde, blinde. p. 585. marg. r. Joſh. ibid. r. perpe­tuo. p. 623. l. 1. for juriſdictionem r. in juriſdiction.


be pleaſed to take notice, that there is now publiſhed the ſecond, third, and fourth Part of that moſt learned and judicious Treatiſe of the SABBATH, by M. DANIEL CAWDREY, and M. HERBERT PALMER.

Alſo a Treatiſe of GRACE and ASSURANCE, intituled, SPIRITUALL REFININGS, being one hun­dred and twenty Sermons by M. ANTHONY BUR­GESSE.


An EXPOSITION upon the Epiſtle of JUDE.

I Begin with the firſt part of the Epiſtle, the Title of, or Entrance into it, contained in the two firſt Verſes, which are theſe:

VER. 1.Jude the ſervant of Jeſus Chriſt, and bro­ther of James, to them that are ſanctified by God the Father, and preſerved in Chriſt Jeſus, and called;VER. 2.Mercy unto you, and peace, and love be multiplyed.

This Title containeth three principall parts:

  • 1. The Perſon who wrote the Epiſtle.
  • 2. The Perſons to whom he wrote it.
  • 3. The Prayer: wherein the perſon writing ſalutes the perſons to whom he wrote.

1 The perſon who wrote this Epiſtle is deſcribed theſe three wayes.

  • 1 From his name: Jude.
  • 2 From his office: A ſervant of Jeſus Chriſt.
  • 3 From his Alliance: the brother of James.

1 The deſcription of the Pen-man of this Epiſtle from his name: Jude. In the conſideration whereof I ſhall proceed by way

  • 1 of Expoſition,
  • 2 of Obſervation.

21 The name of the Authour of the Epiſtle conſidered by way of Expoſition: wherein two things are to be o­pened:

  • 1 The ſignification of the name Judas, or Jude.
  • 2 The ſubject of that name, or who the perſon was to whom it is here applyed.

1 For the ſignification of it. Its found fully expreſs'd Gen. Gen. The occaſion of the firſt impoſing it, was Le­ah's apprehenſion of Gods goodneſſe to her,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 in giving her a fourth ſon, whom therfore ſhe call'd Judah, ſignifying Praiſe, Confeſſion, or Celebration: She made his name a monument of her thankfulneſſe to God for him, as alſo of her ſons duty, to live to the praiſe of ſo good a God: a fruitful Wife to Jacob in children; and a fruitful Daugh­ter to God in thankfulneſſe. In qua nominis impoſitione, non dubito quin e­am direxerit Spiritus ſan­ctus, cùm Ju­dah fuerit is qui inter Jaco­bi filios, pater futuri Meſſiae conſtitutus erat. Riv. in loc. Joh. 3.16.The learned Rivet well ob­ſerves, that in impoſing this name, ſhe was directed by the ſpirit of God: this Judah being that ſon of Jacob, of whom Chriſt (according to the fleſh) was to come, for whom God is principally to be praiſed, he being the choyſeſt gift that ever God beſtowed; he turning every gift into a mer­cy: Onely thoſe who have him, and bear him, can praiſe God; to others God gives nothing (comparatively,) and they return nothing. God ſhews only how rich he is, in giving his Son; So God loved the world, that he gave his onely begotten Son.

2 The ſubject of this name is to be conſidered, to which it's here applyed. It's applyed in Scripture to a threefold ſubject.

  • 1 To a Tribe. Frequent mention is made of the tribe of Judah, 1 King. 12.20. Pſal. 76.8. &c.
  • 2 To a Country or Region, 2 Chron. 20.3. Jer. 2.4. and 17.25.
  • 3 and properly, To Perſons: and ſo in Scripture we read of ſix ſeveral perſons that had this name.
    • 1 Judah the Patriarch, Gen. 29.35.
    • 2 Judah in whoſe houſe Saul lodg'd at his firſt conver­ſion. Act. 9.11.
    • 33 Judas ſurnamed Barſabas. Act. 15.22.
    • 4 Judas of Galile. A ſeditious perſon. Act. 5.37.
    • 5 Judas Iſcariot the traytor. Mat. 10.4. Joh. 14.22.
    • 6 Judas the Apoſtle, the Author of this Epiſtle. Con­cerning whom the Scripture intimates (beſides his Apoſto­licall office, and relation to Iames, of which anon)

1 His Parentage: his Father being Alphaeus ſpoken of Matth. 10.4. and Mark 3.18. and his Mother held to be that Mary ſpoken of Matth. 27.56. in regard that this Alphaeus and Mary are ſaid to be the parents of Iames, to which James in Luk. 6.16. Act. 1.13. and here in this E­piſtle this Judas is ſaid to be brother. In ſacra dodc­cada fuerunt duo qui nomen Judae geſſêre; unus fuit ſecta­tor, alter inſe­ctator. Aug. Tr. 76. in Joh. Unus nomini ſuo convenienter ſe geſsit (Judas enim Confeſſo rem ſignificat,) alter per anti praſin nomen i­ſtud à ſe gori ipſis operibus demonſtravit. Gerh. Har. in loc. Joh. 14.22.

2 The Scripture expreſſeth a manifeſt diſtinction be­tween him and Judas Iſcariot, Joh. 14.22. calling him Ju­das, not Iſcariot; taking eſpeciall care that he might not be taken for him, their hearts and perſons being as differ­ent, as their names agreeable; for one was ſectator, the o­ther inſectator Domini; the one following Chriſt as a Diſciple, the other as a Blood-hound; one confeſs'd him, the other betray'd him; the one carryed himſelf accor­ding to his name, the other was a meer living contradicti­on to his name. When the Evangeliſt ſaith, Judas, not Iſcariot, he intended a difference 'twixt him and this holy Jude.

3 The Scripture expreſſeth an humble Queſtion pro­pounded by him to Chriſt: Lord, How is it, that thou wilt manifeſt thy ſelf to us, and not unto the world? Con­cerning which Queſtion, although I meet with different opinions, yet I ſee not why (with Muſculus) we may not conceive, that Jude propounded it out of an humble and modeſt conſideration of himſelf and the Apoſtles, in partaking of the gracious manifeſtation of Chriſt to them, there being a paſſing by of others more famous, and better accompliſh'd then were the Diſciples. A Que­ſtion, which (thus underſtood,) as it ſheweth [1] the freeneſſe of him that gives; ſo [2] the humility of them that receive grace; who, in ſtead of inſulting over others4 that have leſs then themſelves, admire the goodneſſe of him, that gives more to them than to others: nay [3] the tender-heartedneſs and pity of the godly towards the ſouls of thoſe wicked ones, who are commonly cruel and un­kinde to their bodies.

4. The Scripture expreſſeth concerning this Apoſtle, that he was〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉,and Act. 1.13. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Judas trinomi­nis. had ſundry names: for he that in Luk. 6.16. is called Iudas the brother of Iames, is in Matt. 10.3. called Lebbaeus, and Thaddaeus: concerning the reaſon whereof, I meet with ſundry opinions among Writers. Janſen. Harm. p. 220.1 Some conceive, that he had this diverſity of names from an uſuall cuſtom (they ſay) among the Jews, which was, that if any name had in it three or more of the letters of Iehovah,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 it ſhould not be us'd in ordinary ſpeech, but that ſome other name like it ſhould be us'd in ſtead of it. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Now Iudah containing in it all the four letters in the name Iehovah, (having beſides the letter〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉) this A­poſtle had other names to be ordinarily called by: but this reaſon ſeems (what-ever is the ſuperſtition of the la­ter Jews) not to have taken place in our Iude, or in any other that we read of; the Patriarch Iudah, the ſon of Ia­cob, had no other name but Iudah beſtowed upon him by his mother or friends, nor did the cuſtom appear upon Iu­das Iſcariot. 2. Others conceive, that theſe names were conferred upon him, to difference him from Iudas (of the ſame name) the traytor, grown deteſtable for his execrable fact and heinous treaſon; for which cauſe our Apoſtle may in the title of this Epiſtle, ſtile himſelf alſo the bro­ther of Iames; the name of Iudas being ſo odious in the Church, that (as a learned man obſerves)a Lorin. in loc. p. 320. Id ve­rum doprehendi, abſtinere ferè Chriſtianos ab imponendo et u­ſurpando nomi­ne Judae. Exe­rabile hoc no­men Chriſtianis ob execrabilem proditionem à Juda factam. Chriſtians have in all ages in a manner abſtained from impoſing it (though a good name in it ſelf) and that very rarely is it to be found mentioned in any Hiſtory. And there ſeems to be an exact care in the Evangeliſt, that when this holy Apoſtle [Joh. 14.22. ] was named, he might not be taken for the traytor, ſpeaking thus, Iudas, not Iſcarior. Nor was it any change of his name that did ſerve the turn; for5 it was no leſſe wiſely then piouſly heeded, that thoſe other names (Thaddaeus and Lebbaeus) ſhould be ſutable to the perſon upon whom they were beſtowed; Thaddaeus ſigni­fying in the Syriack the ſame thing (Praiſe or Confeſſion) with Judah in Hebrew; the impoſers of this name inti­mating the conſtancy of this holy man in confeſſing Chriſt, what name ſoever he had. Nor is it to be thought, but that the other name (Lebbaeus) was applyed fitly and ſutably to him, as being derived either from the Hebrew wordfrom the Heb. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Videantur Ju­nius in loc. Brugenſ. in 10. Matt. Janſen. c. 39. Lapide in loc. Juſtini. in loc. Lorin. in loc. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 Labi, which ſignifieth a Lion (the cognizance of another Judah, Gen. 49. of which tribe this Jude was) to ſhew his holy reſolution andb Leo dicitur à〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉Leb, Cor, quaſi cordatus ſeu animoſus, quia à generoſitate & praeſen­tia animi im­perterritus; cor enim ſedes eſt & ſymbolum fortitudinis: unde Ariſto­menes, qui to tam Graeciam ſtupefecerat audaciae miracu­lo, poſt mortem diſſectus, inventus eſt habere cor totum pilis hirſutum. Plin. lib. 11. c. 37. courage for God, in op­poſing ſin, and the enemies of the truth, even as with a Lion-like heart: or, from the Hebrew word Leb, which ſignifieth a heart; thereby noting (ſay ſome) that he was a man of much wiſdom and underſtanding in his place and carriage; for he who was of greateſtc Corculum dicebant antiqui ſolertem & acutum. Feſt. Qui valdè cautus & prudens, vocabatur Corculum. Plin. l. 7. cap. 31. Unde Scipio Naſica, ob prudentiam bis Conſul, appellatus eſt Corculum. Cic. Tuſc. 1. diſcretion and prudence, was of old wont to be called Corculum, from cor a heart; and a wiſe, underſtanding man is uſu­ally termed homo cordatus, a man with a heart: or no­ting (ſay others) that he was Cordis cultor, a man that laboured much about his heart, ſtudying diligently the purity and ſanctifying thereof. This for the expoſitory part of the firſt thing conſiderable in the deſcription of the pen-man of this Epiſtle, viz. his Name; the collection of Obſervations followeth.

