PRIMS Full-text transcription (HTML)

MORE LIGHT Shining in Buckingham-ſhire: BEING A Declaration of the ſtate and con­dition that all Men are in by Right.

Likewiſe the Slavery all the world are in by their own Kinde, and this Nation in particular; and by whom.

Likewiſe the Remedies, as Take away the Cauſe, & the effect will ceaſe.

BEING A REPRESENTATION Unto all the People of ENGLAND, AND To the Soldiery under the Lord General FAIRFAX.

The ſecond part.

Whatſoever doth manifest, is Light.

Epheſ. 5.

London, Printed in the Year. 1649.


More Light ſhining in Bucking­ham-ſhire.

The Apoſtle ſaith, Whatſoever things were written, were for our learning.

IT is recorded in Scripture, that man being created male and female after Gods own Image or likeneſs, viz. his Son Jeſus, who is ſaid to be the Image of the inviſible God, and the firſt born of every Creature, and by whom all things were made, and to whom all things were to ſubject, for he being Lord over all the inferior Creatures; God endow­ed with that excellent Rule of right Reaſon, which is the pure influence of the Almighty, whereby he ſhould walk in ſubjection to his Creator and Father, and in Equity towards his own kind, viz. to do to another, as the other ſhould do to him, and none to lord or force any arbitrary power one over an­other, or to aſſume any priviledg above his brethren; for all men by Gods donation are all alike free by birth, and to have alike priviledg by vertue of his grant: Gen. 1. 26. to the end. and Gen. 9. 1. to 18. So that as all inferior creatures are given unto man, viz. mankind; and that for all neceſſaries as he ſhould need: So it is as plain, that every man hath a right and propri­ety in the creatures, one as well as the other; ſo that for any to incloſe them wholly from his kind, to his own uſe, to the impo­veriſhment of his fellow creatures, whereby they are made his ſlaves, is altogether unlawful, and it is the cauſe of all oppreſſi­ons, whereby many thouſands are deprived of their rights which God hath inveſted withal, whereby they are forced to beg or ſtarve for want; for all grounds being incloſed, and all other things monopolized into a few Mercinarys hands, wherby thouſands that would, and deſire to live in a lawful Calling4 lawfully, are of all people moſt oppreſſed, becauſe not ſuffered to keep any thing about them, becauſe of the incroachers be­fore named, who will either hunt it or pownd it, &c neither can they enjoy the benefit of their own labor, although God commands they ſhould, becauſe of thoſe forenamed oppreſſors, who have not only incloſed, monopolized, incroached, in­hanced all the creatures into their hands, but do likewiſe ex­tort away the labours of their poor brethren, and take out the bread out of their mouths, and from their poor wives and chil­dren, by their unreaſonable, unlawful, unjuſt and wicked Rates, Taxes, Powls, Towls, Cuſtoms, ſo that the flower of thoſe in­duſtrious mens labors are boulted out from them, and only the Bean left them to feed on; and if any ſeem for all this to main­tain his family through his extream induſtry, then the other Cormorants force offices on him, &c. thereby to more inſlave him and that with moſt wretched oaths, &c. Oh it would be too tedious to relate all the ſlavery they are put to, and ſworn perform as that at their Court-leets, there to appear to do hom­age, and acknowledg themſelves ſlave to their Tyrants, called Lords of Mannors; and if they hold any Lands, what extream Rents are they forced to pay for it, to their extorting Land­lords? beſides above the 3d part of their labor taken from them by the impropriators, beſides paying quitrents, as it is called, whereby in ſome, as the Lords of the Mannors are petty Ty­rants and Kings; ſo they hold all from a ſupream Lord, who was none of Gods ſetting up, viz. a King, whom they uphold­ing as the only dread Soveraign Lord, and allowing him a great and intolerable Revenue, as Lands, Cuſtoms, Poles, Toles, Tithe of all ſorts, and quitrents, &c. with Fines, Harriets, and Char­ters, Patents, Monopolies, &c. by which means they can be Farmers under him, and petty tyrants over the people: and to ſecure themſelves from being made deliver up their uſurped powers and intereſt; they have their Commiſſions, Grants, Pattents holding in his name, and they protecting him from be­ing queſtioned and his power thrown down; he doth defend, uphold, maintain and allow them to rend, tear, devour, rob, ſpoyl, extort and tyrannize over the poor people, &c. and to this end doth inveſt them with ſtrange names and titles, ſuch as the Scripture owns not, or never did allow of, as Dukes, Princes,5 Earls, Marqueſſes, Vicounts, Lords, Barons, Sirs, Eſquires, Gen­tlemen, &c. and priviledges accordingly, as to hunt, hawk, &c all which vain titles are forbidden by our Saviour as heatheniſh: for it aroſe from mans own ſenſuallity, darkneſs, and wicked­neſs, and murder, for Nimrod was the firſt King, and he was was ſuch a bloody wretch, that he was called a Hunter, Gen. 10. 8 9, 10. that is, a Hunter of his own kind in the preſence of the Jehovah even againſt Gods Ordinance, ſo wicked was he; and v. 10. The beginning of his Kingdom was Babel, viz. Confuſi­on, out of Gods way, by which confuſion he raiſed up a pack of Tyranny; after many Kings more, and they divided each a­gainſt others; and ſtriving who ſhould be the greateſt Incloſer and Tyrant, fell together by the ears, and cauſed the people to murder one another; ſo that it was Kings that firſt brought in Wars. Read the 14. Chap. of Geneſis, where obſerve the fiſt murderings and thefts: and the riſe of Dukes was from wicked Eſan. Read the 36. of Geneſis, theſe the Kings call their Co­zens: In ſhore, the whole Scriptures declare Kings to be no better then Tyrants and Vſurpers: And although God grant­ed the Iſraelites a King, yet it was in his anger, ſaith the Scip­ture, Hoſea 13. 11. and he took him away in his wrath. And although ſome good men were Kings, yet it was not in regard to their Office, but Perſons, for in that they were Kings they were Tyrants, and did extreamly extort from the people; for ſee how Solomon extorted from the people. 1 Kings 4. firſt ſee his Princes. from verſe 1. to the 7. then ſee his Officers to get proviſion monethly, from verſe 7. to the 20. then ſee his pro­viſion for his Court, 22, 23. verſes, as in one day 30 meaſures of fine floor, 60 meaſures of meal, 10 fat Oxen, 20 paſture Ox­en, 100 Sheep, beſides Harts, Roes, Bucks, fallow Deer, and fatted fowl. See 27. verſe, how his Officers provided, &c. and 26. verſe, do but note the horſes that he kept, as forty thou­ſand ſtalls of horſes for Charets, & twelve thouſand horſemen; then ſee in the 28. v. the people bring, as the Officers appoint­ed, in v. 27. Barly and Straw for the horſes, and Dromedaries, &c which was ſuch an oppreſſion, that the people, when they came to crown Rehoboam, would condition to have it remo­ved, 1 King. 12. 1. to 7. and he refuſed to take off thoſe burdens, to v. 16. then in v. 16. the people refuſed to chuſe him King. 6And then did they not chuſe Jeroboan King read the chap. and did not David command Mephiboſheth, that he and Ziba ſhould divide the Land, 2 Sam. 19. 29. viz. Mephiboſheths Land; now Ziba was but the others ſervant, read a Sam. 16. from Verſ. 1. to Verſ. 4. there Ziba ſlandereth his Maſter Mephiboſheth, and David giveth away Mephiboſheths whole eſtate unto Ziba, Verſ. 4. And when Mephiboſheth comes to clear himſelf from his ſervants ſlander, David reſtores to himſelf his own again: So that the ſlanderer muſt have the honeſt mans goods. What Juſtice is this?

