PRIMS Full-text transcription (HTML)


SIVE ENCHIRIDION BOTANICUM. OR A COMPLEAT HERBALL Containing the Summe of what hath hitherto been publiſhed either by Anci­ent or Moderne Authors both Galenicall and Chymicall, touching Trees, Shrubs, Plants, Fruits, Flowers, &c. In an Al­phabeticall order: wherein all that are not in the Phyſick Garden in Oxford are noted with aſteriſks.

Shewing their Place, Time, Names, Kindes, Temperature, Vertues, Uſe, Doſe, Danger and Antidotes.

Together with An

  • Introduction to Herbariſme, &c.
  • Appendix of Exoticks.
  • Univerſall Index of plants: ſhewing what grow wild in England.

By ROBERT LOVELL St. C. C. Ox. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.

OXFORD, Printed by WILLIAM HALL, for RIC. DAVIS. An. 1659.


Curteous Reader,

AVoiding the Prolixity and te­diouſneſſe of a Proemiall Diſcourſe (Brevity being here intended) thou mayest firſt conſider the Quid ſit of Phytologie; which is the Art of knowing and finding out the Temperature, Ver­tues and Ʋſe of Plants, as ſerving to the Cura­tion or Suſtentation of the Body; as alſo of their Danger; and the Remedies thereof.

The parts hereof are two. 1. Therapeutick or curatory. 2. Threptick or alimentary. In both which, Vegetables may be conſidered accor­ding to their ſubſtance and conſiſtence, or elſe according to their accidents.

I. According to their ſubſtance or conſi­••ence, they are 1. Thin or Groſſe. 2. Laxe〈◊〉Conſtrict. 3. Clammy, or Brittle. 4. Heavy or Light. Tenuity of parts is in thoſe things which are aerious in eſſence and ſubſtance: which being ſubtile do eaſily communicate their vertue unto any liquor, and are of eaſie diſtribu­tion in the body. Craſſitude of parts is in thoſe things which are terrene: which being more groſſe, do not quickly communicate their vertues unto liquids, and therefore the vertues thereof are exerted in the ſtomack, and ſeldome or ne­ver paſſe unto the liver. Rarity is in dry bodies: hardneſſe in the dry and terrene. Clammineſſe in moiſt bodies: Brittleneſſe in dry. Heavineſſe in thick bodies: and Lightneſſe in the rarified. Tenuity looſeneth and penetrateth: Craſſitude obſtructs: Softneſſe lenifies and conglutinat­eth, and Hardneſſe reſiſteth and dryeth, &c.

II. According to their accidents, they may be taken notice of, as medicamentous and ali­mentary. I. As medicamentous, and ſo accor­ding to their immediate and more remote acci­dents. I. According to their more immediate, ſc. the qualities, and way of finding out there­of. I. The Poiotetologie or qualities, firſt, ſecond, third, and fourth.

The firſt are 1. Calidity or heat, which cauſeth motion and diſpoſeth the parts, by a right conjun­ction, and ſituation thereof. It heateth, ſubtilizeth, digesteth, openeth, maturateth, and rarifies, and cauſeth agility: if exceſſive, it doth accende, inflame, attract and disturbe, as thapſia, &c.

2. Frigidity or coldneſs, doth coole, conjoyne, in­ſpiſſate, and hinder digeſtion, by the obtuſion of calidity, & by ſhutting the paſſages hindereth di­ſtribution: alſo if exceſſive it ſo filleth, that it expelleth the juice, coagulates and congeales, as poyſon, &c.

3. Humidity or moiſture, is of eaſie ſeparation, lenifying and lubrifying: if exceſſive, it bur­deneth the ſpirits, and loadeth the ſame: and ifqueous, it cauſeth nauſeouſneſſe, and ſuffocates the excitation of heat, cauſeth flatulencies, oppila­tions, ſlowneſſe of action, and debility of motion and of the parts: otherwiſe it lenifies, lubrifies, looſeneth, maketh the bloud and ſpirits more groſſe, and obtundeth the acrimonie of humors, as mallowes &c.

4. Siccity or dryneſſe, doth colligate, and bind, and cauſe a ſtronger diſpoſition of the body: if exceſſive, it constringeth the paſſages, and hin­dereth the excretion, preſſeth forth the juice out of the body, and cauſeth tabefaction: if in the laſt degree, it conſumeth moisture, cauſeth intercep­tion, ſuffocation, and death as creſſes, &c.

Here the Degrees are foure. The 1. Scarce ſen­ſibly altereth the body. The 2. Manifeſtly, yet without trouble or hurt. The 3. Vehemently, but without corruption. The 4. Moſt violently, and with great hurt unto the body: in each of which degrees there are three Manſions, acting remiſly, intenſly, or in a meane: or in the be­ginning, middle, or end thereof. The Chymiſts in ſtead of theſe foure qualities or elements, ſub­ſtitute 1. Their ſal, from which is all ſapour or taſte, which is as it were the aſhes of a body. 2. Sulphur, whence all odour or ſmell ariſeth, and is like the flame. 3. Mercurius, whence is all colour, and is repreſented by ſmoke or fume.

The ſecond Qualities are 1. The Malactick or mollifying, to which the ecpuetick or ſuppura­ting hath affinity: for both have an equall and ſymmetrick heate, and a correſpondent ſiccity, yet differing in mode. The ſuppurating doth produce heate most like unto that of the body with­out any conſumption or addition of humidity. The emollient accends heat a little beyond the proportion of nature, and contracteth a little hu­midity, wherefore that rather operates by quan­tity than by the quality of heat, but the emol­lient, rather by quality. Therefore that which is exactly ſuppuratory is emplaſtick, yet ſome­times emollition is the conſequent of humidity, if joyned with moderate calidity or heat, and is uſefull in ſcirrhus's, and tumors.

2. Scleryntick or hardening, which properly is that, which doth exiccate without any exceſse of heat or cold: for cold alſo may make obdu­rate, as alſo too much heate, yet after another manner than only by exiccation, for though that which is dry is hard, yet all that is hard is not dry. But Siccity doth dry and indurate two wayes; ſc. by altering and making more dry the eſſence of the parts, which most properly; or by conſuming the humors in the pores; yet ſome­times obduration may alſo be cauſed by repletion or fullneſſe.

3. Araiotick and rarefying, or diaphoretick and reſolving, which are moderately hot, with tenuity of parts and very little reſiccant or drying, for exceſſive heat doth not rarefie but burne, and by aduſtion doth condenſate and dry. But moderate heate openeth the paſſa­ges and deeply penetrateth by the tenuity of its ſubſtance, and eaſeth paine: alſo it openeth the pores and attenuates the ſubſtance.

4. Pycknotick or condenſating, contrary to the rarefacient, contracting the pores, and in­craſſating what is rarefied and humid, and making it more ſolid, which is in thoſe things which refrigerate yet are not terrene, or aerious, but aqueous, and are nothing at all, or but little aſtringent; for theſe do weakly contract, and bind, ſc. by reaſon of their ſoftneſſe.

5. Anaſtomotick or aperient, opening the mouths of the veſſells, and is in thoſe things that are of groſſe parts, hot, ſharp, and biting.

6. Stegnotick or binding, contracting, occlu­ding, and conſtringing, ſhutting the mouthes of the veſſels, and reſtraining ſenſible excretion, and is in thoſe things which are frigid, of groſſe parts, and without acrimony, as many terrene bodies are: for thoſe things which ought ſtrongly to con­ſtipate and bind, muſt alſo have a more strong and renitent faculty.

7. Helctick, epiſpaſtick or drawing, attra­cting the humors from the center, and is in thoſe things, which are hot, and of thin parts: for that which is hot attracteth, and that more ſtrongly which hath a conjunct tenuity of parts, but thoſe moderately attract, which are hot and dry in the ſecond degree, if in the third more effectually, and chiefly thoſe that are ſo in the fourth: for the attraction is according to the degree of heate, and is either more naturall, or by putrefaction. yet ſome things attract ſpecifi­cally, and not by a manifeſt quality: as things that are cathartick or purging, and alexitery or reſiſting poyſon.

8. Apocrouſtick or repercutient, repelling the humors flowing from the center, as in thoſe things which are frigid and of groſſe parts. For that which is cold repelleth, and if it hath a craſſitude of parts alſo, it is more violent, as that which is acerbe or auſtere; yet thoſe things alſo repell which are aſtringent, eſpecially thoſe which are helped by the tenuity of their parts: for the thinneſſe of the ſubſtance doth much conduce to aſtriction, therefore other things that are aſtrictive, by reaſon of the craſſitude of their ſubſtance, cannot eaſily penetrate the more remote parts, precluding the paſſages.

9. Ryptick, abſtergent or cleanſing, removing glutinous and clammy humors in the ſuperficies or adhering to the pores of the ſkin, or ulcers: and is in thoſe things which have power to ex­iccate with tenuity of ſubſtance, neither is it of any great moment whether they are hot or cold, by reaſon that neither quality hindreth action, except exceſſive.

10. Eccathartick, ecphractick, and expur­gatorie or removing obſtructions, not only opening the pores of the ſkin, but the inferior ductus of the bowells; as in thoſe things that are nitrous and bitter, although they have ſome ſmall aſtri­ction, and by reaſon of ſubſtance doe not differ from thoſe that are abſterfive, but in degree: for thoſe things that cleanſe the pores and inward paſſages, have a greater tenuity of parts, and are moderately hot, as thoſe things which are ni­trous & bitter: but thoſe things which being outwardly applyed to the ſkin do clenſe the ſkin, or ulcers from their excrements, are deſtitute of the aſtrictive faculty: but being taken inwardly although having a certain aſtriction, yet never­theleſs they may purge, & cleanſe the greater paſ­ſages, and withall ſtrengthen the ſame.

11. Leptyntick or attenuating and making thin, as in all thoſe things that are expurgatory, hot and of thin parts: extenuating groſſe and tough humors.

12. Emplaſtick, viſcid or clammie, contrary to the abſterſive: for being applyed, it doth tenaci­ouſly inhere in the pores of the ſkin, fill and ob­ſtruct the ſame, as in thoſe things that are ſat, and glutinous; as alſo terrene, wanting acrimonie, and aſperity or roughneſſe.

13. Emphractick or obſtructing, pachyntick, and thickening, which are the ſame: for as thoſe things which are detergent and purging doe free the pores and paſſages from obstruction, ſo theſe obſtruct and fill the ſame, and make the humors of the body tough and thick.

14. Anodyne, paregorick or eaſing paine, as in thoſe things which have thin parts, and are moderately hot, not much exceeding the tem­perate, ſc. being hot in the firſt degree and rarefacient: ſo evacuating, digeſting, rarefying, ex­tenuating, concocting, and equalizing whatſo­ever humour either ſharp, tough, or groſſe, is in­hering in the ſmaller pores, or grieved parts: and all vaporous craſs, groſſe or cold ſpirits not find­ing way of evacuation.

15. Narcotick or ſtupifying the parts by its coldneſs, and not properly mitigating the paine, nor taking away the cauſes of the griefe: yet ſtu­por is ſomewhat leſſe than inſenſibility, or the privation of ſenſe, the ſame alſo is hypnotick, or ſomnifick &auſeth ſleep being taken, ſc. its ſub­ject, which doth vehemently refrigerate, ſc. in the 4th degree; ſo that it doth not only ſtupifie the ſenſe; but being liberally taken, cauſeth death, as opium; & that not only by its exuperant quality; but alſo by a certaine propriety of ſubſtance and its concurring eſſence, its narcotick vehe­mency being but little repreſſed by the mixture of hot correcters, though it hath ſome bitter parts.

16. Amyctick, metaſyncritick, or rubefacient cauſing redneſſe, contrary to the former, cauſing paine, as in thoſe things which heate, and diſ­ſolve unity, of this kind alſo are eſcharoticks cauſing cruſts, which are hotter, cauſtick or burning: not only hot and dry in the fourth de­gree, but alſo of a groſſe conſiſtence, therefore being fixed in any part, they excruciate and tor­ment the ſame by their ſtiſneſſe: like unto theſe are thoſe things that are ſeptick or corroſive which are vehemently hot and dry, but of thin parts and conſiſtence; which therefore with a little paine and biting, or elſe without any ſenſe of paine eliquate the part, and are called alſo putrefactives.