Obſervations from the firſt thing in the deſcription of the Author of this Epiſtle, his Name, Jude.

1. Obſ. 1.I obſerve from the ſameneſſe or commonneſs of the name Judas, to a holy Apoſtle, and a perfidious traytor, to­gether with that ſeditious Galilean, That Names com­mend us not to God, nor conduce any thing to our true6 happineſſe: Many that have holy and bleſſed names, come much ſhort of them,Zedekiah. Jehoahaz. as Adonijah, Judas, &c. Abſolom ſignifieth the fathers peace; but he that was ſo call'd, pro­ved his fathers trouble: On the other ſide, many have unpromiſing and infamous names, who are excellent per­ſons, and have loſt nothing thereby. Its not a holy name, but a holy nature that makes a holy man. No outward titles or priviledges profit the enjoyer:〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉ali­quando mali,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉ali­quando boni. Si cōmunio no­minum condici­onibus praejudi­cat, quanti ne­quam ſervi, Re­gum nominibus inſultant. Tert. cont. Mart. c. 7. Neither circumci­ſion, nor uncircumciſion, but a new creature. A peaſant may have the name of a Prince; a traytor, the name of an holy Apoſtle: Its all one with God to call thee holy, and to make thee ſo. Oh, beg of him inward renovation, more then outward eſtimation: otherwiſe, a great name for holineſſe will prove but a great plague hereafter. Hell is a wicked Judas his own place. A good name with an unchanged nature, is but white feathers upon a black skin. A great priviledge unſanctified is a great puniſhment.

2 I obſerve,Obſ. 2. That wicked men make the beſt names and things odious by their unholy carriage. Judas the tray­tor makes the name Judas, by many, the worſt thought of. 1 Sam. 2.17. Ezek. 36.20.Elie's ſons made the people to abhorr the Lords offer­ing. God tels the people, that they had profaned his holy Name, while the heathen ſaid, Theſe are the people of the Lord, &c. Vita Evangeli­ca debet eſſe vi­ta Angelica.Scandalous Chriſtians have brought an odium upon Chriſtianity. Its the duty therfore of thoſe that are converſant about holy things, to be holy; to tremble leſt any ſhould think the worſe of Ordinances, of Miniſtry, of Sanctity for them. The blood of ſeeming Saints will not waſh away the ſcandall they have brought upon true ſanctity, nor make amends for the evil report which they have brought upon the Canaan of godlineſs: and yet we ſhould take heed of thinking the worſe of holineſſe, or of any way of God, for the wickedneſſe of any perſon what­ſoever: Eli's ſons ſinn'd in making the people abhorr the Lords offering;1 Sam. 2.24. and yet the Text ſaith, the people ſinn'd too in abhorring it. Obſ. 3.

3 Our Baptiſmall names ought to be ſuch as may prove7 remembrancers of duty. Leah and Alphaeus, in impoſing names on their Children, made uſe of ſuch as might put Parents and Children another day upon holineſſe. God call'd Abram Abraham, to ſtrengthen his faith: Han­nah gave the name of Samuel to her ſon,1 Sam. 1.20. becauſe a ſon of prayers. 'Tis good to impoſe ſuch names as expreſſe our baptiſmal promiſe. A good name is as a thread tyed about the finger, to make us mindfull of the errand we came into the world to do for our Maſter.

4. Obſ. 4.Miniſters [eſpecially] ought ſo to carry them­ſelves, as that they may not be aſhamed to their names; that their name prefix'd may be a crown, a credit to their Wri­tings: that whenſoever their names are ſpoken of, the hearer may bleſs them: that their names may be as a ſweet perfume to their actions. Many Chriſtians names are ſo odious, that what they ſay or do is blemiſh'd becauſe it comes from them; it had been good, if it had been ano­ther's. He is a dead man among the living, that hath a hatefull name. It's a great mercy when our names out­live us; it's a great puniſhment, when we out-live our names. They that honour God ſhall have the ſpirit of glo­ry reſt upon them. He that is a Iude, a Confeſſor of Chriſt, ſhall never want that honour.

5. Obſ. 5.Wee ſhould not do that which we are aſham'd or a­fraid to own, or put our names to. I deny not, but in ſome caſes it may be lawfull to change our names, or forbear to mention them, either by tongue or pen; but then we ſhould not be put upon ſuch ſtraits by the badneſſe of our actions (as the moſt are) which we are aſham'd to own; but by the conſideration of Gods glory, or the Chur­ches good, or our own neceſſary preſervation in time of perſecution, which may be the more advanced by the concealing of our names: Thus Bucer, in times of trouble for the Goſpel, call'd himſelf Aretius Felinus. Calvin's Inſtitutions were printed under the name of Alcuinus: But theſe did not conceal themſelves for ſin, but ſafety; nor yet ſo much for ſafety, as Gods glory.

8I paſs from the Name, and I proceed to the ſecond thing in the deſcription of the Author of this Epiſtle, and that was his Office: A ſervant of Ieſus Chriſt. Of this,

  • 1. By way of Explication.
  • 2. By way of Obſervation.

1 For Explication. Here two Points are to be opened.

  • 1. In what reſpect Jude was the ſervant of Chriſt?
  • 2. Why he here ſo ſtiles himſelf?

1. In what reſpect. Jude was the ſervant of Chriſt. He was ſo in four reſpects. Deus eſt Cauſſa rebus, tamſ­ſendi, quam ſi­endi. Implicat con­tradictionem, ut Deus com­municet alicui creaturae, à ſe dependeat: hoc enim facto communicaret ut non eſſet crea­tua. Dau. in Col. 1.17. Servus in Lati­na linguadictus eſt à ſervando; quòd hi qui jure belli poſſent oc­cidi, à Victori­bus cum ſerva­bantur, ſervi fiebant, Aug. li. 19. de C.D. c. 15.

1. Of Creation and ſuſtentation, as are all creatures: Pſal. 119.91. All are thy ſervants, from the higheſt Angel, to the loweſt worm. Col. 1.16, 17. All things were crea­ted by him, and for him, and by him all things conſiſt. The whole world is but his Family, altogether at his finding: ſhould he ſhut his hand, the houſe would be famiſh'd: If he withdraw his manu-tenency, the world would fall.

2. In reſpect of Redemption from the power of ſin and Satan; from their condemning and deſtroying power, Heb. 2.15. Rom. 8.1. Luk. 1.74. From their corrupting and de­filing power, Rom. 6.18. Eph. 6.6. And that this was a re­demption deſerving to make us ſervants to the Redeem­er, appears, in that it was not only by Conqueſt, and vin­dication from our enemies, when as the Conqueror might have deſtroyed us as well as taken us, or deſtroy'd them (in which reſpect, according to all uſage and equity, we ought to be for ever his ſervants;) but a redemption alſo by purchaſe, the Lord JE SUS having paid no leſs price then his own precious blood, 1 Pet. 1.18, 19. 1 Cor. 6.20. in which conſideration the Apoſtle ſtrongly argues, That wee are not our own, but ſerve for the glorifying of an­other.

3. Iſa. 49.3. Heb. 3.5. Pſal. 89.21. Hag. 2.23.This Apoſtle was the ſervant of Chriſt more pe­culiarly, by way of ſpeciall office and function: In which reſpect, as Christ himſelf, Moſes, David, Cyrus, Zerub­babel, &c. were called Gods ſervants; ſo are the Pro­phets9 in the Old,Jer. 35.15. Amos 3.7. Rom. 1. Phil. 1. Tit. 1. 2 Tim. 2.24. the Apoſtles and Miniſters in the New Teſtament called ſervants. Although it's granted, the Apoſtles were ſervants in a different way from other Mi­niſters, both in regard of the manner of their calling, which was by immediate miſſion and appointment from God, as alſo of the extent of their power, which was not tyed up or confined to one place,Mat. 28.19. Mark. 16.15. Matt. 5.13. but granted to them for the planting and governing of Churches in any part of the world. In which reſpect, ſome think, they are called the ſalt of the earth.

In regard of this function, and Office of Apoſtleſhip, Iude principally calls himſelf a ſervant of Chriſt; though not barely and ſolely in reſpect of Gods calling him to it; but in reſpect alſo of his own diligence, and faithfulneſs in endea­vouring to diſcharge his Office to which he was call'd: as Peter exhorts, 1 Pet. 4.10. and as Paul ſpeaks of him­ſelf, 1 Cor. 9.16. For Chriſt keeps no ſervants only to wear a Livery: As he is not a titular Lord, ſo neither are his ſervants titular ſervants. All their expreſſions of ſervice reach not the emphaſis either of their deſires or duty.

2 The ſecond thing to be opened, is the cauſe why the Apoſtle here ſtileth himſelf the ſervant of Chriſt.

1. Some think, to ſhew his humility and modeſty, in that he who might have us'd the title either of Apoſtle, or Brother of the Lord, rather contents himſelf with this note of duty and ſervice common to every Chriſtian.

Others, better, for the confirming and comforting of himſelf in his work; in that his Lord whom he ſerved, and who had ſet him on work, would ſtand by him, both in protecting his perſon, and prospering his work.

Others, and thoſe upon cleereſt grounds, conceive that the Apoſtle here imbraceth this title of ſervant in reſpect of others, that his doctrine might with more re­ſpect and readineſſe be received by thoſe to whom he wrote; ſeeing that he was called to his work, and that by ſuch a Maſter, whoſe ſervice added not more dignity to him, thent required duty from them.

10This for Explication: the Obſervations follow.

1. Obſ. 1.They who undertake any publick imployment for Chriſt, muſt receive a calling from him, to be his ſervants, if with comfort to themſelves, or benefit to others, they will go about his work. Rom. 10.15. Heb. 5.4, 5.Its a great ſhame, if all that are prophets are not the Lords people: but its a groſſe errour to think that all the Lords people are miniſterially prophets. Their being the Lords people makes them fit to hear, but not fit to preach: fit ſheep, not fit ſhepheards. Suppoſe that (which conſtant experience contradicts) they have the fitneſſe of gifts; have they therefore a ſufficient Call to preach by way of Office and Miniſtry? Is this enough to be a Kings ſervant, or a Noble mans Steward, for a perſon to have abilities to diſcharge thoſe places? is there not required Commiſſion or Call alſo? and are not Miniſters call'd ſer­vants and Stewards? At this time, I doubt it would hardly be accounted true doctrine, that every one who hath mili­tary gifts, courage and policy, may be a Commander of a Regiment, or Captain of a Troop, and that he might ga­ther his Followers without Commiſſion. Is it enough for a man to be a Princes Ambaſſador, becauſe he hath ſuffici­ent gifts, for wit, and good expreſſion, & c. ? muſt not the King alſo give him the authority to be an Ambaſſa­dour? Is every one that hath good legs, or can run, a Meſſenger? muſt he not be ſent likewiſe? Beſides, whoſoever hath a commiſſion to preach, hath a commiſſion to baptize; as is plain from Matth. 28.19. preaching and baptizing reaching alike the Miniſtery of all ages: But hath every gifted-man ſuch a Commiſſion? Further, doth not our Saviour (Mat. 10.41. ) cleerly diſtinguiſh be­tween a righteous man and a Prophet? if they had been all one, why would he have done ſo? And if gifts make a Miniſter; is it not as true, that gifts make a Ma­niſtrate? and then every one that had underſtanding and other good governing parts, were a Lord Maior: nay, then why might not women preach, (as lately they have done) many of whom have better gifts then ſome men? 11And how could that agree with the Apoſtolicall prohibition for women to ſpeak in the Church? 1 Cor. 14.34.