Their Offices were tyrannical, only God did many times for his names ſake let them have now and then a good man in the place, out of ſpecial favor, and no otherwiſe; for the kingly Power, even to Iſrael, at firſt, was confirmed up­on, as a plague, and no otherwiſe, as a reward of their own wickedneſs; and thunder and rain was ſent in their Wheat­harveſt, to convince them That their wickedneſs was great in deſiring a King: read 1 Sam. 12. 17, 18. And in Verſ. 19. the people deſireth Samuel to pray for them, and confeſleth, that of all their ſins they had added this ſin, in asking a King. And in Verſ. 20. Samuel told them they had done all this wicked­neſs, &c. And Verſ. 25. tells the people, That if they would ſtill do wickedly, both they and their King ſhould periſh.

Now their wickedneſs was in two Reſpects:

1. In deſiring to have a King to be like other Nations, 1 Sam. 5. 8. viz. the Gentiles and Heathens that followed their own ſenſuality: Now thoſe Iſraelites not to be like o­ther people.

2. In advancing a man, one of their own kinde, in the place of a God, and ſo to idolze their own fleſh above God: For do but obſerve what the Almighty ſaith unto Samuel, 1 Sam. 8. 7. They have not, ſaith the Lord, rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I ſhould not reign over them: And ſee Verſ. 8. and forward, What a tyrannical Government Kings are. From Verſ. 11. to the end of the Chapter.