The third Qualities ariſe from the mixture of the firſt and ſecond, and are 1. The Ecpue­tick or ſuppurating, turning into matter contuſed fleſh and humors remaining in ſwellings, as in thoſe things which are moderately hot, and next unto emollients, yet differing in this that they have alſo an emplaſtick faculty, obſtru­cting the pores, increaſing the ſubſtance of heat, and not intending the quality, and are alſo called pepticks or maturatives.

2. Sarcotick or generating fleſh, as in thoſe things which produce fleſh in hollow ulcers, and fill the cavities, and are hot in the first de­gree, a little deterſive and that without biting and aſtriction.

3. Colletick or conglutinating, as in thoſe things which dry in the ſecond degree, and are in a meane as to thoſe which generate fleſh, and cicatrize; they are not abſterſive, but aſtrin­gent, and prohibit the flux of humors to the lips of wounds, ulcers and fiſtula's; they are alſo called ſymphyticks, traumaticks and enaima.

4. Epulotick or cicatrizing, as in thoſe things which greatly dry, and bind without biting, drinking the humidity of the fleſh and con­tracting the ſame, and covering with a thin callus like unto the ſkinne; therefore doe more dry than incarnatives or glutinatives, for they binde, contract, conſtipate, and indurate: there is alſo a ſharp and biting epulotick that con­ſumes dead fleſh called cathairetick, and a third, drying without aſtriction.

5. Porotick or generating callus, by which broken bones are ferruminated and knit, and is neither bone nor fleſh but betwixt both, being a hard, dry, white body: to the generation of which are required a convenient dyer, and me­dicines applyed which are emplaſtick and mo­derately hot.

6. Diuretick or provoking urine, as 1. In thoſe things that are moiſt and liquid, and of a thin conſiſtence, and eaſie penetration, encrea­ſing the quantity of urine: ſo operate by acci­dent. 2. In thoſe things which purge and attenuate and open the paſſages, ſome of which are cold and of thin parts; ſometimes expelling what sticks in the paſſages: which operate af­ter a middle way, ſometimes by accident, tem­pering exuperant heat which ſeiſeth on the veines and reſolveth the ſerous humidity, that the hu­mours may be more eaſily attracted by the reines and deſcend by the bladder. 3. In theſe things which purge the paſſages, and open the ſame, extenuate groſſe humors and the bloud, and ſeparate what is extenuated from the more groſſe prts: which the reines then eaſily attract and ſend away by the urinarie paſſages: which kinds of diureticks are very hot and dry, to wit in the 3d degree, ſharp, and of a very thin ſubſtance, coactive, and ſeparating.

7. Lithontriptick or breaking the ſtone, diſ­ſolving & expelling the gravell, as in thoſe things which are diuretick, hot, dry & of thin parts: ſharp, but more remiſsely, and ſome what bitter.

8. Emmenonagogick or drawing out the termes, as in thoſe things which are hot and of thin parts, that they may concoct and digeſt crude humors, extenuate and incide the groſſe and tough, and remove obſtructions by clenſing the paſſages: ſuch as are all propper diureticks: which alſo promote the expurgation of the menſes; and if they are alſo ſtinking or bitter, they are more effectuall: ſtinking things depreſſing the wombe: and the bitter being purging. There are alſo accidentall hyſtericks: as thoſe which are analeptick or ſtrengthening after extenuation: or which refrigetate and humect the body dryed by too much heate: to theſe alſo have affinity, thoſe things which expell the ſecundine, & dead birth: eſpecially thoſe which are more ſtrong, ſc. hot & of thin parts, ſtinking & bitter with acrimony, eſpecially if taken in a greater quantity and often.

9. Bechick or helping the cough, as in thoſe things which cauſe or ſtop the ſame: for thoſe things which conduce to the expectoration of groſſe humors, doe alſo cauſe coughing; but on the crontrary, thoſe things which incraſſate thin humors ſtop and eaſe it: but thoſe things are hot and of thin parts, and extenuating which ex­pectorate tough humors; yet there are alſo others which in ſome meaſure purge the breaſt, not much hot nor very dry, but a little moiſtening, or at least lenifying what is exaſperated; yet diureticks of the middle kind alſo are agreeable to the breaſt and lungs: which if they are cold, they incraſſate thin humors & ſtop coughing, and eſpe­cially thoſe which are narcotick or ſtupefying.

10. Galactogenetick or generating milk, as partly in meates partly in medicines: as for meat, it's ſuch as is euchymick & polytrophick or of good juice and of much nouriſhment, and a little hotter and dryer, if the bloud be cold and pituitous; but more moiſt and leſſe hot, if troubled with choller. Medicaments cauſing milke, are of thin parts and hot, and of affinity to thoſe things which properly provoke urine, yet moſt gentle; but thoſe things which are more ſtrong and provoke the courſes, hinder the generation thereof by too much eliquation of the humors.

11. Spermatogenetick or generating ſperme, as in thoſe things which are hot and not very dry but flatulent, as alſo aliment of good juice and whatſoever increaſeth the quantity of bloud.

The 4th Qualities are ſuch which follow the ſubſtance, or property of the eſſence, & are found out only by experience: and are therefore called occult, latent and ſpecifick; as in poiſons, theri­ack and alexipharmick remedies, amulets and catharticks, things antipathetick and ſympathe­tick, as alſo appropriate to any part or adverſe unto the ſame; the greateſt ſigne of which (ac­cording to ſome) is Signature.

II. The Poiotichnologie or way of finding out theſe qualities, as I. the manifeſt; it is I. by reaſon. 1. by odour or ſmell, which is either ſweet familiar unto the ſpirits of the brain & a ſigne of heat, or ſtinking and offenſive cold & moiſt, the firſt is in hot bodies, of thin parts, among which there's difference according to the degrees thereof; but thoſe things which are without odour, are of a groſſe eſſence and humid, as thoſe things which are ſalt and auſtere; alſo ſuch things which are of a mordicant and bitter ſmell are hot, but thoſe that ſmell like vineger and acerb are cold, for in ſomethings the ſenſe of odours is like that of ſapors, yet not of ſo ſafe conjecture, by reaſon of the inequalitie of ſubſtance; for most bodies are of an unlike conſiſtence, of each of which parts odour ſheweth not the temper, but where there are tenuous effluvium's or vapors, whereof, the ſweet ſtrengthen the heart, the rank excite the animal ſpirits, the stinking help the ſuffo­cation of the matrix.

2. By Colour, which is either 1. Lucid, exciting the animal ſpirits and drawing them outwards, as the white. 2. Or tenebroſe, calling them in­wards, and cauſing ſleep, as the black. 3. Yellow, helping the jaundiſe. 4. Or green, uſefull for the eyes: the white and pale ſhew moiſtneſſe of temper and imbecillity. The yellow proceedeth from heat. The red and crocous &c. ſhew ex­ceſſive ſiccity and calidity or heat. The green and porraceous are ſignes of much moiſture.

3. By ſapors or taſtes which (according to ſome) are I. More perceptible or manifeſt. I. The ſimple, which are 1. hot, first more hot, & ſo firſt of more thin parts, as the ſharp, ſecondly of more thick parts, as the bitter,nitrous, and ſalt ſecondly leſſe hot, as the ſweet & is diverſe according to the diverſity of tenuity and hu­midity. 2. Cold, firſt of groſſe terrene parts. Firſt more groſſe as the acerbe. Secondly leſſe groſſe, as the auſtere and aſtringent. Secondly of ſubtile aqueous parts and doubtfull, as the acid. II. The mixt, as the vinous, compounded of the acid and ſweet. II. Leſſe perceptible and almoſt inſipid. 1. Aqueous, firſt more ſub­tile, as the aquinſipid, ſecondly more groſſe. Firſt glutinous, as the humilent, Secondly fat, as the oleous. 2. Terrene, 1. ſucculent, as the ado­reous. 2. More dry as the lignitereous. The ſa­pors or taſtes are I. Active, 1. Bitter or Aloe­tick, which is contrary to the nature of living creatures, the taſte whereof doth vellicate the tongue. It conſiſteth of terrene combuſt parts, of which ſome are, more ſubtile, others more groſſe and terrene, exiccated by exuperant heat, or coagulated by cold, as appeares in opium and aloes. It is not nutritive, it openeth the mouthes of the veines, cauſeth hemorrhages, and thirſt, & makes the bloud fluxible: it attenuateth, incid­eth, biteth, exaſperates, cleanſeth, melteth, at­tracteth, yet more moderately dryeth and heateth, it conſumeth and reſiſteth putrefaction, drinking up ſupervacaneous humors, and reſisting ſweetneſs: its hot and dry in the ſecond degree terra uſta.

2. Sharp, aromaticall or arſenical, hot, dry and burning, pricking the tongue, and biting the mouth, it conſisteth of thin, dry and hot parts, as pepper, onions &c. If it be not vehe­ment, and hot under the third degree, taken in­wardly it doth penetrate, open, and attenuate thick humors, applyed outwardly it rarifieth the ſkin, and draweth forth humors. If it be hot above the 3d degree, it troubleth the head with thin vapors. If it be of a more groſſe eſſence it is cauſtick and cauſeth bliſters & ſcabs: and if it be of an adverſe ſubſtance, it's ſeptick and dead­ly: alſo it is of quick operation and ſtrong, it attracteth from remote parts, it ſeparates, cor­rodes, incideth, heateth, burneth and inflameth: it reſolves, diſcuſſeth, excoriates, exulcerates, & ſtrongly inciteth to expurgation, if of more thin parts, it's diureticall: if of thicker, cauſtick: it's more intenſe in dryer bodies, and more re­miſſe where there is an aqueous humidity. It's hot and dry, ex aqua & terra attenuata.

3. Acid or ammoniacall. It penetrateth the tongue with its tenuity, yet without any manifeſt heat. It conſiſteth of tenuous, cold and dry parts, as vineger, the juice of limmons &c. It penetrat­eth and incideth no leſſe than the ſharp ſapour, therefore it incideth, attenuates, biteth, detergeth, reſerates obstructions, repels and dryes: & by rea­ſon of its penetrating coldneſs, it repells all fluxi­ons: and by its ſiccity ſtops all eruptions of bloud. Alſo it helps nauſeouſneſs, corrodeth, and conden­ſates without heat; it exaſperates & reſiſts pu­trefaction. It's of doubtfull qualities, fiery and aqueous, hot and cold, and of all contraries. It's cold and dry , aqua ignita cum halitu terreo.

4. Nitrous, which is in a mean between ſalt and bitter; yet weaker than this, and more intenſe than the other; it's biting and corroding, as ni­tre. It openeth the belly, and purgeth the reines, terra ſpiritibus compulſa.

5. Salt or ſerous. It corrodeth the tongue by exiccation, yet heateth not much; it conſiſteth in a meane matter with heat and dryneſſe, and is generated of that which is terrene & dry, at­tenuate & preaſſate by heat with an aqueous hu­midity, ſo not altogether terrene, as ſalt; therefore it contracteth the pores, incideth, detergeth, di­gesteth & drinketh up humidity by its drineſſe, without any manifeſt ſenſe of heate, and ſo re­ſiſts putrefaction. It openeth, biteth, exaſperateth, abſtergeth, cleanſeth, troubleth, provoketh to ex­pulſion, purgeth, ſubverteth the ſtomack, cauſeth thirſt, dryeth, deobstructs, aggregates, condenſeth, roborateth, and contracteth. It's hot and dry in the 2d degree and corroſive.

6. Sweet or ſaccharine. It dilateth the tongue, and is pleaſant having no exuperant quality, and being in a mediocrity, as ſugar and hony; there­fore it levigates what is exasperated, lenifies, ma­turates, concocts, is anodyne, and only nouriſheth; alſo it digeſts, rarifies, distributes, looſeth, filleth the liver, stops the ſpleen, and is hot and moiſt in the first degree and of terraqueous parts.

7. Acerb or aluminous. It contracteth the tongue, and doth unequally exaſperate the ſame by exiccation: it's neere to the auſtere, but more troubleſome to the tongue, aſtringent, cold, and dry. The matter thereof is terrene & dry, with­out any manifeſt moiſture, in which coldneſſe is exactly predominant with ſiccity, as ſervices; therefore as cold it repelleth fluxions, as aſtrin­gent it ſtoppeth the force of humors, as dry it doth coarctate, condenſe, and cicatrize wounds, as terrene it incraſſates humors and condenſates the ſuperficies, it ſhuts, corrugates, and indurateth, ſo the auſtere. It reſiſts poyſon, & is cold & dry .