Beſides, all who are called to preach, are bound to increaſe their gifts, by giving attendance to reading,1 Tim. 4.13, 15. to doctrine, and by giving themſelves wholly to theſe things: which cannot be done, unleſſe earthly occupations be laid aſide: But gifted men are not bound to this; therefore they have not this Call which they pretend. To conclude, Every one that hath this Miniſteriall Call, hath that Paſtorall care lying upon him, mentioned Hebr. 13.17. To watch over ſouls, as thoſe that muſt give an ac­count with joy, and not with grief: But this can in no wiſe be ſaid of every one that is a gifted man: and ther­fore gifted perſons (as ſuch) muſt forſake their pretend­ed claim to a miniſteriall call. Nor can it be evinced, that becauſe the Apoſtle ſaith, (1 Cor. 14.31.) All may pro­pheſie, therfore every gifted perſon may preach: For, beſides that the gift of propheſie was extraordinarily be­ſtowed in that age of the Church, not procured by ſtu­die and induſtry, but immediately conferr'd by the Spirit upon ſome, as were alſo Miracles, the gift of healing, and diverſities of tongues (all which are now ceas'd,) its moſt plain, that the word all in that place is not to be taken in its full latitude, as if all the men, or every beleever in the Church of Corinth might ſtand up and propheſie (for that's expreſly contrary to 1 Cor. 12.29.1 Cor. 12.28. where by an In­terrogation the Apoſtle doth vehemently deny that all are prophets:) but its to be taken reſtrictively, to thoſe that were in office, and ſet by God in the Church for that purpoſe, as the Apoſtle ſpeaks, 1 Cor. 12.28. God hath ſet ſome in his Church, firſt Apoſtles, ſecondarily Pro­phets, &c. Other cavils are weaker then to deſerve a men­tioning; as to argue from that place 1 Cor. 14.34. that becauſe women are forbid to ſpeak in the Church, ther­fore any man may ſpeak. What greater ſtrength is in this argument, then to reaſon thus? Becauſe no woman may be a Iuſtice of Peace, therefore every man may. Be­cauſe12 no woman may ſpeak publickly, therfore ſome men muſt (namely, ſuch as are in office) had been a much bet­ter conſequence. Nor is there more ſtrength in that al­legation of Moſes his wiſh,Num. 11.27. that all the Lords people were prophets, to prove that all might propheſie: for in his de­ſiring that all might be prophets, he includes a required con­dition, that they might be call'd by God to that employ­ment.

2. Obſ. 2.Allyance in faith, ſpirituall relation to Chriſt is much dearer and nearer then allyance in fleſh. Iude might have call'd himſelf a neer kinſman to Chriſt, or Chriſts Brother, as indeed he was, and was ſo accounted, Mat. 13.55. Mark 6.3. as much as Iames, who Gal. 1.19. is call'd the Lords brother: but that which includes a ſpiri­tuall relation is to him much ſweeter; to be a ſervant of Chriſt is more deſirable then to be a Brother of Christ. To bear Chriſt in the heart, much better then to bear him in the womb.What had it profited to have been his kinſman, unleſſe his ſervant? many that were his kinſmen according to the fleſh, wanted the honour of this ſpirituall affinity; but ſuch of them who had this honour beſtowed upon them, had all their other glory ſwallowed up in this (as Chriſt ex­preſſed himſelf) he is my brother,Mat. 12.47, 50 John 12.26. and mother, and ſiſter. Bleſſed be God, that this greateſt priviledge is not denyed to us even now: though we cannot ſee him, yet love him we may:1 Pet. 1.8. though we have not his bodily preſence, yet we are not denyed the ſpirituall: though he be not ours in houſe, in arms, in affinity; yet in heart, in faith, in love, in ſervice he is.

3Obſ. 3. I obſerve, A peculiar excellency and worth in the title of Servant, which our Apoſtle with others before him was ſo frequently delighted withall; It might furniſh them and us with a five-fold Conſideration full of ſweet­eſt delight. Sumus Domini, non tantum in genitivo ſingu­lari, ſed & in nominativo plu­rali. Luth.1. That he much honours us. To ſerve Chriſt is to reign: Its more honour to ſerve Chriſt, then to ſerve Emperours, nay, then to have Emperours ſerve us: for in­deed, all things do ſo. 2. That he will aſſiſt us in our works: If he gives employment, he will give endowments13 too; if an errand, a tongue; if work, an hand;Phil. 4.13. if a bur­den, a back: I can do all things through Christ that ſtreng­theneth me (ſaith Paul.) And herein he goeth beyond all other Maſters; who can toyl and task their ſervants ſufficiently, but cannot ſtrengthen them. 3. That he will preſerve us; He will keep us in all our wayes: and ſurely then, he will ſo in all his own work. Safety evermore accompanies duty. His mercy is over all his works; but peculiarly over all his workers. Men are never in danger, but when they leave working. Jonah was well enough till he attempted to run away from his Master. When our enemies do us greateſt hurt, they remove us above hurt. A ſervant of Chriſt may be ſick, perſecuted, ſcorned, im­priſoned, but never unſafe: He may loſe his head, but not one hair of his head periſh. 4. That he will provide for us. He can live without ſervants; but theſe cannot live without a Maſter. Verily his Family-ſervants ſhall be fed. The ſervants of Chriſt ſhall want no good thing: If they be without ſome things, there's nothing they can want; they ſhall have better, and enough of better. Can he that hath a mine of gold, want pibbles? can it be that a ſervant of Chriſt ſhould want proviſion, when as God can make his very work meat and drink to him? nay, when God can make his wants meat and drink? how can he want, or be truly without any thing, whoſe friend hath and is all? And no good thing ſhall they want, nothing that may fit them for, and further them in duty. 'Tis true, they may be without clogs, ſnares, hinderances; but theſe things are not good that hinder from the chief Good: ſhould God give them, he would feed his ſervants with husks, nay, with poyſon. 5. That he will reward them: The Lord gives grace and glory:Mat. 5.12. Great is their reward in heaven; nay, great is their reward on earth. There's a re­ward in the very work: but God will beſtow a further recompence hereafter. We ſhould not ſerve him for, but he will not be ſerved without wages, even ſuch as will weigh down all our work all our woes.

14Oh the folly of them that either prefer the cruel and diſhonourable ſervice of ſin, before the ſweet and glorious ſervice of Chriſt; or, that being ſervants to Chriſt, im­prove it not for their comfort in all their diſtreſſes!

4. Obſ. 4.I inferr, We owe to God the duty and demeanour of ſervants. 1. To ſerve him ſolely, Matt. 6.24. not ſerving ſin,Gal. 1.10. Tit. 3.3. Rom. 6.12, 13. Satan at all, not man in oppoſition to Chriſt; not ſer­ving our ſelves, the times. Who keep ſervants to ſerve o­thers, enemies? Chriſt and Sin are contrary Maſters; contrary in work, and therfore its an impoſſibility to ſerve both; contrary in wages, and therfore its an infinite folly to ſerve Sin.

2. Chriſt must be ſerved obediently, ſubmiſſively, [1] in bearing when he correcteth: A beaten ſervant muſt not ſtrike again, nor word it with his Maſter; we muſt accept of the puniſhment of our iniquities: 'tis chaff that ſlyes in the face of him that fanneth. [2] We muſt be ſubmiſſive ſervants in being content with our allowance, in forbearing to enjoy what we would, as well as bearing what we would not: the proper work of a ſervant is to wait; ſtay thy Maſters pleaſure for any comfort. All his Servants ſhall have what they want, and therfore ſhould be con­tent with what they have. The ſtanding wages are certain and ſet, the vails are uncertain. [3] Submiſſive in not doing what we pleaſe, not going beyond our rule, our or­der. Miniſters are his ſervants, and therfore muſt not make Laws in his houſe, either for themſelves or others, but keep laws; not of themſelves lay down what they pub­liſh, but publiſh what he hath laid down. Miniſters are not owners of the houſe, but Stewards in the houſe. Laws are committed to us, and muſt not be excogitated by us. No ſervant must do what is right in his own eyes. Deut. 12.8.[4] Sub­miſſive in doing whatever the Maſter pleaſeth; not pick­ing out this work,Pſ. 119.6, 128. and rejecting that; nothing muſt come amiſſe to a ſervant: We muſt not examine what the ſer­vice is that is commanded, but who the Maſter is that commands:1 Tim. 5.21. We muſt not preferre one thing before ano­ther;15 a ſervice that moſt croſſeth our inclinations, op­poſeth our eaſe and intereſt. A ſervant muſt come at every call, and ſay, Lord, I hear every command. Acts 10.33.[5] We muſt ſerve Chriſt obediently in doing what is commanded, becauſe it is commanded: this is to ſerve for conſcience ſake. If the eye be not to the command, the ſervant acts not with obedience, though the thing be done which is commanded: nay, its poſſible, a work, for the matter, agreeable to the command, may yet be an act of diſobedience, in reſpect of the intent of the performer. Oh how ſweet is it to eye a precept in every performance! to pray, hear, preach, give, becauſe Chriſt bids me! Many do theſe works for the wages, this is not to be obedient; they ſell their ſervices, not ſubmit in ſervice.

3. Chriſt muſt be ſerved heartily:Epheſ. 6.6. Col. 3.23. Rom. 1.9. We muſt not be〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, eye-ſervants, we muſt do the will of God from the heart. Paul ſpeaks of ſerving God in the ſpirit, There are many complement all ſervants of Chriſt in the world, who place their ſervice in ſaying, Thy ſervant, thy ſervant, Lord; lip-ſervants, but not life, heart-ſervants: ſuch as the Apoſtle (Gal. 6.12. ) ſpeaks of, that do〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, make a ſhew only, but the heart of a ſervice is wanting; the heart makes the ſervice ſacrificium medullatum, 'tis the marrow of a performance. Bodily ſervice is but like the fire in the buſh, that appeared to burn, but did not; or like the Glow-worm in the night, that ſhineth, but heateth not: theſe do but act ſervice, but are no ſervants, ſervants onely in profeſſion: To theſe who would not profeſs Chriſt ſeriouſly, Chriſt will hereafter profeſs ſeriouſly,Mat. 7.23. I never knew you, depart from me, ye that work iniquity.