And he ſaid, This will be the manner of the King that ſhall reign over you; he will take your ſons, and appoint them for himſelf, for his charets, and to be his horſemen, and ſome ſhall run before his charets.


And he will take your Daughters to be Confectionaries, Cooks, and Bukers.

And he will take your fields, and vint yards, and your olive yards, and give to his officers, and to his ſervants.

And he will take your men-ſervants, and your maid-ſervants, and your goodlieſt young men, and your aſſes, and put them to his work.

He will take the truth of your ſheep, and you ſhall be his ſer­vants.

And you ſhall cry out in that day, becauſe of your King which ye have choſen, and the Lord will not hear you in that day.

Which Scriptures do declare, That Kings are the heads of all Tyrants; and that wicked men, ſhrouding themſelves un­der him, have not only protection by him to Tyranny, but likewiſe you ſee he will give them large gifts, but out of other mens eſtates: For, ſaith the Scripture, he will take your vince yards and oliveyards, the beſt of them, and give them, to his ſer­vants. This is the Reaſon why thoſe men will be the Kings ſlaves, becauſe the people may be ſlaves to them, and they to tyrannize And in Verſ. 15. & 17. there comes in your Tithes of Labor and Stock; Kings were the Authors of it.

2. They do not only incroach away mens eſtates, but like­wiſe make ſlaves of men: See Verſ. 12. He will make Them plow his grounds, and reap his harveſt, and make he inſtru­ments of War; ſo that Kings are the cauſe of Wars: For of neceſſity they muſt keep up Armies, elſe the people will never be ſuch ſlaves as to obey them. Then they make Captains of thouſands and Captains of hundreds; Here is the riſe of No­bility and Gentry: And men, for to get his favor, will be willing to enſlave their own kinde, as to be Captains; O the height of all ſlavery What? ſlaves to Kings, that ſo the peo­ple may be their ſlaves? So it is, as Kings, are the worſt of men, yet others will execute their wills; If Ahab and Jeze­bel will take Naboths Vineyard do but ſend a Letter to the chief of the City, and they will ſtone him. Let but Charls ſend out I Commiſſion for Aray, and how many will execute it? yea, if he will raiſe an Army to murther and plunder us, he need but ſet up his Standard and thouſands will riſe for him; Prieſts will preach in his behalf, and that he is the Lords an­nointed,8 though it is with the Popes greaſe, and he Antichriſts hackney, and hath his power from the Beaſt, Revel. 13. That hath his authority from the Dragon, who is the Devil and Satan whoſe firſt predeceſſor was the Norman Baſtard William, who came to be King by cruel murther, as ſhall be proved here­after: ſo that as the creature, man, is enſlaved to his kinde, and all Monopolizings, Encroachings, Inhancings, Licenſes, Patents, Grants, Prerogatives, Priviledges, unjuſt and unnatural, arbi­trary and wicked, compacted, unreaſonable and all unjuſt in­tereſts, are unlawful, and the Scriptures do every where proteſt againſt it, calling it Oppreſſions; and pronounceth Judgments againſt it, calling the Abettors, Promoters, and Actors of the ſame, though men, call them Kings, Lords, Generals, Parlia­ments, Councels, Conſuls, Judges, or by what name elſe they are known, dignified, or diſtinguiſhed, as the Prieſts call it, to be but Lions, Bears, Wolves, Leopards, Foxes, Bulls, Beasts, Dogs, Whelps, from their Natures: For being led by their ſen­ſuality, avarice, and luſts, and making all others their ſlaves, to ſerve them with cap and knee, &c. to labor, drudg, trudg, work, moyl for their, &c. as if they were born only to be their ſlaves, and they to uſe them as their Beaſts, Horſe, &c. yea, and beholding to them for it too; that ſo they may be their Dog-keepers, or to wait on their horſes, Lackeys to run before them, and be Poſtillions, Pillions, &c. Yea, and to make them hold their Lands, Houſes, Cottages, &c. at what terms, holdings, ſlaveries they pleaſe, forcing fines and harri­ates at every change, &c. And the better to keep them in ſlavery, have utterly denyed them to have any power or voyce to chuſe their Law-makers, or Law-execuſioners: And leſt they ſhould have ſome Juſtice done by ſome in Authority, they have de­viſed ſuch a multitude of Courts and Terms, ſo that thoſe great Cormorants can remove the ſuite out of one Court into ano­ther; and Law being bought and ſold by the wicked encroach­ing Normen, ſhameleſs, cheating, hickney Lawyers, being worſe then the devil, who ſcorns to take a peny Fees to torment any, but will do it freely. By all which means thoſe poor men are kept in ſlavery, both in perſon and eſtates; and not only ſo, but are rated and taxed by the aforeſaid Task-maſters, whereby they bear out thoſe rich, idle Vermin. But yet this is not all;9 but if thoſe great Nimrods fall out, and being moved one a­gainſt the other, who ſhall moſt inſlave the people, and ſuck them moſt, and being compacted into parties, and their luſts moving them to Wars, then the poor harmleſs men muſt be in­vited to fight the others battels, and to this end, Pharaoh-like, they have their Juglers, who can play the Hocus Pocus, and in­vent a thing they call Religion, like Jeroboams Calves, who was the firſt invented State Worſhip: then a Convocation or Synod of Diviſers, who being more cunninger then their Ma­ſters, they quickly get above them, and can outreach them by their wills and ſubtilneſs, they quickly juggle them together with Oaths, Covenants, &c. then they do as the lowbel-men a­mongſt Larks, carry a falſe light and gloſs of Scripture, and with their preaching and noiſes, thumping and bumping the Pulpit cuſhions, cudgel them into a conceit to raiſe up a way of miantenance for the Church Devines, as Tythes, &c. this be­ing done, and their god bellies fil'd, then like ſo many Beagles they open their mouths, and with full cry, having the ſcent of ſuch a great benefit, &c. lay on like Thatchers. Oh riſe, help your King, help your Parliament: Oh your Lives, Liberties and Rligions lyeth at ſtake: Thus were the poor men made murder each other, and thoſe that were unwilling to go were preſſed & forced by both ſides, a moſt wicked practiſe; & when they come home again, as very ſlaves as at the firſt, and no care taken for widows, fatherleſs, ſick, lame, &c. as is fit, but many, I fear, pe­riſh for want, and others that take for need hanged, or if they are in debt, made lie in priſon and rot: for all which wicked­neſs, although they have made Laws, Ordinances, &c. for the ſame ends, and ſo they hold all their incloſeneſs by a Law, yet mark what the Scripture ſaith of it, Wo be to them that decree wicked decrees. And for their incloſeneſs, Wo be to them that joyn houſe to houſe, that the poor hath no place, &c. And for their oppreſſion, It is not of the Lord, that the people ſhould labor in the fire. Mark what became of Pharaoh, and the AEgypti­ans, for their oppreſſing the Iſraelites: And was not the old world drowned for uſing violence? for what all thoſe miſeries befell the Iſraelites and Judah? for in all the Scriptures was not oppreſſion one of the chief grounds.

