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Legenda lignea: WITH AN ANSWER To Mr. Birchleys MODERATOR.

(Pleading for a Tolerati­on of POPERY.) And a Character of ſome hope­full SAINTS Revolted to the Church of ROME.

Lactan. lib. 5. ca. 9. Inſt.

Chriſtianorum omnis Religio ſine ſcelere, & macula vivere.

Plin. Nat. Hiſt. Lib. 14.

Religione vita conſtat.

LONDON, Printed in the Year 1653.


A Meſſage from GOD: OR, An Advertiſement to the City of LONDON.


GOD never intends a judgement upon a City or Nation, but hee forewarn's them of it firſt by ſome ſub­ordinate Meanes beſt pleaſing to his Majeſty, as the examples of Ieruſa­lem and Nineveh well informe us. In like manner his Divine Excellency, having lately pronounced a moſt horrid and deplorable Raine upon your City, hath beene pleaſed (out of the unſearchable riches of his2 grace) to reveale the ſame (by way of ſupernaturall or divine Viſion) to Me the unworthieſt of men; which with all Love and Chriſtianity I ſhal declare to you as followeth:

I ſaw in a viſion by night (whether in the body or out of the body, I know not, God knoweth) and lo a mighty black Bull, of moſt furious Countenance, roſe out of the North, and came along in the Air, about a furlong diſtant from the Earth, directing his way in a very ſturdy and ſwift posture, and with a ſtraight courſe, not turning to the right hand nor to the left, towards the place where I ſtood (I being then in Lon­don;) and, upon his nearer approach, I diſcover'd one of his Hornes blazing with Fire; but the other I obſerv'd to be a ſtraight Horne, partly black and partly white, in Rings: At the ſight of which ſtrange and formidable Apparition I began at first to be much skar'd, and thereupon to make my13 addreſſes to Almighty God in prayer; by which meanes finding my Thoughts immediately much ſettled, I reſolv'd further to obſerve: This ſaid Appa­rition being come directly over mee (West-ward,) and ſtanding about a ſtones caſt in height from the gound; there instantly appeared hard by it (towards the South) another Bull, all over involv'd in a mighty Flame; which, with great fend and violence, ran at this Northerne Bull; but, after a ſhort and furious conflict, was in the end vanquiſh'd by him, & ſo vaniſh'd; the other in ſhort time vaniſhed like­wiſe: Which done, there ſuddenly came down a voyce to me (as the voyce of a Man) ſaying, Thus ſhall your City of London be burnt with Fire: Where­upon I ſtarted up in a kinde of Extaſie, and wak'd, greatly wondering at ſo dreadfull a viſion.

Theſe things I ſaw immediately upon the Scottiſh Defeat at Worceſter, as divers of my acquaintance can4 teſtify, to whom I afterwards reveal'd them; which will moſt certainly be fulfill'd in their due time.

Having now given you a true and perfect accompt of this my preſent Meſſage or Burden, and that I be not taken for any of thoſe who are ready to conclude every wandering Fan­taſma a Revelation, I ſhall proceed further to informe you upon what Grounds I am thus bold to preſent you with theſe Lines, which are briefly theſe Three.

  • Firſt, from that faithfull experi­ment I have lately had of ſundry moſt ſtrange (nay, I may well ſay miraculous) Revelations touching my own private condition, being all of them most exactly fulfill'd.
  • Secondly, from that extraordinary and perſwaſive Manner that theſe things appeared to mee in, above all other either before or after them: And,
  • Thirdly, from thoſe reſtleſſe Prick­ings15 of Conſcience, that have accom­panied mee, untill I had now com­municated theſe Particulars to the World. For this Word was in my heart as a burning Fire ſhut up in my bones, and I was weary with Forbear­ing, and I could not stay; (according to that of the Prophet, Ier. 20.9.)

From this Subject, according to my Interpretation, from thoſe ſtrong Perſwaſions in my Spirit (under Goa's ſacred correction) there are plainely denoted to us theſe Six Particulars:

  • Firſt, That, whereas there came a black Bull, mighty and terrible in appearance, from ward the Northerne Parts to London; ſo there ſhall come in like manner a Man of black complexion, and of an irefull and majeſtick Coun­tenance, that is to ſay CHARLES called King of Scots, ſhall in­fallibly come with a great and dreadfull Power from Scotland (as16 is moſt probable,) or from the Northern Parts of this Nation, where He and his Army ſhall firſt Land, to this City of London.
  • Secondly, Foraſmuch as this Apparition marced along betwixt the Heaven and the Earth, it doth moſt evidently promon­ſtrate theſe Three things:
    • 1. That the ſaid King ſhall not terminate his Deſignes on his own Earthly Intereſt, but on God's Glory and Religion:
    • 2. That high and magnificent Condition hee ſhall come in: And
    • 3. His Abhorring (as it were) to defile his Feete with that Ground, whereon there have beene ſuch abominable and unheard of Cruelties com­mitted ſince that unhappy time of his expulſion from his Native Countrey and Kingdome.
  • 7Thirdly, whereas it came ſtraight forward, not turning to the right hand nor to the left, and in a ſtout and ſwift poſture, there will ariſe from thence theſe Two Obſervations:
    • 1. That the ſaid King ſhall not turne aſide to beſiege any petty Garriſon, or to fight any Flying-Party; but ſhall march directly on towards London, as the onely confi­derable Place of his attempts: And,
    • 2. His Policy in fruſtrating his Enemies Plots by a ſudden Surprizall.
  • Fourthly, by the blazing Horne is expreſly ſignified that flaming Sword of Vengeance hee ſhall bring with him; wherewith hee ſhall confound his Enemies, burne this City with Fire, and (conſe­quently) deſtroy this preſent Go­vernment.
  • 8Fiftly, by the ſtraight Horne, partly black and partly white, is to be underſtood that ſtraight Rule of Righteouſneſſe, whereby hee ſhall ſquare all his Actions both of Mercy and Iustice.
  • Sixtly, and laſtly, from the furious combating of theſe two Apparitions, &c. I preſcribe Thus; That the Inhabitants of this City of London ſhall draw out their Totall Powers againſt the ſaid King and His Armies, and there ſhall be a moſt deſperate Warre, ſuch as hath not beene in England ſince it became a Nation: but they ſhall be utter­ly vanquiſht, and this our Ieruſa­lem ſhall be made Heaps, and an Aſtoniſhment, and a By-word to all posterity.

Doubtleſſe, there will be ſundry Objections rais'd from the Strength, and warlike Poſture of this Nation, and the preſent Domeſtick Troubles9 of other Chriſtian Nations about us, thereby concluding an impoſsi­bility of ſo great a change (and, by conſequence, much obſtructing thoſe good Effects, I could wiſh the afore­ſaid Premiſes might worke upon Mens Conſciences:) To this I anſwer, To ſuch an Intellect it ſeemes (indeed) ſomewhat im­probable, (as, according to that Philoſophicall Obſervation, Falſa ſaepè probabiliora ſunt Veris;) but, if wee look on GOD (who bringeth Princes to nought, and maketh the Judges of the Earth vanity, Iſa. 40.23. ) wee ſhall finde that his Hand is not ſhortned, neither confin'd to Time or Meanes. Certainly, there is nothing that more clearly argues the Deſolation of a Kingdome or Common-wealth, then when once they begin to be vainely-confident in their owne fleſhly Abilities. But let our Governours beware leſt ſuch Terribleneſſe and Pride of Heart10 deceive them, as it did ſometime the Edomites (Ier. 49.16.) Alas! they will finde theſe Perſwaſions to be but falſe Enthuſiaſmes, conſiſt­ing onely in ſuperficiall appearances without ſubſtance; or like to the Egyptian-Reed, on which if a Man lean'd it would pierce his hand.

As for the Time wherein this ſad Preſage ſhall bee accompliſh'd, though it bee not here punctually reveal'd; yet, by all probability, it muſt be ſuddenly. (Neither let any Man thinke that I ſpeake theſe Things by way of ſiding with Par­ties; farre be it from mee; for I call Heaven and Earth to record this day, that what is here written is written from the very truth and ſin­cerity of my heart.) Wherefore my humble Requeſt upon the Pre­miſes is this, That wee, bearing Gods Image and the Names of Chriſtians, might no longer de­vote our ſelves, like Beaſts, to Senſua­lity11 and uncleanneſſe; that we might no longer blaſpheme that Worthy Name by which we are called, by ſuch abominable Actions, that the very Heathen bluſh at their remem­brance: But that, whileſt our Sun of grace ſhineth, we might have a ſpeedy and generall Reformation both in Church and State; and that, from the higheſt to the loweſt (ha­ving every man of us in particular put away the evill of his doings, and removed the accurſed thing from him) wee might (with the Nini­vites) humble our ſelves before the Throne of Grace with Fasting, and with VVeeping, and with Mourning; crying mightily unto GOD, that it would pleaſe his Divine Majeſty to ſpare his Inheritance, and to re­ceive us graciouſly. Who knowes whe­ther the Lord may returne and re­pent, and leave a Bleſsing behinde him?

I beſeech you (my Brethren) in12 the Bowells of Chriſt Jeſus, let this my counſell be acceptable unto you; breake off your ſinnes by Re­pentance, and make ſtraight paths for your feete, Leſt the LORD kindle a fire in Ieruſalem, and there be none to quench it.

Why theſe ſtrange and pro­phetique VISIONS ſhould thus appeare to Mee, above many thou­ſands beſide (that I ever heard of) certainly I know not, neither can give any other accompt of it, then from thoſe Words of God, Exod. 33.19. I will be gracious to whom I will bee gracious: (Nor ſhall I here have recourſe to any mans private cenſure, it being a Matter (as I con­ceive) altogether indeterminable, and not obvious to Humane Reaſon.)

To conclude; This Paper, I pre­ſume, will meet with many skoffing and tumultuous Spirits (as the World never yet wanted them,) taking it perhaps, for ſome mad Frenſy or13 Diabolicall Illuſion; and thereupon (I ſay) taking occaſion ſome to mock it, and others to perſecute it (as it is impoſſible but that Strong Meats will be offenſive to unſound Digeſtions (though thoſe ſtomacks (indeed) that are better conſtituted, will receive them according to their native worth;) all which I cannot helpe, neither am I to obſerve: Howbeit, Theſe are to let all men know that Herein my Conſcience is diſcharg'd. How reproachfully ſo ever the Things ſignified may by the men of this Generation be exploded and kickt at; yet, for thoſe Types or Emblems, by which they were re­preſented to my underſtanding, if wee compare them with the Types of ſundry Propheſies in Holy Scrip­tures, wee ſhall finde them in no meaſure contemptible. To feare Per­ſecution in this Matter, I ſhould ſin egregiouſly; This Burden I muſt deliver, though Bryers and Thornes be14 with me, and I dwell among Scorpions: For Neceſsity is laid upon mee, and woe is mee if I deliver it not. Alas! let ſuch Evill-ſurmizers conſider, if theſe horrid Judgements befall this City (as I am moſt confident they will, unleſſe a ſpeedy Reformation prevent,) and I, being thus pre-inform'd of them, ſhould never­theleſſe retaine them unreveal'd; I ſay, let them conſider what Blood-guiltineſſe I ſhould draw down upon my head by ſuch ſilence: And let Such likewiſe beware, leſt, in perſecuting mee, they be found to fight againſt GOD.