8. Auſtere or vitriolate. It moderately bind­eth the tongue & mouth, coarctates the ſame with a certain aſperity, and doth in ſome meaſure refrigerate & dry. It conſiſteth in a meane matter participating of that which is terrene and wa­terie, in which frigidity is predominant, as med­lars and wild peares &c. It manifestly refrige­rateth, extinguiſhes, bindeth and contracteth moderately ſtops fluxions, and repelleth. Its ſubacerb, leſſe cold and dry, and exaſperating, ſtopping, roborating and indurating, terra ſpiri­tu commota, as vitriol. The aſtringent is weaker, as quinces. Mat. Med. ſicc. craſſ.

II. Meane. 1. Oleous. It's fat, unctuous and temperate; generated of that which is moiſt, aerious and moderately hot by elaxation of the waterie part, whereby it becomes more aeriall, as oile. It's ſlow and weake in operation, ſtopping the guſtick or taſting organs. It doth humect, lenifie, and ſoften, looſen, obſtruct and cauſe flatulencies, and nauſeouſneſſe, having a certaine obſcure and remiſſe ſweetneſſe, and mean ſubſtance.

2. Aquinſipid. It's ſcarce perceived by the tongue, hardly participating of any terrene ſiccity, and conſiſting in a crude juice, it's ra­ther a privation than a ſapor: it's matter is ſomewhat groſſe, yet not altogether terrene, dry, or aſtringent, but moiſtened with a certain humidity, which alſo is not exquiſitely mixed by the activity of heat, as water. It is empla­ſtick, ſtopping and obſtructing, lenifying what is exaſperated, and conglutinating that which is disjoyned; and although it hath ſome affini­ty to ſweet, yet it differeth in this, that it con­ſiſteth in a matter a little more groſſe and crude: it refrigerateth and doth more moiſten ſc. from the ſecond to the third degree.

III. Paſſive. 1. Ligniterreous, which is more groſs, altogether terrene, and unactive, yet it hath ſome heat, ſpirit and humidity, but exceeding little, as the caput mortuum, and dry bodies without juice. Mat. craſ. terra abſque ſpiritu depreſſa prorſus terrea.

2. Humilent. The matter thereof is groſſe, tough, aqueous, in which the earth being well mixed cauſeth corpulency, and it's humid, little affecting the taſte, more groſſe and crude than the ſweet. It's emplaſtick, ſtopping the paſſages, conglutinates what is disjoyned, lenifies what is exaſperated, and doth in­craſſate, as mucilages. Mat. Craſſ. frig. obſcur.

3. Adoreous, moſt agreeing to our nature, it recedes from ſweetneſſe in this, becauſe its matter being unactive is hardly perceived, and it is more groſſe; yet well tempered to a ter­rene equally mixed ſiccity, which eaſily be­comes paſſive, and is apt for diſtribution and ſolidity, as bread corne, Materia aequalis recep­tibilis.

4. By the tactile quality or touch: ſo craſſitude is a ſigne of the abundance of terre­ſtriall parts or humid and congealed: tenuity, of the fiery and aerious: denſity of exciccation or congelation: rarity of dryneſſe: hardneſſe, of ſiccity and earthineſſe, except cauſed by the repletion of humors: ſoftneſſe of humidity, gravity is the companion of denſity: levity of rarity: clammineſſe of humidity: aridity or friability of ſiccity: ſmoothneſſe of an aereous or aqueous humidity: aſperity of ſiccity.

5. By diſpoſition or mutability: ſo, that which more ſoone receiveth heat, is counted hot; and that moſt cold, which is ſooneſt con­gealed.

6. By age: ſo for the most part, thoſe things that are young, are more humid: the old more dry, alſo whileſt they are growing and immature, they have an auſterity and acerbity: ſo, cold.

7. By the place of growth: ſo plants growing by lakes, are for the most part of a cold, and moiſt temperature: the marſhy, cold and ſomewhat dry: the fluviatile, dry, and very hot: the marine, cold and dry: thoſe of a fat ſoile are hot and moiſt, or temperate there­in: thoſe of a hungry ground, hot and dry: thoſe of a meane earth, tepid and ſuitable to mans nature: thoſe of a ſandy ground, hot & dry, and of thin parts: thoſe of a doubtfull growth, are of a mixt temperature: the amphibi­ous, if growing in ſpringy places, cold and dry; if in litorall and marine, hot and dry: the mountaine plants, are dry, hot and of ſubtile parts: the field, moderately hot and dry: they that grow in hollow places, are cold and moiſt: the hilly, temperate: thoſe that grow wild, are colder and dryer than the domeſtick, (if of the ſame ſpecies) the domeſtick, are milder and more weake.

8 By the operations of the ſoure firſt Qua­lities, as above ſaid.

II. By experience, which in certitude ex­ceeds all the reſt, and muſt be made with a ſimple body, without any externall quali­ty, and that in a temperate ſubject: in all which that muſt be distinguiſhed which is done per ſe, from that which is per accidens.

Thus of the way of finding out the manifeſt qualities, ſc. of the firſt: after which the ſecond are known as ariſing from the firſt: but eſpecially by ſapour or taſte.

II. Now follow occult Qualities; and theſe according to ſome, as Querc. Croll. Noll. Bapt. Port. Coles, Schrod. Culp. &c. are gueſſed at. I. By Phytognomy or Signature. I. Phytop­ricall or externall, either in forme, colour or property; and ſo the appropriations are as fol­loweth.

For the Head in generall, Walnuts, piony, poppy, ſquills, larch tree its agarick, and tur­pentine.

For the brain, Wood betony, ſage, roſemary, lavender, marjerome, primroſes, cowſlips, beares eares, lilly of the vally, and miſletoe.

For reſtoring haire, Quinces, moſſe, and maiden-haire.

For the eyes, Fennell, vervaine, roſes, celan­dine, rue, eyebright, clary, and hawkweed.

For the eares, Aſsarabacca, ground ivy, ivy, poplar tree, night-ſhade, ſow-fennell, and ſow­thiſtle.

For the noſe, Wake-Robin, flower de luce, horſetaile, ſhepheards purſe, willow, biſtort, tor­mentill, cinkefoile, and ſowbread.

For the mouth in generall, Medlar, mulber­ries, mints, purſlaine, and golden rod.

For the ſcurvy, Scurvy-graſſe, ſmall houſleek, aloes, fumitory, and creſſes.

For the teeth, Pine, pomegranate, mastick, maſter-wort, corall, corall-wort, restharrow, henbane and wild tanſey.

For the dryneſſe of the mouth, Flea wort.

For the diſeaſes of the throat, roughneſſe, quinſy, Kings evill &c. Throat wort, date tree, winter green, horſe tongue, figge wort, archangell, foxe glove, orpine, pellitory of the wall, wheat, barly, garlick, liquorice, figge tree, hyſſope, rag-wort, plantaine, columbines, cudweed, and Jewes eares.

For ſhortneſſe of breath, coughs, expe­ctorations, hoarſeneſſe &c. Elecampane, almond tree, vines, reeds, ſugar cane, juju­bes, ſebeſtens, ſoabious, coleworts, nettles, and turneps.

For contracting womens breaſts. Ladies mantle, and ſanders.

For breeding milke. Anniſeed, nigella, mal­lowes, dill, rampions, periwinkle, and lettuce.

For ſwollen breaſts. Fennell gyant, gourds, baſil, beanes, lentills, and lillies.

For ſore nipples. Dock-creſſes.

For the lungs, ſtoppings, conſumptions thereof, &c. Hore-hound, lungwort, tabacco, ſun-dew, hedg-muſtard, coltsfoot, woodbinde, mullein, cowſlips of Jeruſalem, ſanicle, polypo­dy, whortle-berries, and ſweet-cicely.

For the heart, qualmes, ſaintneſſe, &c: An­gelica, ſaffron, borage, violets, ſtrawberries, wood-ſorrell, bawlm, marigolds, ſwallow wort, goats-rue, vipers-graſſe, pome-citrons, gentian, ſcordium, burnet, avens, cloves, clove-gilloflow­ers, lignum aloes, cinnamon, and vipers bugloſſe.

For ſtitches, and paines in the ſides. Car­duus benedictus, our ladies thiſtle, camomile, ſweet trefoile, melilote, oates, valerian, ſtitch-wort, flax and linſeed.

For purging the ſtomack. Wormewood, my­robalanes, groundſell, radiſh, black alder, oyly nut ben, ſene, daffodills, white hellebore, and purging caſſia.

For breaking winde. Carrawaies, cummin, camels-hay, ginger, galanga, cardamoms, pepper, nutmeg, coriander, and orange.

For cooling and ſtrengthening the ſtomack. Apples, peares, peaches, apricocks, plummes, cherries, gooſeberries, barberries, and currans or ribes.

For the liver. Rubarb, turmerick, agrimony, liverwort, ſuccory, alecoaſt, and maudlin, docks, ſorrell, beetes, ſmallage, cleavers, and chickweed.

For the dropſie. Elder, ſoldanella, bryony, mechoacan and Jalap, broome, aſh, ague tree or ſaſſafras, palma Chriſti or great ſpurge, glaſſe­wort, ſpurge-lawrell, toad-flax, and baſtard marjerome or organie.

For the ſpleene. Dodder, black hellebore, tamarinds, ſpleenewort or miltwaſt, hart's-tongue, ferne, capers, tamariske, germander, calamint, poley-mountaine, and lupines.

For the reines, bladder, ſtone, and ſtran­gury, &c. Aſparagus, parſly, marſh mallowes, goats thorne, ſpiknard, ſweet ſmelling flagg, cy­perus or Engliſh galingale, hops, knotgraſse, parſly pert, ſaxifrage, dropwort, gromell, onions, winter cherries, dogs-graſſe, butchers broome, chervill, brooklime, hawthorne, limmons, cypreſſe­tree, kidney-wort, kidney beanes, oake, bucks­horne plantaine, ſampire, fraxinella, and al­heale.

For the collicke. Bay tree, holly, juniper, o­live tree, coloquintida, and bindweed.

For the wormes. Centory, lovage, tanſey, lavander-cotton, carrots and parſneps, ſpignell, biſhops weed, Engliſh worme ſeed, leekes, and horſe-radiſh.

For looſneſſe, and the bloudy flix, &c. Su­mach, myrtle, ciſtus, black-thorne, bramble, tea­ſell, rice, flixweed, pilewort, and water betony.

For provoking luſt. Artichocks, ſea holly, potatoes, skirrets, peaſe, rocket, muſtard, cotten, fiſtick-nut, cheſnut, chocholate, ſatyrions, and dragons.

For abating luſt. Agnus or the chaſt-tree, hempe, water lilly, hemlock, camphire, and tut­ſan.

For provoking the termes. Mugwort, pen­nyroyall, ſouthernwood, ſavory, time, alexander, and anemonie.

For ſtopping the termes and the whites, Comfry, mouſeare, yarrow, mede-ſweet, adders tongue, lunaria, trefoile, mony wort, darnell, flower gentle, blites, dragon tree, beech tree, and haſell nut-tree.

For the mother, Motherwort, feaverfew, ca­lamint, burdock, butter burre, orach, aſſa foetida, and cow parſnep.

For expediting childbirth, Birthwort, mer­cury, madder, dittany, dittander, pepperwort, holme oake and its chermes.

For expelling the dead child, and after birth, Ground pine, ſavin and birch-tree.

For ruptures or burſtneſſe, Rupturewort, thorow wax, Solomons ſeale, balſame apple, doves foot or cranes bill, and elme.

For the French pox, Guajacum, china, and ſarſaparilla.

For the ſwellings in the groine, Starre-wort, and herb Paris.

For green wounds and old ulcers, Saint Johns wort, arſmart, bugle, ſelfe-heale, Saracens conſound, looſeſtrife, daiſy, and ſpeedwell

For drawing out ſplinters, Pimpernell.

For fellons, Wooddy nightſhade.

For ſurbated feet, Ladies bedſtraw.

For excreſcencies, Agarick, galls, and other excreſcencies of trees.

For the jaundiſe, Celandine, ſaffron, and centaurie.

For pimples, tetters and ringwormes, The barke of the birch tree, and tree lungwort.

For ſpots, Garlick, wake-Robin, friars cowle, arſmart, and ſpotted lungwort.

For the Polypus, The root of the leſſer ce­landine, and of polypodie.

For the ſcab, Polypodie, and ſavin.