From whence we obſerve, That all thoſe oppreſſors before10 named do live altogether out of Gods way, and in Rebellion to his Laws: firſt, becauſe they live without a Calling, and ſo are idle, being Vagabonds, and waſters of the creatures, by drunken­neſs, pride, gluttony, and ſo but Vermin in a Common-wealth, and by their own Law ought to be put into a houſe of Correcti­on, and to be made work.

1. They are Rebels againſt Gods Command, for faith he, In the ſweat of thy face thou ſhalt eat bread: By Thou is meant all mankind, none exempted.

2. Thoſe that will not work, let them not eat, ſaith the Scrip­ture.

3. Chriſt bids pray, Give us our dayly bread.

Now none is our bread but what we work for, for, as ſaid before, In the ſweat of thy face thou ſhalt eat bread; therefore thoſe that work not, have no right to eat: and as they are Re­bels, ſo are they Theeves, becauſe when a man hath got bread, viz. neceſſaries by his labor, it is his bread; now the other that ſweats not at all, yet makes this man to pay him tribute out of his labor, by Rates, Taxes, Rents, &c. it is theft, and ſo againſt the Commandment, Thou ſhalt not ſteal.

4. He is a Traytor againſt the Jehovahs anointed, viz. Jeſus Chriſt, who alone is Lord and King over man, and all men are equals.

1. Now for one man to be Lord or King over another, and force on his Commands of his own authority, he takes on him the place of Jeſus, and ſo is a Rebel and Traytor to the Crown and Dignity of Chriſt.

2. For man to reject the Laws of God, which binds him, to do to another as another ſhould do to him, and force on his own Arbitrary Laws, ſuch a one is a Rebell in the higheſt degree, and his power is of the Beaſt, and ſo of the Devil, and he and his followers are ſaid to go into perdition, and ſhall be tormen­ted for ever and ever.