THE Broils,**Quem bel­lum civile delectat, eū ex numero hominum e­jiciendum, ex finibus humanae na­turae exter­m nandum puto. Tullius Phil. 12. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Homer. Iliad. and Civil Wars of my own Country, cau­ſed my thoughts to wander abroad, to ſeek Peace; Curio­ſity invited me to be a Traveller, &**Myſterium Theologia, facta eſt populare oblectamentnni: vir . faeninae, ſenes paeri, quaeſtiunculis, ludunt & ſaſciviunt. 〈◊〉Lipl. adverſ. Dialogiſt, lib.〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the diſſention, and di­ſtraction in Religions, as well as Government, hath prompted my thoughts to more ſerious obſervati­ons, left to much pleaſing my ſenſe with freſh varieties, I might en­danger my ſoul with the loſs of hea­ven;Apud nos etiam opifi­cibus offuſa­ſunt arcana Theologiae; atqueta om­nes inhiant ratiocinati­unculis & ſermonibus ſyllogiſticis, ut herbae & paſcus ar­menta. I cannot boaſt of any content that I have met with, by taſting of the ſeverall waters ſo artificially distilld in other Countries. Though I have ſeen the Popes Throne, and his crimſon Conclave of Cardinals at Rome; Calvins Conſiſtory, and his Presbyterian Succeſſion at Ge­neva; Luthers rich Altars, and Superintendents in Germany; the ſeverall Sects tolerated in the Ne­therlands, & the Jewiſh Synagogu at Amſterdam:Nicep. Greg. hiſt. lib. 11. factionum principes in­terſe digla­diabantur, & linguas con­traſe mutuormabant, non zelo di­vino, ſed itacundiae impetuducti. Idem Hiſt. lib. 6. yet I left a poor Perſecuted Mother at home, (the Truth and Religion profeſſed in the Church of England) which is more lovely, and truly venerable, than them all. I ſtretched my Travells to view the Romiſh Inquiſitions, and the Scotiſh Aſſemblies, which have bended ſeverities untill they are ready to break; and it is hara to Determin, whether of the two are more intolerable with their extre­mities. In the multitude of theſe many objects,Haec in Grae­cia olim fue­re quando cum paulo poſt ruit. my eyes have had ma­ny glances, but my thoughts have chiefly fixed themſelves on thſe two great Enemyes, who have (on different Intereſts) violently ban­ded their greateſt ſtrength, to ru­ine (if poſſible) my dear Mothers very being. It was a piece of the Lord Archbiſhop of Canterbu­ries Sermon before he dyed, Veni­ent Romani, the Romans will come, and will take our Countrey: That Prediction proves now a true Pro­phecy; See the Politique Union of**In illo ve­ro die, Pila­tus & Hero­defacti ſunt amici inter­ſele, nam an­tea inter ſe erant inimici Luke 23.12. bitter Enemies, uſing the ſameThey ſet a trap, they catch men. Ierem. 5.26. means to contrary ends. The**Quibus quies in ſe­ditionibus, in pace tur­baeſunt, tu­multum ex tumultu, bel­lum ex bel­lo ſerunt. Pa­piſt and the Presbyler both agree, That the Scaffold was fitter for an Archbiſhops laſt Sermon, than a Pulpit. The news of his Execution was as welcom to Rome as Edin­burgh; the difference is not very much, in guilt or malice, when the Ieſuits inviſibly whet the Edge, and the Presbyters viſibly lift up the Ax,Qui non cam praemiis Periculori, quam ipſis periculis laeti, pro cer­tis, & olim partis, nova, ambigua, ancipitia malunt. Tacitus. Impetitos animos im­pellunt, & nocturnis colloquiis, aut flexo in veſperam die, dilap ſis melioribus, deterrimum quemque Congregan­res, lſerunt querelas & ambiguos ſermones de principe, quaeque alia turbamenta vulgi. Taci­tus. and give the ſtroke. The one party came in, as a violent Inun­dation, and overſwelling torrent, bearing all before it with a factious Covenant, and ſhew of Godlineſs: The other party ſteals, like a Thief, in the Night, ſwells their ſtreams by inſenſible degrees, inſinuates their Roman Principles by whiſpers and private inſuſurrations, and ſo gains many Proſelits. The Co­venant was a bait for vulgar and more groſs capacities; but the Ro­miſh lines are made of finer twist, and the nets are laid to catch and enſnare the moſt conſiderable For­tunes and beſt Capacities. Now, that the fruitful Vine may be deli­vered, as well from the Ieſuitical Foxes, as he Preſbyterian Wild Bores; I have ſent this cauti­on to my own Countrey, whereon I ſhall (where ever) wait with my beſt Affections, and wiſh her Peace,Neſcio qua natale ſo­lum, dulcedi­ne cunctos ducit. Ovid. that I may be encouraged to leave Travels, and return to my Native * Soil.

The Epiſtle to the moſt Catholick, and beſt Reformed Chriſtian Reader.

STartle not at this Examination of the Moderator, and his Legend; it is not a temptation to lead you in, but a caveat to keep you out of the pits of error and ſuperſtition. Lactantius told the world (long ſince)**Lib. 5. Inſtit. c. 8. Ideo mala omnia rebus humanis ingraveſcere, quia Deus mundi hujus effector & gubernator dere­lictus eſt, quia ſuſceptae ſunt, con­tra quam fas est, impiae rellgiones; That therefore all evills and miſchiefes fall on humane affaires, becauſe the great Creator of the world was ſo little honoured, and ſo much neglected, and falſe o­pinions, and ungodly Religi­ons, ſo much imbraced and received; and if ever any age did overflow with an inun­dation of wickedneſs & fol­ly, theſe later times ſeem o­verwhelm'd & drown'd (al­moſt) without all hopes of recovery; wherein**Philo Jud. ad Canin. Sua cuique videtur optima, & quae non ratio­ne ſed affectu dijudicetur ſingulis, every one is drawn away with the phancy of his own ſoul, and uſeth ſuch a Religi­on as agreeth with his own affection & choice, without any grounds of ſound reaſon, or ſolid truth. On this ſea of diſtraction and troubles, ma­ny have been ſhipt & ſtrāge­ly toſſed and hurried; ſome, as wandering travellers, have ſtoln away with curioſity to ſee ſome other Countries; & others, as covetous Merchāts,**Per mare panperiem fugiens, per ſana, par ignes. Horat. have run any hazard for the hopes of gain, the Prince of Darkneſs puts on the form of an Angel of Light, roareth as a Lion, & playeth as a Lamb; and when he cannot make a Judas (if he can get leave) he will make a Job; if he cannot with his lies deſtroy, he will (if poſſible) diſgrace or diſturb truth. But that you may knit faſter this girdle a­bout your loyns, and neither have your houſe (which is founded on a rock) ſhaken,* Nulla ani­mae poſſeſſio ſine pati­entia. St. Cyprian. nor your perſeverance que­ſtioned, nor your patience ti­red; I have ſet down the lives, intereſts, and doctrines of ſome ſlippery Saints, and pretenders to piety, before your eys, to this end, that as the calamities of your own Country teach you to be more Religious & wiſe, the better to avoyd future evils, ſo the apoſtacy and impiety of ſome revolters may not prevail to ſeduce you to their**Superſtitio error inſa­nus eſt, amandos timet, quos colit vio­laet. Senec. Epiſt. 124. ſuperſtitious errors, & dan­gerous examples; the exami­nation of Mr. Birchleys Le­gend, and theſe Characters, touch none but ſuch as have ſtarted aſide, and have viola­ted and broken their oathes, vows & promiſes, with God & man; & if their deviations from truth can ſerve to keep us more right in the way to heaven, and their revolting preſerve and fix us in greater conſtancy of Gods true Reli­gion, it is all that is deſired by

An impartiall hono­rer of truth, D.Y.

A Legend of Revolters to ROME.

  • 1. SIr Toby Matthews,
  • 2. Mr. Walt. Montacure,
  • 3. M. Doctor Goft,
  • 4. M. Doctor Vane,
  • 5. M. Hugh Creſſie,
  • 6. M. Dr. Tho. Baily,
  • 7. M. Rich. Crawſhaw,
  • 8. M. Wil. Rowlands,
  • 9. M. Simonet,
  • 10. S. Kenelm Digby,
  • 11. S. Francis Dodington,
  • 12. M. Doctor Hart,
  • 13. M. Doctor Johnſon,
  • 14. M. N. Read,
  • 15. M. Rich. Milleſent,
  • 16. M. Tho. Normington,
  • 17. M. Bſaikſton,
  • 18. M. Eaton,
  • 19. M. Jackſon,
  • 20. M. Cooper,
  • 21. M. John Crighton,
  • 22. M. And. Yongſton,
  • 23. M. Hugh Roſs.
  • 24. M. Tho. Johnſton,
  • 25. M. William. Simple,
  • 26. M. Winter Graunt,
  • 27. S. William Davenant,
  • 28. M. Joynor,
  • 29. M. Temple,
  • 30. Major Carter,
  • 31. Capt. Thomas Cook,
  • 32. M. Glue, Baliol. Oſ,
  • 33. M. Rich. Nicchols. ••­terhouſe, Cambridge.
  • 34. M. Edw. Barker, Caius College, Cambridge.
  • 35. M. Osburn,
  • 36. Cap. John Gileard,
  • 37. Lady Marchioneſs of Worecter,
  • 38. Lady Marchioneſs of Clanrickard.
  • 39. Counteſs of Denbigh,
  • 40. Lady Killamechie,
  • 41. Mrs. Bridget Fielding
  • 42. Mrs. Croſs,
  • 43. Mrs. Marſh,
  • 44. Mr. Endimion Porter,
  • 45. Col. Marſh,
  • 46. Lord Cottington,
  • 47. S. Marm. Langoale,
  • 48. S. Theophilus Gelby,
  • 49. The Lord Andiver,
  • 50. The Lord Goring,
  • 51. M. Charls Goring,
  • 52. M. Will. Crofts,
  • 53. Sir Richard Lee, of Shropſhire, &c.

It fama per Orbem.

Ezek. 2.6.
Be not afraid of them, neither be afraid of their words, though briers and thorns be with thee, and thou doest dwell among Scorpions, be not afraid of their words, nor be diſ­mayed at their looks.
Pſal. 18.13. The wild boar out of the wood, doth root it up, and the wild beaſts of the field devour it.
Presbyter opugnat Ieſuitae, Roma Genevae,
Ut pedibus jaceant omnia ſtrata ſuis.
Dum viperae lacerant venerandae viſcera matris,
Papa, feras, auro, fraude, cruore, domat.

Legenda lignea. Together with an Ex­amination of Mr Birchleys Moderator, &c.


IN theſe later, di­ſtracted times, many monſtrous births have crept into the world; and great ſwarms of Hereticks**Omnes vel inſipi­entiſſimi haeretici audacias figm nio­rum ſuo­rum, quac maxime exhorret ſenſus hu­manus, hac occaſione evangelicae ſententiae colorare conen­tur. S. Aug. Tom. 97. in S. Joh. and Sectaries; to­gether with horrid Blaſphemers,2 Atheiſts, and Apostates from Truth, and ſound Religion, (like Egyptian Plagues) have peſtered and infected Chriſtian King­doms and Countreys; the black deſigns of theſe evill dayes have proſpered too ſucceſsfully; And Policie and Intereſt (the great Diana which moſt men adore, and worſhip) have chaſed In­nocency, Honour, and Religion out of moſt mens breſts.

The Projectors have uſed the Serpents tongue to flatter, and inſinuate; and his tail to poyſon, and ſting, both making one Cir­cle to compaſs and beſiege the credulous deceived multitudes: and ſo (in the end) to ſubject all Power to their own humor and obedience, drawn (by degrees) firſt, within the lines of Fraud; and then of Uſurpation and Cruelty. **Tantum Relligio potuit ſua­dere male­rum. Virg. Aenaeid. The Church of Rome hath been moſt Cunningly3 Active in this deſperate work; and from her inveterate malice to the Church of England, and her Reformation in the Reign of King Edward the ſixth, hath ei­ther marched furiouſly, with her bloody colours of Perſecution, Fire and Faggot, Impriſonment or Baniſhment (as in the Reign of Queen Mary) or ſecretly practiz'd miſchief and ruine to all, who had ſhaken off her ſu­perſtitious yoke, and imbraced the Antient Primitive innocency, and doctrine, and practice of the Holy Apoſtles: hating the pro­feſſors of Gods true Religion, not ſo much for their wiſer choice of better things; but be­cauſe they had acquitted them­ſelves from the intolerable vaſſa­lage of the Romiſh Authority and Uſurpation, and withdrawn themſelves from that blind obe­dience, which they had (too long)4 payed to the See of Rome, which is not dainty of any diſpenſations either in doctrine or practice of Religion: Provided alwayes, that her Annates, Tenths, Firſt-fruits, Peter pence, and all pre­tended rights and profits may be continued and ſolvent: and a So­veraigntie acknowledged to her, as the great Miſtreſs and Queen of all the world. To conſum­mate the hopes, and attain the height of theſe ambitious aſpi­rings; what art, what craft, what plots have not been uſed? When in Queen Maries dayes, the Pope (by ſpecial Letters) ſol­licited the Queen, to endeavour to recover, not only the publique practice of the Maſs, and Romiſh Religion; but likewiſe propoſed to the Queen and her Chancel­lor, a reſtauration of all Church­lands, Seigniories, Dignities, and Revenues, and that all Or­ders5 of Popiſh Abbots, Priors, Monks, Fryars, and all Orders of Regulars, (formerly planted in England) and Paſtoral Secu­lars, to be ſpeedily reinveſted and repoſſeſſed. But this moti­on (before 'twas ſtarted by the Lord Chancellor in Parliament) met with a private debate in a Cabinet Counſell and Conſul­tation; where the Lord of Bed­ford (being then preſent) was ſo venemouſly ſtung, that he burſt ſoddainly into great paſſion and choler, breaking his chaplet of beads from his girdle, and fling­ing them into the fire: and he ſware deeply to boot, that he va­lued more his ſweet Abbey of Wooburn, than any fatherly Counſell or Commands that could come from Rome. Bedford parting away in ſuch a high ſnuff and paſsionate indignation; the Queen and her Lord Chancellor6 were able to gueſs at the tem­pers and inclinations of other Subjects, and therefore conclu­ded it greater Policy to ſmother and conceal, than to publiſh and proſecute a motion, that would prove ſo generally diſtaſtfull.