For yellow choller; as Aliment, Saffron, beete, figgs: as Medicine, Aloes, ſene, worm­wood flowers, ſpurge, coloquintida, and ru­barb &c.

For praſſine choller, Thoſe things that have a green and herb like colour, as blites and orach.

For pale choller, Briony having pale flowers.

For melancholy, Black blite, borrage, bu­gloſſe &c.

For flegme, Gourds and lettuce.

For mixt humors, Things of a mixt colour.

II. Aſtrologicall or Internall, and ſo the ap­propriations are I. To the Planets. 1. To the Sun, which is a benevolent planet, moderately hot and dry, a friend to Jupiter and Venus, and an enemy to the reſt, and as it were the heart of the macro­coſme, and therefore it produceth the vitall ſpirits thereof, by which the whole univerſe is cheriſh­ed, and it is the fountain of peculiar influen­ces, by which it particularly helpeth things familiar, and hindreth what is contrary to it ſelfe. Ʋnder which are, Angelica, aſh tree, bawme, one blade, burnet, butter burre, camomil, celandine, centaury, eyebright, Saint Johns wort, lovage, marigolds, miſletoe, peony, S. Peters wort, pimpernell, roſa ſolis, roſemary, rue, ſaffron, tormentill, tornſole, vipers bugloſſe, and wallnut tree; as alſo all ſpices, ſorrell, wood ſorrell, mallow, borage, marjerom, dittany, gentian, ivy, elecampane, lavender, bay tree, olive tree, mints, date tree, oranges, pomecitrons, tyme, vine­tree, wood of aloes, zedoarie, maſtick, frankin­cenſe, and myrrhe.

2. To the Moon, which is a Planet in a mean, between good and bad: moderately cold and moiſt, a friend to Jupiter, Saturne, Venus, and Mercurie, and an enemy to the other two, and is correſpondent to the brain and therefore ſympa­thetick with the nervous parts and animall ſpirits: or it is the generatorie of humidity, by which the whole univerſe is moistened; & is the fountain of peculiar influences, by which primarily and peculiarly it doth affect things familiar to it ſelfe and ſecundarily things agreeing to Saturne, Jupiter, Venus, and Mercurie, as being benevolent unto the ſame: or (as ſome) it is as it were the liver of the macrocoſme. Ʋnder which are, Adders tongue, cabbages, coleworts, columbines, water creſſes, ducks meate, yellow waterflagge, flower-de-luce, fluellin, ivy, lettuce, water lillies, looſe-ſtrife, with and without ſpiked heads, moonwort, mouſeare, orpine, poppies, purſlain, privet, rattle graſſe, white roſes, white ſaxifrage, burnet ſaxifrage, wall flowers, or winter gillowflowers, and wil­low tree: as alſo chaſt-tree, winter cherries, garlick, reeds, brooklime, onions, cammomile, frog­ſtolles, hyſſop, maſtick tree, mandrake, nutmegs, wall nuts, line tree, water plantain, turneps, houſe leek, and common leeks.

3. To Saturne, which is a malignant planet, diurnall, maſculine, and very cold, a friend to Mars, and an enemie to the reſt, and anſwereth to the ſpleen of the microcoſme; yet ſome aſcribe it to the head, as alſo Jupiter and Mars. Ʋnder it are, Barley, red beetes, beech tree, bi­foyle or tway blade, birds foot, biſtort or ſnake­weed, blew bottles, buckshorne plantaine, wild campions, pilewort, cleavers or gooſgraſſe, clowns woundwort, comfrey, cudweed or cottonweed, ſci­atica creſſes, croſwort, darnell, dodder, epithymum, elmetree, oſmond royall, fleawort, flixweed, fumi­tory, ſtinking gladdon, goutwort, winter green, hawkweed, hemlock, hemp, henbane, horſetaile, knapweed, knotgraſſe, medlar tree, moſse, mullein, night ſhade, polypodie, poplar tree, quince tree, rup­ture wort, ruſhes, Solomons ſeale, Saracens con­ſound, ſervice tree, ceterach or ſpleenwort, ta­marisk, melancholly thistle, black thorne, thorow wax, tutſan or parke leaves, and wood: as alſo aconite, chast tree, parſley, ſtinking tree, a­ſphodill, ſtarwort, orach, ſhepheards purſe, capers, cummin, cypreſs, fearn, black hellebor, great dock, mandrake, mulberrie tree, opium, herb truelove, pine tree, ſavine, ſage, ſene, and ſen­green.

4. To Jupiter which is a benevolent planet, moderately hot and moiſt, a friend to all the reſt, except Mars; anſwering to the liver, and cheriſhing the faculties thereof by its influ­encies. Ʋnder which are, Agrimonie, Alex­ander, aſparagus, avens, bay-tree, white beets, water betony, wood betony, bilberries, borrage, bugloſs, chervill, ſweet cicely, cinkfoile, alecoſt or coſtmary, dandelion, docks, bloudwort, doggs or quich graſſe, endive, harts tongue, hyſſop, ſen­green or houſleek, liver-wort, lung-wort, ſweet Maudlin, oak-tree, red roſes, ſage, ſauce alone or jack by the hedge, ſcurvy graſſe, ſuccory, and our ladies thiſtle: as alſo al­monds, wallnuts, barberries, calamint, cherries, cornell-tree, hounds tongue, beanes, beech­tree, ſtrawberries, aſh tree, fumitory, liquorice, barley, white lillie, flax, darnell, mace, apple-tree, mints, mulberries, myrobalans, nuts, baſil, olive tree, organie, raiſins, pine tree, peach tree, roots of peony, poplar tree, pur­ſlaine, plum tree, ſelfe heale, peare tree, rubarb, currans, madder, ſervice tree, ſpike, conſound, wheat, violets, vine tree, maſtick, ſtorax, ſugar, and all other ſweet things.

5. To Mars, which is a planet exceeding hot and dry, a friend to Venus, and an ene­my to all the reſt, cheriſhing the bladder and gall of the microcoſme. To which belong, Arſmart, aſarabacca, barberrie buſh, ſweet bazill, bramble buſh, briony, brooke­lime, butchers broome, broome, broomerape, crowfoot, wake Robin, cranes bill, cotton­thistle, toade-flax, furze buſh, garlick, haw­thorne, hops, madder, master-wort, mu­ſtard, hedge muſtard, nettles, onions, pep­per wort or dittander, carduus benedictus, radiſh, horſe radiſh, rubarb, rhapontick, ba­stard rubarb, thiſtles, ſtarre thistle, tabac­co, woolly thiſtle, treacle muſtard, mithri­date, muſtard, dyers-weed, and worme­wood: as alſo birthwort, chamelion thiſtle, cornell tree, dane wort, eſula, euphorbium, ſpearwort, hellebore, ſpurge laurell, medlars, monks-hood, plantain, leekes, plum tree, oake tree, tormentill, nettle, ſcammonie, and all poyſonſome things.

6. To Venus, which is a benevolent planet, nocturnall, feminine, moderately cold, a little more intenſly moiſt, a friend to the Sunne, Mars, Mercurte and the Moone, an enemy to Saturne, and having an influence upon the genitors, and urinarie parts. Ʋnder which are, Alehoof or ground ivy, black al­der tree, apple tree, ſtinking orath, arch­angell or dead nettles, beanes, ladies bed­ſtraw, birch tree, biſhops weed, blites, bugle, burdock, cherry tree, winter cher­ries, chick weed, cich peaſe, clary, cocks­head, colts foot, cowſlips, daiſies, devills bitte, elder, dwarfe elder, eringo, feather­few, figwort, filipendula, foxgloves, golden rod, gromewell, groundſell, herb Robert, herbe true love, kidnie wort, ladies mantle, mallowes, marſh mallowes, mercury, mints, motherwort, mugwort, nep, parſnep, peach tree, peare tree, penny royall, periwinkle, plantain, plum tree, primroſes, ragwort, rocket, winter rocket, damaske roſes, wood­ſage, ſanicle, ſelfe heale, ſopewort, ſorrell, wood ſorrell, ſow thiſtles, ſpignell, ſtraw­berries, garden tanſey, wild tanſey or ſilverweed, teaſels, vervain, vine tree, vio­lets, wheat, and yarrow: as alſo aſphodill, maiden haire, coriander, ſow bread, figgs, ground ivy, flower de luce, all kinds of lillies, melilot, pomegranats, daffodill, ſtone parſley, ſweet peares, roſes, ſaunders, ſatyrion, wild tyme, tyme, vervaine, violet, ladanum, muske, amber, and all kinds of perfumes.

7. To Mercurie, which is a mutable planet, good with the good, and bad with the bad: hot with the hot, and cold with the cold: dry with the dry, and moiſt with the hu­mid, a friend to Saturne, Jupiter, Venus and the Moon, and an enemy to Mars and the Sunne, repreſenting the lungs, which it doth ſympathetically ſtrengthen by its influences; yet ſome appropriate it unto the middle of the belly. Ʋnder it are, Ca­lamints or mountaine mint, carrots, car­rawaies, dill, elecampane, ferne, fennell, hoggs fennell, germander, haſell nut tree, hore-hound, hounds-tongue, lavender, liquorice, wall rue, maiden haire, golden maiden-haire, ſweet marjerome, melilote, money-wort, mulberry tree, oates, parſley, cow­parſnep, pellitory of the wall, chamepitys or groundpine, - reſt - harrow or cammock, ſampire, ſummer and winter ſavory, ſca­bious, ſmallage, ſouthernwood, meadow trefoile, garden valerian, and hony-ſuckles or woodbinde: as alſo marſh mallowes, ani­ſeed, columbine, daiſy, cammomile, cubebs, beanes, fumitory, wall-nut tree, juniper tree, mer­cury, navew, cinquefoile, ſtone parſley, butter burre, burnet, peony, lungwort, elder, ſpeedwell, wild tyme, and coltsfoot. All which are ſaid to cure diſeaſes by ſympathy, ſo each planet cures its owne: or antipathy, ſo the contrary. And are under the planets primarily and directly; or immediatly: or ſecundarily by the reſpective amity of the rest.

II. To the ſignes, as followeth, amongst which there are foure degrees, after the manner of the foure firſt qualities; ſo they are appropriate. 1. To Aries, which is a maſculine fiery ſigne, or hot and dry, ſympatheticall to the head. Thus in the firſt degree, Red mugwort, betony, ſuccory, larkspurre, dane-wort, mints, peach kernells, butter-burre, wild time, coltsfoot: and fluellin; and are to be gathered in the end of the dog dayes, after the full of the Moon. In the ſecond degree, Sperage, S. Johns wort, milfoile, plantain, and peony, and are to be gathered the Sun and Moon being in Cancer. In the third degree, Agarick, garden ſpurge, mezereon tree, wild gourds, ſpurge, coltsfoot, gentian, privet, nutmeg, palma Chriſti, elder, and ſarſaparilla: and are to be gathered betwixt S. James's and S. Laurences day. In the fourth degree, Southernwood, calamint, capers, cinnamon, white hellebore, marjerome, hore hound, wild creſſes, roſemary, turbith, and ſpike: and are to be gathered partly in Aprill, partly in September.

2. To Taurus, which is a terrestriall femi­nine ſigne, cold and dry, ſympathetick to the neck and throat. Thus in the firſt degree, Betony, milt­waſt, germander, ground ivy, the root of white lillies, mints, daffodill, polypody, roſes, roſemary, valerian, and violets: and mollifie the tumors of the jawes, and ſpleen. In the ſecond degree, Mai­den haire, winter cherries, columbines, ivy, Solo­mons ſeale, oake tree, and miſletoe of the oake: and help wounds. In the third degree, Bugloſſe, our Iadies thistle, hounds tongue, agrimone, the leſſer docke, organie, ſtone parſley, oake tree, cinque­foile, ſanicle, figwort, tormentill, perwinkle. and ſilver weed, and are traumatick. In the fourth degree, Mouſe eare, great burdock, wild betony, great celandine, aſh tree, mallowes, lung­wort, ſcabious, and ground ivy: and have anti­pathie with the ſublunaries, which are under Libra, and Scorpio, but ſympathetick with thoſe that are under Cancer and Sagittarius.