4. Christ must be ſerved cheerfully: He,Pſal. 40.8. Joh. 4.34. 2 Cor. 9.7. as he was his Fathers ſervant, delighted to do his will; It was his meat and his drink. God loveth a cheerfull ſervant in every piece of ſorvice: This makes the ſervice pleaſing to Maſter and ſervant too; acceptable to the former, eaſie to the later: Nothing is hard to a willing minde; willingneſs is the oyl to the wheel. A ſervant cheerfull at his work is as free as16 his Maſter:Si non poſsint à Dominis liberi ſieri, ſuam ſer­vitutem ipſi quodammodo li beram faciunt, Aug. de C.D. l. 19. c. 15. Rom. 12.11. If his Maſter make him not free, he makes him­ſelf free. The preaching of the Goſpel muſt be perform­ed willingly, 1 Cor. 9.17. Love to ſouls ſhould make us cheerfull in that ſervice; not mourning at our own pains, but at peoples unprofitableneſs; not that we do ſo much, but that they get no more.

5 Chriſt must be ſerved diligently: Theſe two, fervent in ſpirit, and ſerving the Lord, are moſt properly joyned together: Hence it's moſt neceſſary, that what-ever we do,Eccl. 9.10. Gen. 24.33. ſhould be done with all the might. Abrahams ſervant was diligent when he went to procure a wife for Iſaac; he would not eat bread, till he had done his errand; when 'twas done, he ſtay'd not upon complements. They whoſe ſervice is in ſoul-marriage,Qui ludit in Ca­thedra, lugebit in Gehenna. ſhould ſpend no time needleſly. Its pity that Satans Emiſſaries ſhould be more diligent then Chriſts ſervants,; Impostors, then Paſtors. How di­ligent a ſervant was Paul, that paſs'd over ſo many Coun­tries with ſo much ſpeed? I laboured more then they all, was ſpoken as comendably, as truly; not plus profui, I was more ſucceſsful; but plus laboravi, I took more pains: Diligence may be a companion and comfort, where ſucceſſe is a ſtranger.

6. Christ must be ſerved perpetually: There muſt be no end of working, till of living. The dead are they who reſt from their labours: Life and labour are of equall con­tinuance. We can never begin too ſoon, nor continue too long in the ſervice of Christ: none ever repented of either, many of the contrary to both: Faithfulneſs to the death hath the onely promiſe of the Crown of life: Better never to have begun, then to apoſtatize. Its an unanſwerable Dilemma; If the ſervice of Chriſt were bad, why did you enter into it? if good, why did you depart from it?

Laſtly,Obſ. ult. Obſerve, That they who expect to perſwade o­thers to ſerve Christ, must be ſervants themſelves. Jude, a ſervant of Christ, hopefully exhorteth others continue in his ſervice, and to contend for his faith. The beſt way to move others, is to be moved our ſelves: words that come17 from the heart, are moſt likely to reach to the heart. It's not ſufficient for Miniſters to diſcourſe of his ſervice, but to imbrace it. A blurred finger is unfit to wipe away a blot. Its wofull when the function and the converſation oppoſe each other. If the ſervice of Chriſt be bad, why ex­hort we others to ſubmit to it? if good, why accept we not of it our ſelves? A titular ſervice ſhall never receive a re­all reward. Depart from me ye that work iniquity, ſhall be the doom of ſome that caſt out divels, and propheſie in the name of Christ.

Thus much for the ſecond particular in the deſcription of the Authour of this Epiſtle, viz. His Office, A ſer­vant of Ieſus Chriſt. Now follows

The third and laſt Particular conſiderable in his de­ſcription, taken from his Kindred and Alliance: in theſe words,

The Brother of Iames.

Of which, by way

  • 1. Of Explication.
  • 2. Of Obſervation.

1. For Explication. Two things are to be opened:

  • 1. Who this JAMES was.
  • 2. Why this Apoſtle here calls himſelf his Brother.

1. Who this JAMES was.

The Scripture ſpeaks of two of that name: The one, James the ſon of Zebedee, the brother of John the Evange­liſt, mentioned under theſe relations, Matth. 10.3. Mar. 3.17. Matth. 4.21. Call'd by Christ; leaving father and ſhip; ſlain by Herod, Act. 12.2. nam'd by Chriſt, with his brother, Boanerges, Mar. 3.17. the ſons of thunder. The other, this James here mentioned: Concerning whom much is ſaid, 1. in Scripture; 2. in Eccleſiastical Hiſtory: but in both he is ſpoken of very honourably.

1. In Scripture. Firſt, His kindred and allyance are of­ten mentioned: His father is ſaid to be Alpheus, Matth. 10.3. Mar. 3.18. Luk. 6.15. Act. 1.13. His mother was Mary, ſpoken of Mat. 27.56. Mar. 16.1. Luk. 24.10. Mar. 15.40. His brethren are ſaid to be Simon, Joſes, and Ju­das,18 Mat. 13.55. Mar. 6.3. two whereof were Apoſtles, viz. Simon and Judas, Mat. 10.3, 4. Luk. 6.15, 16. Act. 1.13. and the other, viz. Joſes, or Joſeph, was competitor with Matthias (as is generally ſuppoſed) for the Apoſtleſhip in the room of Judas Iſcariot, Act. 1.23. Particularly, this James is ſaid to be the brother of the Lord, Gal. 1.19. though together with him, his brethren, Joſes, Judas, and Simon are alſo call'd Chriſts brethren,Hierom. cont. Helv. Virgo ille manſit cum Maria qui pa­ter Domini me­ruit appellari. Tantopere Chri­ſtus dilexit flo­ridi pudoris in­tegritatem, ut non modò de virgineo utero naſceretur, ſed etiam à nutri­tio virgineo tractaretur. Pet. Dam. Ep. 11. Aug. Tr. 10. in Joh. Bed. Aqu. Apud Hebraeos nomina quae con­veniunt in ra­dicalibus, per additionem li­terarum ſervi­lium, notionem non mutant; ut Judas & Tho­das idem ſigni­ficant, &c. Boulduc. in Jud. ver. 1. Mat. 13.55. Mark 6.3. Not as if Mary the mother of Christ had afterward born children unto Joſeph, as the erroneous Helvidius (whom Hierom confuteth at large) laboured to maintain: Nor as if James and the reſt were call'd the brethren of Chriſt as being the ſons of Joſeph, (Christs reputed father) by an­other wife; for the Scripture tels us frequently, they were the ſons of Alpheus; and its the received opinion, that Joſeph was never the husband of any but the bleſſed Virgin, (though haply ſome have the more earneſtly aſ­ſerted it from their high eſteem of Virginity.) But ſome ſuppoſe this James and his brethren are call'd the brother and brethren of Chriſt, in reſpect they were the cozens germane of Chriſt by the mothers ſide, or Chriſts mo­thers ſiſters children: and this their mother Hierom thinks is that Mary, called the ſiſter to the Virgin, and the wife of Cleophas, John 19.25. her firſt husband Alpheus either being dead, or elſe one and the ſame husband being (as others) adorned with two names, Alpheus, and Cleophas; which might well be, in regard among the Hebrews, thoſe names that agree in the ſame radicall letters, loſe not their notion and ſignification by the addition of other letters to them (a rule applicable to theſe two names, Alpheus and Cleophas.) AndHarm. Hiſt. Paſ. Ch. 16. p. 186. Gerhard alſo thinks, that this Mary the ſiſter of the Virgin, and the wife of Cleophas, was the mo­ther of James, &c. becauſe, as in John 19.25. Mary the wife of Cleophas and ſiſter of the Virgin, is joyned with Mary Magdalen ſtanding by the Croſs; ſo, in the other Evangeliſts, Mary the mother of James (upon the very ſame occaſion) is joyned with Mary Magdalen, Matth. 1927.56. and Mark 15.40. Some conceive this Mary the wife of Cleopas was mother of James, but was not own ſiſter to the Virgin Mary, becauſe (ſay they) it is not the cuſtom for the ſame parents to put the ſame names on ſe­verall children; but that ſhe is called ſiſter to the Virgin Mary becauſe her husband Cleopas or Alpheus was the brother of Joſeph, the husband of the Virgin Mary, bro­thers wives being frequently called ſiſters. The moſt pro­bable opinion is, that Joſeph and Alpheus were of neer re­lation, haply naturall brethren, and therfore Joſeph (being the reputed father of Chriſt) his brother Alpheus his children (among whom this James was one) are called the brethren of Chriſt; it being uſuall in Scripture to call thoſe brethren that are neer of kin; as we ſee Abraham and Lot (Gen. 13.8. ) are called brethren, although Lot was his nephew, Gen. 14.12. So Jacob calls his uncle La­ban, brother, Gen. 29.12, 15. vid. Gen. 31.32, 37, 46.

Thus the Scripture ſpeaks of James in reſpect of his kin­dred or allyance.

2. The Scripture ſpeaks worthily of him in regard of his Office; not only in that he was an Apoſtle,Perkins in Gal. 2.9. with others. but alſo of great honour and reſpect among the Apoſtles, and in the Church, he being Act. 15. a principall member (ſome ſay Preſident) in the Council of Jeruſalem, where he gave his advice in a great Controverſie, and it was highly e­ſteemed and followed: and in regard of his high eſteem in the Church, and uſefulneſſe, he is (with Cephas and John, Gal. 2.9. ) called a Pillar: for although all the Apo­ſtles were equall in degree of office, yet there were ſome of them endowed with more eminent gifts, and had grea­ter eſteem then the reſt: and therfore we read of Paul's comparing himſelf with the chiefeſt of the Apoſtles, 2 Cor. 11.5. and 12.11. of which James was one. And wheras Mark 15.40. he is called James the leſs, 'tis conceived, it was not to diſtinguiſh him from the other James the ſon of Zebedee, as if the Scripture hereby would denote our James leſſe in reſpect of age, calling to Apoſtleſhip, or of20 ſtature, much leſſe of eſteem: but he may be called the leſſe in compariſon of his father,Iſta majoritas & minoritas eſt inter patrem & filium; inter Jacobum Al­phaeum, & Ja­cobum Alphaei filium. Vid. Boulduc. in ver. 1. Jud. Videantur E­piphan. Hie­ron. Egeſippus &c. who (as a learned man thinks) was called James alſo, as well as Alpheus; which opinion of his he probably confirms in his Expoſition up­on this place.

2. Eccleſiaſticall Hiſtory ſpeaks of him alſo as a moſt worthy perſon, both for the admirable and rare holineſs of his life, and his conſtancy in profeſſing of Chriſt at his death.

1. For his life: Hierom, in alluſion to his name, James, or Jacob, calls him the ſupplanter of ſin and vice of thoſe times wherein he lived, preach'd, and wrote. And, as many write moſt highly in commendation of him, ſo par­ticularly Euſebius in his ſecond Book, Chap. 1. & 22. For his holineſſe he was called the Juſt,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, &c. Euſeb. lib. 2. c. 22. one that was much in faſting and prayer for the pardon of that ſinfull people the Jews: with his frequent and long praying his knees were hard. The Jews were generally much convinced of his holines; inſomuch, as the enemies of Chriſt hoped, if they could procure him to deny Chriſt, that moſt of thoſe that profeſſed, would abandon the Faith of Chriſt.