3. For man to incloſe all Lands and Creatures from his kind, is utterly unnatural, wicked, and treacherous, for if man ſhall eat bread by his ſweat, then he muſt needs have ground to ſow corn; therefore to incloſe all grounds from him, is to ſtrave him, for if no corn, no bread, and if no ground, no corn; then this is theft in the higheſt degrees. Mark this you great Gormudg­ings,11 you hang a man for ſtealing for his wants, when you your ſelves have ſtole from your fellow brethren all Lands, Crea­tures, &c. Now mark what ſaith the Scripture, Pull out the beam out of thine own eye, then ſhalt thou ſee to pull out the mote out of thy brothers eye: So firſt go hang your ſelves for your great thefts of incloſeneſs and oppreſſneſs, and then afterwards that you can go hang your poor brethren for petty thefts, as for a ſheep, corn, &c.

So that from thoſe grounds we conclude, firſt, What God entitleth man with, that is to ſay, with alike priviledges.

2. All men are to enjoy alike Freedoms, and none more then the other, ſo that they are equal, and none have to do to com­mand another, no more then another him, but in a ſoynt union and agreement; that any be ſet up, it is but a trulled humane power, and they but ſervants to the whole, and may be removed at pleaſure.

3. Man is to ſubject himſelf to one Soveraign Lord Jeſus, and is to go by the Rule of Equity, and no otherwiſe.

4. From all which grounds all men have right to the Crea­tures, &c. one as well as the other.

This being ſo, we now conclude that people for the general living out of Gods way, and moſt they enjoy is contrary to his Commands, ſo all that power, by which they hold it, is an unlawful power: and ſecondly, without a Reformation they they muſt never look to have Gods Juſtice, in plagueing of, by Wars, Peſtilences, Dearths, &c. to ceaſe from them.

Now for the power, 1. Let us examine from whence it is. 2. How it aroſe. 3. What it is. 4. Who are the chief upholders of it. 5. Who are under it. 6. How it may be removed.

Firſt, From whence it is; Let us conſider the Scriptures at the riſing of it, and that was by oppreſſions and murders, and this aroſe out of the wickedneſs of mans heart, viz. out of his luſt, which is from that beaſtly corruption and body of ſin in him, which, ſaith the Scripture, is not ſubject to the Law of God, neither can be. This was that which ſtirred up Cain to kill Abel, Lamech to be avenged ſeventy ſeven times: This made men war, as James ſaith: This made Nimrod to become a Hunter of his kind; and as it puffed up men to be Kings, ſo again thoſe Kings to be Tyrants, and kill, &c. Gen. 14. for ſaith the Scripture, It aroſe from the earth, that is, earthly affection12 which is from the luſts of the fleſh, the luſt of theeves, and the pride of life, as John ſaith: and as it compacted it ſelf into a viſible Monarchy, and ſo into Kingdoms, the devil doth ac­knowledg them to be his, and offered them to Jeſus, if he would have worſhipped him.

Secondly, Jeſus doth utterly diſown them, calling them the worlds Kingdoms, and ſaid His Kingdom was not of this World. Now that the Devil owns thoſe powers to be his, and Jeſus doth diſown them, and diſtinguiſheth his Kingdom from them, then whoſe muſt they be? and from whence have Kings, Dakes, Lords, Gentlemen, &c. Tyrants, as they are called their power & Tythes? that not from Jeſus Chriſt, for Chriſt doth utterly for­bid all his Subjects to be called Lords, &c. as a heatheniſh thing, and of the world, and heathens were the Devils worſhippers, and the devil is called the prince and god of this world, for in heaven he hath nothing to do there; then if the devil be prince of the world, then all theſe powers are from him, viz. thoſe powers aforeſaid, and ſo the Tythes of Superiority, as King, Lord, &c. are from the devils now that their buildings are of the devil, no marvel then that they ſtrive to uphold his in­tereſt.

Thirdly, For the riſing of it, Daniel doth deſcribe it under the notion of four ſeveral beaſts, each diſtinct from other in quality, but becauſe the leaſt which John deſcribes is the laſt, which is to remain until the Kingdom of Chriſt throweth it down. Read the 13 of the Revelations, there this Beaſt is deſcribed with ſeven heads and ten horns, his riſe is out of the Sea, viz. waters, and waters are the people, and out of the foming beaſt­lineſs of this Sea came out this Monſter, his natures are like the Lyon, Bear, Leopard, what more crueler beaſts then any one of theſe, but all their cruel qualities are in him, his heads are two males, a Monſter, and ſeven in Scripture is perfection, viz. per­fect wickedneſs, and ten horns to ſupport him, viz. Kings; ſo that kinlgy power is of this Beaſt, and this Beaſt is of the Dra­gon, for he gives him his power and authority.