3. To Gemini, which are a maſculine ſigne, airie, hot and moist, poſſeſſing the ſhoulders. Thus in the first degree, Aniſeed, marſh mallow, bugloſſe, borrage, fennell, hyſſop, stone parſely, ſelfe heale, and wall rue. In the ſecond degree, great burdock, bugloſſe, ferne, white line tree, tur­neps &c. In the third degree, Chickweed, wake Robin, mace, and dead nettle. In the fourth degree, Sorrell, germander, cammomill, celandine, mug­wort and rubarb: and they have an antipathie with the ſublunaries of Capricorne and ſympathie with thoſe of Libra and Aquarius.

4. To Cancer, which is a feminine ſigne, watery, cold and moist, ſympathetick to the breaſt and lungs, as alſo to the ribbs and ſpleen, and cu­reth the diſeaſes thereof. Thus in the firſt degree, Chickweed, cabbage, thiſtle, the flowers and fruit of beanes, ladies bedſtraw, turneps, rampions, ſage, & figwort. In the 2d degree, Strawberry tree, cones of the firre tree and pine, comfrey, nightſhade, tur­pentine, & miſletoe. In the 3d, brooklime, foxgloves, cudweed, ruſhes, creſſes, ſeed of ſtone parſley, purſ­lain, willow, ſaxifrage, and ſtone crop. In the 4th degree, water lillie, piony, houſleek, & corall: and are antipathetick to the ſublunarys of Sagittarius, and ſympathetick to thoſe of Yaurus and Libra.

5. To Leo, which is a maſculine ſigne, fiery, or hot and dry, governing the heart and ſtomack, Thus in the firſt degree, Baſil, ſaffron, cypreſs tree, carnations, hyſſop, lavender, water plantaine, ſundew, ſea bindweed, and tyme. In the 2d degree, Wild angelica, tway hlade, centorie, galingale, gentian; and devills bit. In the 3d degree, ſtinking mayweed, carrot, mints, garden creſſes, penny roy­all, crowfoot, & nettles. In the 4th degree, Birch tree, box, broom and bay tree: the 1. are to be ga­thered the Sun being in Piſces, the Moon in Cancer. The 2d ſort in the beginning of May; before Sun riſing, or in the end of Aug or the Sun being in Taurus and the Moon in Gemini. The 3d, the Sun being in Leo, and the Moon in Virgo and the laſt ouadrature; or for refrigeration, the Sun being, in Taurus and the Moon in Gemini. The 4th, the Sun being in Piſces & the Moon in Aquarius, or both.

6. To Virgo, which is a feminine ſigne, earthy, cold, dry, & ſympathetick to the liver, intestines, and belly. Thus in the firſt degree, Sorrell, wood ſorrell, burdock, ſuccory, plantain, peare tree, and and wild ſage. In the 2d degree, white beetes, medlar, Solomons ſeale, and briar buſh. In the 3d, birthwort, bugle, flea bane, ſelfe heale, and oake tree. In the 4th, Carduus benedictus, ſmall cen­torie, black alder tree, adders tongue; ſloe tree with all its parts, fruit & flowers, tormentill & biſtort.

7. To Libra, which is a maſculine ſigne, airie, hot and moiſt, ſympathetick to the reines, & blad­der. Thus in the firſt degree, All ſorts of daiſies, bugle, feaver few, cowſlip, goats beard, & water parſnep. In the 2d degree, Marſh mallow, cam­momil, miſtetoe, martagon, mallow, line tree, vervain, & ſilver weed. In the 3d degree, Calves ſnout, mugwort, nut tree, and wall rue. In the 4th degree, Chickweed, great celandine, black mints, ſcabious, figwort, and houſleek.

8. To Scorpio, which is a feminine ſigne, watery, cold, and moist, and ſympathetick to the genitors. Thus in the first degree, Croſſe wort, hawthorne, & ſervice tree, as alſo all ſimples of the 1. degree of Cancer gathered in Oct. In the 2d degree, Aſh­tree, all ſorts of apples, and plumtree. In the 3d, Barberrie tree, box, feaver few, & ſopewort: hereto belong all herbs of the 2d degree of Cancer. In the 4th, Great red beetes, mercurie, daffod ill & ribes.

9. To Sagittarius, which is a maſculine ſigne, hot and dry, ſympathetick to the loines, &c. Thus in the firſt degree, Comfrey, onion, radiſh, figwort, flowers of line tree, ſeſamum and vervaine. In the ſecond degree, Garlick, wild angelica, hen­bane, lovage, and leaves of willow tree. In the third degree, Red beete, aſarabacca, celandine, ſaffron, ferne, ground ivy, madder, divells bit, and turmerick. In the fourth degree, Gum thiſtle, oreſſes, and white vine.

10. To Capricorne, which is a feminine ſigne, terreſtriall or earthy, cold and dry, ſympathetick to the knees and nerves, Thus in the firſt degree, Marigold, black cherries, elecampane, mulberry tree, bramble buſh, and whorts. In the ſecond de­gree, Black berries, mullein, and garden endive. In the third degree, Acorus, wake Robin, ſhep­heards purſe, comfrey, gourds, galingale, garden mallow, and all kinds of ſowthiſtles. In the fourth degree, Hellebore, henbane, mandrake, monkes hood, herb true love, ſavin, night ſhade, and ſtaves acre.

11. To Aquarius, which is a maſculine ſigne, aerious, hot & moiſt, ſympathetick to the legs. Thus in the firſt degree, Angelica, wild carrot, fig tree, flowers of the aſh tree, ground ivy, wall nut tree, melilot, ſanicle, Solomons ſeale, and perwinkle. In the ſecond degree, larkspur, cummin, dodder of time, cranes bill, clot-bur, roſe root, wall rue, wild ſage, and white nettle. In the third degree, Agri­monie, mouſeare, clurie, mercurie, ſaxifrage, and dragon. In the fourth degree, The leaves of aſa­rabacca, motherwort, hemlock, and medlars.

12. To Piſces, which are a feminine ſigne, aque­ous, cold and moiſt, and ſympathetick to the feet. Thus in the firſt degree, long birth wort, cabbage, gourds, elecampane, myrobalans, navew, water­lillie, purſlain and turneps. In the ſecond degre, Artichocks, calves-ſnout, blew bottle, and golden flower gentle. In the third degree, Nigella, gar­den and wild poppy, and ſowthiſtle. In the fourth degree, Hemlock, henbane, monks-hood, horned poppy, and white mightſhade.

II. The occult Qualities are found out by Peiralogie or experience, which is moſt ſure and ſafe.

II. Next follow thoſe things which are more remote that concerne plants and other medici­nalls, as commonly to be compounded therewith.

As 1. The Topologie or place of gathering them, Thus 1. Herbes, are to be gathered in mountaines, hills, and plain places, in thoſe that are higheſt eſpecially, and expoſed to the ſun, and winds, except ſome few, as Germander & Ground­pine, which are more odoriferous, and frequent in hills; but thoſe that grow only in plain places, are to be gathered in more dry places, and more remote from lakes and rivers, except they delight in more moiſture, as water caltrops, water lil­lie &c. 2. Flowers, are to be gathered in the ſame places, in which there are the best plants. 3. So Fruits, 4. And Seeds. 5. So Roots alſo. 6. Woods are to be taken from trees where they are well grown. 7. Barkes, where there plants are beſt. 8. Juices, are to be taken from the beſt herbes, chiefly the well grown and greater (as being leſſe excrementitious) & that before they grow woddy or rotten. 9. Liquors and Gums &c. are to be ta­ken from mature ſtalkes which are the beſt in their kind, as the reſt.

2. The Chronologie or time. Thus 1. Herbs, are to be gathered in the time of their flouriſhing; and beginning to goe to ſeed, which is for the moſt part in June & the beginning of July, if they are to be kept, and that at noone, in a cleare day being ſome conſiderable time, or certain dayes before freed from ſhowers and not too dewy, or ſcorched by too much heat of the Sun, which is chiefly in the Spring, or beginning of Summer. But thoſe which grow green all the yeare in gardens, may be gathered at any time: and thoſe that have neither ſtalk, flower nor ſeed, as mai­den haire, ſpleenwort &c. are to be gather­ed in the vigour of the leaves, ſc. when they are moſt green, and greateſt; yet ſome be­cauſe while they flower or beare ſeed they are wooddy and dry, are to be gathered before that time, as ſuccory, beete &c. 2. Flowers, in the vigour of their maturitie, when opened (except the roſe) at noon in faire weather, after the Sunne hath taken off the dew, and before they wither or fall off, which for the moſt part is in Spring. 3. Fruits, when they are ripe, and before they wither. 4. Seeds, out of fruits thorough ripe, when they begin to be dry, and before they fall off, and out of plants when dry and are no longer green, as in the Summer, ſc. June or July. 5. The Juice of plants, is to be preſſed out whileſt they are green and their leaves yet tender, and eſpecially out of the well grown and greater. 6. The Earkes of fruits, are to be taken when the fruits are full ripe, and thoſe of roots when the herbs have loſt their leaves, but thoſe of trees when they are in their vigour. 7. Woods, when the trees are full grown. 8. Liquors and gumms, &c. are taken by opening the ſtalke in the vigour thereof, and gumms when congealed, and mature. 9. Roots, when the fruit is fallen off, and the leaves alſo begin (which for the moſt part is in Au­tumne) and are to be digged up in faire wea­ther: which is neceſſary alwaies to be obſerved, as alſo (according to ſome) the decreaſing of the moone, the day of decreaſing, and the morning, that time being halſamicall: as alſo the fortitude of the planet, familiar to the thing to be gathered, and the ſigne of the zodiack.

3. The Dropologie or manner of gathering them, (as ſome affirme) ſome plants having di­verſe faculties, according to the diverſe manner of gathering them, as upwards or downewards; ſo hellebore, the leaves drawing the humours up­wards or downewards accordingly; ſo the root of elder alſo, and the budds, which being gathe­red upwards cauſe vomiting, and purge if downe­wards: alſo ſome obſerve the ſite of the regent planets, as whether they are orientall, or occiden­tall, &c.

4. The Paraſceuologie or the manner of pre­paring them for aſservation. Thus 1. Flowers, are kept for the moſt part ſeparated from the ſtalkes and leaves. 2. Herbs or leaves, if they are greater, and having more thick ſtalkes, they are kept apart from them; but if more ſlender they are kept together, & ſometimes with the flow­ers. 3. Fruits, as apples, &c. are to be placed with their ſtalkes downewards, and laſt longer if lai­ed on a heape of barley. 4. Roots, ſome are kept whole, as thoſe of birth-wort, gentian, hermoda­ctils, ſatyrion, &c. others are diſſected, as thoſe of bryonie, elecampane, flower deluce, &c. alſo ſome have the wooddy matter taken away, as thoſe of fennell, stone parſley, &c. As for the parts of living creatures, 1. The fleſhy parts are firſt to be waſhed with wine, or ſome other convenient decoction, and are then to be dried in an oven, & ſo kept in leaves convenient, or wrapped up in wormewood to preſent putrefaction; ſo alſo the lungs, the trachea or rough arterie being first taken away, and thus are prepared the liver, ſpleen, &c. 2. Things that are Fat and oilie, are to be waſhed often in water, untill they become pure, after which they are to be melted by a gentle fire, ſtrai­ned, and pured out upon cold water, and are then to he kept in a cold place, thus is hoggs greaſe prepared, lard, marrow, &c. and are beſt kept if a little ſalted. 3. Skinny parts, as the inte­ſtines are to be diſſected longwaies, and to be wa­ſhed in wine or ſome convenient decoction, after which being cut into pieces, they are to be dried in an oven, and kept in leaves as aforeſaid. 4. Bloud, is to be ſeparated from the ſerous hu­mour, and to be dried in an oven. 5. Galls, are to be ſeparated from the liver, then tied with a thred, after which they are to be hung up in a chimney to dry. 6. Curds, are to be dried in the ſmoke, or ſun, and ſo kept.