2. For his Death: The Scribes and Phariſees earneſtly be­ſought him to diſclaim Chriſt openly; and to that end they ſet him upon the Temple, that in the ſight and au­dience of the people he might declare that Jeſus was not Chriſt: but he to admiration profeſs'd his own faith in Chriſt, telling the multitudes, that Chriſt was in heaven at the right hand of God, and that in the clouds he ſhould come again to judg the world: with which profeſſion his enemies being enraged, caſt him down from the Temple, and afterwards murdered him, he before his death pray­ing, that God would pardon their ſin unto them: the ſame Author (as alſo Joſephus lib. 20. Antiq. cap. 8.) teſtifying, that thoſe who were of the wiſer ſort thought that this de­teſtable fact was that which ſhortly after drew down the judgment of God, to the utter deſtruction of that bloody City Jeruſalem, that had (among others) butchered ſo holy a man. Thus far Euſebius.

21This though I relate not as Canonicall, yet neither do I look upon it as fabulous, it being by many famous and godly Writers teſtified. And this for the firſt particular to be explained, Who this James was.

The ſecond Branch of Explication was, Why Jude ſti­leth himſelf the brother of this James.

Of which I finde two reaſons given, both probable.

1. That he might difference himſelf from others of that name, eſpecially Judas Iſcariot; of which alſo the Scripture ſeems to take eſpeciall care: Hence Joh. 14.22. he is ſpoken of with an addition of a not Iſcariot, this traytors name being grown deteſtable: in which reſpect, 'tis generally conceived,Mar. 3.18. Matt. 10.3. that he had the names of Thad­daeus and Lebbaeus put upon him (as was before noted:) and thus he wiſely preſerves himſelf and Epiſtle from un­due prejudice, and by the clearneſſe of his perſon, prevents diſlike of his performance.

2. He expreſſed this neer relation between himſelf and James,Act. 12.17. Gal. 2.9. in regard this Apoſtle James being better known then himſelf, of high eſtimation and reputation in the Church,Jacobi celebr is ob virtutem a­pud omnes fama effectura erat, ut hujus Apo­ſtoli doctrina a­pud auditores majorem habe­ret authorita­tem, libentiúſ que admittere­tur; praeſertim ſi is qui genere & ſanguine co­gnatus eſſet, non alienus à cogna­ti moribus, ſed ſub uno Domino Chriſto degens, idem ſervitut is jugum cum fra­tre, &c. commonly known by the title of the Lords bro­ther, reſpected by Peter, famous for his ſanctity of life, ac­counted a Pillar in the Church, Preſident of the Council of Jeruſalem; Jude might hereby win attention and credit to himſelf and his Epiſtle from thoſe to whom he wrote: And this is the reaſon that Occumenius gives to this effect: The fame of James for his vertue, would put the greater authority upon Judes doctrine; eſpecially when it ſhould be ſeen, that Jude was as neer him in his practices and conver­ſation, as in blood and kindred. Beſides, by the naming of James with ſo much reſpect, it could not be imagined but that he conſented with him in that wholſom doctrine for which James was famous in the Church; and yet though our Apoſtle provides for the acceptation of his doctrine, neither he nor his brother James ambitiouſly advance their own reputation; both of them (though the Lords brethren) yet contenting themſelves with that humble (though in­deed20〈1 page duplicate〉21〈1 page duplicate〉22truly honourable) title of the ſervant of Jeſus Christ.

2. I come to the Obſervations flowing from his u­ſing this title of the brother of James.

1. How needfull is it for a Miniſter to be of an un­teinted reputation?Obſ. 1. Jude provides for it, both by making it known how far he was from Iſcariot, and how neer un­to James. 1 Tim. 3.7.A Biſhop muſt be of good report (ſaith Paul.) Its neceſſary for his own ſalvation that he ſhould be good; and for the ſalvation of others, that he ſhould be account­ed ſo. How great was Paul's care, that the Goſpel ſhould not be blamed? 2 Cor. 6.3. Sometime the people are occa­ſioned to love the Word by the worth of the Miniſter; though we ſhould love the Miniſter for the Word. A crack'd Bell is not good to call men together; nor is a Miniſter of crack'd reputation fit to perſwade others to holineſſe. To have all ſpeak well of us, is not more impoſ­ſible then ſuſpicious. Antiſthenes the Athenian, when he heard ſome unworthy men did highly commend him, ſaid, I fear I have done ſome evill that I know not of. And ano­ther would frequently ſay, Would we know a man, we ſhould obſerve the life of him that praiſeth him: Rarely will one praiſe him that takes contrary courſes to himſelf. But this ſhould be the care of the beſt, to keep himſelf from being ſpoken of reproachfully and truly at the ſame time by the worſt. Nor is it leſſe the ſin of people to ble­miſh the name of him that deſerves well, then it is the ſin of any one to deſerve ill. The Apoſtle is tender of recei­ving an accuſation againſt an Elder: certainly, he who is ſo much againſt receiving, would be much more againſt thieving.

2. Its lawfull to uſe humane helps for the advantage of Truth. Obſ. 2.This help, the title of the brother of James, was warrantably prefix'd. Paul, where the fruit of his mini­ſtry was hazarded by omitting titles, mentions them at large;1 Cor. 9.1. Gal. 1. as to the Corinthians and Galatians: and where concealment of his titles might do as well, or better, he23 omits them, as in both the Epiſtles to the Theſſalonians: the like is requiſite for us: In theſe things Miniſters ſhould conſider what tends moſt to the benefit of ſouls. I have known Miniſters of great learning and worth, who have been deſpicable among Idiots, becauſe Birth, or Ʋni­verſity degrees, or Allyance have not commended them; perhaps they had not a James to their brother. 1 Cor. 15.33. Tit. 1.12. Act. 17.28.The Hea­thens teſtimonies are not refuſed by the Apoſtle to advan­tage Truth: If the naming of a Father in a Sermon tends more to oſtentation then edification, it may better be for­born, otherwiſe be lawfully uſed. Scripturis non credidiſſem. &c Aug.Humane Authority was an Introduction to Auſtens faith; afterward (as the Samaritans) he beleeved upon firmer grounds. Certainly, we never ſo well improve our humane advantages, as when Chriſt is advanced by them. How ſweet, to obſerve Miniſters to ſet Chriſt upon their Names, Titles, Parts, Readings!

3 The beauty of Conſent and Agreement between the Miniſters of Chriſt, either in Doctrine or Affection:Obſ. 3. Both theſe the prefixing of James his name argued between him and Jude. Readily and raſhly to diſſent from other the faithfull and approved Miniſters of Chriſt is not like our Apoſtles carriage. Indeed, we muſt not admire men too much, though of greateſt learning and piety; not ſo af­fect unity, as to forſake verity; or ſo follow men, as to forget God: The beſt men in the world are but rules regu­lated, not regulating; We muſt only ſo far ſet our Watch according to theirs, as they ſet theirs according to the Sun. Satan endures no mediocrity: All Miniſters hee repreſents as Dwarfs or Giants, none of a middle ſta­ture; either they muſt be worſhip'd, or ſtoned. Avoid we both extremes: neither proudly diſſenting from, nor impru­dently aſſenting to them either in practice or opinion. Their gifts muſt neither be adored nor obſcured; their falls and ſlips neither aggravated nor imitated: We muſt avoid both ſequaciouſneſſe to follow them in any thing and ſin­gularity to diſlike them in every thing: The middle way24 of a holy, Scripture-conſent, joyning in what we may, and meekly forbearing in what we may not, is a gracious tem­per. Miniſters muſt not ſo ſtudy to have multitudes of followers, as to ſcorn to have any companions; to vilifie others for the advancement of themſelves; to build up their own reputations upon the ruines of anothers. Con­ſent, as much as may be, is no more then ſhould be. If Miniſters ſhould endeavour a holy peace with all men, much more with one another; there's not more bety then ſtrength in their union. How pleaſant is it to read Peter mentioning his agreement with his beloved brother Paul;2 Pet. 3.15. that Paul that had withſtood him to the face? Gal. 2.11.There's no repugnancy in Scripture; why ſhould there be betwixt them that handle it? If the Paen-men of the Scripture be at peace in writing, Miniſters muſt not be at war in preach­ing: they muſt not ſeek more their priſe for wit, then the profit of ſouls. When children fall out in interpreting their father's Will, the Orphans patrimony becoms the Lawyers booty. Hereticks are the gainers by the diviſions of them that ſhould explain the Word of Chriſt. The diſ­ſention of Miniſters is the iſſue of Pride: If there muſt be ſtrife, let it be in this, who ſhall be formoſt in giving honour; if emulation, in this, who ſhould win moſt ſouls to Chriſt, not admirers to themſelves. Its good to uſe our own parts, and not to contemn others. The Apoſtles in the infancy of their calling were not without the itch of pride; Chriſt laboured to allay it both by precept and example.

4. Grace and Holineſſe are not only an ornament to the perſon himſelf that is endowed with them,Obſ. 4. but even to thoſe that have relation to him: The holineſſe of the child is an ornament to the father, that of the father to the child, the grace of the huſband to the wife; the holineſſe of one brother beautifies another. It's true, Every veſſell muſt ſtand on his own bottom, and every one muſt live by his own faith: Its a folly to boaſt of the holineſſe of our Parents, and neglect it our ſelves: if thy father be holy for him­ſelf and thee too, he ſhall go to heaven for himſelf and25 thee too. The grace of thy friends doth not beget grace in thee, but beutifie it. The Saints have oyl of grace little enough for their own lamps; and where holineſs is ab­horred by the child, that of the parent is but an addition to the childs ſhame and puniſhment, in being ſo unlike him ſpiritually, whom he doth ſo reſemble naturally. 'Twas but a poor priviledge for the Jews to have Abraham for their naturall, and the Divel for their ſpirituall father: but when a child, a brother, a wife, love and labour for that grace which thoſe of neer relation have attained, its their honour and ornament, in that they who are neer them are neerer to God. Indeed, its often ſeen, that they who have moſt ſpirituall lovelineſſe have leaſt love from us: The godly want not beuty, but carnall friends want eyes. A blind man is unmeet to judge of colours: how poſſible is it to entertein Angels, and not to know it? The love of grace in another, requires more then nature in ones ſelf. Blood is thicker (we ſay) then water; and truly the blood of Chriſt beutifying any of our friends and children, ſhould make us prefer them before thoſe, between whom and us there's only a watery relation of nature. But how great a blemiſh often doth the graceleſneſſe, the unholineſſe of a parent, a husband, a brother, bring upon them that are of neer relation to them? Its a frequent queſtion that was propounded by Saul to Abner,1 Sam. 17.56. Whoſe ſon is this ſtrip­ling? How diſgracefull is ſuch an anſwer as this; The ſon of a Drunkard, a Murderer, an Oppreſſor, a Traytor, a Whoremaſter? Love to our friends, our poſterity, &c. as well as to our ſelves, ſhould make us love grace.