THeſe Great hopes of Reſtau­ration of Lands and Revenues being over, and ſuſpended, if not extinguiſhed; The deſigns were laid, how to vex and torment thoſe who profeſſed the Religi­on (Reformed in King Edward the ſixt his Reign) and there was no want of Invention to create ſharp Lawes, loud Proclamati­ons, cruell Edicts, and violent Reſolutions, to raiſe bitter and bloudy Perſecutions. Death and Martyrdom grew (ſuddenly)7 very familiar, and was the com­mon high way, wherein many Reverend Prelates and pious Clergymen walked: whoſe pa­tience and holy examples many thouſands religious and devout people followed, enduring rather the loſs of life, Liberty, and of all things, than of faith and a good Conſcience. Impriſonment then was accounted but as a more ſe­cluſe Retirement, more fit for Chriſtian tears and prayers; Ba­niſhment was looked on as a more tolerable Burden, being ſo much the lighter, becauſe born amongſt Strangers, in a farre Countrey; and the Afflictions were the more eaſie, becauſe the Sufferers were permitted to live, as good Confeſſors, and (though in a ſad condition) thereby, were able to breath out, and teſtifie the truth, and juſtifie their innocent Cauſe, both at home and abroad.

8This ſtorm being over (after 5 or 6 years) Queen Elizabeth ſucceeded to the Crown, in whoſe proſperous Reign, what malice and miſchief was contri­ved, and acted by the Roman un­derminers; what ſcandals againſt the Queen, her Perſon, her Ho­nor, her Government, her Au­thority; All Hiſtories (of thoſe times) deſcribe very plentifully. All thoſe malicious damps and vapors roſe from the venome of the Jeſuites, and Romiſh vipers, and their Confederates; They did breath and ſpit the ſame loathſome Poyſon on K. James, (whoſe Golden pen hath left a treaſure to after-Ages, of his great Abilities and Learning) the dint and impreſsion of his skilfull ſtrokes, lyes heavy on the memo­ry of Cardinal Peroon, and Car­dinal Belarmine, and many others of that black Society, who have9 been worſted and confued by the moſt powerful arguments of his Reaſons and Learning; Col­lected out of undoubted Anti­quities, Councils, Fathers, Hi­ſtories, and unqueſtionable Au­thorities. And when the Jeſu­ites could not diſtemper his Ma­jeſties Remonſtrances nor Re­plyes, with moſt unmannerly ſcandalous Language, nor inter­rupt his Pen with monſtrous lies, nor convince him with their ſlight and cunning Anſwers and Objections; they drove on their deſignes with a Powder-plot, which, timely and providently diſcovered, and prevented, the Contrivers and Actors had the reward of Traitors in England; (though Recorded and honoured as Martyrs at Rome) And the Countenancers of that black conſpiracy, are accounted by all rational men, and good Chriſti­ans,10 no otherwiſe than as Leo­pards and Blackmoores, whoſe ſports and uglineſs can never be waſhed and wiped away.


THeſe Spiders have twiſted their Webbs, made their Circumferences, and drawn their Lines throughout the Reign of the late King Charles, and then (like high-towring Eagles ſoaring aloft) they hoped (more confi­dently) to build their houſes ſub­lime and ſtately: They judged the Advantage great, (if the foun­dation not ſure) becauſe of a to­leration of the Roman Religion in the Queens Chappel and Court; under which privilege much miſ­chief might be hatched and con­trived, and ſome part acted to the11 diſturbance of the Peace, Vnity, and Vniformity of the Church of England.

And yet all ſober-minded men may be eaſily ſatisfyed and per­ſwaded, that the Inconveniences which roſe from that toleration, neither thrive from the conni­vency, much leſs encouragement or contrivance of his Majeſty, who then reigned; who gave his Queen, and her Ghoſtly fathers the Prieſts, and the Roman Catho­liques of her Majeſties family, leave to enjoy the Roman Reli­ligion; according to the Articles of Mariage, agreed on betwixt the two Crowns of England and France: and if it be ugly, and moſt unhandſome in a Gentle­man, it were more ignoble and ſordid in a King, to break his word.

It cannot be denyed, but in the firſt 14 yeares of the late Kings12 Reign, the Romiſh Engineers had more calm opportunities to frame their platformes, to bait their hooks, and lay their nets; but the viſibility of the Church of England, was too ſplendent and glorious, to ſuffer any Fiſh to be caught (in thoſe more ſeree dayes) unleſs they were ſome ſillie Gudgeons, or avaritious and ambitious Snarks, who ho­ped to live with more eaſe and luxury, or more advantage and gain at Court, under the viz••and guiſe of Popiſh diſſimulati­on. But, the Winds beginning to ruffle more loud, and ſtorms and diſcontents growing very high, in November in the Year 1640. (Since which commence­ment of troubles, greater violen­cies have ſucceeded) Theſe pro­found Romiſh Artiſts, have made a great advantage in the troubled waters of theſe angry times: And13 whereas yet, they could not find out ground, to build to formall ſtructure to ſhelter their ſuper­ſtitions, and lick their deſignes into ſome lovelineſs and form; they have craftily complotted vengeance, and carried ſlime and morter, though it be to ſerve to no other purpoſe, but to make Babel and confuſion in thoſe rich Engliſh valleys, where Order, Peace, Plenty, Learning, and true Religion flouriſhed. And to carry this buſineſs on with grea­ter eaſe and more plauſible faci­litie, the cunning Artiſts, as they uſed (at firſt) thundering Buls and fulminations from Rome, ſo (they not effecting their work, but falling like dull Bombards and Granadoes never breaking) they moved, otherwhiles by ſe­cret devices, and treacherous machinations, inſinuating falſe doctrines into the peoples ears,14 and (under a mask of holineſs, and a ſound and name of the Ca­tholique Church, and much pre­tended ſanctity) they inſnare credulous and ignorant auditors; and if they cannot, by the inſtilla­tion of falſe principles, withdraw them from their faith, and duty to juſt authority, yet they hope to ſtartle them, by puzling their Judgements and Reſolutions: And rather than not produce ſome notable Revenge, (where they muſt not reign and Lord it over others) they will ſail with any wind, and turn into any ſhape, of either a demure Cloak; or a buffcoat, of a babbling Pres­byter, or a Gifted Anabaptiſt; and (for their own ends) bawl zea­louſly loud in a ſolemn Congre­gation, or exhort humoringly, (and pretend Revelations) to be the more prevalent in a private Siſterly Conventicle.



THeſe Temporizers, like cu­rious Painters, carry all co­lours about with them, comply with all tempers, and know how (like the Ape in the Fable) to put the Doggs foot into the fire to take out the apple, and never ſo much as ſinge a hair of their own; or if their craft fail, and the Serpent be caught, they glory in their death, as if they were true Martyrs and Confeſſors; feeding their deſperate Reſoluti­ons, with the pride and vanity of being promiſed, by their great Patron the Pope, to be canoni­ſed for Saints; when the World hath known them live, as moſt horrid malefactors, and ſeen them dye, as moſt vainglorious impenitent offenders. Theſe ſubtle Contrivers (like the old16 Phariſees) have a moſt preciſe garb in their habits, heir collar'd cloaks, in as exact order as their Pilacteryes, not one hair amiſs, their looks and motions ſo regu­lar, as if punctually meaſured; abroad (like Bees) they frequent the faireſt Gardens, and, in them, gather their Thyme, from the ſweeteſt and moſt fragrant Flowers: and at night they re­turn to their own neat, plentiful, warm Hives; where they feed on the moſt delicate proviſions, and ſleep ſecurely in their Colle­ges and Convents, immur'd, and cloiſter'd from common view and obſervation; And there, they hugg their own fortunate inge­nuities, and deſpiſe and ſcorn the ignorant World; whoſe grea­teſt favourites and darlings, they reſolve to command, as Slaves, or miſchief, as Enemies.



THeſe buſie actors have been (in great numbers) tranſmit­ted (of late) out of Italy, Spain, France, Germany, and other parts, to ſcatter their Romiſh ſeeds in the three fair gardens of England, Scotland, and Ireland; where (the Scene being ſo full of vari­ous troubles) they have acted a part on every Stage, tugg'd an Oar in every Barge, whiſper'd a Vote into many Councels, and got a Quarter in every Army; there is ſcarce a Canton, or cor­ner free from their perſons, their parties, or their intereſt. Their buſineſs is generally, like the A­thenians, to ask and tell Nwes; they cure and heal all falſities and diſſimulations with their reſervations; and ſwallow oaths (if for their advantage) as a pan­ting18 Crocodile the freſh ayr. They tune their notes, as an Organiſt his pipes, to be very thundring and loud, or very eaſie, ſoft, and gentle; if ſuch a change be requi­ſite. Theſe Juglers can (when they ſee cauſe) beat and bawl in the Pulpits, like whining-long-winded Presbyterians, and cry down any power or authority that ſtands in their way, by their tacit diſpenſations; they make uſe of the Presbyters tongues, their words, and phraſes; nay, their very groanes and teares, thereby to put up, not (as the diſſemblers cant and cry) the Kingdom of Jeſus Chriſt, that is, (really and truly) the Generall Aſſembly of the Preſbyters (from whom they would not admit of any appeal) but to put up higher; and in all Countreys and King­doms, the Conclave of Glorious Cardinalls, refined Romiſh Stateſ­men,19 and above themſelves, and all the World, to lift up, and ſub­limat that power, to which, each particular ambition intereſted, doth aim and aſpire, and that is, his Holineſs of Rome.


THeſe Polititians, are more profound and myſterious in their wayes and ends, than o­thers: more ſharp-ſighted; and ſee farther than the Presbyterian buzzards, who can lie at learch, or, (like lean labouring Spaniels) hunt well and retrive the Game; but catch nothing, but hurt, and diſgrace, for all their pains. The Puritan ambition may be as great as theirs of Rome, their minds as bloody, and means as unlawfull. They have (the World knowes)20 bit, and ſcratcht, and ſnatcht, at ſeverall Kingdoms and Coun­treys, but could never, yet, vaſſa­lage them to their Claſſical, Sy­nodical, Provincial, National, General Aſſemblies, or get their ſophiſticated pretences acknow­ledged Jure Divino, but only in Scotland; where Knox, and his falſe Miniſteriall Tribe, decei­ved and deluded the People, with the ſacrilegious prey of Church­lands, and Tythes: and, for the gaining of this ſweet morſel, the Nobility, Gentry, and Com­mons quickly aſſented to the Presbyters propoſitions; and, ſo they might enjoy the Lands and Revenues of the Church, they were inſnared by their own ava­rice and covetouſneſs, and the Miniſters pride, to ſubmit to a Law, which was to inſlave them­ſelves: whereby they acknow­ledged, the Generall Aſſembly21 of Presbyters to be the Supreme authority on Earth; and this con­firm'd Jure Divino; from the ſentence of which Court, there was no appeal, or farther ad­dreſs. VVhiles the Nobility, Gentry, and People of Scotland, greedily devoured, and ſwallow­ed the pleaſant Seats, Lordſhips, Rents, Tythes, and Lands of the Church; they did not take notice of the bitterneſſe that lay under the outſide of the gilded Pill; they did not perceive how raſhly they created Lawes, like new manacles, to fetter and bind themſelves; and how (though they gained the poſſeſſion of Lordſhips and Lands) weakly they ſubmitted, and baſely pro­ſtituted, not only their Eſtates, and Fortunes, but even their Li­berties, Honors, Bodies, and Souls, to be cenſured, condem­ned, excommunicated, and finally22 concluded by the humors, and pleaſure of a few illiterate, hot­brain'd, phantaſtick Presbyters. This flame and irruption broke forth in other Countreys, as Ge­neva**Whence Mr. Cal­vins Plat­form of ri­gorous diſcipline was ſent to Scot­land, where it quickly took fire.: Likewiſe in Germany, Holland, France, and other places, but never flaſhed ſo furiouſly, nor grew ſo hot and high, as to get a confirmation by a Law, and to be eſtabliſht, Iure Divino.


IN other Countries and Can­tons, the Presbyters have got a toleration for their Religion, by Supplication, not by Laws, and they are permitted to preach and pray; but ſtill, ſalvo jure, are un­der a Permiſſion; on which, if23 they once intrench too near, they are ſpeedily ſilenced. They pre­ſume ſometimes, to exhort and chide, or publiquely to rail; or (at higheſt) to retrench; and re­fuſe a Brother, from the Com­munion: and not that neither, (probably) if a rich, conſidera­ble benefactor and contributer. Thoſe of Scotland are more piert and impudent, daring (ſawcily) to taunt their Soveraigns, and trample on the greateſt Nobles; chaining up the induſtrious Mer­chants, and ingenuous Artizans, from their Traffique and Trade, if the Aſſembly fancy; and then ſentence that, a work worthy of their humorous conſideration, and unlimited ambition. Theſe high-metald blades, would march at no rate, but an high ſpeed; fra­ming proud thoughts to them­ſelves, that the Scotiſh Covenant ſhould ſpred, and be the Catho­lique24 Religion of all the World; In this the Papists and the Pres­byters meet and concenter; uni­ting their ambitious lines in the ſame point and thoughts of Vni­verſality of Doctrine and Obedi­ence, of the Chair of Rome, or to the Presbyters Aſſembly. Hen­derſon, the prime late Ringleader (with his Engliſh and Scotiſh Brethren) in this project, thought to be Alexander indeed, and pro­miſed himſelf and others great matters, as to this effect: On this ground, endeavours were made to introduce the ſame form, and power of Aſſemblies in Eng­land, where the blew Presbyters deſigned to tyrannize over a Countrey, much more fat and fruitful than their own naſty val­leys, or barren Rocks.