Fourthly, For the chief upholders of this power, the Scrip­ture declares to be Kings, for Kings are the horns of it, that upholds its power, &c. and by whom it perſecutes. Now by Kings in Scriptures are meant any ſupream powers that are by force, &c. therefore Herod was called a King, and yet a13 Tetrarch. And in Joſhna, there mention is made of thirty two Kings in the Land of Canaan, and yet but Governors of Cities, Caſtles, &c. therefore Nebuchadnezzar is ſaid to be a King of Kings. And here in England, thoſe called earls. Dukes, Mar­queſſes, Vicounts, &c. what were they but petty Kings? and had they not a tyrannical Houſe of Peers, that had a negative voyce with the King? and did he not call them his Couzens? and by whom we were cozened of our Liberties: and bleſſed be God, their power is down. And as theſe are Kings, ſo be­ſides there are Vice-Kings, viz. thoſe that are Deputies, as May­ors in Cities and Towns corporate, that are Kings of Patents, which Patents are meer Monopolies, and ſerve to inhance Tra­ding and Commodities in a few mens hands, to beggar the whole; theſe take Towls and Cuſtoms of their Brethren; ſo that if a man pitch a ſack of corn, one of theſe men comes like a Beggar with a diſh, and then carrieth it to the King of beg­gars, that is the Mayor: Thoſe Vice-Kings have twelve Pears too, whereby they domineer over the whole Town, city, &c. Then there are the Hadg-kings, viz. thoſe called Lords of the Mannors, thoſe fellows can keep a Court-leet, and enſlave all within their Territories; Theſe are Kings of all thoſe Cuck­cows in their Liverties, whereby fools are made to pay Lead, Silver, quit-rents, &c. Theſe all claim proprieties as a­foreſaid.

But now all this power came by murther at the firſt, by William the Norman Conqueror, as it is declared in the firſt part that was ſet out before. So that although the Emperial King is removed, and his Power, what are we the neer, ſo long as thoſe other petty kings remain? and all that Power, Courts, &c are in force ſtill, though in another name, as Lord-keep­ers, &c. Cannot the Lawyer cosen and cheat as much in that name as in the Kings? Is this all the Reformation the Parlia­ment will do? and will the Army be ſuch fools, as to let thoſe beaſtly Courts, Terms, &c. remain, with all thoſe wicked Laws in force? which are the very nerves of the beaſt, the uphold­ing of all the diabolical intereſts, as I ſaid before; for it is by murther that all thoſe intereſt-partics hold that priviledg as they do: and it is thoſe wicked Norman Laws that do autho­rize them: Sure the Souldiers will not ſuffer this to continue, but put down the Terms; and ſet aſide buying and ſelling14 Law. Sure if the Parliament do not do it, as it is plain they will not, if not forced, then why may not the Souldiers as well pull the Judges out of Weſtminſter Hall, and take all their ruſty Records, Laws, &c. and make a fire on them? that ſo we may have honeſt, godly Laws, according the Scriptures and Reaſon. Would it not be a notable booty for the Soldiers, when ſo many cheating Lawyers are together at the Term, to drive them out, or elſe ſtrip their long-tail'd Gowns over their ears? O Souldiers Iyou could never do a better peere of ſer­vice, then to put down the Lawyers, and all their Courts, with all Patents, Grants, &c. whatſoever is of the Norman and beaſtly power: For as Kings are the chief upholders, ſo the Lawyers are their hackneys, that with their quirks and de­ceits do dececeive the poor people, and keep them in bondage to thoſe Kings. Are they not their Stewards in all their Court­leets, and elſe where? Therefore ſuffer not one Term more, and we in the Country likewiſe aſſiſt with what power we can. So let us acquit our ſelves like men, and be no more ſlaves to none; this were excellent indeed. And thoſe proud hypocritical Officers that are amongſt you, that are againſt our Freedom, and would do the work of the Lord by halves, put them out, and chuſe honeſter in their rooms; and the onely way is to take down their great pay•…let them ſerve as you do, or with a moderate allowance. So likewiſe ſtand for the taking down all Tythes: and foraſmuch as the Prieſts ſerve not the Lord Jeſus, but their own bellies, being Antichriſtian: O then ſuffer them not to have any forced Maintenance, but as people will freely give them; and let none be perſecuted for his Conſcience; then you will do us good indeed, and we ſhall ſay, God is amongſt you of a truth. Now as we have diſcovered the Beaſtly power, and who upholds it, which are Kings, Lords, Terms, and Lawyers, O then ſtand to us that we may never have any more Kings at all, neither no other ar­bitrary Tyrants, or tyrannical Offices that thereunto belong­eth: for all the whole world is under this power of wicked­neſs. Now mark what ſaith the Scripture, That all who wor­ſhip the beaſt ſhall be tormented. And it is plain, ſo long as the people ſubject to it, they worſhip the devil: Therefore no marvel if there are heavy Judgments in the Nations, ſo long as they continue thus in rebellion againſt God.