Thus much for the third and laſt particular in the de­ſcription of the Authour of this Epiſtle; the brother of James: and ſo for the firſt part of the Title of the Epiſtle, The deſcription of the Penman of it. The 2d part of the title or pre­face of the E­piſtle, viz. The parties to whom the A­poſtle writes.

The ſecond part of the Title followeth; which is the Deſcription of thoſe perſons to whom he wrote; which per­ſons are deſcribed from a threefold priviledge:

  • 26
  • 1. They are ſanctified by God the Father,
  • 2. Preſerved in Jeſus Chriſt,
  • 3. Called.

Of theſe in their order.

The firſt branch of this deſcription, 1. is, They are ſancti­fied by God the Father: Wherein I conſider two Particu­lars: 1. The ſort or kinde of the priviledge beſtowed upon them, viz. Sanctification; To them that are ſanctifi­ed. 2. The Author therof, or by whom it was beſtowed, By God the Father.

1. Of the kind of Priviledg, Sanctification. Of which I ſhall ſpeak

  • 1. By way of Explication of it.
  • 1. By way of collecting Obſervations from it.

1. Of the Priviledge, Sanctification, by way of ex­poſition.

〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, To them that are ſanctified.] Beza ſpeaks of two Copies that read it〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉and from thence the Vulgar Tranſlation renders it Dilectis,This other reading, men­tioned alſo by Ro. Steph. and Gagnaeus. To them that are beloved of God the Father: which manner of ſpeech (as Beza well notes) is unuſuall in Scripture, which ſpeak­eth of us being for and in Chriſt beloved of the Father: And Eſtius (though a Papiſt) acknowledgeth, that the former reading,Eſtius in loc. ſanctified, is not onely more pure, but more ſutable to the ſcope and drift of the Apoſtle, who by calling them ſanctified, would deterr them from, and make them take heed of thoſe unholy and impure Sedu­cers againſt whom he was now about to write.

The word here uſed by the Apoſtle, admits of, and ſi­gnifieth in Scripture ſeverall kinds of Sanctification; as

1. Sanctification by way of deſtination or ſeparation: To this purpoſe the Greeks uſe the word〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉,Exod. 29.44. 1 King. 9.3. 2 Chro. 7.16. Eſa. 13.3. i.e. when things are ſeparated to an holy uſe: ſo the Lord ſanctified the Sabboth day, by ſeparating it from other dayes, and ap­pointing it for the duties of his own Service: Thus alſo the Tabernacle, the Temple, the Firſt-born were ſancti­fied. Exod. 13.2. God commandeth Moſes to ſanctifie all the Firſt-born; which he explains ver. 12. Thou ſhalt27 ſet apart unto the Lord all that openeth the matrix.

2. There is a ſanctification by way of celebration, ac­knowledging, manifeſtation, declaration of the goodneſs of a thing: thus the creature ſanctifieth the name of the Crea­tor; Iſa 29.23. They ſhall ſanctifie my name, and ſanctifie the holy One of Jacob.

3. Sanctification by way of fruition, comfortable uſe, and bleſſed enjoyment of the gifts of God: ſo 1 Cor. 7.14. the unbeleeving huſband is ſanctified by the wife. and 1 Tim. 4.5. Every creature of God is ſanctified.

4. Sanctification by way of application, to apply a thing to ſuch a holy uſe as God appointed: ſo we ſanctifie the Sabboth, Exod. 20.8. i.e. imploy it to the holy uſe for which God ordained it.

5. By exhibition, introduction, or beſtowing actuall holineſſe; by putting holineſſe really and properly into one: This the Creator only can do to his creature: this God doth by his Spirit, which is called the holy Ghoſt, and the Spirit of ſanctification. 2 Theſſ. 2.13.And thus man particularly is ſanctified or made holy three wayes:

1. Of not holy negatively:Ex non ſancto negativè. and ſo Christ as he was man was ſanctified; for there was a time when as Chriſt had not this holineſſe in his humane nature; when his humane nature was not.

2. Of not holy privatively:Ex non ſancto privativè. and ſo man that had loſt totally his holineſſe, is made holy by regeneration or ef­fectuall vocation.

3. Of leſſe holy: and ſo Gods children are ſanctified,Ex minus ſancto. by being enabled to the exerciſe of an actuall mortifying of ſin, and living in holineſſe, with proceeding in both.

The ſanctification here ſpoken of preſuppoſeth the ſe­cond, afterward in the word [Called] more particularly to be handled; and intendeth the third, namely, the actu­all exerciſe of the abolition of our naturall corruption, and the renovation of Gods image in us, begun in grace here, and perfected in glory hereafter.

So that this Sanctification ſtands 1. In an actuall put­ting28 off of corrupt qualities;Epheſ. 4.22, 23, 24. Col. 2, 9, 10. Rom. 6.2. Gal. 2.20. Gal. 5.24. Rom. 6.8.5. Gal. 6.14. Col. 3.5. Eph. 2.1. 2 a putting on the new and ſanctified. 1 A Buriall; 2 a Reſurrection. 1 A mortifi­cation of the old; 2 a vivification of the new man. 1 One thing is destroy'd and pull'd down; 2 Another ſet up. 1 A taking away of what is redundant; 2 an addition of what is wanting. 1 The killing power of the Croſs; 2 the quickning power of the Reſurrection of Chriſt.

1. Mortification of the old man is the firſt part of ſan­ctification, wherby the ſtrength, power, and tyranny of ſin is weakened, and more and more aboliſh'd; like John Bap­tist, it decreaſeth; like old folks in a houſe, who are go­ing out of the world, and crowded out, as it were, by the younger, the heirs: The living of the old man is onely as a clog and eye-ſore to the new.

This work of Mortification ſtands principally in theſe three acts, or degrees of acting: 1. An act of diſcerning. 2. Detesting. 3. Deſtroying ſin, the ſouls enemy. Know­ing cauſeth hatred; and hatred puts us upon ſeeking the deſtruction of an enemy.

1. An act of diſcerning: Sin may hurt us when wee know it not; but we not hate it unleſſe we know it: Sin had deformity always, but we had not always eys to ſee it. It was Leah that lay by Jacob all night, but he diſcern'd her not till the morning. Sin is now diſcovered as it is, not as it is coloured over by Satan. Sin is uncomly onely to a renewed underſtanding: Nature never ſets up a light to diſcover its own deformities. Of others its often ſaid, They know not what they do: In underſtanding they are children, nay, brutes; they ſee with Satans ſpectacles: But a re­newed minde diſcerns between things that differ, looks upon the old boſom-favourite as a traytor: there are new ap­prehenſions of the old man. The Apoſtle not without an emphaſis ſpeaks of thoſe things wherof we are now aſha­med; now, not formerly: nay, heretofore ſin was gloryed in: but now the ſoul ſees its not onely unſafe, and its own death, but unſutable, and the death of Chriſt: It was ſtriking at me (ſaith a gracious heart,) but Chriſt ſtep'd29 between me and the blow: Herein ſtanding ſins great de­formity, as that of drunkenneſſe in a mans wounds.

2. Deteſtation: The eye increaſeth loathing. It cannot meet this ugly gueſt in any corner of the houſe, but the heart riſeth againſt it; this hatred of evill (Pſal. 97.10. ) is more then of hell: its a killing look that the ſoul doth caſt upon every corruption. He that hateth his brother is a man-ſlayer; he that hateth his luſt is a ſin-ſlayer: not he that hateth the ſins or practices of his brother, but the perſon of his brother; ſo, not he that hateth the effects and fruits of ſin, but the nature of ſin; not he that hateth ſin for hell, but as hell. Every evill, by how much the nearer 'tis, by ſo much the more its hated: An evill, as it is ſo to our eſtate, names, children, wife, life, ſoul, as impen­dent, adjacent, incumbent, inherent, admits of ſeverall degrees of hatred: Sin is an inward, a ſoul-foe. Love tur­ned into hatred becoms most bitter; brethrens diviſions are hardeſt to reconcile; the ſouls old love is turned into new hatred; the very ground ſin treads upon is hated: There's a kinde of hatred of ones ſelf for ſin; every act that ſin hath a hand in is hated, our very duties for ſins intermixing with them; and we are angry with our ſelves that we can hate it no more.

3. This hatred puts forth it ſelf in labouring the destru­ction of ſin. Love cannot be hid, neither can this hatred: The ſoul ſeeks the death of ſin by theſe ways and helps.

1. By lamentation to the Lord, when going to him for ſtrength with the Apoſtle, Oh wretched man that I am! was there ever a ſoul ſo ſin-pestred! Ah, woe is me, Lord, that I am compell'd to be chain'd to this block! Never did a ſlave in Egypt or Turkey ſo ſigh under bondage, as a mor­tifying ſoul doth under corruption. The ſorrows of others are outward, ſhallow, in the eye, the look; but theſe are in the bottom of the ſoul, deep ſorrows. Its true, a man may give a louder cry at the drawing of a tooth, then ever he did pining under the deepeſt conſumption; but yet the conſumption, that is the harbinger of death, doth afflict30 him much more: and, though outward worldly grief, as for the death of a child, &c. may be more intenſe and ex­preſſive; yet grief for ſin is more deep, cloſe, ſticking, op­preſſive to the ſoul then all other ſorrows: the ſoul of a ſaint, like a ſword, may be melted, when the outward man, the ſcabbard, is whole.

2. The ſoul of a ſin-ſubduer fights againſt ſin with the Croſſe of Christ, and makes the death of Christ the death of ſin;Epheſ. 5.25. 1. By depending on his death as the meritorious cauſe of ſins ſubduing, of ſanctification and cleanſing. Chriſts purifying us being upon the condition of his ſuffer­ing,1 Cor. 6.20. and ſo it urgeth God thus, Lord, hath not Chriſt laid down the price of the purchaſe? why then is Satan in poſſeſ­ſion? Is Satan bought out? Lord, let him be caſt out. 2. By taking a pattern from the death of Chriſt for the killing of ſin, we being planted into the ſimilitude of his death, Rom. 8.5. ſin it ſelf hanging upon the croſſe (as it were) when Chriſt died. Oh, (ſaith a gracious heart) that my corrup­tions may drink Vinegar, that they may be pierced, and naild, and never come down alive, but though they die lingeringly, yet certainly. Oh, that I might ſee their hands, feet, ſide, and every limb of the body of death bored, the head bowing, and the whole laid in the grave: the dark­neſſe, error, and vanity of the underſtanding; the ſinfull quietneſſe and unquietneſſe of my conſcience, the rebel­lion of my will, the diſorder of my affections. 3. And e­ſpecially, the ſoul makes uſe of the death of Chriſt as a motive or inducement to put it upon ſin-killing: Ah, my ſin is the knife (ſaith the ſoul) that is redded over in my Redeemer's blood: Ah, it pointed every thorn on his head, and nail in his hands and feet. Lord, Art thou a friend to Christ, and ſhall ſin that kill'd him, live? Thus a ſin-mortifying heart brings ſin neer to a dead Chriſt, whom faith ſeeth to fall a bleeding afreſh upon the ap­proach of ſin; and therfore it layes the death of Chriſt to the charge of ſin. The croſſe of Chriſt is ſins terror, the ſouls armour: The bloud of Christ is old ſures-be, (as31 holy Bradford was wont to ſay) to kill ſin. As he died for ſin, ſo muſt we to it; as his fleſh was dead, ſo muſt ours be, Our old man is crucified with him, Rom. 6.6. Its not a Pope's hallowing a Croſſe that can do it,Mr. D. Rogers Pr. Cat. but the power of Chriſt by a promiſe, which bleſſeth this Croſſe to mortifi­cation.