BUt the Engliſh eyes quickly diſcern'd the Scotiſh trapps, and though there was a concur­rence, (pro tempore) in a Natio­nall Covenant, for ſome particu­lar deſignes; yet then, the play ended, the Curtains were drawn, no Presbytery confeſſed, much leſs eſtabliſhed, Iure Divino, to com­mand all power ordained, with­out diſpute. This was but a dream of hot brains; A Caſtle in the air; an Ambitious Tower, with­out any foundation; which is not only tottering, but faln and mouldring to duſt: the Reliques (at preſent) being the ſcorn and contempt of all learned, and truly wiſe men in the world.

While theſe malitious, but unskilfull Pyoniers were digging pits for their Brethren, and26 thought of nothing, but pulling down (being themſelves unable to build;) and, to that purpoſe were very active, and buſily in­trenching; the Roman Foxes countermin'd their weak works, and labouring day and night, (without any intermiſſion) as far outſtep ' the dull ſilly Pres­byters, as Rome exceedeth Edin­burgh, or the pleaſantneſs of Italy the cold frozen miſty Scotiſh air. Some, theſe acute Sophiſters ſtagger'd with ſubtle and fallaci­ous arguments; Others, they ea­ſily enticed, with the golden promiſes of good Penſions, and Preferments, in theſe hungry and ſtarving times. Some, they fool'd into a Reſolution of oppo­ſing the preſent Government; in­to which argument, the Presbyters ſlipt very eaſily, becauſe they did not rule themſelves: and having blown the coals, and rais'd aflame27 of a Civill War, by the tongues and bellows of the deluded Ze­lots, they ſtill comply, and hunt with great skill; but, if Presbyter be not Trump, they quickly caſt out that Suit, and obſerve, and follow the King of Clubbs; and ſhufflle, and cut, and caſt them­ſelves into any ſhapes, or new Sect, pretending (for better ad­vantage) Revelations, and mo­tions of the Spirit, in the habits of Butchers, Chandlers, Shoo-makers, and other Mechanick Artizans, to inſinuate their inte­reſt (if poſſible) into all Coun­cels of Peace and War; and into the ſecrets of Civil and Martiall affairs.



BUt now the Roman Actors are grown more confident, not ſtaying longer in the Tyring houſe; but drawing the Cur­tains, enter boldly on the Stage, and plead their Intereſt and Cauſe, at leaſt for a toleration for their Religion, and a Repeal of all the penall Statutes, as though there were no truth in the Reform'd Religion; nor reaſon, nor juſtice in thoſe Lawes. To which purpoſe Mr. Will. Birch­ley, or ſome Romaniſts under that name, hath lately Printed the firſt and ſecond Part of his Moderator, which piece, (like a venemous potion, being full of dangerous ingredients, as well as infectious diſſimulations of truth, reaſon, and conſcience) deſerves a ſtrict Examination, to prevent the29 operation of that Poyſon which is adminiſtred as good Phyſick.

The Title is not to be ſlighted, but to be weighed in the Scales, which is,

CHAP. X. THe CHRISTIAN MO­DERATOR, Or, PERSE­CUTION FOR RELIGION CONDEMNED, ByThe Light of Nature, , • The Law of God, , and • Evidence of our own Principles. But not by the practice of our Com­miſſioners for Sequeſtrations.

Rom. 2.

We reſt in the Law, and make our boaſt of God, we know his Will, and approve the things that are more excellent, &c.

We therefore who teach another,30 teach we not our ſelves? we that Preach a man ſhould not ſteal, doe we ſteal? &c.

Video meliora proboque Deteriora ſequor.


IT matters not much, who was the Author of this mix'd and patch'd piece; whether it was the Contivement of Will. Birch­ley, or the Birth and Offſpring or the Jeſuites under that name. ROMAN INSINUATOR, had more truly become the Fron­tiſpiece, than CHRISTIAN MODERATOR; unleſs Maſter Birchley would by flattery, and his own Principles, creep into that Power in England, which his great Patron claims of right, who ſits ſo high at Rome. PER­SECUTION31 AGAINST RE­LIGION is cryed down by all fundamental and ſound truths of Holy Writ; but then it muſt not be bare opinion, faction or fan­cy, but it muſt be evident, that it is the true Chriſtian Religion that is perſecuted; which was taught by Chriſt and his bleſſed Apoſtles, profeſſing and main­taining the true, antient, or­thodox, and Catholique Faith; Otherwiſe Mr. Birchley pleads as much for Mahometiſm, Juda­iſm, and Paganiſm, (for they are all under ſome Rules and Forms, and ſo (though falſe) yet religions) as well as his Ro­maa Religion: which Mr. Birch­ley, with all his Coherents, can never be able to prove to be the trueſt, and ſo the beſt Religion, by the light of Nature, and the Law of God, though they would make the World believe ſo, out32 of the Evidence of their own Principles.

The next words which follow are quotations of Holy Scripture, Rom. 2. wherein the Author ſheweth himſelf very full of Ig­norance, as not knowing the Scriptures; or very full of Im­pudencie and Prophaneſs, pre­ſuming to change and alter the very letter and phraſe of the Text, as he doth likewiſe the ſenſe and application: The words (pretended for Maſter Birchleys purpoſe) are taken out of Rom. 2. verſ. 17. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, rightly rendered in the ſecond Perſon, and ſo the tranſlation hath it; be­hold Thou art called a Jew, and reſteſt in the Law, and makeſt thy boaſt of God; and knoweſt his will, and approveſt the things that are more excellent: Thence Maſter Birchley paſſeth with an &c. and33 skippeth farther, augmenting his error at the 20 verſe, changing there the ſingular number to the plural, the ſecond Perſon to the firſt (which is not Grammatical) and Tu to Nos, ſaying, We there­fore who teach another, teach we not our ſelves? Theſe are very bold Corrections, and ſavor of no in­genuous, and humble ſpirit, but rather of prophane Arrogancy; as though the holy Scriptures were indeed Naſus cereus, a very Noſe of wax, which the Pope and Mr. Birchley could turn to a­ny form they pleaſd. Secondly, the ſenſe and application is moſt erroneous, and diſorderly placed. For if Maſter Birchley intend by the Nos, We the Commiſſioners for Sequeſtrations reſt in the Law, approve the things that are most ex­cellent, &c. This is nothing but groſs and odious flattery. And if by the Nos in the ſecond quotati­on34 Mr. Birchley intend the Com­miſſioners, Mr. Birchley approves himſelf a peremptory Modera­tor: his application is very ſharp, and without the rules of good manners or charity; for he con­cludeth them no better than Iews who rob and steal; but it may be rather conjectured by any ſo­ber and judicious Reader, that Mr. Bichley applyed the firſt quotaion with Reflexion on himſelf, and his Roman party; concluding Phariſaically that he and they reſted in the Law, and ap­proved the things that were more ex­cellent; And that thoſe who were not or his opinion, and releeved not him and his comparners, were as hard hearted as Iews, and rob'd and ſtole.

The laſt words of the Title are,

Video meliora proboque,
Deterora ſequor.

which, as they are the words of35 an excellent Poet, expreſſing the paſſion of a frantick Queen; ſo are they as raſhly applyed, if to any other than Mr. Birchley him­ſelf, who hath ſcattered ſuch de­ſperate Popiſh poyſon into the Countreys more ſoundly refor­med from the errors and ſuper­ſtitions of Rome.

The Title of Mr. Birchleys Mo­derator being thus paſt over, the inſide of this miſcellaneous and monſtrous building is to be view­ed; which is likely to prove as ſlight and treacherous, as untrue and dangerous.


THe Introduction, or Preface, to the Moderator, is a diſcourſe which perſwadeth much to Chriſtian charity; to which pur­poſe,36 our Saviours words are quoted, Iohn 13.15. By this ſhall all men knw that you are my diſci­ples, if you love one another. And that of St. Paul to the Galathians chap. 5. All the Law is fulfilled in one word, thou ſhalt love thy Neigh­bour as thyſelf: Theſe Advertiſe­ments are very heavenly Medita­tions, and the practice of this Du­ty of Charity well becomes all profeſsing Chriſtianity. And it is a fad ſight, to ſee ſo much effu­ſion of blood, and other ſinfull miſchiefs, for differences in Chri­ſtian Religion. But the Quarrel in this Caſe is very antient, the two firſt Brothers in the World went peaceably to the Altar, but there, Cain grew firſt in wrath, and his Countenance fell: Gen. 4.5. And after theſe Conceptions of rage and malice, he acted his cru­elty on his innocent Brother A­bel: at a ſecond meeting, Cain37 talked with Abel his Brother, and it came to pſs that when they were in the field, that Cain roſe up againſt Abel his brother, and ſlew him: Thus Jeroboam was inflamed, in an inſtant, againſt the old Prophet, who cryed againſt the Altar in Be­thel: And it came to paſs when King Ieroboam heard the ſaying of the man of God, which had cryed againſt the Altar in Bethel, that he put forth his hand from the Altar ſaying••y hold on him,Kings 13.4. Ieroboam laid his ground-work and hopes for the Crown of Iſrael, on the quarrell and differences in Reli­gon, 1 Kings 12.28. Wheeupon the King took Counſell, and made two Calves of Gold, and ſaid it is much for you to go up to Hieruſalem; behold thy Gods O Iſrael. The an­tient Wars of the Heathens were commenced and undertaken, as well pro Aris, as Focis their Gods, as their Goods. And as for the38 Goſpel, though it bring bonum nuntium, glad tydings of Salvati­on, and that the cauſes and pro­ceedings of Cain and Ieroboam were moſt horrid and unjuſt yet Chriſt is pleas'd to tell us, That he came not to bring Peace, but a Sword, Mat. 10.34, 35. And the Hiſtory of the four Evangeliſts relates to us, that Chriſt never ſpake ſo wrathfully, nor ſtrook ſo ſharply, as in his zeal for Reli­gion, Mat. 21.12. Mark 11.15. Luke 19.45. Iohn 2.15. And when he had made a whip of ſmall cords, he drove them all out of the Temple, counſelling them, not to make his Fathers houſe a houſe of merchandiſe, nor the houſe of prayer aen of Thieves: And though St. Paul be quoted Gal. 5. as a high perſwader to Charity, yet if his Epiſtles be well examin'd, they generally diſcover his great zeal and ardor, in order to the promo­tion39 and preſervation of all the Circumſtances of Chriſtian Re­ligion, founded by Chriſt, and preached to the world by his Apoſtle. Saint Luke tels the Church, that the〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, Con­tention betwixt Saint Paul and Bar­nabas was ſo ſharp, that they parted aſunder, Acts 15. 39. And though St. Paul pleaded ſo much for charity, 1 Cor. 13. yet he ac­counted his duty to God, above all Relations to his Brethren, and the zeal and love of Gods honor and ſervice, above any thing elſe; and in this holy Affection, the Apoſtle St. Paul was bold when St. Peter was come to Antioch, to withſtand him to his face, becauſe he was to be blamed, and ſeeing other Iews diſſembling likewiſe, inſomuch, as Barnabas was carried away with diſsimulation: he rebuked not only the Diſciples and converted Iews, but St. Peter and St. Barnabas, becauſe40 they walked not uprightly, according to the truth of the Goſpel, Gal. Theſe truths thus clea­red, Mr. Birchley muſt not think it any breach of charity, nor diſ­agreeing from the word of God, if there be coercion uſed to draw and gain the erroneous to come to the truth; and the ſuperſtiti­ous, to the true Religion. To which, if men (out of wilful ob­ſtinacy, or ſelf-opinion) will not be perſwaded, their ſubmiſsion to the Power and Lawes where they live, and a quiet poſſeſing of their ſouls in Patience, beſt becomes their Chriſtian dutyes, according to the primitive rules and practice of the beſt Chriſti­ans; who firſt ſpread their Reli­gion, by perſwading, and ſuffe­ring; and when Kings and Em­perors, and ſuperior Governors came to be converted, Eccleſia­ſticall Lawes and Rules were41 made, and exerciſed; the Tem­porall ſtill ſupporting the Spiri­tuall juridictions and proceed­ings.