Laſtly, How it may be removed, is, to give all liberty for godly men to declare againſt it. 1. Therefore take away all binding Laws, penalties, &c. that men may freely preach againſt it, even in all publike meetings, that ſo the Prieſts may no more delude the people. 2. Utterly aboliſh theſe wicked Laws, Terms, &c. with all Patents, Corporations, Grants, Monopo­lies, &c. For why may not all Controverſies be ended by Ar­bitration of our own Neighbourhood, by the rule of Equity at home, then to be thus abuſed by the Lawyers? And why may not every man as freely ſpeak, preach that God hath made out to him, as the Prieſts? And if the Prieſts will not be quiet, but ſtill ſtir up ſtrife, let them be ſet aſide, as needleſs and unprofit­able, who keep the people in blindneſs, as they have done, in preferring a wicked man in the place of a God, as they did Charls Stuart.

Laſtly, Above all, look to the poor; let not all the Biſhops Lands, Crown Lands be ſwallowed up, nor Commons, Parks, Woods, Forreſts, &c. for your great ones gaps for to incloſe them: but let all be for the poor, until more comes: and all, whoſoever, that have oppreſſed the poor, let them make reſti­tution fourfold. And think on priſoners that periſh in priſon by mercileſs Creditors & Jaylors, that they may not be mewd up, and ſtarved, until they are poyſoned there. And likewiſe a way to prevent cozening and and cheating one another; and that all Tryals be in every Hundred by twelve men of the ſame neighbor-hood, and all buying and ſelling Law put down, as aforeſaid: And let a free Trade be in the Nation; All Mono­polies, Patents, &c. utterly taken away. And for the rule to go by that which is declared the Rule of Equity, to do to all men as they ſhould do to others, &c. and all other falſe tyrannical rules taken away, and all Laws to be out of the Scriptures, ſeeing there is but one Law-giver, who is able both to ſave and de­ſtroy. And for Law Executioners, to be only ſuch, who are right godly, honeſt, wiſe, moderate, judicious, reaſonable, and faith­ful men, and thoſe choſen by free Election of the People; and ſo all that bulk of Officers that are by Pattents, as all Judges, Iuſtices, Sheriffs, Bailies, Mayors &c. and all other Offices that are not elected by the people, but were forced on us with out our Election, and againſt our conſents, by a Patent: An­for16 aſmuch as the throwing down the Kingly power, all thoſe fell with it; and we looked never to have them more revived, ſeeing that all power is arbitrary that is not out of the pepples voluntary Election, the people being declared the ſupream Authority under God; and whom they chuſe, to be the lawful Magiſtrate: yet nevertheleſs, as if the Parliament intended ſtill to keep the old arbitrary and tyrannical Norman Laws, Terms and Courts, ſtill to enſlaveus; and Lawyers, Patentee Officers to torment, have made an Act that all Patents, Grants, Courts, &c. ſhall continue as they formerly did, only Writs in the Judges and Keepers names, although in our Petitions we utterly denyed the ſame: and they have appointed Commiſſi­oners to be Juſtices without any election from us. Likewiſe the Grandees in the Army have preferred a thing called An Agree­ment of the People, which is too low and too ſhallow to free us at all: for it doth not throw down all thoſe Arbitrary Courts, Powers and Patents, as aforeſaid: And what ſtock or way is provided for the poor, fatherleſs, widows, and impoveriſhed peo­ple? And what advancement of encouragement for the labor­ing and induſtrious, as to take off burthens, is there? By all which, and by Arbitrary Powers erected a new, we ſee, that they minde their own intereſt, gain, and rotten honor more then our abſolute Freedom: This being ſo, we are enforced to ap­peal to all our dear brethren in England, and Souldiers in the Army, to ſtand every one in his place, to oppoſe all Tyranny whatſoever, and by whomſoever, intended againſt us.

Reader, You may expect in the third Part to have an Anato­mizing of all Powers that now act, &c.

And in the fourth the Grounds and Rules that all men are to go by.