3. The ſoul labours to kill ſin by fruitfull enjoyment of Ordinances. It never goeth to pray, but it deſires ſin may have ſome wound, and points by prayer (like the ſick child) to the place where its moſt pained. How doth it bemoan it ſelf with Ephraim, and pour-forth the bloud of ſin at the eys? It thus alſo improves Baptiſm; it looks upon it as a ſeal to Gods promiſe, that ſin ſhall die: We being buried with Chriſt in baptiſm, that the Egyptians ſhall be drowned in the ſea. It never heareth a Sermon, but (as Joab dealt with Ʋrijah) it labours to ſet its ſtrong­eſt corruption in the fore-front of the battell, that when Chriſt ſhoots his arrows, and draws his ſword in the preach­ing of the Word, ſin may be hit. An unſanctified perſon is angry with ſuch preaching, and cannot endure the winde of a ſermon ſhould blow upon a luſt.

4. By a right improving all adminiſtrations of provi­dence: If God ſend any affliction, the ſanctified ſoul con­cludes, that ſome corruption muſt go to the lions: If there a­riſe any ſtorms, preſently it enquires for Jonah, and labours to caſt him over-board: If God ſnatcheth away comforts (as Joſeph fled from his Miſtris,) preſently a ſin-mortifying heart ſaith, Lord, thou art righteous, my unclean heart was prone to be in love with them more then with Chriſt my true Husband: If God at any time hedg up her way with thorns, ſhe reflects upon her own gadding after her impure Lovers: If her two eys (Profits, Pleaſures) be put out and removed, a ſin-mortifier will deſire to pull down the houſe upon the Philiſtims; and beareth every chaſtiſement cheerfully, even death it ſelf, that ſin may but die too.

5. By conſideration of the ſweetneſſe of ſpirituall life. 32Life is ſweet; and therfore what coſt are men at, to be rid of diſeaſes, to drive an Enemy out of the Country! The ſoul thinks how happy it ſhould be, could it walk with God, and be upright, and enjoy Chriſt, be rid of a Tyrant, and be governed by the laws of a Liege, the Lord Jeſus. How heavie is Satans yoke to him who ſees the beu­tie, and taſts the liberty of holy obedience? A ſick man confined to bed, how happy doth he think them that can walk abroad about their imployments? Oh, (ſaith a gracious heart) how ſweetly doth ſuch a Chriſtian pray! how ſtrictly doth he live! how cloſe is he in duty! how fruitfull in converſing! But I (alaſs!) how feeble, how dead, how unable! I am held under by a tyrant; oh that I could be his death!

6. By recollecting its former folly in loving of ſin: thinking thus; Formerly I loved that which now I ſee would have murdered me: What a deal of pains, care, coſt, time laid I out to ſatisfie my luſts! oh that I could recall theſe follies as I recollect them: but ſince I cannot make them never to have been, I'll labour to hinder them for time to come. Oh that my hatred might be greater then ever my love was to them. A ſoul that hath been mad upon ſin, afterward is as vehement againſt it. This is the Apoſtles argument, As ye have yeelded your members ſervants to uncleanneſſe,Rom. 6.19. 1 Pet. 4.3. ſo now to righteouſneſſe: and The time past of our lives may ſuffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles.

7. By with-drawing thoſe things that have been as fuell and fodder to corruption: Fire is put out as well by ta­king away wood, as caſting on of water. A ſin-mortifying heart forbears the uſing of that which it hath heretofore abuſed; it knows that often Satan lieth in ambuſh behinde lawfull enjoyments. He that hath taken Phyſick in wine, afterward is ready to loath that very ſort of wine in which his loathed medicine was given him; he that hath been ſin-ſick, dreads thoſe tentations in which Satan was wont to wrap ſin up: he conſiders, that he that alway goeth as33 far as he may, ſometime goeth farther then hee ſhould: he feeds not without fear,Jude ver. 12. but trembles in every enjoy­ment, leſt it may be an in-let to ſin, and his own cor­ruption get advantage by it; he fears a ſnare under his very trencher, and poyſon (for his ſoul) in every cup of wine; eſpecially, if he hath been formerly bitten therby. Whereas a carnall heart engulfs it ſelf in occaſions of ſin (if in themſelves lawfull,) ſees no enemy, and therfore ſets no watch: he makes proviſion for the fleſh,Rom. 13. he cuts not off the food which relieveth his enemy: whereas a Sin-mor­tifier (as an enemy that beſiegeth a City) hinders all the ſupplyes and ſupport of luſts, that ſo he may make himſelf more yeeldable to holineſſe.

8. By re-inforcing the fight after a foyl; by gaining ground after a ſtumble, by doubling his guard after un­warineſſe, ſtrengthening the battell after a blow; praying more earneſtly, contending more ſtrenuouſly, laying on more ſtrongly after ſin hath been too hard: thus Paul was the more earneſt with God againſt ſin; he beſought the Lord thrice after the meſſenger of Satan had buffetted him. 2 Cor. 12.8.

9. By a holy vexation with the conſtant company, and troubleſom preſence of ſin. Thus was holy Paul put upon oppoſing of ſin: he complains, ſin was always preſent with him, (Rom. 7.21. ) even when he would do good. And ſin is call'd (Heb. 12.1. ) encompaſſing, eaſily beſetting,〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, It dwells in us: Its a leproſie not ceaſing till the wall be pull'd down, the houſe of our mortality diſſolved; its as neer as the skin upon the back, bowels in the body; it goeth along with a ſaint in every duty, Sabboth, Ordi­nances, like Pharaoh's frogs into the Kings chambers, pe­ſtering a Saint at every turn: the apprehenſion hereof puts the ſoul upon endeavouring ſins ruine. The neerer an enemy is, the more hatefull he is; the cloſer the conflict is, the quicker are the ſtrokes, the fiercer the fight.

To conclude, A holy inſulting and rejoycing in God follows, if at any time he hath given the ſoul victory, and any fore-skins and heads of theſe uncircumciſed; it34 bleſſing God (as Panl, Rom. 7.21.) I thank God through Jeſus Christ our Lord; going about duty more cheerful­ly, and yet humbly: A man may read the good news of a victory in a Saints countenance. Doth he not ſay to Chriſt when ſome luſt hath been ſmitten (as Cuſhi to Da­vid) I would that all the enemies of my Lord were as that one young man? Lord, When will there be a perfect rid­dance of theſe vermin? Oh, how ſweet will heaven be, when I ſhall trample upon every Goliah, and ſee every E­gyptian dead upon the ſhore! when I ſhall have neither tear in my eye, nor luſt in my ſoul!

This for the firſt thing in the nature of Sanctification, viz. Mortification.

2. The ſecond follows, which is Vivification, wherby we live a new and ſpirituall life: The Scriptures proving it are abundant; I live (ſaith Paul, Gal. 2.20. ) yet not I, but Chriſt liveth in me. If ye be riſen with Chriſt, ſeek thoſe things that are above, Col. 3.1. The life of Jeſus is made manifeſt in our mortall fleſh, 2 Cor. 4.11. As the death of Chriſt is the death of corruption; ſo the ſame pow­er of God by which he raiſed Chriſt from the dead,Eph. 1.20. doth frame us to the life of Chriſts holineſſe: Chriſt by the power of his Deity, wherby he raiſed himſelf, having de­rived ſpirituall life to all his members (as life is derived from the head to the other members) enableth them to ma­nifeſt it accordingly. As Chriſt was raiſed up from death by the glory of the Father, even ſo we walk in newneſſe of life, Rom. 6.4. and ver. 11. Reckon ye your ſelves alive un­to God through Jeſus Chriſt. Eph. 2.10. We are his work­manſhip, created in Chriſt Jeſus to good works, which God hath before ordained that we ſhould walk in them. Joh. 15.5. He that abideth in me and I in him, the ſame bringeth forth much fruit.

Theſe brief conſiderations may ſhew in what reſpects a ſanctified perſon lives a new life, a life of holineſſe.

1. A ſanctified perſon liveth a holy life, in moving and acting from a principle of holy life. All vitall actions are35 from an inward principle: A body without a ſoul lives not, moves not naturally; nor without an internall principle of ſpirituall life received from Chriſt doth any one live ſpiritually. The body of every living creature hath a heart, which is the forge of ſpirits and the fountain of heat:Joh. 3.9. Jer. 32.40. Jer. 31.33. True holineſſe proceeds from an implanted ſeed, the fear of God in the heart, the Law put into the inward man. San­ctity, unleſſe Chriſt be in us, is but a fable:Gal. 2.20. Rom. 6.11. Joh. 15.5. Gal. 4.19. Col. 1.27. Christ liveth in me, ſaith the Apoſtle: and ſo he ſpeaks of living to God by Chriſt. Chriſt muſt abide in us; he is formed and dwelleth in us. The actions of a ſanctified perſon are from a vitall principle, the ſpirit within; the holineſſe of ano­ther is but from without, beginneth at his fingers ends; he is drawn by outward inducements; his motions are not the motions of a living creature, but like thoſe of a clock,Duceris ut ner­vis alienis mo­bile lignum. Hor. Ser. l. 2. or ſome image, that move not from within, but from weights and plummets without; when his weights are down, his work is done. A perſon ſpiritually enlightned, hath not onely Spiritum adſtantem, but aſſiſtentem: ſhould hee have all the incouragements of honour or profit from without, he could never do any thing cheerfully, but would ever be complaining, unleſſe he enjoyed inward quicknings and enlivenings of heart in duty by the Spirit of Christ; the ſupplyes of the Spirit.