1 MR. Birchley in his Demon­ſtrative Reaſons againſt forcing of Conſcience, concludes, That the intolerable yoke of Po­piſh infallibility, is ſhaken off, and yet his whole diſcourſe ams at nothing but a toleration, Firſt for himſelf and the Papiſts of the Kingdom and Countrey, and then he doubts no, but in time, either by Inſinuation, or an In­quiſition, all his fellow-ſubjects may be brought under the ſame yoke. He taxeth the Parliament, charging them with the Abroga­tion of the Articles of Faith**Modera­tor, part. 1. pag. 2.;42 and calls the factious ſwallowing of the Covenant (which was the work and ploof ſome few and a Declared party, and the raſh miſtake of many) a Reforma­tion of Religion. He calls the late Aſſembly of Divines at Weſt­minſter a Synod, which no Lear­ning nor Antiquity will allow; but condemn either as a ſeditious and ſchiſmatical, or ridiculous and impudent meeting: And as for the Confeſſion of Faith, the Aſſembly (after long ſitting) preſumed to hatch; it is agreed, that as their Proceedings were prepoſterous, their Concluſions were dangerous, as neither ſavo­ring aright of the Spirit of truth, nor humility.

And as for the perſons of thoſe who ſate ſo long, and to ſo ſcan­dalous and ill, as well as little purpoſe; the World knows they had moſt of them taken former43 oaths, as that of the Allegiance and Supremacy, and then the Proteſtation, but no engagements (as it appeares) were ſtrong e­nough to oblige their fidelity, whoſe ambitious minds were in­flamed with the hopes of high au­thority, whoſe covetous expe­ctations were fed with 4 s. per diem, and the choiceſt Bnefices, and their Brethrens juſt legall maintenance and livelyhood.

2 The Author argues from the word of God. That the Word being the ſole Rule of Faith, no humane Authority is impowred to bind up our aſſents in the in­terpretation of that Word; a Concluſion ſo untrue an illogi­call as may be: For then the Commiſſion, of Ite, & Praedica­te, Go Preach and Teach, was given to the Apoſtles to no pur­poſe Then the Wife muſt not learn of her Husband at home: Nor44 the Father teach his Children, ei­ther the Commandements of God, or the Articles of Faith, if there were not an authority in the Teachers rightly and orderly ſent, Rom. 10.15. to oblige the Diſciples, and Scholars, to the right Interpretation of holy Scriptures; and if everyne be admitted, to broach, and defend his own ſnſand opinion in di­vine Reſolutions, as in Baptiſm, the Lords Supper, or the like, there muſt needs follow, not a Communion, but a Confuſion amongſt the Saints and beſt Chriſtians. To prevent wich dangerous inconveniency, Saint Paul boldly rebukes the Corinthi­ans, charging them, That they were carnall; for whereas there is among you envying and ſtrife, and〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, diviſions, are ye not car­nal, and walk as me? For while one ſaith, I am of Paul, and ano­ther,45 I am of Apollos, are ye not carnal? 1 Cor. 3.3.4. And as the Apoſtle ſharply rebuked the Corinthians for their diviſions, ſo he meekly entreated the Epheſi­ans to accord in the Articles of Religion, and to endeavor to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of Peace; for there is one Body, one Spirit, one Hope, one Lord, one Faith, one Baptiſm, one God, and Father of all: Eph. 4.4. Thus Saint Paul laboureth and plead­eth for Vnity in the Church, as the beſt preſervation of Chriſti­anity: But Mr. Birchley pleadeth for a toleration of diverſity in o­pinions, and ſo in practice; which Doctrin is neither true Divinity, nor ſound Policy; unleſs by the multiplicity of opinions Maſter Birchley and the Papiſts hope (at laſt) to bring in Popery: which hath much thriven by late endea­vors of their ſubtle inſinuations.

463 In the third Demonſtration Mr. Birchley anſwereth himſelf, and ſeems to cut his fingers with his own tools; when he urgeth, that ſtraight is the gate, and nar­row is the path; and confeſſeth, that here we ſee but in part, and know but in part, and that the Spi­rit bloweth how and where it liſt­eth: from theſe Texts, of Scrip­ture concluding, that we muſt not deſpiſe the weak miſtakes of our brethren. This concluſion, like others, is brought in without Reaſon or Logick: it had been more properly reſolved, that be­cauſe ſtraight is the gate, and nar­row is the path that leadeth to life; Therfore it is neceſſary that ſome faithfull Paſtorall authority, like that of Saint John the Baptiſt, Io: 3.5. ſhould level the Mountains of Pride, ſtreighten the crooked perverſneſs of carnall humours, and abate the ſwellings of ſelf-opinion;47 that Pride being hum­bled, and Miſtakes rectifyed, the paſſage into the ſtraight gate, and narrow path, might be more eaſie and poſſible: And Mr. Birchley preſſing, that here we ſee but in part, and know but in part; there­fore it is the more neceſſary, that we ſhould have Guides and Se­ers, as well as Lights and Lant­horns, to direct us in the ſtraight and narrow way of Truth, leſt otherwiſe, following the glymp­ſes of our own opinions, and dark lights, we fall into the dark fire of the infernall Pit.

4 In the 4th Argument Mr. Birchley ſeems to ſpeak rejoy­cingly, becauſe of a deliverance from the Slavery under the Pre­lats, and from the implicit faith of the Papiſts; and yet, whiles he Plougheth his ground with theſe Heifers, he Sowes the ſeeds of Popery, under whoſe Prelacy48 is truly the greateſt Tyranny that is imaginable. And it is to be admired, that Mr Birchley preſ­ſeth ſo ſharply againſt Compul­ſion of Conſcince; and yet plea­deth for a toleration of that Re­ligion, wherein is not only taught a neceſſity of Auricular Confeſſi­on, but the Prieſt as well puni­ſheth, as rectifyeth the Conſci­ence, erring, or offending.

5 In the 5th, he tels us, That force is puniſhment, and conſe­quently not juſt. If this Poſition be true,**Omnis denegatur haereticis facultas militandi quinimo extra urbis moenia a centur. Lex fuit Imper. The­odoſti, Valnt. Arcadi. Vide Cod. Theodo. Tunc Epiſcopi, ne vius baereticum latius ſuperet, eosdem publice pronunti­tos haereticos co porali diſciplinae ſubdendos Catholico Principi tradiderunt, qui Praecepit haereticae infamiae cha­racterem frontibus corum inuri, & ſpectante populo; virgis exercitos, urbe epelli: Guliel. Neubrigenſ. ſub. Henri. 2. Rege Ang. then Hereſie and Blaſ­phemie are not puniſhable: but Chriſt gave another Rule, com­manding his Apoſtles to ſhake off49 the Duſt of their ſhoes, where their words were not received, Mat. 10.14. And teacheth, that if thy Brother treſpaſs againſt thee, goe and tell him his fault betwixt thee and him alone; if he ſhall hear thee, thou haſt gained thy Brother, but if he ſhall not hear thee, take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three Witneſſes every word may be eſtabliſhed; and if he ſhall neglect to hear thee, tell it to the Church; but if he neglect to hear the Church, let him be to thee as a Heathen or a Publican. And as Chriſt taught the way, the Apoſtles followed; St. Paul exhorting the Corinthians, being converted to the Faith, not ſo much as to keep company *,1 Cor. 5.11. if any that is called a Brother be a forni­cator, or covetous, or an Idolater, or railer, or a drunkard, or an ex­tortioner, with ſuch a one no not to eat. Theſe are cenſures ſurely50 of ſound authority, being the do­ctrine of Chriſt and his A poſtles, and therefore to be denyed by none, but A theiſts or Infidels.

6 If an erroneous Conſcience may have liberty to conceive what Opinion ſhe pleaſeth, and ſo Speak and Act what ſhe will, there will be no end of ſcandals, and offences; nor no Wo to them by whom they are cauſed. The an­tient Fathers**Multis profuit pri­us timore vel dolore cogi, ut poſſit poſtea doceri, aut quod jam verbis di­dicerint opce Se­ctari: S. Aug. Ep. ad Bonif. Qjam ſacro lava­ro tincti eſſent, cogerentur ad ſervandam fidem quam acceperant. De­creium, pro parte reſciſſa, in IV. concil. Toleta. Scitum est ſemper coerctionem in Novatores ſuiſſe, J. Lip. adverſ. Dialogiſtam., and Writers were of another opinion; It was Tertullians judgement, writing againſt the Gnoſticks, Ad offici­um Haereticos compelli, non illici dignum eſt; that if they would not be perſwaded, they ſhould be forced to their duty, Tertul. con­tra Gnoſt. cap. 11. He proſecuted that Argument with the ſame ſenſe, in another phraſe. Duri­tiâ51 vincenda eſt, non ſuadenda hae­reſis: Hereſie was to be ſubdu­ed with Power, where it would not be convinced with Truth; and though Mr Birchley ſeem to ar­gue, that no Compulſion is to be exerciſed on the Conſcience; yet he meanes certainly ſomthing elſe: knowing, the common cen­ſures of the Romiſh Inquiſitions, as well as the ſeverities of the Aſſemblies of the Presbyteries, which are both in high extremes, as not ſparing the moſt Sove­raign authorities.