About this transcription

TextMore light shining in Buckingham-shire: being a declaration of the state and condition that all men are in by right. Likewise the slavery all the world are in by their own kinde, and this nation in particular; and by whom. Likewise the remedies, as take away the cause, & the effect will cease. Being a representation unto all the people of England, and to the soldiery under the Lord General Fairfax. The second part.
Extent Approx. 36 KB of XML-encoded text transcribed from 9 1-bit group-IV TIFF page images.
SeriesEarly English books online.
Additional notes

(EEBO-TCP ; phase 2, no. A89293)

Transcribed from: (Early English Books Online ; image set 117172)

Images scanned from microfilm: (Thomason Tracts ; 85:E548[33])

About the source text

Bibliographic informationMore light shining in Buckingham-shire: being a declaration of the state and condition that all men are in by right. Likewise the slavery all the world are in by their own kinde, and this nation in particular; and by whom. Likewise the remedies, as take away the cause, & the effect will cease. Being a representation unto all the people of England, and to the soldiery under the Lord General Fairfax. The second part. 16 p. [s.n.],London :printed in the year. 1649.. (Annotation on Thomason copy: "March. 30".) (Reproduction of the original in the British Library.)
  • England and Wales. -- Army -- Early works to 1800.
  • Civil rights -- England -- Sources -- Early works to 1800.
  • Levellers -- Sources -- Early works to 1800.
  • Millennialism -- Sources -- Early works to 1800.
  • Great Britain -- History -- Commonweath and Protectorate, 1649-1660 -- Early works to 1800.
  • Buckinghamshire (England) -- History -- Early works to 1800.

Editorial statement

About the encoding

Created by converting TCP files to TEI P5 using tcp2tei.xsl, TEI @ Oxford.

Editorial principles

EEBO-TCP is a partnership between the Universities of Michigan and Oxford and the publisher ProQuest to create accurately transcribed and encoded texts based on the image sets published by ProQuest via their Early English Books Online (EEBO) database ( The general aim of EEBO-TCP is to encode one copy (usually the first edition) of every monographic English-language title published between 1473 and 1700 available in EEBO.

EEBO-TCP aimed to produce large quantities of textual data within the usual project restraints of time and funding, and therefore chose to create diplomatic transcriptions (as opposed to critical editions) with light-touch, mainly structural encoding based on the Text Encoding Initiative (

The EEBO-TCP project was divided into two phases. The 25,363 texts created during Phase 1 of the project have been released into the public domain as of 1 January 2015. Anyone can now take and use these texts for their own purposes, but we respectfully request that due credit and attribution is given to their original source.

Users should be aware of the process of creating the TCP texts, and therefore of any assumptions that can be made about the data.

Text selection was based on the New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (NCBEL). If an author (or for an anonymous work, the title) appears in NCBEL, then their works are eligible for inclusion. Selection was intended to range over a wide variety of subject areas, to reflect the true nature of the print record of the period. In general, first editions of a works in English were prioritized, although there are a number of works in other languages, notably Latin and Welsh, included and sometimes a second or later edition of a work was chosen if there was a compelling reason to do so.

Image sets were sent to external keying companies for transcription and basic encoding. Quality assurance was then carried out by editorial teams in Oxford and Michigan. 5% (or 5 pages, whichever is the greater) of each text was proofread for accuracy and those which did not meet QA standards were returned to the keyers to be redone. After proofreading, the encoding was enhanced and/or corrected and characters marked as illegible were corrected where possible up to a limit of 100 instances per text. Any remaining illegibles were encoded as <gap>s. Understanding these processes should make clear that, while the overall quality of TCP data is very good, some errors will remain and some readable characters will be marked as illegible. Users should bear in mind that in all likelihood such instances will never have been looked at by a TCP editor.

The texts were encoded and linked to page images in accordance with level 4 of the TEI in Libraries guidelines.

Copies of the texts have been issued variously as SGML (TCP schema; ASCII text with mnemonic sdata character entities); displayable XML (TCP schema; characters represented either as UTF-8 Unicode or text strings within braces); or lossless XML (TEI P5, characters represented either as UTF-8 Unicode or TEI g elements).

Keying and markup guidelines are available at the Text Creation Partnership web site.

Publication information

  • Text Creation Partnership,
ImprintAnn Arbor, MI ; Oxford (UK) : 2011-12 (EEBO-TCP Phase 2).
  • DLPS A89293
  • STC Wing M2709
  • STC Thomason E548_33
  • STC ESTC R205608
  • EEBO-CITATION 99864939
  • PROQUEST 99864939
  • VID 117172

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.