2. A ſanctified perſon lives a holy life, as in acting from, ſo according to a principle of holy life. Now his actings are according to his principle of holineſſe,

1. In regard of their kinde: they are of the ſame ſort or nature with the principle of holineſſe: Water in the ſtream is of the ſame nature with that in the fountan. He that is ſanctified lives like himſelf, his regenerated ſelf. A ſpirituall life produceth ſpirituall living, the ſeed of God puts forth it ſelf in the fruits of godlineſs; if he be a fig-tree, he bears no thiſtles; the working of a Saint follows his being: The Ʋnderſtanding acts in a ſound, efficatious,Eph. 1.17, 18. Col. 3.10. Eph. 4.23. o­perative, influentiall knowing both of God and our ſelves. The Conſcience acts in a holy tenderneſſe and remorſeful­neſſe36 for ſin, Pſal. 16.7. 2 Chr. 34.27. and in a pious peace­ableneſſe and quietneſſe, giving witneſſe of a perſons re­conciliation to (Rom. 5.1. ) and walking with God ſincere­ly. 2 Cor. 1.12. This is our rejoycing, the teſtimony of a good conſcience. The Memory retaining heavenly things as a treaſury,Pſal. 119.11. repoſitory, or ſpirituall ſtore-houſe of the Word, an Ark for the two Tables. The Will acts by a plyable yeelding to God in all things, both to do what God enjoyns, and to undergo what God inflicts; in both its flexible:Rom. 7.18. Pſal. 39.9. It deſires to pleaſe God in all things, though it find not alway to perform. The Affections act in a holy regularity and order (being ſtreams not dried up, but di­verted:)1 Tim. 1.5. Pſal. 18.2. Love is out of a pure heart, a ſpark flying upwards, ſet upon God principally, and that for himſelf; ſet upon man for God, either becauſe we ſee God in him, or deſire we may.Pſal. 139.25. Hatred is now of thoſe things that God hates, and that hate God. Joy is now ſpiritual in the Lord, in com­munion with him, in ſerving of him, though in tribulation. Sorrow is now for ours and others ſin, and the ſufferings of the Church, not for ſuch poor things as worldly trifles; the pearls of tears not being caſt upon the dunghill. Our Deſires are now ſet upon the preſence and pleaſing of God, pardon of ſin, a ſoft heart, fruitfulneſſe under the means, the prosperity of Sion, the appearance of Chriſt. Our Zeal is not now hot for our ſelves, and cold for God; like fire well ordered, burneth for the ſervice, not the conſu­ming of the houſe. Hope is now lively and well grounded, not falſe and carnall. This ſpirituall acting, outwardly reacheth the body, making it a weapon of righteouſneſſe; fire within, will break out: The whole body is the ſouls in­ſtrument, in all its members being obedient to effect good actions, according to the dictate of renewed Reaſon, and the command of ſanctified Will: the Eye is (as it were) a watch-man, the Tongue a ſpokes-man, the Ear a diſciple, the Arm a champion, the Leg a lackquey, all at the diſpo­fall of God. If the wares of holineſſe be in the Shop, thoſe of the ſame kind will be on the Stall: the life of a Saint37 is a viſible Sermon of ſanctification; he who hath his heart ordered aright hath his converſation ordered aright;Pſal. 50. the hand of the clock goeth according to the wheels: Out of the good treaſury of the heart he brings forth good things: The body will be the interpreter of a gracious heart: the law is written in the heart, and commented upon in the life: a clean ſtomack ſends forth a ſweet breath. The matter of our actions ſhall be warranted by the word,Pſal. 119.35. Mic. 6.8. Luk. 17.10. Act. 4.19. Pſal. 32.2. Pſal. 112.1. the manner humble, cheerfull, reſolute, ſincere. In a word, glory ends are propounded, and our workings (if God require) ſhall croſſe our own intereſt, eaſe, profit: To­have a good heart and a wicked life, is a walking contra­diction. A ſanctified perſon is not as Ephraim, a cake not turn'd, only baked on one ſide.

2. The actings of a ſanctified perſon are conform­able to his principle of Sanctification as that principle is extenſive to, and puts upon all the wayes of holineſſe, and as it is a ſeed of all the fruits of Sanctification: A ſan­ctified perſon embraceth every holy duty, he fructifieth in every good work, Col. 1.10. hath reſpect to every precept;Pſ. 119.6, 128 eſteems every precept concerning all things to be right: There's a concatenation of all graces; they are linked to­gether in a divine league; he hath not any grace, that wholly wants any: The inſtructions of the Law are co­pulative;Jam. 2.10. he that would ſeem to make conſcience of keeping all the Commandments of God ſave one,Non eſt juſta cauſatio cur praeferuntur a­liqua, ubi faci­enda ſunt om­nia. Salv. de Pro. l. 3. obſerves none at all out of any obedience to God, who hath alike commanded all. A ſanctified perſon preferrs not one Command before ano­ther, 1 Tim. 5.21. his foot can endure to walk (being ſound) in a ſtony as well as a ſandy path: he will do, not many things, but all, even to the parting with Herodias, and the putting down the Calves as well as Baal; he is not double-diligent in ſome matters, and negligent in o­thers: he is neither maimed, to want any limb, nor a mon­ſter, one part exceſſively outſtripping another.

3. The actings of a ſanctified perſon are conformable to the principle of ſpirituall life as it is the ſame, a permanent,38 abiding principle; not ſomtimes in us, and at other times quite gone from us, but at all times remaining in us. A ſanctified perſon is holy in a continued courſe, he walks with God;Pſal. 119.112. he applyes himſelf to keep the Commandments continually. He is not holy upon extraordinary occaſions; his duties are not like a miſers feaſt, all at one time, nothing at another; he is not holy by fits and pangs, upon a rainy day reading only, good in thundring and lightning, or in a ſtorm at ſea, moved paſſionatly with an affectionate ſermon, trembling for the preſent,Acts 24.25. and preſently after following bribery. At the firſt coming on to profeſſion ſeething hot, after a while luke-warm, at length key-cold; ſlaſhing with Peter at the firſt, and ſhortly after flying, and denying. His infirmities and falls are but for a fit, but his holineſſe is conſtant; his goodneſſe is not like the morning cloud, and early dew;Hoſ. 6 4. not like the redneſs of bluſhing, but the ruddineſs of complexion: his religion is not operative in company, ſilent in ſecret: he is not like water, that conforms it ſelf to the ſhape of every thing into which its poured; or like a pi­cture that looks every way; his religion leaves him not at the Church-doors, he retains his purity where-ever he lives: He hath a principle like a fountain in him, that ſup­plyes him in the time of drought; not like a plaſh of wa­ter, lick'd up with an hours heat of the Sun: The muſick allures him not, the fournce affrights him not from God.

3. As the actings of a ſanctified perſon are from, and according to a renewed principle of life, ſo are they for it: and that both in reſpect of preſervation of life in himſelf, and alſo the propagation of it to others.

1. A ſanctified perſon acts for his ſanctified principle of ſpirituall life, in reſpect of preſerving it in himſelf; which he expreſſeth, 1. In ſhunning what-ever may prejudice and impair it, much more then a man doth avoid that which would ſhorten a naturall life, as ſword, poyſon, diſeaſes, &c. that which parteth between God and the ſoul being more hurtfull, then that which parteth 'twixt ſoul and body. What ſhifts have ſome made to ſcramble39 from death, throwing eſtates into the ſea, leaving them and ſweeteſt relations, running thorow rivers, fire, & c. ? And have not holy men ſuffered more to keep from ſin, which tends to ſpirituall death? have they not left goods, lands, children? have they not run thorow fire, water, nay, into them, even embracing death rather then death, temporall rather then ſpirituall? A man would give all the world rather then loſe one naturall life; but a Chriſtian would give a thouſand lives rather then loſe the life ſpi­rituall. Lord (ſaith he) I deſire but to live, to keep Christ who is my life. Pſal. 63.3. Col. 3.4. 2. In a prizing his food that upholds life: He loves what nouriſheth him, de­lights in the Law of God,1 Pet. 2.2. Pſal. 19.10. hungreth after the ſincere milk of the word, accounts it ſweeter then the honey and the ho­ney-comb, hath a moſt ardent affection to uncorrupted Truths, accounts a famine of the Word the ſoreſt, eſteems the bread of life the ſtaff of life. When he was dead, he had no hunger, the Word was as food in a dead mans mouth, found no ſavour or entertainment: now, though God give him never ſo much of other ſupplyes, yet 'tis a famine with him, if he have not bread; like an infant-King, that preferrs the breſt before his Crown: though he be rich in grace, yet he is poor in ſpirit; he deſireth grace, having the grace to deſire: He never ſaith, I have enough; truth of grace ever puts him upon growth. 3. A ſanctified perſon labours to preſerve his inward principle of life, In uſing the means that may recover him,Jer. 17.11. Pſal. 41.4. when his life is endangered by ſickneſſe, deſiring earneſtly, that God would heal him; embracing the ſharpeſt admini­ſtrations, the bittereſt reproofs, taking down the moſt loathed pill, bearing the heavieſt affliction, being willing to be cut, ſawed, ſeared, ſo as to be ſaved. His great re­queſt is, that he may be whole, walk holily, that the pain and impotency of his diſeaſe, the filthineſſe and hurtful­neſſe thereof were both removed.

2. A ſanctified perſon acts for his principle of ſpirituall life, In labouring to communicate it to others, as well as40 to preſerve it in himſelf. The life of a ſpiritually quickned ſoul is generative of it ſelf: All living creatures have a ſeminary for propagating of their kinde; the ſpirit of life is fruitfull, endeavouring to derive it ſelf from one to an­other. You never heard of a ſoul that loved to make a monopoly of Chriſt; Grace may be imparted, not impaired. Samſon, when he had found honey, gave his father and mother ſome with him:John 4. The woman of Samaria calls others to Chriſt, being called: How diffuſive of Chriſt was bleſſed Paul! (like the wall which reflects upon the paſ­ſenger, the Sun ſhining upon it:) How ſutable was that wiſh of his to a ſanctified ſoul; I would to God that thou, and all that hear me this day, were almoſt, and altogether ſuch as I am, except theſe my bonds, Act. 26.29. ? Every Chriſtian labours to raiſe up ſeed to his elder brother: The great de­ſign of the ſoul is to ſet up Chriſt more in it ſelf and others, to leaven others with grace; and this gaining of ſouls is a Chriſtians greateſt covetouſneſſe.

This for the explication of the ſort or kinde of their firſt priviledge, Sanctification. The Obſervations follow in the ſecond place.

1. Obſ. 1.Grace whereby we are changed, much excels grace where­by we are onely curb'd. The Sanctification wherewith the faithfull were ſaid to be adorned, was ſuch as cur'd ſin, as well as cover'd it: not a ſanctification that did ab­ſcondere, but abſcindere; not onely repreſſe, but aboliſh corruption. Pſal. 145.The former, reſtraining grace, is a fruit only of generall mercy over all Gods works, common to good and bad, binding the hand, leaving the heart free; with­holding only from ſome one, or few ſins; tying us now, and looſing us by and by; intended for the good of humane ſociety, doing no ſaving good to the receiver: In a word, onely inhibiting the exerciſe of corruption for a time, without any reall diminution of it; as the Lions that ſpared Daniel were Lions ſtill, and had their ravenous diſpoſition ſtill, as appeared by their devouring others, although God ſtop'd their mouthes for that time. But this ſancti­fying41 grace with which the faithfull are here adorned, as it ſprings from Gods ſpeciall love in