5. The Phylacologie or way & place of keeping them; which in generall ought to be pure, conve­nient, high, dry, open, of a North or South ſi­tuation, where they may not be burnt by the Sun, or moiſtened by the walls, &c. more. particularly: 1. Vegetables, as 1. Flowers, are to be dried in the ſhade, and then they (eſpecially thoſe of good odour) are to be kept in teile caskets. 2. Herbs, are to be dried in the ſhadow, except thoſe that have thicker ſtalkes, and moiſter leaves, and ſo ſubject to putrefaction, which muſt therefore be dryed by the more intenſe heat of the ſun, or ſome other way, and when they are well dried, they are to be kept in linnen baggs, or (which is better) in woodden caskets, that they may be de­fended from duſt. 3. Seeds, are to be kept in a dry place, and in woodden or glazed veſſells, be­ing wrapped up in papers, that they may laſt the longer, and without impurity. 4. Fruits, in boxes, panniers, or ſcuttles. 5. Gums, and dry roſins in a dry place, and in woodden veſſells, but the more liquid in pitchers. 6. Barkes, in woodden coffers, and a dry place. 7. Roots, in a dry aire, and the leſſer and more thin whoſe vertues may be eaſily diſſipated by the heat of fire or the ſun, are to be dried in the ſhadow and wind, as thoſe of parſley, fennell, &c. but the more groſſe, by the ſun or wind, as thoſe of Bryony, Gentian, Mandrake, and Rhubarbe. 2. Mineralls, as 1. Earths in baskets or woodden coffers. 2. Things Salt, in woodden or glaſse veſſells, and a dry place. 3. Things watery, in glaſſes or glazed pots. 3. Living creatures, as 1. Their dryer parts, in woodden boxes, ſo bones, &c. 2. Fats and Marrowes, are to be kept in pots, or earthen glazed veſſells, and in a cold and dry place.

Things prepared by art, as 1. Vinegers and diſtilled waters, are to be kept in glaſſe ſeſ­ſels, or ſtone bottles, and in a temperate place. 2. Balſames, as the ſweet, in tinne boxes, or (bet­ter) in glaſſes well ſtopped, but the more liquid, and diſtilled, like diſtilled oiles and ſpirits. 3. Cerots, as emplaisters. 4. Things condited and the like, in earthen veſſells. 5. Comfeits covered with ſugar, in woodden coffers, and a place moderately hot and dry. 6. Conſerves, lo­hochs, and electuaries, in glazed earthen veſ­ſells. 7. Extracts, in earthen or glaſſe veſsells wide mouthed, that they may be taken out with the ſpatula; or if they are more dry, they are kept as pills. 8. Flowers and faecula's, &c. in glaſſes. 9. Morſells, are kept as confections. 10. Oiles, made by infuſion and expreſſion, in glaſſes, or glazed potts, the diſtilled oiles in narrow mou­thed glaſses. 11. Pills, in woodden or tinne boxes, being wrapped in bladders, or cerate papers, and in a dry place. 12. Preparations, in glaſses, and dry places. 13. Rolles, as confections are kept in woodden boxes, and a dry place. 14. Salts, in glaſses and dry places. 15. Species aromaticall, in leather bagges well ſewed, or in glaſſe or woodden veſſells. 16. Spirits, in narrow mou­thed glaſſes well ſtopped, and in a temperate or cold place. 17. Juyces liquid, in narrow mou­thed glaſses, a little oile of almonds, or olives being poured thereupon: the thicker juyces agree with extracts. 18. Syrupe, in earthen veſſells, eſpecially thoſe that are acid, and are to be kept chiefely in thoſe that are glazed, that they may not attract any minerall tincture, as they doe in veſſells of mettall. 19. Troches, in woodden boxes. 20. Emplaiſters and cerots, in coffers, or dry boxes, being wrapped in a bladder, or in a waxed paper. 21. Unguents and li­niments, in earthen veſſells, or tinne box­es.

6. The Monelogie or duration of them. Where note, the time of keeping them muſt not exceed that of their duration, which is diverſe ac­cording to the greater or leſſer ſolidity of the ſubſtance, by which they are more or leſse ſub­ject to diſſipation. In particular, 1. Vege­tables, as 1. Flowers may be kept ſo long as they retaine their colour, ſmell and taſte, which for the moſt part is halfe a yeare, therefore they are to be changed every yeare: note alſo, they are beſt when freſheſt. 2. Herbs may be kept longer, yet it's better to change them yearely. 3. Seedes, by how much they are more hot, ſharp, and aromaticall, by ſo much alſo are they more durable, therefore may be kept two or three yeares, but thoſe that are leſſer and col­der muſt be changed every yeare, and muſt be kept carefully, leaſt they grow mouldy. 4. Fruits, muſt be changed every yeare; but the exotick that have a harder barke or ſhell, &c. may be kept two or three years. 5. Gums and Roſins, are more durable. 6. Barkes, laſt a yeare or more. 7. Roots, if they are little, ſlender and thinne, they are changed every yeare; as thoſe of Aſarabacca, Sperage &c.; but the greater, and having a groſse ſubſtance, laſt two or three yeares, as thoſe of Birth-wort, Bryony, Gentian, Rubarbe, and Hellebore. 2. Mineralls, for the moſt part (except ſome that are ſulphu­reous and aqueous) becauſe they are of a more ſolid and durable nature, they are alſo of a lon­ger duration. 3. Living creatures, and their parts, may be kept till they are corrupted, which will appeare by their ranke-ſmell, taſte, place, and change of colour, as the rest, but thoſe parts are moſt durable, which are moſt dry and ſolid, and the ſofter more corrup­tible, and are therefore to be changed every yeare.

Things prepared by art, as 1. Vinegers by infuſion, are to be changed every yeare, or to be renewed by the addition of new vineger, and in­fuſion of new materialls. 2. Diſtilled wa­ters that are phlegmatick are to be chan­ged, or renewed every yeare by new plants and diſtillation: but thoſe that are fuller of ſpirits may be kept longer. 3. Aro­maticall balſams, may laſt two or three years. 4. Things condited, as fruits, may be kept two years. 5. Confections, laſt longer than things without ſugar. 6. Conſerves, abide one yeare. 7. Decoctions, last good but few daies. 8. Ele­ctuaries lenitive, one yeare: the ſolutive, a yeare and halfe, and the more pleaſing, the leſse while. 9. Elixyrs, being full of ſpirit, if carefully kept, laſt diverſe years. 10. Extracts that are more hard, are not eaſily hurt in many years, except by exiccation or drineſſe. 11. The Faeculae of ve­getables, may be renewed every yeare, yet they will laſt two years or more. 12. Flowers, va­rie according to the matter from which they are ſublimated. 13. Juleps are to be made accor­ding to occaſion. 14. Lohochs, which take in almonds and cold ſeeds, apt to mould, hardly laſt above one yeare, but the reſt two years. 15. Ma­giſteries, made by precipitation out of hard things, laſt three years or more. 16. Morſells laſt ſome conſiderable time; yet they are best freſh. 17. Oiles by expreſſion that are temperate, as of almonds, orpine, apples, &c. eſpecially thoſe that are to be taken inwardly, can hardly be kept a moneth without moulding: the cold may laſt a yeare; the hot, three or foure, and thoſe that are preſſed out of ſweet ſmelling fruits, (as out of nutmegs &c.) may laſt halfe a yeare. Thoſe that are diſtilled laſt longer; but if made by in­ſolation they are wont to be changed every yeare or two. 18. Pills, by reaſon of the aloes and their bardneſſe may be kept two or three years, eſpeci­ally thoſe that have opium as an ingredient. 19. Preparations, being of a leſſe hard, and volatile eſſence, may laſt two or three years. 20. Pow­ders, are beſt freſh. 21. Robs or hard juyces are to be changed every yeare. 22. Rolles, are made as occaſion requireth. 23. Salts, will last diverſe years, eſpecially the chryſtalized. 24. Species aromaticall, are to be renewed every yeare, or yeare and halfe. 25. Spirits, if well kept that they do not exhale, may laſt very long. 26. Juy­ces liquid, are to be changed every yeare, but the more hard and thick may be kept two or three years or more. 27. Syrupes ſimple, are to be changed every yeare; but the compound and aro­maticall may laſt two yeares. 28. Tinctures, in powder may laſt diverſe years; but the liquid laſt according to the diverſity of the menſtruums. 29. Troches, and dry collyries, may last one yeare, except thoſe that containe opium, or ſeeds apt to grow mouldie, for thoſe with opium may last ſix or ſeaven years, and the reſt hardly one. 30. Ce­rots, ſcarce endure one yeare. 31. Clyſters, laſt not long, & are therefore to be made when uſefull. 32. Emplaſters, hardly endure a yeare and halfe. 33. Ointments, for the moſt part are kept a year, or a year and halfe.

7. The Criſeologie or diſcrimination and diſtinction thereof; thus are to be ſhunned; 1. Herbs, that are greateſt, ſmalleſt, and withered, as alſo thoſe that are of an evill taſte, ſmell and colour. 2. Flowers, that are corrupted, broken, unripe or stale, or of an evill taste, ſmell or colour. 3. Fruits, that are wrinkled, not corpulent, or rotten, of an evill taſte and ſmell. 4. Seeds, that are withered, unripe, or not corpulent, rotten, of an evil ſmel or taſte. 5. Barkes, that are worme-eaten, rotten, or ſoked in water. 6. Juyces, that are ſtale, without good ſmel, taſte or colour. 7. Liquors and gums, that are old, and have loſt their vertues. 8. Woods, that are rotten, light or corrupted, 9. Roots, that are worme-eaten, or withered. 10. Parts of living creatures, that are taken from thoſe that are ſick, old, or dying by diſeaſes: hence appeareth the choyce. Alſo 1. Emollients or the ſoftening remedies, are known by their temperateneſſe in heat and moiſture, al­ſo by the guſtile and tactile quality, or touch and taſte, being in taſte neere ſweetneſſe, but of a fat and oilie ſubſtance, ſo that they are neither ſharpe auſtere, acid, ſalt, or of any other taſte, that may ſhew either aſtriction, or vehement heat or cold, neither doe they ſeem rough or glutinous being touched. 2. Indurants or the hardening, are known by ſapor or laſte, which is ſuch, that neither ſhew­eth heat, nor biteth or contracteth the tongue; but is rather inſipid, cold, ſo neither ſalt, ſharp, bitter, ſweet, acerb, auſtere or acid. 3. Tendents & lax­ants or the ſtretching & looſening, are known as emollients; yet laxants are leſſe hot and dry than e­mollients. 4. Rarefacients & denſants or rarify­ing and thickening, are known as emollients, ſc. by ſapor, ſhewing moderate heat: ſo alſo denſants being contrary hereunto, and not vehemently cold, therefore (according to Gallen) thoſe things which vellicate the tongue, by a biting ſapor, or astringent, are not to be accounted among denſants. 5. Aperients or the opening, are known by their ſharpneſse and biting, pricking and fretting the tongue. 6. Occludents or the cloſing, are diſtin­guiſhed by their coldneſſe, and aſtriction without biting; for they coarctate and bind the tongue, but do not vellicate or eate the ſame. 7. Attenuants are ſharp, and bitter, yet they rather diſsolve the tongue, than contract it, being of thin parts, and without astriction. 8. Attrahents or the drawing, are known as attenuants, both having tenuity of parts, and no ſmall heat, ſo that they differ ſecun­dum magis & minus, yet tenuity of parts is more proper to attenuants, and heat to attrahents, and ſheweth the ſame, not only by the taſte but touch al­ſo. 9. Diſcutients or the diſsolving, by taſt which burneth the tongue, being ſharp, very hot, and of thin parts, without astriction, not contracting the tongue. 10. Repellents or the reſiſting, by taſte, a­cid, acerbe or auſtere: for theſe participating of aſtriction, do preſently contract the tongue by their contact. 11. Adurents or burning, by touching ra­ther than by taſte: for ſuch rather corrode the thick skin and humors, and conſume the ſame; but the weaker are ſharp, & being taſted doe prick the tongue. 12. Extergents or the cleanſing, are not diſtinguiſhed by one ſapor, for they may be either ſweet, ſalt, or bitter: but thoſe that are cold ſhew themſelves rather by ſome tactile quality, than by taſte, for they are neither ſaid to be acid, auſtere, or acerbe, not having aſtriction, which doth more impact the ſordes or excrements. 13. Emplaſticks, by being without ſapor, or having one that ſheweth exceſse neither of heat, nor cold: they are therefore either fat, inſipid, or ſweet in ſome meaſure, and tough & viſcous being touched. Furthermore me­dicines of the 3d qualities, 1. Suppurants, or things cauſing matter, are known by not having any ſa­por which may ſhew exceſse of heat, and by being without aſtriction, & not biting or nitrous. 2. Diu­reticks or provoking urine, by their ſharpnes, heat and inciſion: the cold by their nitrous qua­lity, with ſome ſmall ſharpnes or bitternes. 3. Em­menagogicks or provoking the courſes, by heat 30, inciſion and absterſion, & biting of the tongue without contraction, being ſharp, or ſomewhat bit­ter. 4. Galactogeneticks, or cauſing milk, by a ſweet taſte, and temperate; yet ſome have a little acri­monie. The contrary diminiſh milke, as things bitter, acerbe, auſtere, &c. which ſhew exceſse either of heate or cold. 5. Spermatogeneticks, or cauſing ſperme by heat and moiſture, almoſt like the former, but that they are more fat and viſcous or tough, and thoſe that ſtimulate the ſperme, are known by their ſharpneſſe. 6. Ano­dynes, or eaſing paine by their temperateneſſe, and thinneſſe of eſſence. 7. Sarcoticks, or generating fleſh by their exiccation and abſterſion or cleanſing of the filth and corrupt matter. 8. Glutinants, or cloſing by aſtriction, and more exiccation than the former. 9. Epuloticks, or cicatrizing and healing, as the laſt; yet exceeding in degree. 10. Alexipharmicks, or things reſiſting poyſon by their corroberating, contrary, or extruſive faculty.