IN the next General head Mr. Birchley hath ranged (as he calls them) his invincible and unanſwerable Texts of Scrip­ture, againſt Coercency in Reli­gion:52 urging, 1 St. Paul, 2 Ti­mothy, 2.24, &c. where the ſer­vant of the Lord is directed to be gentle unto all men: but as there he counſelleth him to gentleneſs and meekneſs, ſo 1 Tim. 4.1.2. the Apoſtle puts on him the ſpi­rit of Courage; ſaying expreſly, That in the later times ſome ſhould depart from the faith, giving heed to ſeducing ſpirits, and doctrines of Devils; And then the Apoſtle tels his Diſciple at the 6. verſe, If thou put the Brethren in mind of theſe things, thou ſhalt be a good Miniſter of Jeſus Chriſt. Andf thoſe places quoted, Jam. 4.12. Rom: 14.4. There is one Lawgi­ver, &c. and who art thou that judgeſt another? &c. be rightly examined, we ſhall find they doe not oppoſe the diſquiſition of Truth, nor the correction of er­roneous offenders; but they ſup­preſs all perſonal rancor and53 raſhneſs, and all bitterneſs and uncharitableneſs againſt the Brethren. But in the determina­tions of Faith, and reformation of mens lives, the holy Scripture tels us, That their Inſpiration was profitable for doctrine, as well as Reproof;〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, for correction, as well as inſtru­ction; and ſo the Biſhop of Ephe­ſus, was as well taught by S. Paul to correct the errors of his Dio­ceſe; as to uſe meekneſs and gen­tleneſs to his Flock. In the firſt Apoſtolicall Councill St. James paſſeth a Determination and Sentence (an argument of Judi­ciall power) Act. 15.19. Where­fore my Sentence is, That we trou­ble not them which from among the Gentiles are turned to God; but that we write unto them that they ab­stain from Pollutions of Idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood: Thus54 St. James, who forbiddeth per­ſonall and private malicious cen­ſure and judgement one of ano­ther, concludes it neceſſary to condemn the Sects of the Phari­ſees, broaching the doctrine of Circumciſion, Acts 15.5. And St. Paul, who ſo often Preacheth againſt raſh and uncharitable judgement, taketh a Power (as Mr. Birchley cloſeth the Text) (though to another purpoſe) of giving Laws and Rules out of his Apoſtolical jurisdiction, to Hus­bands, Wives, Virgins, Wid­dows and Servants, as it appears in his firſt Epiſtle to the Cor. 7.17. where, ſpeaking with much tenderneſs to the infancy and pri­mitive times of Chriſtianiy; yet concludes, autoritativè, So I or­dain in all Churches. And though the Apoſtle in his divine elo­quence, denieth a Dominion over the Corinthians faith, 2 Cor. 1.24.55 yet when he ſeeth cauſe, he paſ­ſeth his Spiritual Cenſure and Excommunication againſt the inceſtuous Fornicator, 1 Cor. 5.3, 4.5. For I, as abſent in body, bu preſent in ſpirit, have judged already, as though I were preſent, who hath ſo done this deed, In the name of the Lord Ieſus Chriſt, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the Power of the Lord Ieſus Chriſt, to deliver ſuch a one to Satan for the deſtruction of the fleſh, that the ſpirit may be ſaved in the day of the Lrd Ieſus. And though St. Paul taught ſo many leſſons of humblneſs and meek­neſs (qualities beſt becomming the Miniſters of Chriſt) to Timo­thy, yet he writeth to him the manner of his Proceedings a­gainſt thoſe who made ſhip­wrack of Faith, 1 Tim. 1.20. of whom is Hymeneus and Alexan­der, whom I have delivered to Sa­tan,56 that they may learn not to blaſ­pheme. And according to the Apoſt les rules, St. Auguſtin ſub­mitteth his judgement to thoſe who cryed in his time, for free­will and liberty of Conſcience; Fruſtrà dicis relinquar libero ar­bitrio: Cur enim non in homicidi is & ſtupris, & quibuſcunquealiis fa­cinoribus & flagitiis libero te Ar­bitrio dimittendum eſſe procla­mas? quae tamen omnia juſtis le. gibus comprimi utiliſſimum eſt. De­dit quidem Deus homini liberam voluntatem; ſed nec bonam infru­ctuoſam, nec malam voluit eſſe im­punitam. S. Aug. lib. 2. contra Creſcent. cap. 51. When the peo­ple cryed, where is the freedom of our minds, and liberty of our Conſciences? if we have it, why do ye reſtrain us from any thing, as Murder or Adultery, or any thing elſe we judge lawfull? which foul ſinnes are juſtly pu­niſhable57 by the Laws: and then that Father concludes, Although God gives to men freedom of will and mind, yet he will neither ſuffer a good Conſcience to be unfruitfull, nor a bad Conſci­ence (and too many ſuch there are) to be unpuniſhed. And al­though our Saviour condemned the furious zeal of Iames and Iohn, Luke 9.54. knowing out of what ſpirit they moved for vengeance; yet we have the ex­amples of the two great Apo­ſtles, St. Peter and St. Paul, the one exerciſing the vengeance of God on Ananias and Saphira, for lying againſt the Holy Ghoſt, Acts 5.4. ſo mortal was St. Pe­ters ſentence, Acts 5.9. How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? be­hold the feet of them that buryed thy Husband are at the door, and ſhall carry thee out: then fell ſhe58 down ſtraightway at his feet. And Saint Paul being at Paphos, and meeting there a certain Sorcerer & falſe Prophet named Elymas, who ſeeking to turn away Sergi­us Paulus from the Faith, Act. 13.9. St. Paul filled with the holy Ghoſt ſet his eyes on him, and ſaid, O full of all ſubtilty and all miſ­chief, thou child of the Devil and enemy of all righteouſneſs; wilt thou not ceaſe to pervert the right waies of the Lord? And now behold the hand of the Lord is upon thee, and thou ſhalt be blind, not ſeeing the Sun for a ſeaſon, and immediatly there fellon him a mist and dark­neſs. Theſe inſtances demonſtrat a ſpirituall Power of Truth to rectifie erroneous, and to puniſh, and to have coercion for evil, and ſeared Conſciences (for ſuch there are) 1 Tim. 4.2. Some ſpea­king Lyes in Hypooriſy, having their Conſciences ſeared with a hot59 Iron; And the holy Scripture lets us all know, that the Holy Ghoſt appeared in fiery Tongues as wel as in the ſhape of a Dove, Acts 2.1, 2. Mat. 3.16. to ſig­nify to all the world, that as it preſented innocency, and ſuch are the fruits of the Spirit, Gal. 5.22. ſo in the ſhape of fiery Tongues, it preſented judgement and indignation to thoſe, who reſiſted the motions of that bleſ­ſed Spirit. This is told often in the holy Scriptures, but twice more emphaticatically in the E­piſtle to the Hebrews, and that with great terror. For it is im­poſſible for thoſe who were once en­lightened, and have taſted of the heavenly gift, and were made par­takers of the Holy Ghoſt, and have taſted of the good word of God, and of the Powers of the world to come, if they ſhall fall away, to renue them again unto Repentance; ſeeing60 they crucifie to themſelves the Son of God afreſh, and put him to an o­pen ſhame, Heb. 6.4, 5, 6. There is a ſecond ſting, which is as e­qually ſharp. Let us hold faſt the Profeſſion of our faith without wa­vering, and let us conſider one ano­ther, to provoke unto love, and to good works; not forſaking the Aſſembling of our ſelves together, as the manner of ſome is, but ex­horting one another; and ſo much the more, as ye ſee the day approa­ching: for if we ſin wilfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more ſacrifice for ſins,Heb. 10.26, 27. but a certain fear­full looking for of judgement, and fiery indignation, which ſhall de­vour the Adverſaries. By this time it appears very evident, that the unanſwerable Texts of the holy Scripture, ſo ill interpreted, or ſo ill applyed, doe not take away all Coercion in Religion:61 becauſe a Conſcience may be er­roneous, and ſo ought to be recti­fyed; or very bad, and ſeared, and ſo ought to be coerc'd and puniſhed: yet theſe Proceedings are to be guarded with greateſt ſpirituall care, and cautions, that the weak and erroneous Conſci­ence may be directed, and then comforted by the Word of God, and the bad and ſeared Conſci­ences (refiſting the good motions of Gods Spirit, gathered by the concluſions of found reaſon, and the right and true Applications of holy Scripture) growing ſtill more impenitent and hardened, may be puniſhed, and that God may be glorified in his judge­ments, where his truth and mer­cies have been deſpiſed.



IN the next ſucceeding Chapter the Author pleads againſt the conſtraint of Conſcience, pre­tending that all the godly and well affected of the Nation, are of his Principle, who is introdu­cing Popery into the Countrey, with his Arguments of kinneſs to a tender Conſcience; and to be more plauſible and compla­cent with the Souldier, he urgeth the Motto of the Armies, viz. Liberty to all tender and oppreſsed Conſciences: by which device, Mr. Birchley ſeems forward to ſhelter his Popiſh Arguments under their Banners and Enſigns. But this ſpirituall abuſe, or ra­ther chear, is ſo palpable and vi­ſible, that all ingenuous minds cannot but conclude ſuch appli­cations to be very odious, and ri­diculous,63 as no way encouraging Popiſh aims or ends, but rather an extirpation of Papall, as well as Presbyterian Tyranny. As for other arguments, either from reaſon or Scripture, they are not conſiderable; the diſcourſe of this Chapter being ſpun out with groſs impertinent flattery, or re­petition of texts of Scripture, as Rom. 14.15. formerly examined.


THe next tract, is a diſcourſe (as it appears in the title) of tender Conſciences; wherein the Author (ſurely bluſhing for ſomething ſaid before) ſeems to addreſs himſelf to Excuſes, and Apologies: confeſſing there, that tenderneſs of Conſcience is not an extravagant licentiouſneſs for64 Blaſphemy in Doctrine, or De­bauchery in manners. This part is a large Negative deſcription, what tender Conſcience is not, then determining, (as the Doctor in the Chair) he tels us, It is a Proceeding, bona fide, without ſi­niſter Reſpects or diſſimulation; ſeeking, before all things, to know God; and fearing above all things, to offend him. This deſcription (for it is not a Logi­cal definition, as neither having a proper Genus, nor Differentia ſpecifica) is as large, and wild in the Affirmative, as the other part was in the Negative; and thus M. Birchley, after his great ſtrug­lings telling us (but confuſedly) what tender Conſcience is not, and not directly what it is, Re­ſolves (for they are his own words, Page 14.) It is the only means God hath allowed our Na­ture, to guide her Reſolutions of65 judging of others: in which re­ſult this Builder pulls down all the ſtructure he had ſo artificial­ly built up before; for his poſi­tions were formerly out of miſ­applyed places of holy Scrip­ture, Iames 4.12. Rom. 14.4. Who art thou that judgeſt another? &c. And in this laſt clauſe the Sophiſter concludes, God allow­eth the nature of a tender Con­ſcience to the Reſolution; of judging others: and this Pill once ſwallowed, other Phyſick is prepared, in the ſigns of a ten­der Conſcience; which he rec­kons to be, Regular lives, no opi­nions of ſelf-intereſt, ſeverity a­gainſt corrupt nature, ſteddineſs of judgement, conſtancy in their perſwaſions untill death, dying not only in, but for the faith; ſuffering all things to be taken away patiently, and for Chriſts ſake. Theſe are indeed Evange­lical66 Counſels, and great perfe­ctions, and well become all good Chriſtians: but when the Ap­plication of all theſe religious duties is more cloſely drawn to the Papiſts (as it appears in Mr. Birchleys a Dialogue with his friend, page 16.) the ſecreted plots appear more plainly, while it is inſinuated, to pleaſe ſome parties, that tender Conſciences have the power of judging others, Mr. Birchley quickly de­termins that the Papiſts are the men of the Regular lives, &c. and in the end, if his doctrin take place, they muſt judge of all others; which is the preſent ty­ranny of Popiſh uſurpation, where it rules and reigns. As for the reſt of the diſcourſe of the tract of tender Conſciences, it is a tedious deviation to other mat­ters; as a complaint againſt the former Oaths of Supremacy and67 Allegeance, or the preſent Oath of Abjuration, in which mur­muring diſlike, the Author fights moſt againſt himſelf, plea­ding formerly for the Papiſts peaceableneſs, and humbleneſs of ſubmiſſion to authority and laws; and then quarrelling at the oaths and laws made by the ſupreme, and preſent authority: Amongſt other ſtories, he brings in the names of Sir Henry Beddingfield, Mr. Bodenham, and Mr. Gefford, as Gentlemen who never bore arms ſince the wars began: but whether this be done with their Conſent, Honor, or Advantage, let them judge whom it may concern. And as for the argu­ment of the Papiſts more heavy afflictions than others, in the common calamity of the late Ci­vil Wars, it is a piece rather of Mr. Birchleys inclination to his party, than any reall truth.



THe next tract is a Quaere, or Queſtion ſtarted,1 Queſt. Whether Pa­pists be guilty of Idolatry in the worſhipping of Angels, Saints, and Pictures?

And then follows another Queſtion,2 Quest. Whether Papiſts be guilty of Idolatry in the Eucha­riſt?

And Mr. Birchley concludes the firſt Part of his Moderator, Whether Papiſts are conſiſtent with Civil Government? 3 Queſt.

1 Theſe three Queſtions being very ample and Polemical Argu­ments, are fitter for large Vo­lumes, than petty Manuels, and rather require the ſubtilties of the beſt Caſuiſts, and School­men, than the raw Reſolutins of any ſingle and private ſpirit. A learned, grave, judicious de­termination69 in the Chair, or ra­ther a ſound and diſcerning judg­ment of an Univerſity (after great reading, ſolemn diſputati­ons, and free diſcuſſions of the ſeverall points) were more fit to ſatisfy the World in theſe par­ticulars, than any one intereſted Party; which very Theſes have occaſion'd ſo many ſtudious years, and ſo many Folio's, and works of learned men. The arguments of this Epitome, like curtal'd narrow ſhreds, wil ſcarce ſhew what the cloth or ſtuff was; and therefore, if the judicious Reader have his ſtomach opened by Mr. Birchleys arguments, he may doe well to have it nouriſh­ed, and ſo cloſed with the great ſatisfaction he may find in the ſeverall Controverſies & Tracts of Biſhop Jewell againſt M. Har­ding, in the Biſh. Whites works,nd the late Lord Archbiſhop70 of Canterburyes diſcourſe againſt the Jeſuit; and in Doctor Whi­taker againſt Cardinal Bellarmin; or in King James his Book, De Iure Iuramenti fidelitatis, againſt Bellarmin, with many hundred others, both Engliſh, German, and French Divines, who have writ­voluminouſly in theſe points. But that the three Queſtions may not paſs without their Anſ­wers, though briefly returned,1 Reſp. It is evident (as to the firſt Quae­re) That although the bleſſed Angels had a more familiar com­munity with men, and had a more viſible converſation with them (as 'tis granted in the Hi­ſtory of the Old Teſtament) and that holy men of Old preſented ſome venerable honor and wor­ſhip to them, as heavenly Spi­rits and Guardians, and Meſſen­gers ſent with ſome excellent news from God: Yet at the com­ming71 of our Saviour in his Incar­nation in the Fleſh, we doe not read in the holy Goſpel, of ſuch exact circumſtances of honor and worſhip to the holy Angels, by any outward adoration, but ra­ther a ceſſation in that kind, all honor, and worſhip, and glory, being reſerved and united for the Perſon of our bleſſed Savi­our. In this condition we find Zecharias the Prieſt, and Father of Saint Iohn the Baptiſt;Luke 1.10, 11. And there appeared unto him an Angel of the Lord, ſtanding on the right ſide of the Altar of Incenſe; And when Zecharias ſaw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him. It was even thus with the bleſſed Virgin Mary, who ſeeing the An­gel, and hearing the Salutation, when ſhe ſaw him ſhe was troub­led at his ſaying, Luke 1.29.30. Thus the good Shepheards abi­ding in the fields, and keeping72 watch over their flocks by night, And lo the Angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord ſhone round about them, and they were ſore afraid. In theſe three Relations, there is onely mention of trouble and fear: And Saint Paul (as confirming this holy apprehenſion) Convo­cates the heavenly Angels to a mutual Adoraion, and Commu­nion in worſhip with Men, in the celebration of our Saviours Na­tivity, When he bringeth in the firſt begotten into the world, he ſaith, and let all the Angels of God worſhip him, Heb. 1.6. And fin­ding the Colſſians inclin'd or de­ceived into a worſhiping of An­gels, without any command, if not againſt the word of God, the Apoſtle gives them a double cau­tion, Beware, leſt any man spoyl you through Philoſophy and vain deceit, after the traditions of men,73 Col. 2.8. and the Apoſtle inge­minates the Caution at the 18. verſe, Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary humility and worſhipping of Angels, intru­ding into thoſe things which he hath not ſeen, vainly puſt up by his fleſhly mind. The reſolution in this caſe is yet more clear in Saint Iohns deportment towards the bleſſed Angel, who when he fell at his feet to worſhip him, he ſaid unto him. See thou doe it not, I am thy fellow Servant, and of thy bethren that have the teſtimony of Ieſus wor­ſhip God, Rev. 19.10. And the cevout Apoſtle upon another occaſion, making a tender of his adoration to the heavenly crea­ture, received a ſecond Com­mand, I fell downe before the feet of the Angel,Revel. which ſhewed me theſe things and he ſaith unto me, ſee thou do it not for I am thy fellow Servant, and of thy brethren the Prophets, and74 of them which keep the ſayings of this book, worſhip God.