8. The Taxilogie or way of placing them in Receipts: ſo 1. Thoſe which want longer pre­paration are firſt to be put downe, as 1. Woods that are not ſweet, and barkes, 2. Then Herbes, 3. Fruits, 4. Seeds, Laſtly Flowers, and whatſoever are ſweet or purging, &c. 2. Things that are to be boiled or infuſed, be­fore things that are only to be powdered. 3. In things that want and are of the ſame prepara­tion, thoſe are to be firſt placed, of which the greateſt quantity is required. 4. In thoſe things of which there is the ſame preparation, and quan­tity, thoſe are to be firſt placed, which either in commoditie or nobilitie do exceed. 5. Thoſe things are laſt to be preſcribed, which have the place of Matter, as aloes in pills, wax in unguents, and hony in great confections.

9. The Pharmacopoetologie, or way of compounding them: here, 1. Vinegers, are made of wine vineger, and vegetables, incided or contuſed, by infuſion in a warme place, or by di­ſtillation. 2. Waters, are made by diſtillation, infuſion, decoction or the mixture of herbs, flowers, roots, woods, ſpices, and living creatures, being firſt centuſed or bruiſed. 3. Balſams, that are ſweet are made of ſweet oiles incorporated in white wax purifyed &c. The diſtilled, are diſtilled ſpirits with a little oile drawn forth of roſins, gumms, ſpices &c. by the ſpirit of wine. 4. Boles, are made by mixture, or inſpiſſation or thickening &c. Of electuaries, pulps, conſerves, and powders reduced into a deglutible and leſſe fluid conſiſtence. 5. Cataplaſmes, are made chiefly of herbes (green or dry) roots, flowers, ſeeds, oiles, fruits, greaſes, crums of bread &c. reduced with or without fire into the forme of a pul­tiſe. 6. Clyſters are made of convenient liquors, among which the purging are moſt uſuall, which for the moſt part are compounded, and made of 4. or 5. parts of ſome emollient decoction, and 1, or 2. of oile, and ſome purging and stimulating ele­ctuaries, or ſpecies &c. in a double quantity to what is taken downwards. Note, oile is to be added when there is need of emollition, and not when of purgation or revulſion. Hereto belong Metrenchy­tes, made of ſome diſtilled water, decoction or juice &c. to which way be added powders, ele­ctuaries, oiles &c. as alſo other injections to be uſed with a ſyringe. 7. Conditures, are made of roots, barkes, ſtalkes, fruits, nuts and flowers, of which the more groſſe are to be mollifyed, and diſſected and then edulcorated or ſweetened with purifyed and diſſolved ſugar, and ſometimes with clarifyed hony &c. 8. Confections with ſugar are made by dropping diſſolved ſugar by degrees on things to be prepared as ſeeds, kernells, ſpices, roots, barks, as alſo flowers, and tops of plants, and they are canded with more groſse liquor. 9. Con­ſerves, are made by ſtamping the matter in a ſtone morter, and mixing the ſugar therewith in a double proportion in things more humid, and treble if more dry, with a little diſtilled water, thus are prepared flowers for the moſt part, ſel­dome herbs, leſſe often roots, and fruits almoſt never, and are then to be filtrated. 10. Decocti­ons, are made of all things that may communi­cate their vertue unto liquors, as mineralls, ve­getables, and animals, or living creatures; but Apozems chiefly of vegetables, ſc. roots, barkes, herbes, flowers, berries, fruits, and woods, with ſpring water, whay, hydromel, or wine, from a foure fold proportion of the liquor to twelve, with a due preparation, decoction, and clarification with the white of an egge. 11. Lambatives andohochs, are made of pectoralls, ſc. powders, conſerves, mucilages, ſyrups, decoctions, honey, pulps, &c. mixed to the conſiſtence of honey: note the proportion of powder is halfe an ounce to 2 of ſyrup. 12. Electuaries, ſc. the common or opiats are made of fine powders, with warme clarified ho­ny, being ſet to ferment in ſome warme place, af­ter the mixture of the diſſolved ſolubles; but mixtures are made of powders, electuaries, con­ſerves, extracts, and diſſected confections, with ſome convenient liquor, or ſo much ſyrup as may ſuffice. 13. Elixyrs, are ſpirituous liquors of excellent faculties, impregnated by infuſion, and agree for the moſt part with liquid tinctures. 14. Emplaiſters and cerots, are made of fat things, as oiles, roſins, greaſe, marrow, wax, & gums, and ſometimes powders, to the wax melted are last added: the proportion of oile, fat or hony is three ounces, to one of dry things, of wax 1 pound, of ro­ſins 8 ounces; thus are Cerotes made, yet ſofter: hereto belong Dropaces, made of pitch, a little oile, & other materialls, as pepper, pellitory, roſemary, euphorbium, caſtor, bitumen, brimſtone, ſalts &c. 15. Emulſions, are made of the inward parts of fruits, and milkie ſeeds, as almonds, the 4 greater cold ſeeds, ſeeds of purſlain, lettuce, pine apple kernells, &c. with ſpring or distilled water, the decoction of barley, liquorice, raiſins or jujubes be­ing pounded, & ſtrained, and then ſweetened, a­voiding things acid. 16. Errhines, are made of ex­tracts, liniments or powders. 17. Epithemes, are made of diſtilled waters, juices, decoctions, emul­ſions, &c. alone or mixed with powders, ſpecies, electuaries &c. and ſome wine vineger, or ſpirits for penetration, and ſo applyed with a ſpunge or linnen cloth, &c. the proportion is halfe a pound, of liquors, of powders from 1 dram to half an ounce, of wine or ſpirits 1 ounce. 18. Extracts, are drawn out of mineralls, vegetables and animalls by preparing them for infuſion and then pouring the menſtruum thereon to a convenient height, (ſc. the ſpirit of wine &c.) after which ſet it in a warme place, and then extract it according to art. 19. Faecula's, are made of roots & ſometimes of leaves by pound­ing them in a morter, and pouring on water till like a pulpe, which is then to be preſſed, and ſet to ſettle. 20. Flowers, are made by chymicall ſepa­ration by ſublimation. 21. Gargariſmes and den­tiſrices, are made for the moſt part of waters, juices or convenient decoctions, to which way be added of ſyrups, or hony 2, 3, or 4 ounces, to 1 pound of water, with a little vineger &c. 22. Gellies, are made of ſucculent fruits, of hornes & tender bones, by decoction and filtration, edulcoration and co­agulation, to which alſo may be added powders and extracts &c. 23. Infuſions, are made of minerals and animals, but chiefly of vegetables, and ſuch as are purging, with their corrigents, together with ſome distilled or ſpring water, whay, muſcadell, mede, or wine &c. to cover the matter, 1, 2, or 3. fingers, which after ſteeping is to be preſſed. 24. Juleps, are made of ſome potulent liquor, as diſtilled or ſpring water corrected by a toſte, or ſome decoction, as of harts horne, liquorice, or barley &c. in which juyces and ſpirits may be diſsolved, and of ſyrrups 1, or 2, ounces may be added to a pint of liquor. Hereunto belong morets, made of ſpices and other confortatives, with ſu­gar or ſyrrups. 25. Stones, are made by digeſtion, extraction and coagulation. 26. Liquors, are made by deliquium, &c. 27. Magiſteries, are made of animals, vegetables, and minerals prepared by ſolution in ſome convenient or acid liquor, preci­pitation, ablution in common water, and gentle ex­iccation. 28. Maſticatories, are uſually made of maſtick, raiſins, baſtard pellitory, cubebs, ſage leaves, agarick &c. made into powder, balls, or troches with wax, figgs, turpentine, or hony &c. and ſo are to be chewed. 29. Morſells and rolls, may be made of all kinds of remedies, as powders, ſeeds, conſerves, oiles, extracts, with ſugar diſ­ſolved over the fire, putting them in by degrees and ſtirring them, after which it's to be poured forth upon ſome plain thing and cut into tablets. In thoſe that are purging manna may be put in ſtead of hony, things condited are to be firſt cut in pieces: diſtilled oiles are laſt to be dropped in, or uſed outwardly, ſo muſke and amber being diſſolved in roſe water. Rolls alſo are thus made, but the powders muſt be finer and in a leſſe quan­tity, and if there are acid juices they muſt be made only by mixture. 30. Oiles, as firſt the de­ſtilled, are made of animals, vegetables and mi­nerals. 2. Thoſe by expreſſion, of ſeeds, and cer­taine oleous kernells. 3. By decoction, the ſim­ples being cut and boiled in oile mixt with water, wine, or ſome convenient liquor, untill the aque­ous humidity be exhaled, or by maceration in oile, as that of olives, or the omphacine if the ſimples are more dry. 31. Pills, may be made of any dry thing incorporated by ſome viſcid and glutinous liquor, as ſyrrups, mucilages, inſpiſſate or thickened juices, extracts &c. or they may be made only of juices and inspiſsate extractions. 32. Potions, are made of ſyrrups, electuaries, extracts, manna, powders &c. with decoctions, infuſions, and chief­ly distilled waters, uſually only by mixture. 33. Pomanders, are made of ſweet powders, to which oiles may be added, which may be incorporated with wax, ſtorax, Indian bal­ſame, the mucilage of tragacanth, with a little turpentine when need, and a little roſe water, and ſo made up into ſmall balls. 34. Pre­parations, are made by powdering the more hard matter, ſprinkling thereon ſome cordiall water, ſc. roſe water for the most part, and afterwards drying it in the ſhadow. Thoſe things that are more ſolid are to be calci­ned. 35. Powders and ſpecies, are made by triture or levigation, and the leſse if of a volatile ſubſtance, and apart if of a di­verſe hardneſſe. 36. Fomentatorie little baggs, may be made of any inided or contu­ſed vegetables, ſowed up in ſmall bagges, and are then to be applyed warme either dry or moiſt. 37. Salts, are made by incineration, macera­tion, tranſcolation, and evaporation or cry­ſtallization. 38. Waſh-balls, are made of ſope especially that of Venice, with which ſweet things finely powdered are to be mixed with ſome fragrant water, as of roſes, &c. 39. Spirits, if more volatile, are made by a more gentle fire, as by BM. vel cinerum. The more fixed, by a retort and ſtronger fire, and are made of ani­mals, minerals, and vegetables, and the more vo­latile of leaves, flowers, fruits, ſeeds and ſpices: but the more fixed out of woods, barks &c. The firſt differ not from diſtilled waters, but that they are leſse flegmatick, and ſeparated by rectification after contuſion, and fermen­tation. 40. Juices, are drawn ſeldome out of animals, but chiefly out of vegetables; yet not all, as thoſe that are oleous, and more dry: and are made by contuſion, expreſſion, cla­rification, filtration or digeſtion, and the leſſe ſucculent by maceration, or elixation firſt. 41. Sinapiſmes, are made of muſtard ſeed, creſſes, nettles, ſowbread, bryony, ſquills, gar­lick, euphorbium, cantharides &c. with the pulp of figgs, leaven, hony, oxymel, ſope, &c. And Veſicatories, of cantharides pre­pared, ſc the heads and wings being cut off, 30 being powdered, and of ſharp leaven 1 ounce, with ſharp vineger if need. 42. Suppoſitories, are uſed for divers indications, but chiefly the de­jectory, of which, 1. the more gentle are made of lard, an open figge, candle, wax, meat boiled in water, ſtalkes and roots; as of beets, cabbage, blites, mercury &c. 2. The meane with a cer­taine acrimonie, are made of hony boiled thick, ſope, and boiled tupentine, to which ſometimes is added mouſedung, ſalt or ſugar. 3. The moreſtrong and purging, are made of agarick, aloes, hierpicra, hellebore, ſcammonie &c. in the powder of which the ſuppoſitorie may be rolled. Here the proportion of hony is 1 ounce, of powder more gently purging 1 dram, if more ſtrongly halfe a ſcruple, halfe a dram or 1 dram. They are alſo at laſt to be annointed with oile or butter. Peſſaries and naſcals are made in the forme of a finger, of hyſterick remedies, which are to be put into a long linnen bag, or made up with picked wooll or cotton, or incorporated with hony, lauda­num, galbanum, wax, juices &c. they are in figure like ſuppoſitories, but thicker and longer. Roots alſo may be uſed in ſtead thereof, as of madder, cyperus, lillies &c. 43. Syrups, are made of ſome medica­mentous liquor, decoction, infuſion, juice, diſtilled water or vineger, which being clarifyed, ſugar or hony (for preſervation & ſapour) are to be added, then boiled and clarifyed: it's to be inspiſſated to the conſiſtence of more liquid hony. The proportion of liquor to ſugar or hony is almoſt double or treble. Hereunto belong phyſicall honies, and ſyrupized Robs. 44. Tinctures, of which the more liquid are nothing elſe than extractions, without an abſtracted menſtruum: the more ſolid are pow­ders without combuſtion, remaining out of the liquid tinctures, the menſtruum being abstracted; and are made after the manner of extracts. 45. Tro­chiſkes, are made of all kinds of remedies, which being powdered are made up in ſome convenient viſcous liquor, as in ſome mucilages with traga­canth, juices, ſyrups, &c. Hereunto belong ſumale candles made of odoriferous powders, with tragacanth, ſtorax &c. as alſo troches for the ſame, not differing in the way of making. 46. Inunctory balſames, liniments and un­guents, hardly differ in their preparation, but conſiſtence, which in the firſt is more liquid, like hony: in the ſecond a little harder, and ſcarce fluid: the third more hard, and leſse fluid: and are made of oile, butter, fats, marrow, roſins, mucilages, juices, &c. as alſo of powders and things that may be melted. To 1. ounce of oile is uſed of fats almoſt 1, or 3 drames in liniments. 1. dram or a half in balſams. 1 dram & a half or half an ounce in ointments, with 1. dram of pow­der &c. Alſo balſames are without wax, lini­ments have a little, or none, as 1. dram to 1 ounce of oile; but unguents have more, and ſometimes gummes, and are made by mixture or liquefaction.

10. The Doſologie or quantities thereof. I. As Ingredients. So 1. the doſes of Herbs, as uſed〈…〉are proportioned by handfulls, in clyſters and decoctions, 1, or 2. for one time: ſo if dry, in externall and great remedies, but in others, as powders for the head and ſtomack &c. from one dram to hafe an ounce, or an ounce. 2. Flowers, if dry are meaſured by weight and meaſure, if freſh they are proportioned by meaſure only: the dry in antidotes and more noble compoſitions, from a ſcruple to two drams; as in cordiall, capitall and ſtomachick pow­ders, and unguents; but in ſyrrups, apoz emes, and other decoctions from halfe a pugill to 2, 3, or more, as alſo in bathes and clyſters; not being efficacious therein, unleſſe in a great quantity: when freſh they are more effectuall to refri­gerate, humect, or looſen; and are therefore uſed only in ſyrrups, and apozemes, and other de­coctions of the like nature, and that from halfe a pugill, to more: and are not weighed except for conſerves. 3. Fruits, if great, whole and diſcrete, are preſcribed by number, and not weight, except ſome part thereof only be to be uſed, and in exact compoſitions. And in ſome the diverſification is to be made according to the ſcope and uſe, as prunes, tamarinds &c. for if uſed to refrigerate or alter choller a little number will ſuffice, as two or three couple; but tenne or twenty, if to purge: ſo of figgs &c. in inward remedies; for in bathes if to cleanſe and relaxare they may be put in, in a grea­ter quantity, ſc. 50 couple; and looſening, detergent and emollient fruits from 10 couple, to 20. The refrigerating and lenient, in injections agaist the inflammation of the inteſtines to 10. couple, as prunes, ſebeſtens and tamarinds: ſo alſo the ſweeter fruits in clysters eaſing paine, lenient, looſening, deterſive, and drawing downe wormes: ſo alſo the aſtringent in cly­sters for fluxes, but in a leſſe quantity in al­tering decoctions, leaſt they ſhould cauſe ob­ſtructions. The detergent in looſening remedies from 20 couple to forty, and in the altering to 5, or 6 couple; but in pectorall decoctions, or ſyrrups in a mean quantity, or to 10. couple, as figgs, jujubes &c. alſo the pulpe thereof is pre­ſcribed by meaſure, as the pulp of raiſins to two ounces in ſolutive electuaries; in lohochs in a mean, and in hepatick corroborating or malactick cataplaſmes from a quarter of a pound to a pound; ſo all aſtringent fruits: the leſſer fruits as currans &c. in a greater or leſſer weight, ac­cording to the ſcope, nature, ſtrength, and jorme of the remedies: and the indiſcrete fruits are pre­ſcribed by weight, not number. 4. Seeds, are always proportioned by weight. The hot and plea­ſant to 1 or 2 drams, as aniſeed &c. in pep­tick powders: the leſſe acceptible to halfe or 1 dram, and the more ſharp in a leſſer quan­tity: the temperate from 1 dram to an ounce in inward remedies; and in baths, fomentations, and clysters, from 1 ounce to more. The Diuretick, according to the ſcope and acrimonie: if to pro­voke urine, from 1 dram to 3, or 4. and with purging remedies from a ſcruple to a dram. And in aperient remedies in a mean quantity. In arteriacks from one ſcruple to a dram, as alſo in Bechicks. Thoſe that expell wind, in clyſters, remedies eaſing paine and the collick, from two drams to 6: in antidotes from one dram to three: the hotteſt ſeeds, uſed powdered in inward remedies from one ſcruple to one dram, and in the externall from 2 drams to an ounce; but in decoctions to be taken inward­ly, from one dram to three, and in externall remedies from 3 ſcruples to an ounce and half. The greater cold ſeeds, in diureticks from two drams to an ounce. In pectoralls from half a dram to three. In looſening remedies from a ſcruple to a dram. In clyſters from halfe an ounce to an ounce. In bathes from two ounces to 6: but the leſſer cold ſeeds, in inward remedies, as powders, from a ſcruple to two drams. In the outward, from half a dram to halfe an ounce. Narcotick ſeeds, from halfe a dram to two or three, as in remedies for the collick: but in the exter­nall, from a dram to half an ounce. Cerealls, that are whole are to be meaſured by pugills or ſmall handfulls; more in baths: in clyſters one or two pugills. In the decoctions of ſyrrups, injections and gargariſmes from halfe a pugill to a whole one: but when they are powdered, by weight; as in cataplaſmes, from one pound to two: and to inspiſſate the juice of herbes, as much as may reduce it into the conſiſtence of hony; as in bechick and arteriack remedies from one dram to three. Pulſes, are meaſured as cereals, but are weighed when powdered. 5. Roots, in ſyrups and apozems, from one ounce to three, if for more doſes; if for one, from 3 drams to an ounce, more or leſſe, according to their nature and ſtrength and the ſcope: in baths they are proportioned by pounds or handfulls. In clyſters from 2 ounces to 3. and more for fomentations, irrigations &c. 6. Woods, if ſweet, more noble, and pretious, from halfe a dram to a dram, for the moſt part, in inward or outward remedies, as ſuunders &c. but the more groſſe & ignoble, of which are made decoctions, as guajacum &c. from an ounce to a pound. 7. Barkes, the more rare and excellent, from a ſcruple to half an ounce, as cinamon &c. The more baſe, from one ounce to more; except ungratefull to the taſte, as guajacum &c. 8. Juices, according to the ſcope & forme of remedies. 9. So Roſms, the liquid taken alone, from a ſcruple to 3 drams to cleanſe the reines; if to looſen the belly, from 2 drams to halfe an ounce; in plaisters and unguents, from halfe an ounce to more, according to the ſcope; but the more dry, as pitch &c. in outward remedies, as plaisters and unguents, from half an ounce to an ounce or more. 10. Living creatures, if uſed whole, are proportioned by number, except ſmall, their parts by number and weight: the more liquid, by weight: ſo thoſe that are burned, or prepared, and that from one dram to three, as rasped harts horne, &c. but thoſe that are more ſharp, foetid, or ſweet, if uſed inwardly from two graines to a dram, as muske, amber &c. but more, if uſed outwardly. The Inteſtines, from one dram, to two, if taken alone or with wine, but in opiats and powders for more doſes to one or two ounces. The lungs and liver, if unpleaſant, ſtinking and dryed, from halfe a ſcruple to a dram, or two if mixed with ſweet things. Excrements, if more ſharp from halfe a dram to two drams, and outwardly from halfe an ounce to two ounces: and if more gentle to a pound, as that of the cow &c. Galls, by weight, more or leſſe, according to their acrimonie and conſiſtence: thoſe of four footed beaſts to one dram, of birds to two, of fiſhes to three. Hornes, being burned or rasped from one dram to foure, but the more precious, as the Ʋnicornes, from 6 graines to a dram. Shells, of fiſhes burnt from one dram to three, and in out­ward remedies from halfe an ounce to two ounces. Pearles in cordials, &c. from one ſcruple to two drams. 11. Mettalls, by weight, according to their ſtrength and acrimonie, and the ſtrongeſt from a dram to an ounce, the weaker in a greater quan­tity; but thoſe that may be eliquated, and are em­plaſtick, as litharge &c. from an ounce to a pound, or more: and the ſharpe, as verdigreaſe &c. from halfe a dram to two drams; if waſhed in a grea­ter quantity: thoſe that have but little acrimonie, us lead, tuttie &c. and thoſe which dry with­out biting, from a dram to an ounce. Mineralls, that are very ſharpe, as brimſtone, alome, &c. are to be uſed only in ſtrong remedies: the cauſtick as vitrioll &c. from half a ſcruple to a ſcruple uſed alone, or a dram uſed with more gentle remedies. Precious ſtones, as the ſapphire &c. from halfe a ſcruple to a dram: the ſtronger and acrid, as the lapis cyaneus, according to the ſcope and manner of preparation, ſc. in cordialls, from 7 graines to halfe a ſcruple, in purging remedies, from a dram to two drams and a half; & in a greater quantity, if in greater compoſitions: and thoſe that are burned in a leſſe quantity, than thoſe which are not, or not waſhed, but thoſe ſtones that are without acrimonie, as the lapis Judaicus, &c. from halfe a dram to two drams. So Earths alſo. More particularly. 1. In Decoctions, the proportion is of leaves 5 handfulls, of flowers 4 pugills, of roots 3 or 5 ounces, of ſeeds 4 or 6 drams, of water 2 or 3 pints, boiled to one halfe or a third part, with tranſ­colation, edulcoration, and clarification, to each doſe of which, one ounce of ſyrup may be added, and ſometimes catharticks with correctors So alſo in inſuſions. 2. In Clyſters, in a double pro­portion to what is taken by the mouth, ſc. of ſim­ple purgers, as coloquintida &c to two or three drams, of the compounded, as of hiera pcra &c. to an ounce or an ounce & half &c. according to the ſtrength of the patient and vehemency of the diſeaſe: of oiles 3 ounces, of ſats, hony, and ſu­gar &c. halfe an ounce or an ounce, of the yelks of eggs 2 or 3, of common ſalt a dram and halfe, more or leſse according to the intended porita­tion of the expulſive faculty. 3. In Gargariſmes, a triple weight of liquor to that of phyſicall jui­ces and ſyrups, ſc. 6 ounces to two hereof, and of dry medicines 2 or 3 drams to halfe a pound of a decoction. 4. In Errhines, of the leaves of ce­phalick purgers being incided and contuſed, 4 handfulls to 4 ounces of white wine &c. in ſoft•••hines, to two ounces of the juice aforeſaid an ounce and a halfe of wine, and of hony as much as may ſerve to make it into the forme of an opiat being boiled, of ſharp or purging powders 1 ſcruple: in the ſolid, to a ſufficient quantity of turpentine and wax 2 drams of powders. 5. In Epithemes, to 1 pound of liquors a