This is an expreſſion (if well obſerved) of near and familiar communion, ſuch as the Patri­archs and Prophets, before the comming of Chriſt received not; the Angels acknowledging men their fellow Servants, and giving direction not to adore them, but to worſhip God. It is moſt true, that Chriſtians are to believe the protection of Angels, the Devil denyes it not, Mat. 4.6. Pſal. 91.11. And the conſolations of An­gels in great agonies and afflicti­ons, Luke 22.43. and the help and miniſtration of Angels**Mat. 18.10. 〈…〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉., Are they not all miniſtring ſpirits, ſent forth to miniſter for them who ſhall be heirs of Salvation? Heb. 1.14. And as they help and comfort us in our lives, their friendſhip and aſſiſtance continueth after death, in a bleſſed tranſlation of righte­ous75 ſouls into Abrahams boſom; And it came to paſs that the beggar dyed, and was carried of the Angels into Abrahams boſom; for theſe greater Relations of Protection, and high ſervices, a venerable e­ſtimation, and holy commemora­tion, may be due to theſe bleſſed Cherubims and Seraphins, as the chiefeſt creatures in higheſt at­tendance about the Holy Trinity, Iſa: 6.3. Rev: 4.8. and highly rejoycing at the converſion of Sinners, Luke 15.10. and the Communion with the Saints: I beheld, and lo, after this a great mul­titude, which no man could number, of all Nations; And all the Angels of God stood about the throne and wor­ſhipped God, Revelat. 7.9, 10, 11.

So then, in all this diſcourſe there is no reſtraint of a venera­ble deportment in the Angels preſence; nor a thankfull valua­tion76 of their high aſſiſtance, and ſervices anywiſe inhibited, but only that Caution given, which the Apoſtles and Angels them­ſelves have charged, that men ſhould not be beguiled into a voluntary humility, and wor­ſhipping of Angels, but rather worſhip God; and by obedience to theſe Counſells, we may bet­ter ſhew our faith in the holy Scriptures; and neither beſtow that worſhip upon the Servant which is due to the Lord, nor that adoration and honor to the creature, which is due to the Creator, God bleſſed for ever­more.

2 As for the adoring of Saints & Pictures, & the diſtinctiōs of Dou­leia and Latreia, ſpirituall civility, and ſpirituall worſhip, they are but mincings of the matter, and inventions and traditions of men, willing to warrant with their77 Learning and Wit, what they can­not juſtify out of the Word of God. And if a voluntary humility, and will-worſhipping of Angels, be a ſin, becauſe expreſly againſt the canon of the holy Scriptures, certainly, à minore ad majus, it is moſt true, that adoring of Saints and Images is a ſin more groſs and more notorious; the latter being likewiſe expreſly againſt the ſecond Commandement of the Morall Law; which the Pa­piſt foreſeeing, hath ſo mangled that Commandement, that it ſee­meth very lame; or ſo cunning­ly left it out, that, if it were poſ­ſible, the worſhipping of Images ſhould appear no ſin, and conſe­quently, not Idolatry: of which crime they ſtand guilty, as it is too apparent to all the World, who view their Writings or their Practice in their deluded De­votion.

78As to the ſecond Queſtion,2 Reſp. Whether Papiſts be guilty of Idolatry in the Euchariſt? It is moſt true, that no good Chriſtian can com­poſe himſelf too religiouſly in the adminiſtration, or participati­on of the holy Communion of that bleſſed Myſtery of Salvati­on; wherein the worthy Recei­ver doth by Faith, really, and ſpiritually, feed on the Body and Blood of our bleſſed Saviour: But, for men in their ſubtilties and, and carnall wiſdom, to con­jure people to a new belief, that is, that Chriſt is not only really and ſpiritually, but corporally and tranſubſtantially there; and not onely received by Faith and Spirit in the heart, but likewiſe taſted by the pallat, and digeſted, as other common food, this Doctrine is grofs and damnable. Another diſtinction de modo, that the Elements are changed in the79 Sacrament, and the Accidents remain in the Bread and Wine, is as impoſſible, as irrationall. Theſe doctrines and opinions are great errors, which uſher on un­warranted worſhip, which brings in Idolatry; which upon theſe unwarranted grounds is often committed: as, when the Prieſt is at the celebration of the Maſs, and the Tintinabulum, or holy Bell ſoundeth, (as it alwayes doth at the elevation of the Hoſt) then the People (though no Communicants) in the Church, are to fall on their knees and worſhip, being taught to beleeve, that not onely Chriſt is in the Sacrament, really and ſpiritually, but corporally, and tranſubſtan­tially. Again, when the Prieſt is ſent for to viſit the ſick, and comfort them with the Eucha­riſt, having taken the Hoſt out of the Pixis, or Box, in the Taber­nacle80 on the Altar, he deſcending thence, is covered with a Cano­py; and ſo moving towards the ſick perſons houſe, through the ſtreets, Care is taken that the tinkling Bell ſound all the way, untill the Prieſts return; which ſound is to ſummon the People to fall down and worſhip as he paſ­ſeth by**This is more than a civil & venerable deport­ment to the Prieſt in his ſa­cred Of­fice.. There is yet a higher degree of unwarranted worſhip than theſe: for the Conſecration of the Sacrament, and the Viſita­tion of the Sick, in themſelves are pious and heavenly duties; but in the inſtitution of the Feaſt of Corpus Chriſti, when the Pope is carryed in Proceſſion in greateſt Pomp and Pontificalibus; And in all Roman Catholique Countries the Prieſts and Clergy walk in ſolemn Proceſſions, carrying the Hoſt abroad to the greateſt view and oſtentation, At the Elevation and ſight whereof, all81 ſpectators are commanded (if not voluntarily devoted) to kneel, and worſhip, and adore this great Innovation and Corruption to true Religion. (For it is neither warranted out of holy Scripture, nor imitated out of the examples of Apoſtolical and Primitive pra­ctice, nor reaſonably grounded upon any deduction out of holy Scriptures.) As it hath no great antiquity in it (being invented, and inſtituted about 400 yeares ſince, upon the Viſions, or rather Dreams of two devout Siſters, Nuns, if the Legend ſpeak true;) ſo hath it no ſolidity or authori­ty to invite or injoyn obedience, being in it ſelf ſo ſcandalous, and irreligious; and being attended with ſo many offenſive circum­ſtances, of Banners, Crucifixes, Bels, Pageants, and other inſig­nificant concomitants in that Proceſſion, cannot but offend82 God, as they ſcandalize all good Chriſtians; who in zeal and love to God, and his truth and wor­ſhip, cannot but condemne the whole Proceedings herein, as a work of flat Idolatry, notwith­ſtanding the Moderators endea­vors to the contrary.

To the third Queſtion,3 Reſp. Whe­ther Papists are inconſiſtent with Civil Government? It may be anſwered, That it is not untrue, that Papiſts hold many Principles deſtructive to Civil Govern­ment, however the Moderator ſtrives to mitigate the matter; for that Maxim of Fides non est habenda cum Haereticis, That faith is not to be kept with Hereticks, is defended by the Papiſts, where they are perſwaded they can maintain the Principle for their advantage: and as for aequivoca­tion and Mental Reſervation, who ever is well acquainted with the83 Jeſuits Converſation, or their Patron Ign. Loyola's Inſtitutions of that Order, will, too often, ex­perience both: beſides they main­tain in their ſecret Lectures of their Inſtructions to their Novi­tii, and Diſciples, That no Oath of Hereticks obligeth them; be­cauſe they who adminiſter it, have no authority, if not ſu­premely derived from the Pope; and though the Moderator tells us, (gloſingly) that they are to render to Caeſar the things that are Caeſars, and are to be ſubject, not only for fear, but for Conſcience ſake; Yet the Roman Doctors teach us really, that the Pope is a Judg above all Caeſars, and Kings, and if he judge them Infidls or Hereticks, their People are ab­ſolved from their duty, and owe them no Allegeance nor Obedi­ence. And as for the inſtance of the Papiſts and Proteſtants in the84 Cantons of Switzerland ſo well agreeing, it is not to be much admired, united in the two com­mon obligations of love to them­ſelves, rather than Strangers, and love of Trade and Gain, which is a ſtrong tye, that holdeth the di­ſtracted opinions in Holland, and other Countries, that they break not forth into Civil diſſentions; as a rich Merchant of Amſterdam being demanded of what Religi­on they were there, his anſwer was returned in a quick truth, Our Religion at Amſterdam is, to get money; for in this all ſects agreed.

And as for the pretended harm­leſſe, quiet, peaceable diſpoſiti­ons of Papiſts, in any Kingdom, or Commonwealth, where they have not an influence in the Go­vernment, it is well known how full they are of plots and deſigns, diſpencing with all obligations, to85 ſerve their ends. This cannot but be yet remembred from the Reign of Queen Mary, wherein the Papiſts (ſupported with the Soveraignty) were ſo actively and unmercifully bloody: as likewiſe in the long Reign of Queen Elizabeth, againſt whom the Papiſts were ſo violently ma­licious, that ſome contrived (as Campian, Sanders, Parſons, Lo­pez) to ſtab and poyſon, her Honor, her Perſon, and her So­veraign power. Henry the third of France taſted of the fiery, not quiet diſpoſition, of the Papiſts; being moſt barbarouſly ſtab'd by a deſperate Jacobin Fryer; and Henry the fourth of France fell by the bloudy hand and knife of Raviliack, for which Regicide and Murder, the Order of Je­ſuits (as ſuppos'd moſt guilty;) were by the Edicts of France ba­niſhed out of France; and they86 could not get that Act repeal'd untill ten years inſinuation, and humble ſolliciting to Lovis le Juſt, with many Proteſtations of moſt peaceable comportment.

In fruitfull England, the me­mory is yet freſh of 88. when the Spaniſh Invaders ſhould have joyned with the Engliſh Popiſh Complotters; and the 5th of November is an Annuall Memen­to of the Popiſh Treaſon, ſo laid, that King, Lords, and Commons, ſhould have been blown up in an inſtant. Theſe and the like deſ­perate deſigns and attempts, have forced, that, ex malis moribus bo­nae leges naſcuntur, many penal Statutes have been Enacted to bridle and ſubdue the miſchie­vous and black deſigns of theſe unquiet ſpirits, who are ſo dan­gerous in their doctrines, and ſo reſtleſs and turbulent in their de­vices and endeavours.

87**Multo­rum, quia imbecilla, latent vi­tia, non mi­nus auſin a cum illis vires ſuae placueint. Seneca Epiſt. 42. And if the Papiſts in theſe later times have been more qui­et, or leſs active, it is not (pro­bably) becauſe they wanted will, but power and ſtrength to exerciſe their deſignes. And the Concluſions of Gregory the 7th, being 27 in number, (called, di­ctatus Papae) ſet forth the unli­mited arrogancy of the Papacy; the mentioning of two, may ſa­tisfy, if not aſtoniſh the World: that he who calls himſelf, Servus ſervorum, ſhould ſo Lord it over all the**Baronius An. 1706. Num. 31, 32, &c. World, as in a Synod at Rome, in the year 1706. to conclude reſolutely, Quod liceat Papae Imperatores deponere, that it was lawfull for the Pope to de­poſe Emperors: and, quòd à fi­delitate iniquorum ſubaitos poteſt abſolvere, that he could diſcharge Subjects from Fidelity and Obe­dience to wicked Governors. Theſe Concluſions granted, no88 Government can be ſecure.

And as for the Moderators obje­ctions, or exceptions, againſt the Oaths of Allegeance and Supre­macy, and that of Abjuration; If the Pope ſhould contrive one of the ſame kind, or the Coun­cil of Trent but have ſent abroad ſuch a Canon; it may be preſu­med, the Roman Catholiques would (with as much obedience) have received ſuch an Oath, and digeſted it, as others doe, where they conceive the Power of So­veraign authority to impoſe ſuch obligations.


IN the laſt Chapter of the Mo­derators firſt Part, a Conſcien­tious way of ſetling Religion is propoſed; where, to gain ſome89 opinion and favor, Mr. Birchley ſtill harps on the word Conſci­ence, which is a good word, if not ill uſed; and then propoun­deth a Collection of a body of Articles of Faith, as if all the Engliſh, generally baptiz'd into the Articles of the Apoſtles Creed, were now to ſeek new ones, from the Council of Trent, or the Aſſembly of Presbyters. And as the matter propoſed, is a way to the very diſſolution of the Articles of Faith, and to ſhake the foundations, ſo long ſince laid; ſo is the direction follow­ing, Page 47, That every one that will, may propoſe and diſ­cuſs thoſe difficulties he meets with in Gods word; which mo­tion, if once granted, that quili­bet diſpute de quolibet, beſides Hereſie, Blaſphemy, Impiety, and Atheiſm, a general Confuſion muſt needs follow. Which in­conveniency,90 the Aegyptians (though Heathens) foreſeeing in their State, ordained, That though they tolerated ſeverall Religions, yet all things were kept in quiet; becauſe the People were under* ſub potenti Domi­no, a mighty force:**Juſ. Lipſ. lib. adverſ. Dialogiſt. 2 quia mutuò ſe non damnarent, becauſe they were not permitted to diſpute, or rail at one another: 3 quia nullae illic publicae Conciones, nec Fla­bra, atqueincitamenta turbarum, becauſe they were not allowed publique factious Orations and Sermons to ſtir up the giddy multitudes. And if every one ſhould be permitted to diſpute and determine his own queſtions, and opinions, there would be every day as many new faiths, as fancyes; and no end of vain and unprofitable diſſentions: ſo that Mr. Birchley aims, by this argu­ment of Liberty, that all Articles91 and Points of Religion may be unravel'd and unſetled, that the Arguments of the Church of Rome may prove the more forci­ble and prevalent, when Gene­rall diſputes are once admitted to every ſingular ſenſe and opi­nion.


IN another paſſage of the ſame Argument, the Mode­rator quarrels and girds at the Lawyers, telling them, that they make ſhuffling and hypocritical diſtinctions, Page 46. to deceive the common people, whoſe ſim­plicity, and innocency, they eaſily beguile, by pretending that none are Executed for Religion, but for offending againſt the Laws; and then Maſter Birchley growes92 fierce, and cryes, What can be more palpably falſe or deviliſhly malicious, than this? but the Lawyers will juſtify the Argu­ment, that the Engliſh Subjects are not Executed becauſe they goe out Subjects, but becauſe they return not Subjects, taking orders from the Prelatical power of Rome, whereby they vow obe­dience to their ſpiritual Superi­ors, and to the See of Rom: here is a change of their natural du­ties from one Soveraignty to a­nother; ſo that if the caſe be rightly ſtated, it is plain, that a­gainſt the Law of Nations, of Reaſon, and Municipal Laws of a Countrey, the Engliſh Subjects becomming Romiſh Prieſts, Rebus ſic ſtantibus, are great violators to that Soveraignty to which they owe natural loyalty and o­bedience: And Supreme power (as all the Schools teach) is not a93 Communicable quality. Beſides this Charge, It is not merely for Religion the Popiſh Prieſts dye, but (if the Lawes be executed in that kind) for putting themſelves into a prohibited capacity, and then, into a buſie activity, of ſe­ducing the people to obedience to a forreign Power; which, as it is a great part of Irreligion, ſo is no leſs than a violation of So­veraign Laws, enacted to the con­trary, and ſo (the Lawyers can tel the Moderator) High Treaſon, And though the penal Lawes in this particular may be too ſharp, and, it were to be wiſhed, that ſome other Remedyes of more mild temper were provided, that the Engliſh Subjects might not become Roman Prieſts; or if they be ſo deſperate and reſolute to return, and ſo to ſeduce their fel­low Subjects, that they might be puniſhed otherwiſe than by94 death: Yet, though the Remedy be never found out, I ſhall not like M. Birchleys Optio, and wiſh, (though written in great Let­ters,) Anima mea ſit cum Jeſui­tis. But if he like that Prayer, let him enjoy it without all envy, or emulation.


IN the 53 Page the Moderator hath a fling (and not without juſt cauſe; and herein we a­gree) againſt the violent, and therefore ſhort dominion of the Presbyterians, ſaying, that never were more cruel torturers of the Conſcience than they; never a more tyrannical Tribunal, than their Jure Divino Aſſembly, and Claſſical Inquiſition: The Au­thor might as truly apply all this95 to the Papal Tyranny, and have done no Injury to Truth at all.

The Moderator cloſeth his firſt Part, Page 54. with a prayer for a General Act of Conſci­ence-Indemnity: which, if once granted, it is not to be doubted, but Mr. Birchley and the Papiſts would be as high in their de­mands, as they ſeem now hum­ble in their ſupplications.


THe firſt Part of the Moderator thus impartially examined, and the bottom of the buſineſſe ſounded: The ſecond may more eaſily and ſwiftly be waded over: In the third line, Page 55. the Author pretends to light, which the Lord Chriſt hath infuſed in­to96 his ſoul: then publiſheth to the World his humblenes of ſpi­rit, and then (Jeſuit-like) offers, and dedicates his diſcourſe to the gracious Redeemer of Souls. If there be true humility where there is ſuch ſelf-oſtentation of light infuſed, and a noiſe of all humbleneſs of ſpirit, the meekeſt ſpirit may, without him, eaſily judge; the reſt of that Preface hath little more in it, than a con­tinuance of ſelf-flattery. Page 56. where the Papiſts apply the marks of tenderneſs of Conſci­ence in themſelves, and tender­neſs of Spirit to others; but with what truth this is ſpoken really, let the Moderator himſelf be Judge: who in Page 44. brings in an example of the Privernates, an antient People of Italy, who having rebell'd againſt the Com­monwealth of Rome, and being almoſt quite reduced by force of97 arms, diſpatcht Embaſſadors for terms of Peace: The Senat ſtern­ly askt them, what new Peace they could expect, who had ſo inſolently infringed the old? To which they ſtoutly anſwered, we muſt now take ſuch conditions as you pleaſe to give; if they be moderate, you ſhall find us faithfull, if too heavy, we ſhall obſerve them onely till we may fafely break them. It were an injury to the Moderator, to leave out a tittle of this Story: where­in, by the example of the Priver­nates, he ſheweth to the life his own Picture, as well as of his Popiſh brethren; with what light they are infuſed, with what humbleneſſe of ſpirit endued, and how reſolved to ſhake off all burdens they judge too heavy; and violate all obligations, which they will obſerve no longer, than till they may ſafely break them.



AFter the Preface and Intro­duction to the ſecond Part, the Moderator (Page 57.) recites Petitions of ſome wel-affected in the County of Leiceſter, and of ſome Churches in London, but to what purpoſe, it much mat­ters not. In the 58 Page he pro­clames, that he waiteth on God in humility of ſpirit, and preſent­ly after undertakes to clear the Papiſts of all obſtinacy, and non-ſubmiſſion to the preſent Go­vernment, by repreſenting an humble Petition of the Roman Catholiques to the Houſe; and then addes his Explanation and ſenſe of their Humility, Civil Society, and Conſiſtency with Civil Government: And then ſets down a platform of their be­lief; but that being not done ac­cording99 to the Canon of the Council of Trent, the Modera­tor ſurely much forgets his duty, or elſe giveth himſelf a large diſ­penſation for his preſent advan­tages. From hence he wanders to a perſwaſion that many Pa­piſts of conſiderable quality are now in London (as he is inform­ed) who are agreed in an expla­nation of what they beleeve con­cerning the Popes undervaluing, and overvaluing of the Church, Invocation of Saints and Angels, Worſhip of Images, their opini­on of Merits, of Juſtification, and of the Morall Law. Theſe are queſtions of very great weight and conſideration; and ſurely the Moderator is too bold, to tell the world that ſome con­ſiderable Papiſts now in London, would undertake to explain and determin their private ſenſe and judgement, in points ſo excee­dingly100 controverted on all ſides, by the greateſt Profeſſors, and Univerſities: Beſides this Re­port is ſurely an injury to the faith and modeſty of the Gentle­men, who have ſuch obedience to their Church, as they preſume not to differ with the weakeſt Canon of the Council of Trent; which, as it determines reſoluti­ons of Faith, in many of theſe queſtions, ſo it ſtrictly requires beleef to them under an Ana­thema, and a Curſe.


IN the 69. Page the Moderatorreſumes to affirm, That many Papiſts were ſmarly puniſhed, for not taking the Oath of Alle­geance, and peremptorily conclu­deth, That none were puniſhed101 for not obſerving it: which is a ſtrange affirmation, and cannot be conſonant to truth, if he had obſerved the proceedings in Ci­vil Courts in times of Peace, or the many evils of the late Civil Wars; in another place he ſaith, The utter ruine, which now en­dangers the Papiſts whole eſtates, proceeds ſolely from their per­forming to the late King that ſervice, which he called Allege­ance; and yet Page 18. of the firſt Part, he ſaith, That many Papiſts never did bear arms at all, but only ſculk'd in the Kings Garriſons for better ſecurity. Immediately after he preſſeth to any indifferent Iudge to deter­mine, (but upon ſuppoſitions neither proved, nor granted) 1. That the Papiſts beleeving all the holy Scriptures of the Old and New Teſtament, (And yet the Lay. Papiſts are not permitted to102 read them, ſine permiſsu, nor the Clergy to receive a Tranſlation, not to beleeve a word, but as the Church of Rome beleeveth, be the doctrine never ſo palpably dangerous, and erroneous;) be­ſides, how is it true, that the Pa­piſts beleeve firmly all the holy Scriptures of the Old and New Teſtament, when they prefer Tradition of their Church above Scripture? and give equal au­thority (as Bellarmin, and others) to verbum non ſcriptum, as well as to the holy Scriptures penned by the holy Prophets and Evan­geliſts? 2. The Moderator ur­geth, That the Papiſts worſhip and adore onely one God, and that is otherwiſe proved, in the Tract of their Adoration of Saints and Angels. 3. He urgeth, that they rely on the ſole medi­ation of Ieſus Chriſt; and yet in all their Letanies, and at their103 daily Maſſes, they invocate An­gels and Saints, and Martyrs, and Confeſſors, and Virgin, as Me­diators for them; and plead their Merits in the cloſe of the Col­lects of the ſeverall Saints dayes, as it is evident in the Roman Bre­viary, and the Office of our Lady.


IN the next paſſage (Page 77.) the Moderator ſets forth his di­ligence, and attendance at Ha­berdaſhers Hall; wherin he ſhew­eth his Active curioſity, in prying into thoſe paſſages which perhaps may leaſt concern his ſuperin­tendency, and Page 78. he con­cludes, That the Oath of Abju­ration is not only againſt the Pa­piſts Conſciences, but againſt the103 National Laws; in which Re­tortion, the Moderator ſeems, not only to ſtrike at the matter and truth of the Oath, but likewiſe at the Authority of the Impo­ſers, who require obedience to it. And after theſe Objections, reckons up (as he calls them) the undue proceedings againſt divers Papiſts, as Mr. Robert Knightley, Mr. Parker, Mr. James Hanham, and others, and then tels a ſtory of Sir Richard Minſhall, and Dr. Fryer, &c. who have taken the Oath of Abjuration, and become outward Conformiſts; and in this Point the Moderator dives ſo deep into the Conformiſts hearts, as to conclude, probably they did not conform out of any Conviction of Conſcience, but rather againſt Conſcience, mere­ly to ſave their Eſtates from Se­queſtration. This Cenſure is ſevere, and againſt the Modera­tors105 own Rules, who pleads ſo much for charity and tenderneſs of Conſcience; and, that Reli­gion is an intrinſecal act betwixt God and the Soul. And though Sir Richard Minſhall, and other ſtaggerers and turncoates in Religion (bending out of ſelf-intereſt) deſerve no Apologie, nor excuſe for their fickle, or ra­ther ſubtill alterations; yet why may not Sir Richard return as well to the Religion wherein he was baptiz'd, as fall from it to the Church of Rome, for perſo­nall reſpects; and after a taſt of his errors, love the truth ever better? The Moderator is equal­ly, or indeed too cenſorious, in the unfortunate death of Mr. Henry Compton, attributing the deſperate end of him (ſlain in a Duel by the Lord Shandois) to a ſtraining of his Conſcience to too much complyance. For,106 though Duels be ſinful and dam­nable undertakings, condemn'd by all orthodox Churches; yet it is a ſecret not revealed to the Moderator, that certainly Mr. Compton was ſlain for leaving the Church of Rome; It being a true Rule in Divinity, That (pri­vata peccata ſaepiùs puniuntur per flagella manifeſta,) Private ſins are often puniſhed with publick ſtrokes. And as for the Appli­cation of thoſe words, Sanguis Martyrum eſt ſemen Eccleſiae, only to the Papiſts, pretended to be perſecuted in the two Ilands of Japan and England; it is an ap­propriation too ſtrict and nar­row: For as the Primitive Chriſtians knew not the Name of Pope or Papiſt for many hundred years after the Apoſtles dayes; ſo, at this preſent, many thouſand Chriſtians in the world ſuffring under bloody perſecuti­on,107 comfort themſelves in their Martyrdom and patience, and (though no Papiſts) conceive they have a right and ſhare in the Application of thoſe words, that The blood of the Martyrs is the ſeed of Gods Church.


FRom theſe perſonal obſerva­tions, the Moderator digreſſeth to the compoſure of a Legend, and reckons<